HOLTEK HT82A623R_11

HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
A/D Type Full Speed USB 8-Bit MCU with SPI
Technical Document
· Application Note
- HA0075E MCU Reset and Oscillator Circuits Application Note
Features
· Flash Memory Block Lock protection
· Operating voltage:
- VDD (MCU)
· Single Power Supply Operation
fSYS = 6MHz: 2.2V~5.5V
fSYS = 12MHz: 3.0V~5.5V
- UBUS (USB BUS Voltage): 4.5V~5.5V
- VCC (HT82A6208 & HT82A6216 for Flash):
2.8V~3.6V
· Watchdog Timer function
· 32768Hz Real time clock
· Power down and wake-up functions to reduce power
consumption
· 16 channel 12-bit resolution A/D converter
· 4K´15 bits Program Memory
· 2-channel 8-bit PWM output shared with two I/O
· 160´8 bits Data Memory RAM
lines
· HT82A6208: 8M´1 bits Flash memory structure
· Up to 0.33ms instruction cycle with 12MHz system
· HT82A6216: 16M´1 bits or 8Mx2 bits Flash memory
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
clock at VDD=5V
structure
32 bidirectional I/O lines
USB 2.0 Full Speed Compatible
One external interrupt input shared with I/O line
Two 16-bit programmable Timer/Event Counters
with overflow interrupt
Two SPI interfaces (master and slave mode) shared
with PA0~PA3, PB0~PB3
Total of 6 Interrupts - EXT, Timer0, Timer1, SPIA,
SPIB, USB
Flash Serial Peripheral Interface compatible - Mode0
and Mode3
· Max. 4 endpoints supported - endpoint 0 included
· All endpoints support Interrupt, & bulk transfer
· Endpoint 0 supports control, interrupt and bulk
transfer
· All endpoints except endpoint 0 can be configured
as 8, 16, 32, 64 FIFO size
· Endpoint 0 has 8 byte FIFO
· Total FIFO size: 64+8 bytes (RAM0: 48 bytes;
RAM1:16 bytes, 8 bytes for endpoint0)
· 2.2V ± 5% LVD
· 6-level subroutine nesting
· Bit manipulation instruction
· 8288608´1bit Flash memory structure - HT82A6208
· Table read instructions
· 16777216´1bit or 8388608x2bit Flash memory
· 63 powerful instructions
structure - HT82A6216
· 256 Equal Sector with 4K byte each for Flash
memory structure- HT82A6208
· 512 Equal Sector with 4K byte each for Flash
memory structure- HT82A6216
· Flash Memory Input Data Format: 1-byte Command
code
Rev. 1.30
· All instructions executed in one or two instruction
cycles
· Low voltage reset function
· Wide range of available package types
1
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
General Description
output (SO). SPI access to the device is enabled by the
FHCS# input.
The HT82A623R, HT82A6208 and HT82A6216 are
8-bit high performance RISC-like microcontrollers designed for USB keyboard, mouse and joystick product
applications. The devices are also suitable for use in
home appliances, particularly for use in high-level
household appliances such as microwave ovens, washing instructions and air conditioner products.
The device provides a sequential read operation on the
whole chip.
After a program/erase command is issued, auto program/ erase algorithms are executed which program/erase and verify the specified page or
byte/sector/block locations. A program command is executed on a page (256 bytes) basis, and an erase command is executed on a chip or sector (4K-bytes) or block
(64K-bytes) basis.
The HT82A6208 and HT82A6216 devices also possess
an internal 8M or 16M Flash Memory further enhancing
and expanding their application possibilities.
The advantages of low power consumption, I/O flexibility, programmable frequency divider, timer functions,
oscillator options, multi-channel A/D Converter, Pulse
Width Modulation function, USB Interface, Watchdog
timer, SPI interfaces, Power Down and wake-up functions, enhance the versatility of these devices to suit a
wide range of application possibilities.
To provide the user with ease of interface, a status register is included to indicate the status of the device. The
status read command can be issued to detect completion status of a program or erase operation via the WIP
bit.
When the HT82A6208/HT82A6216 is not operating and
FHCS# is high, it can be put into the standby mode
where it will draw less than 10mA/20mA DC current.
The HT82A6208 contains a 8,388,608 bit serial Flash
memory, which is configured as 1,048,576´8 internally.
The HT82A6216 contains a 16,777,216 bit serial Flash
memory, which is configured as 2,097,152´8 internally.
The HT82A6208/HT82A6216 feature a serial peripheral
interface and software protocol allowing operation on a
simple 3-wire bus. The three bus signals are a clock input (SCLK), a serial data input (SI), and a serial data
The HT82A6208/HT82A6216 contains proprietary
memory cells, which reliably store memory contents
even after 100,000 program and erase cycles.
Selection Table
The following table summarises the main features of each device.
Part No.
HT82A623R
HT82A6208
HT82A6216
Rev. 1.30
VDD
VCC
Timer
Program
Memory
Data
Memory
Flash
Memory
I/O
¾
32
2
Ö
32
2
Ö
2.2V~
5.5V
¾
4K´15
160´8
2.2V~
5.5V
2.8V~
3.6V
4K´15
160´8
A/D
PWM
SPI
Stack
Package
12-bit´16 8-bit´2
2
6
28SOP,
28SSOP,
48QFN
12-bit´16 8-bit´2
2
6
44/52QFP
16-bit RTC
8M
16M
2
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Block Diagram
3 .3 V
R e g u la to r
F la s h
M e m o ry
S P I A
In te rfa c e
S P I B
In te rfa c e
U S B 2 .0
X C V R
U S B 2 .0
F u ll S p e e d
E n g in e
D a ta
M e m o ry
O T P P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
W a tc h d o g
T im e r
8 - b it
R IS C
M C U
C o re
L o w
V o lta g e
R e s e t
W a tc h d o g
T im e r O s c illa to r
R e s e t
C ir c u it
In te rru p t
C o n tr o lle r
C ry s ta l
O s c illa to r 1
C ry s ta l
O s c illa to r 2
I/O
P o rts
Rev. 1.30
8 - b it
T im e r
1 6 - b it
T im e r
P r o g r a m m a b le
F re q u e n c y
G e n e ra to r
S ta c k
3
A /D
C o n v e rte r
P W M
G e n e ra to r
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Pin Assignment
1
2 8
P B 4 /A N 4
P B 7 /A N 7
3
2 6
P C 6 /A N 1 4
P B 6 /A N 6
2
V D D
2 7
4
U B U S
2 5
5
2 4
D -/D A T A
6
D + /C L K
2 3
V 3 3 O
O S C 2
O S C 1
V S S
R E S
8
2 1
9
1 0
1 1
1 2
1 3
1 4
2 0
1 9
1 8
1 7
1 6
1 5
P A 0 /S C S A
P A 1 /S C L K A
P A 2 /S D IA
P A 3 /S D O A
P A 4 /P W M 0
P A 5 /P W M 1
P A 6 /IN T
P A 7 /T M R 0
P C 0 /A N 8
P C 1 /A N 9
P C 2 /A N 1 0
P C 3 /A N 1 1
P C 5 /A N 1 3
P A 7 /T M R 0
P A 6 /IN T
P A 5 /P W M 1
P A 4 /P W M 0
P A 3 /S D O A
P A 2 /S D IA
P A 1 /S C L K A
P A 0 /S C S A
P D 5
4 8 4 7 4 6 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 1 4 0 3 9 3 8 3 7
1
2
P D 4
3 5
3
3 4
4
3 3
5
6
8
2 7
1 1
2 6
1 2
2 5
1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4
9
1 0
1 1
2 9
2 8
2 7
2 6
2 5
2 4
1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2
7
8
6
7
5
4
D O B
D IB
C L K B
C S B
H T 8 2 A 6 2 0 8
4 4 Q F P -A
6
N C
V S S
V S S
O S C 1
O S C 2
N C
V 3 3 O
D + /C L K
D -/D A T A
U B U S
V D D
P B 1 /A N 1 /S C L K B
P B 2 /A N 2 /S D IB
P B 3 /A N 3 /S D O B
P B 4 /A N 4
P B 5 /A N 5
P B 6 /A N 6
P B 7 /A N 7
V D D
U B U S
D -/D A T A
D + /C L K
5
N C
1 4
3 0
4
2 9
2 8
1 3
3 1
3
3 0
1 0
1 2
P B 0
P C 1
P C 0
P A 7
P A 6
P A 5
P A 4
P A 3
P A 2
P A 1
P A 0
3 3
3 2
2
3 1
9
P B 1 /A N 1 /S C L K B
P B 2 /A N 2 /S D IB
P B 3 /A N 3 /S D O B
P B 4 /A N 4
P B 5 /A N 5
P B 6 /A N 6
P B 7 /A N 7
V D D
U B U S
D -/D A T A
D + /C L K
4 4 4 3 4 2 4 1 4 0 3 9 3 8 3 7 3 6 3 5 3 4
1
3 2
H T 8 2 A 6 2 3 R
4 8 Q F N -A
7
3 /S
2 /S
1 /S
0 /S
1 5
H T 8 2 A 6 2 3 R
2 8 S O P -A /S S O P -A
V 3 3 O
F H H O L D & V C C
N C
F H C S #
F H S O
O S C 2
O S C 1
V S S
G N D & G N D & F H W P
F H S C L K
F H S I
3 6
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
O S C 3
2 2
P C 7 /A N 1 5
P B 7
P B 6
P B 5
P B 4
P B 3
P B 2
P B 1
P B 0
P C 7
P C 6
P C 5
P C 4
O S C 4
7
R E S
O S C 4
O S C 3
P D 0 /T M R 1
P D 1
P D 2
P D 3
P D 4
P D 5
P D 6
P D 7
N C
P B 5 /A N 5
2 3
/A
/A
/A
/T
/IN
/P
/P
/S
/S
/S
/S
N 0 /S C S B
N 9
N 8
M R 0
T
W M 1
W M 0
D O A
D IA
C L K A
C S A
V 3 3 O
F H H O L D & V C C
N C
F H C S #
F H S O
O S C 2
O S C 1
V S S
G N D & G N D & F H W P
F H S C L K
F H S I
4 4 4 3 4 2 4 1 4 0 3 9 3 8 3 7 3 6 3 5 3 4
1
3 3
3 2
2
3 1
3
3 0
4
5
2 9
H T 8 2 A 6 2 1 6
4 4 Q F P -A
6
7
8
2 8
2 7
2 6
9
1 0
1 1
2 5
2 4
1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2
2 3
P B 0
P C 1
P C 0
P A 7
P A 6
P A 5
P A 4
P A 3
P A 2
P A 1
P A 0
/A
/A
/A
/T
/IN
/P
/P
/S
/S
/S
/S
N 0 /S C S B
N 9
N 8
M R 0
T
W M 1
W M 0
D O A
D IA
C L K A
C S A
P D 7
P D 6
P D 5
P D 4
P D 3
P D 2
P D 1
P D 0 /T M R 1
O S C 3
O S C 4
R E S
P D 7
P D 6
P D 5
P D 4
P D 3
P D 2
P D 1
P D 0 /T M R 1
O S C 3
O S C 4
R E S
P C 5 /A N 1 3
P C 6 /A N 1 4
P C 7 /A N 1 5
P B 0 /A N 0 /S C S B
P B 1 /A N 1 /S C L K B
P B 2 /A N 2 /S D IB
P B 3 /A N 3 /S D O B
P B 4 /A N 4
P B 5 /A N 5
P B 6 /A N 6
P B 7 /A N 7
V D D
U B U S
D -/D A T A
D + /C L K
V 3 3 O
N C
F H C S #
F H S O
V C C & F H H O L D
O S C 2
O S C 1
V S S & V S S & V S S
G N D & G N D & F H W P
F H S C L K
F H S I
5 2 5 1 5 0 4 9 4 8 4 7 4 6 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 1 4 0
1
3 9
3 8
2
3 7
3
3 6
4
5
6
H T 8 2 A 6 2 0 8
H T 8 2 A 6 2 1 6
5 2 Q F P -A
7
8
9
1 0
1 1
1 2
1 3
1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6
3 5
3 4
3 3
3 2
3 1
3 0
2 9
2 8
2 7
P C 4
P C 3
P C 2
P C 1
P C 0
P A 7
P A 6
P A 5
P A 4
P A 3
P A 2
P A 1
P A 0
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
/A N
/T M
/IN T
/P W
/P W
/D S
/S D
/S C
/S C
1 2
1 1
1 0
9
8
R 0
M 1
M 0
O A
IA
L K A
S A
P D 7
P D 6
P D 5
P D 4
P D 3
P D 2
P D 1
P D 0 /T M R 1
O S C 3
O S C 4
R E S
N C
N C
Rev. 1.30
4
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Pin Description
Pin Name
PA0/SCSA
PA1/SCLKA
PA2/SDIA
PA3/SDOA
PA4/PWM0
PA5/PWM1
PA6/INT
PA7/TMR0
PB0/AN0/SCSB
PB1/AN1/SCLKB
PB2/AN2/SDIB
PB3/AN3/SDOB
PB4/AN4
PB5/AN5
PB6/AN6
PB7/AN7/VDDIO
PC0/AN8~
PC7/AN15
I/O
Options
Description
I/O
Pull-high
Wake-up
NMOS or
CMOS
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Each pin can be configured as a
wake-up input by a configuration option. Software instructions determine if
the pin is a CMOS output or Schmitt Trigger input. Configuration options
determine if the pins have pull-high resistors. The INTB and TMR0 pins are
pin-shared with PA6 and PA7 respectively. PA0~PA3 are shared with the
SPIA function. PA4~PA5 are shared with PWM0 and PWM1.
I/O
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Each nibble, PB0~PB3 and PB4~PB7
pin can be configured as a wake-up input by a configuration option. Software instructions determine if the pin is a CMOS output or Schmitt Trigger
Pull-high
input. Configuration options determine if the pins have pull-high resistors.
Wake-up
PB is pin shared with the A/D inputs. Once a PB line is selected as an A/D
PB7/VDDIO
input using software control, the I/O function and pull-high resistor are disPB0~PB6
abled automatically. PB7 can be configured as a normal I/O or a VDDIO pin
with VDDIO
by configuration option. The power supply for pins PB0~PB6 can be set to
either VDD or VDDIO by configuration options. PB0~PB3 are shared with
SPIB.
I/O
Pull-high
Wake-up
Bidirectional 8-bit input/output port. Each nibble, PC0~PC3 and PC4~PC7
pin can be configured as a wake-up input by a configuration option. Software instructions determine if the pin is a CMOS output or Schmitt Trigger
input. Configuration options determine if the pins have pull-high resistors.
PC is pin shared with the A/D inputs. Once a PC line is selected as an A/D
input using software control, the I/O function and pull-high resistor are disabled automatically.
Bi-directional 8-bit input/output port. Each nibble, PD0~PD3 and PD4~PD7
pin can be configured as a wake-up input by a configuration option. Software instructions determine if the pin is a CMOS output or Schmitt Trigger
input. Configuration options determine if the pins have pull-high resistors.
The TMR1 pin is shared with PD0.
PD0/TMR1
PD1~PD7
I/O
Pull-high
Wake-up
D-/DATA
I/O
¾
USBD- line
D+/CLK
I/O
¾
USBD+ line
V33O
O
¾
3.3V regulator output
UBUS
¾
¾
USB SIE VDD
OSC1
OSC2
I
O
¾
OSC1, OSC2 are connected to an external 6MHz or 12MHz Crystal/resonator, determined by software instructions, for the internal system clock
OSC3
OSC4
I
O
¾
Real time clock oscillator. OSC3, OSC4 are connected to a 32768Hz crystal oscillator for timing purposes or to a system clock source (depending on
the options). No built-in capacitor.
RES
I
¾
Schmitt trigger reset input. Active low
VDD
¾
¾
Positive power supply of MCU except for USBSIE
FHCS#
I
¾
Flash Memory chip select
FHSI
I
¾
Flash Memory Serial data input
FHSO
O
¾
Flash Memory Serial data output
FHSCLK
I
¾
Flash Memory Clock input
FHHOLD
I
¾
Flash Memory HOLD, to pause the device without deselecting the device
FHWP
I
¾
Flash Memory Write protection
¾
¾
HT82A6208 and HT82A6216 Flash Memory Positive Power Supply
VCC
Note:
The Pin Description reflects the situation of the largest package, smaller package types may not contain all
pins described in the table.
Rev. 1.30
5
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Supply Voltage ...........................VSS-0.3V to VSS+6.0V
Storage Temperature ............................-50°C to 125°C
Input Voltage..............................VSS-0.3V to VDD+0.3V
IOL Total ..............................................................150mA
Total Power Dissipation .....................................500mW
Operating Temperature...............................0°C to 70°C
IOH Total............................................................-100mA
Note: These are stress ratings only. Stresses exceeding the range specified under ²Absolute Maximum Ratings² may
cause substantial damage to the device. Functional operation of this device at other conditions beyond those listed
in the specification is not implied and prolonged exposure to extreme conditions may affect device reliability.
D.C. Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Ta=25°C
Test Conditions
VDD
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
fSYS=6MHz
2.2
¾
5.5
V
fSYS=12MHz
3.0
¾
5.5
V
¾
2.8
3.3
3.6
V
¾
4.5
¾
5.5
V
No load, fSYS=12MHz,
ADC Off, DAC Off
¾
8
¾
mA
5V
No load, fSYS=12MHz,
ADC On, DAC On
¾
12
¾
mA
Suspend Current
5V
No load, system HALT,
USB transceiver and 3.3V
regulator on
¾
330
500
mA
ISTB
Standby Current
(WDT Disabled)
5V
No load ,system HALT,
PS MODE, Set SUSP2
[UCC.4]
¾
¾
10
mA
VIL1
Input Low Voltage for I/O Ports
5V
¾
0
¾
0.3VDD
V
VIH1
Input High Voltage for I/O Ports
5V
¾
0.7VDD
¾
VDD
V
VIL2
Input Low Voltage (RES)
5V
¾
0
¾
0.4VDD
V
¾
0.8VDD
¾
VDD
V
¾
1.9
2.0
2.1
V
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
0
¾
VDD
V
VDD
MCU Operating Voltage
¾
VCC
HT82A6208 and HT82A6216
Flash Memory Operating Voltage
¾
UBUS
USB SIE Operating Voltage
¾
IDD1
Operating Current
5V
IDD2
Operating Current
ISUS
VIH2
Input High Voltage (RES)
5V
VLVR0
Low Voltage Reset
5V
VV33O
3.3V Regulator Output
5V
VAD
12-bit A/D Input Voltage
¾
¾
VOS
Offset Error
¾
¾
-2
¾
2
mV
VLVD
Low Voltage Detect
¾
¾
2.1
2.2
2.3
V
IOL
I/O Port Sink Current
5V
VOL=0.1VDD
10
20
¾
mA
VOH=0.9VDD
-5
-10
¾
mA
IV33O=-5mA
IOH
I/O Port Source Current
5V
RPH
Pull-high Resistance
5V
¾
10
30
50
kW
RPH1
Pull-high Resistance for DATA
5V
¾
¾
4.5
¾
kW
RPH2
Pull-high Resistance for CLK
5V
¾
¾
4.5
¾
kW
IADC
Additional Power Consumption
if A/D Converter is Used
5V
No load
¾
1.5
3.0
mA
¾
¾
±2
LSB
±2.5
±4.0
LSB
12
Bits
DNL
A/D Differential Non-Linearity
¾
INL
A/D Integral Non-Linearity
¾
¾
RESOLU
Resolution
¾
¾
Rev. 1.30
¾
6
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
A.C. Characteristics
Ta=25°C
Test Conditions
Symbol
Parameter
VDD
fSYS
System Clock
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Conditions
¾
2.2V~5.5V
¾
6000
¾
kHz
¾
3.0V~5.5V
¾
12000
¾
kHz
fSYS=6MHz
0
¾
6000
kHz
fSYS=12MHz
0
¾
12000
kHz
Timer I/P Frequency
(TMR0/TMR1)
¾
tWDTOSC
Watchdog Oscillator Period
5V
¾
¾
65
¾
ms
tRES
External Reset Low Pulse Width
¾
¾
1
¾
¾
ms
tSST
System Start-up Timer Period
¾
¾
1024
¾
tSYS
tOPD
Option Load Timer Period
5V
¾
33
70
140
ms
tINT
Interrupt Pulse Width
¾
¾
1
¾
¾
ms
tAD
A/D Clock Period
¾
¾
1
¾
¾
ms
tADC
A/D Conversion Time
¾
¾
¾
16
¾
tAD
tADCS
A/D Sample Time
¾
¾
¾
8
¾
tAD
tCS_SK
SPI SCSA or SCSB to SCLKA or
SCLKB Time
¾
¾
50
¾
¾
ns
tSPICK
SPI Clock Time
¾
¾
166
¾
¾
ns
fTIMER
Wake-up from HALT
Note: tSYS=1/fSYS
Rev. 1.30
7
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
System Architecture
A key factor in the high-performance features of the
Holtek range of microcontrollers is attributed to the internal system architecture. The range of devices take advantage of the usual features found within RISC
microcontrollers providing increased speed of operation
and enhanced performance. The pipelining scheme is
implemented in such a way that instruction fetching and
instruction execution are overlapped, hence instructions
are effectively executed in one cycle, with the exception
of branch or call instructions. An 8-bit wide ALU is used
in practically all operations of the instruction set. It carries out arithmetic operations, logic operations, rotation,
increment, decrement, branch decisions, etc. The internal data path is simplified by moving data through the
Accumulator and the ALU. Certain internal registers are
implemented in the Data Memory and can be directly or
indirectly addressed. The simple addressing methods of
these registers along with additional architectural features ensure that a minimum of external components is
required to provide a functional I/O and A/D control system with maximum reliability and flexibility.
Clocking and Pipelining
The main system clock, derived from a Crystal/Resonator is subdivided into four internally generated non-overlapping clocks, T1~T4. The Program Counter is
incremented at the beginning of the T1 clock during
which time a new instruction is fetched. The remaining
T2~T4 clocks carry out the decoding and execution
functions. In this way, one T1~T4 clock cycle forms one
instruction cycle. Although the fetching and execution of
instructions takes place in consecutive instruction cycles, the pipelining structure of the microcontroller ensures that instructions are effectively executed in one
instruction cycle. The exception to this are instructions
where the contents of the Program Counter are
changed, such as subroutine calls or jumps, in which
case the instruction will take one more instruction cycle
to execute.
For instructions involving branches, such as jump or call
instructions, two instruction cycles are required to complete instruction execution. An extra cycle is required as
the program takes one cycle to first obtain the actual
jump or call address and then another cycle to actually
execute the branch. The requirement for this extra cycle
should be taken into account by programmers in timing
sensitive applications.
O s c illa to r C lo c k
( S y s te m C lo c k )
P h a s e C lo c k T 1
P h a s e C lo c k T 2
P h a s e C lo c k T 3
P h a s e C lo c k T 4
P ro g ra m
C o u n te r
P ip e lin in g
P C
P C + 1
F e tc h In s t. (P C )
E x e c u te In s t. (P C -1 )
P C + 2
F e tc h In s t. (P C + 1 )
E x e c u te In s t. (P C )
F e tc h In s t. (P C + 2 )
E x e c u te In s t. (P C + 1 )
System Clocking and Pipelining
1
M O V A ,[1 2 H ]
3
C P L [1 2 H ]
2
C A L L D E L A Y
4
F e tc h In s t. 1
E x e c u te In s t. 1
F e tc h In s t. 2
5
:
6
D E L A Y :
E x e c u te In s t. 2
F e tc h In s t. 3
:
N O P
F lu s h P ip e lin e
F e tc h In s t. 6
E x e c u te In s t. 6
F e tc h In s t. 7
Instruction Fetching
Rev. 1.30
8
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Program Counter
The lower byte of the Program Counter is fully accessible under program control. Manipulating the PCL might
cause program branching, so an extra cycle is needed
to pre-fetch. Further information on the PCL register can
be found in the Special Function Register section.
During program execution, the Program Counter is used
to keep track of the address of the next instruction to be
executed. It is automatically incremented by one each
time an instruction is executed except for instructions,
such as ²JMP² or ²CALL² that demand a jump to a
non-consecutive Program Memory address. It must be
noted that only the lower 8 bits, known as the Program
Counter Low Register, are directly addressable by user.
Stack
This is a special part of the memory which is used to
save the contents of the Program Counter only. The
stack has 6 levels and is neither part of the data nor part
of the program space, and is neither readable nor
writeable. The activated level is indexed by the Stack
Pointer, SP, and is neither readable nor writeable. At a
subroutine call or interrupt acknowledge signal, the contents of the Program Counter are pushed onto the stack.
At the end of a subroutine or an interrupt routine, signaled by a return instruction, RET or RETI, the Program
Counter is restored to its previous value from the stack.
After a device reset, the Stack Pointer will point to the
top of the stack.
When executing instructions requiring jumps to
non-consecutive addresses such as a jump instruction,
a subroutine call, interrupt or reset, etc., the
microcontroller manages program control by loading the
required address into the Program Counter. For conditional skip instructions, once the condition has been
met, the next instruction, which has already been
fetched during the present instruction execution, is discarded and a dummy cycle takes its place while the correct instruction is obtained.
The lower byte of the Program Counter, known as the
Program Counter Low register or PCL, is available for
program control and is a readable and writeable register.
By transferring data directly into this register, a short program jump can be executed directly, however, as only
this low byte is available for manipulation, the jumps are
limited to the present page of memory, that is 256 locations. When such program jumps are executed it should
also be noted that a dummy cycle will be inserted.
P ro g ra m
T o p o f S ta c k
B o tto m
S ta c k L e v e l 1
S ta c k L e v e l 2
S ta c k
P o in te r
P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
S ta c k L e v e l 3
o f S ta c k
C o u n te r
S ta c k L e v e l 6
Program Counter Bits
Mode
b11
b10
b9
b8
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Initial Reset
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
USB Interrupt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
External Interrupt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
Timer/Event Counter 0
Overflow
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
SPIA Interrupt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
SPIB Interrupt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
Timer/Event Counter 1
Overflow
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
Skip
Program Counter + 2
Loading PCL
PC11 PC10
PC9
PC8
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
Jump, Call Branch
#11
#10
#9
#8
#7
#6
#5
#4
#3
#2
#1
#0
Return from Subroutine
S11
S10
S9
S8
S7
S6
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1
S0
Program Counter
Note:
PC11~PC8: Current Program Counter bits
#11~#0: Instruction code address bits
Rev. 1.30
@[email protected]: PCL bits
S11~S0: Stack register bits
9
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
0 0 0 H
If the stack is full and an enabled interrupt takes place,
the interrupt request flag will be recorded but the acknowledge signal will be inhibited. When the Stack
Pointer is decremented, by RET or RETI, the interrupt
will be serviced. This feature prevents stack overflow allowing the programmer to use the structure more easily.
However, when the stack is full, a CALL subroutine instruction can still be executed which will result in a stack
overflow. Precautions should be taken to avoid such
cases which might cause unpredictable program
branching.
0 0 4 H
0 0 8 H
0 0 C H
0 1 0 H
0 1 4 H
Arithmetic and Logic Unit - ALU
0 1 8 H
The arithmetic-logic unit or ALU is a critical area of the
microcontroller that carries out arithmetic and logic operations of the instruction set. Connected to the main
microcontroller data bus, the ALU receives related instruction codes and performs the required arithmetic or
logical operations after which the result will be placed in
the specified register. As these ALU calculation or operations may result in carry, borrow or other status
changes, the status register will be correspondingly updated to reflect these changes. The ALU supports the
following functions:
F F F H
U S B
In te rru p t V e c to r
E x te rn a l
In te rru p t V e c to r
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 0
In te rru p t V e c to r
S P IA
In te rru p t V e c to r
S P IB
In te rru p t V e c to r
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 1
In te rru p t V e c to r
1 5 b its
Program Memory Structure
Special Vectors
Within the Program Memory, certain locations are reserved for special usage such as reset and interrupts.
· Location 000H
· Arithmetic operations: ADD, ADDM, ADC, ADCM,
This vector is reserved for use by the device reset for
program initialisation. After a device reset is initiated, the
program will jump to this location and begin execution.
SUB, SUBM, SBC, SBCM, DAA
· Logic operations: AND, OR, XOR, ANDM, ORM,
XORM, CPL, CPLA
· Location 004H
· Rotation RRA, RR, RRCA, RRC, RLA, RL, RLCA,
This area is reserved for the USB interrupt service
program. If the USB interrupt is activated, the interrupt
is enabled and the stack is not full, the program will
jump to this location and begin execution.
RLC
· Increment and Decrement INCA, INC, DECA, DEC
· Branch decision, JMP, SZ, SZA, SNZ, SIZ, SDZ,
SIZA, SDZA, CALL, RET, RETI
· Location 008H
This vector is used by the external interrupt. If the INT
external input pin on the device receives a high to low
transition, the program will jump to this location and
begin execution, if the interrupt is enabled and the
stack is not full.
Program Memory
The Program Memory is the location where the user code
or program is stored. The HT82A623R is a One-Time
Programmable, OTP, memory type device where users
can program their application code into the device. By using the appropriate programming tools, OTP devices offer users the flexibility to freely develop their applications
which may be useful during debug or for products requiring frequent upgrades or program changes. OTP devices
are also applicable for use in applications that require low
or medium volume production runs.
· Location 00CH
This vector is used by the timer0 counter. If a counter
overflow occurs, the program will jump to this location
and begin execution if the timer interrupt is enabled
and the stack is not full.
· Location 010H
This vector is used by serial interface A . When 8-bits
of data have been received or transmitted successfully from serial interface A, the program will jump to
this location and begin execution if the interrupt is enabled and the stack is not full.
Structure
The Program Memory has a capacity of 4K by 15 bits.
The Program Memory is addressed by the Program
Counter and also contains data, table information and
interrupt entries. Table data, which can be setup in any
location within the Program Memory, is addressed by
separate table pointer registers.
Rev. 1.30
In itia lis a tio n
V e c to r
· Location 014H
This vector is used by serial interface B . When 8-bits
of data have been received or transmitted successfully from serial interface A, the program will jump to
this location and begin execution if the interrupt is enabled and the stack is not full
10
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
· Location 018H
T B H P
This vector is used by the timer1 counter. If a counter
overflow occurs, the program will jump to this location
and begin execution if the timer interrupt is enabled
and the stack is not full.
P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
T B L P
T B L H
Look-up Table
H ig h B y te o f T a b le C o n te n ts
Any location within the Program Memory can be defined
as a look-up table where programmers can store fixed
data. To use the look-up table, one method is to first
setup a low byte table pointer by placing the lower order
address of the look up data to be retrieved in the low
byte table pointer register, TBLP. This register defines
the lower 8-bit address of the look-up table.
Table Program Example
Another method is to setup the full table address using
both the TBLP and TBHP low and high byte table pointer
registers to directly address any area in he Program
Memory. In this way any page of data can be accessed
directly using the TABRDL instruction. If the TBHP high
byte table pointer register is to be used, then it must first
be enabled with a configuration option.
The following example shows how the table pointer and
table data is defined and retrieved from the
microcontroller. This example uses raw table data located in the last page which is stored there using the
ORG statement. The value at this ORG statement is
²F00H² which refers to the start address of the last page
within the 4K Program Memory of device. The table
pointer is setup here to have an initial value of ²06H².
This will ensure that the first data read from the data table will be at the Program Memory address ²F06H² or 6
locations after the start of the last page. Note that the
value for the table pointer is referenced to the first address of the present page if the ²TABRDC [m]² instruction is being used. The high byte of the table data which
in this case is equal to zero will be transferred to the
TBLH register automatically when the ²TABRDL [m]² instruction is executed.
The following diagram illustrates the addressing/data
flow of the look-up table:
P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
T B L P
T B L H
T a b le C o n te n ts H ig h B y te
S p e c ifie d b y [m ]
T a b le C o n te n ts L o w
B y te o f T a b le C o n te n ts
Table Read - TBLP/TBHP
After setting up the table pointer, the table data can be
retrieved from the current Program Memory page or last
Program Memory page using the ²TABRDC[m]² or
²TABRDL [m]² instructions, respectively. When these instructions are executed, the lower order table byte from
the Program Memory will be transferred to the user defined Data Memory register [m] as specified in the instruction. The higher order table data byte from the
Program Memory will be transferred to the TBLH special
register. Any unused bits in this transferred higher order
byte will be read as ²0².
P ro g ra m C o u n te r
H ig h B y te
S p e c ifie d b y [m ]
L o w
B y te
Table Read - TBLP only
Instruction
Table Location Bits
b11
b10
b9
b8
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
TABRDC [m]
PC11
PC10
PC9
PC8
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
TABRDL [m]
1
1
1
1
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
Table Location
Note:
PC11~PC8: Current Program Counter bits
@[email protected]: Table Pointer TBLP bits
Rev. 1.30
TBHP register bit3~bit0 when TBHP is enabled
11
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
· Table Program Example
tempreg1 db
tempreg2 db
:
:
?
?
; temporary register #1
; temporary register #2
mov a,06h
; initialise table pointer - note that this address
; is referenced
mov tblp,a
:
:
; to the last page or present page
tabrdl
;
;
;
;
tempreg1
dec tblp
tabrdl
:
:
org F00h
dc
transfers value in table referenced by table pointer
to tempregl
data at prog. memory address ²F06H² transferred to
tempreg1 and TBLH
; reduce value of table pointer by one
tempreg2
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
transfers value in table referenced by table pointer
to tempreg2
data at prog.memory address ²F05H² transferred to
tempreg2 and TBLH
in this example the data ²1AH² is transferred to
tempreg1 and data ²0FH² to register tempreg2
the value ²00H² will be transferred to the high byte
register TBLH
; sets initial address of last page
00Ah, 00Bh, 00Ch, 00Dh, 00Eh, 00Fh, 01Ah, 01Bh
:
:
Rev. 1.30
12
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
microcontrollers, such as ACC, PCL, etc., have the
same Data Memory address.
Because the TBLH register is a read-only register and
cannot be restored, care should be taken to ensure its
protection if both the main routine and Interrupt Service
Routine use the table read instructions. If using the table
read instructions, the Interrupt Service Routines may
change the value of TBLH and subsequently cause errors if used again by the main routine. As a rule it is recommended that simultaneous use of the table read
instructions should be avoided. However, in situations
where simultaneous use cannot be avoided, the interrupts should be disabled prior to the execution of any
main routine table-read instructions. Note that all table
related instructions require two instruction cycles to
complete their operation.
General Purpose Data Memory
All microcontroller programs require an area of
read/write memory where temporary data can be stored
and retrieved for use later. It is this area of RAM memory
that is known as General Purpose Data Memory. This
area of Data Memory is fully accessible by the user program for both read and write operations. By using the
²SET [m].i² and ²CLR [m].i² instructions individual bits
can be set or reset under program control giving the
user a large range of flexibility for bit manipulation in the
Data Memory.
0 0 H
0 1 H
0 2 H
0 3 H
0 4 H
0 5 H
0 6 H
0 7 H
0 8 H
0 9 H
0 A H
0 B H
0 C H
0 D H
0 E H
0 F H
1 0 H
1 1 H
1 2 H
1 3 H
1 4 H
1 5 H
1 6 H
1 7 H
1 8 H
1 9 H
1 A H
1 B H
1 C H
1 D H
1 E H
1 F H
2 0 H
2 1 H
2 2 H
2 3 H
2 4 H
2 5 H
2 6 H
2 7 H
2 8 H
2 9 H
2 A H
2 B H
2 C H
2 D H
Data Memory
The Data Memory is a volatile area of 8-bit wide RAM
internal memory and is the location where temporary information is stored. Divided into two sections, the first of
these is an area of RAM where special function registers
are located. These registers have fixed locations and
are necessary for correct operation of the device. Many
of these registers can be read from and written to directly under program control, however, some remain
protected from user manipulation. The second area of
Data Memory is reserved for general purpose use. All
locations within this area are read and write accessible
under program control.
Structure
The two sections of Data Memory, the Special Purpose
and General Purpose Data Memory are located at consecutive locations. All are implemented in RAM and are
8 bits wide but the length of each memory section is dictated by the type of microcontroller chosen. The start
address of the Data Memory for all devices is the address ²00H². Registers which are common to all
0 0 H
S p e c
P u rp o
D a
M e m o
ia l
s e
ta
ry
G e n e ra l
P u rp o s e
D a ta
M e m o ry
5 F H
6 0 H
F F H
Data Memory Structure
Note:
Most of the Data Memory bits can be directly
manipulated using the ²SET [m].i² and ²CLR
[m].i² with the exception of a few dedicated bits.
The Data Memory can also be accessed
through the memory pointer register MP.
Rev. 1.30
13
IA R 0
M P 0
IA R 1
M P 1
A C C
P C L
T B L P
T B L H
W D T S
S T A T U S
IN T C 0
T M R 1 H
T M R 1 L
T M R 1 C
T M R 0 H
T M R 0 L
T M R 0 C
P A
P A C
P B
P B C
P C
P C C
P D
P D C
U S B _ S T A T
U IN T
IN T C 1
T B H P
U S C
U S R
U C C
A W R
S T A L L
S IE S
M IS C
U F IE N
F IF O 0
F IF O 1
F IF O 2
F IF O 3
2 E
2 F
3 0
3 1
3 2
3 3
3 4
3 5
3 6
3 7
3 8
3 9
3 A
3 B
3 C
3 D
3 E
3 F
4 0
4 1
4 2
4 3
4 4
4 5
4 6
4 7
4 8
4 9
4 A
4 B
4 C
4 D
4 E
4 F
5 0
5 1
5 2
5 3
5 4
5 5
5 6
5 7
5 8
5 9
5 A
H
H
H
U F O E N
U F C 0
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
A
S B C
S B D
A D
A D
A D
A C
S B C
S B D
M O
S P I_
R A
R A
R L
R H
C R
S R
R B
R B
D E
R E G
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
P W
P W
P W
P W
P W
M B
M 0
M B
M 1
N C
R 0
D R
R 1
D R
T L
: U n u s e d R e a d a s "0 0 "
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Special Purpose Data Memory
physically exist as normal registers. The method of indirect addressing for RAM data manipulation uses these
Indirect Addressing Registers and Memory Pointers, in
contrast to direct memory addressing, where the actual
memory address is specified. Actions on the IAR0 and
IAR1 registers will result in no actual read or write operation to these registers but rather to the memory location
specified by their corresponding Memory Pointer, MP0
or MP1. Acting as a pair, IAR0 and MP0 can together
only access data from Bank 0, while the IAR1 and MP1
register pair can access data from both Bank 0 and
Bank 1. As the Indirect Addressing Registers are not
physically implemented, reading the Indirect Addressing Registers indirectly will return a result of ²00H²
and writing to the registers indirectly will result in no operation.
This area of Data Memory is where registers, necessary
for the correct operation of the microcontroller, are
stored. Most of the registers are both readable and
writable but some are protected and are readable only,
the details of which are located under the relevant Special Function Register section. Note that for locations
that are unused, any read instruction to these addresses
will return the value ²00H².
Special Function Registers
To ensure successful operation of the microcontroller,
certain internal registers are implemented in the Data
Memory area. These registers ensure correct operation
of internal functions such as timers, interrupts, etc., as
well as external functions such as I/O data control. The
location of these registers within the Data Memory begins at the address 00H. Any unused Data Memory locations between these special function registers and the
point where the General Purpose Memory begins is reserved and attempting to read data from these locations
will return a value of 00H.
Memory Pointer - MP0, MP1
For all devices, two Memory Pointers, known as MP0
and MP1 are provided. These Memory Pointers are
physically implemented in the Data Memory and can be
manipulated in the same way as normal registers providing a convenient way with which to address and track
data. When any operation to the relevant Indirect Addressing Registers is carried out, the actual address that
the microcontroller is directed to, is the address specified by the related Memory Pointer.
Indirect Addressing Register - IAR0, IAR1
The IAR0 and IAR1 register, although having their locations in normal RAM register space, do not actually
data .section ¢data¢
adres1
db ?
adres2
db ?
adres3
db ?
adres4
db ?
block
db ?
code .section at 0 ¢code¢
org 00h
start:
mov
mov
mov
mov
a,04h
; setup size of block
block,a
a,offset adres1; Accumulator loaded with first RAM address
mp0,a
; setup memory pointer with first RAM address
loop:
clr
inc
sdz
jmp
IAR0
mp0
block
loop
; clear the data at address defined by MP0
; increment memory pointer
; check if last memory location has been cleared
continue:
The important point to note here is that in the example shown above, no reference is made to specific Data Memory addresses.
Rev. 1.30
14
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Accumulator - ACC
Status Register - STATUS
The Accumulator is central to the operation of any
microcontroller and is closely related with operations
carried out by the ALU. The Accumulator is the place
where all intermediate results from the ALU are stored.
Without the Accumulator it would be necessary to write
the result of each calculation or logical operation such
as addition, subtraction, shift, etc., to the Data Memory
resulting in higher programming and timing overheads.
Data transfer operations usually involve the temporary
storage function of the Accumulator; for example, when
transferring data between one user defined register and
another, it is necessary to do this by passing the data
through the Accumulator as no direct transfer between
two registers is permitted.
This 8-bit register contains the zero flag (Z), carry flag
(C), auxiliary carry flag (AC), overflow flag (OV), power
down flag (PDF), and watchdog time-out flag (TO).
These arithmetic/logical operation and system management flags are used to record the status and operation of
the microcontroller.
With the exception of the TO and PDF flags, bits in the
status register can be altered by instructions like most
other registers. Any data written into the status register
will not change the TO or PDF flag. In addition, operations related to the status register may give different results due to the different instruction operations. The TO
flag can be affected only by a system power-up, a WDT
time-out or by executing the ²CLR WDT² or ²HALT² instruction. The PDF flag is affected only by executing the
²HALT² or ²CLR WDT² instruction or during a system
power-up.
Program Counter Low Register - PCL
To provide additional program control functions, the low
byte of the Program Counter is made accessible to programmers by locating it within the Special Purpose area
of the Data Memory. By manipulating this register, direct
jumps to other program locations are easily implemented. Loading a value directly into this PCL register
will cause a jump to the specified Program Memory location, however, as the register is only 8-bit wide, only
jumps within the current Program Memory page are permitted. When such operations are used, note that a
dummy cycle will be inserted.
The Z, OV, AC and C flags generally reflect the status of
the latest operations.
· C is set if an operation results in a carry during an ad-
dition operation or if a borrow does not take place during a subtraction operation; otherwise C is cleared. C
is also affected by a rotate through carry instruction.
· AC is set if an operation results in a carry out of the
low nibbles in addition, or no borrow from the high nibble into the low nibble in subtraction; otherwise AC is
cleared.
Look-up Table Registers - TBLP, TBHP, TBLH
· Z is set if the result of an arithmetic or logical operation
These three special function registers are used to control operation of the look-up table which is stored in the
Program Memory. TBLP and TBHP are the table pointer
low and high byte registers and indicate the location
where the table data is located. There value must be
setup before any table read commands are executed.
Their value can be changed, for example using the
²INC² or ²DEC² instructions, allowing for easy table data
pointing and reading. TBLH is the location where the
high order byte of the table data is stored after a table
read data instruction has been executed. Note that the
lower order table data byte is transferred to a user defined location.
b 7
T O
P D F
O V
Z
is zero; otherwise Z is cleared.
· OV is set if an operation results in a carry into the high-
est-order bit but not a carry out of the highest-order bit,
or vice versa; otherwise OV is cleared.
· PDF is cleared by a system power-up or executing the
²CLR WDT² instruction. PDF is set by executing the
²HALT² instruction.
· TO is cleared by a system power-up or executing the
²CLR WDT² or ²HALT² instruction. TO is set by a
WDT time-out.
A C
b 0
C
S T A T U S R e g is te r
A r
C a
A u
Z e
ith m e
r r y fla
x ilia r y
r o fla g
O v e r flo w
g
tic /L o g ic O p e r a tio n F la g s
c a r r y fla g
fla g
S y s te m M
P o w e r d o w
W a tc h d o g
N o t im p le m
a n
n
tim
e
a g e m e n t F la g s
fla g
e - o u t fla g
n te d , re a d a s "0 "
Status Register
Rev. 1.30
15
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
versa by manipulating specific bits of the I/O control registers during normal program operation is a useful feature of these devices.
In addition, on entering an interrupt sequence or executing a subroutine call, the status register will not be
pushed onto the stack automatically. If the contents of
the status registers are important and if the interrupt routine can change the status register, precautions must be
taken to correctly save it.
Flash Memory
The HT82A6208 contains a 8,388,608 bit serial Flash
memory, which has an internal configuration of
1,048,576´8. The HT82A6208 internal Flash Memory
contains a 16,777,216 bit serial Flash memory, with a
2,097,152´8 internal configuration. The HT82A623R
does not contain Flash Memory.
Interrupt Control Registers - INTC0, INTC1
The microcontrollers provide one external interrupt, two
internal timer/event counter overflow interrupts, two SPI
interrupts and one USB interrupt. By setting various bits
within these registers using standard bit manipulation
instructions, the enable/disable function of each interrupt can be independently controlled. A master interrupt
bit within this register, the EMI bit, acts like a global enable/disable and is used to set all of the interrupt enable
bits on or off. This bit is cleared when an interrupt routine
is entered to disable further interrupt and is set by executing the ²RETI² instruction.
Device
Size
Configuration
HT82A623R
¾
¾
HT82A6208
8M
1,048,576´8
HT82A6216
16M
2,097,152´8
Flash Memory Description
Timer/Event Counter Registers TMR0H/TMR1H, TMR0L/TMR1L,TMR0C/TMR1C
The HT82A6208/HT82A6216 internal Flash Memory
feature a serial peripheral interface and software protocol which permits operation using a simple 3-wire bus.
The three bus signals are a clock input, FHSCLK, serial
data input, FHSI, and serial data output, FHSO. The SPI
access to the device is enabled using the FHCS# input.
There is a sequential read operation for the whole device.
All devices possess two internal 16-bit count-up timer. An
associated register pair known as TMR0L/TMR0H and
TMR1L/TMR1H are the locations where the timer 16-bit
values are located. These registers can also be
preloaded with fixed data to allow different time intervals
to be setup. Associated control registers, known as
TMR0C and TMR1C, contains the setup information for
the timers, which determines in what mode the timer is to
be used as well as containing the timer on/off control
function.
After a program/erase command is issued, the auto program/erase algorithms which program/erase and verify
the specified page or byte/sector/block locations will be
executed. Program command is executed on a page,
256 byte, basis, and an erase command is executed on
chip or sector, 4K-bytes, or block, 64K-bytes. To provide
the user with a simplistic interface, a status register is included to indicate the status of the device. The status
read command can be issued to detect a completion
status of a program or erase operation using the WIP bit.
Input/Output Ports and Control Registers
Within the area of Special Function Registers, the I/O
registers and their associated control registers play a
prominent role. All I/O ports have a designated register
correspondingly labeled as PA, PB, PC and PD. These
labeled I/O registers are mapped to specific addresses
within the Data Memory as shown in the Data Memory
table, which are used to transfer the appropriate output
or input data on that port. With each I/O port there is an
associated control register labeled PAC, PBC, PCC and
PDC, also mapped to specific addresses with the Data
Memory. The control register specifies which pins of that
port are set as inputs and which are set as outputs. To
setup a pin as an input, the corresponding bit of the control register must be set high, for an output it must be set
low. During program initialisation, it is important to first
setup the control registers to specify which pins are outputs and which are inputs before reading data from or
writing data to the I/O ports. One flexible feature of these
registers is the ability to directly program single bits using the ²SET [m].i² and ²CLR [m].i² instructions. The
ability to change I/O pins from output to input and vice
Rev. 1.30
When the HT82A6208/HT82A6216 internal Flash Memory is not in operation and FHCS# is high, the device will
be place into a standby mode where it will draw less than
10mA/20mA DC current. The HT82A6208/HT82A6216 internal Flash Memory reliably stores its memory contents
even after 100,000 program and erase cycles.
Data Protection
The device is designed to offer protection against accidental erasure or programming caused by spurious system level signals that may exist during power transition.
During power up the device automatically resets the
state instruction in the Read mode. In addition, with its
control register architecture, alteration of the memory
contents only occurs after successful completion of specific command sequences. The device also incorpo-
16
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
rates several features to prevent inadvertent write
cycles during power-on and power-down transitions or
due to system noise. These features are:
Status Bit
· Power-on reset and tPUW: to avoid problems due to sys-
tem power supply transitions, the power-on reset and
tPUW (internal timer) may protect the Flash Memory.
· Valid command length checking: The command
BP0
1
0
0
4 (8 blocks)
Block 8~15
1
0
1
5 (all)
All
1
1
0
6 (all)
All
1
1
1
7 (all)
All
Protected Flash Area - HT82A6208
· Write Enable (WREN) command: The WREN com-
Status Bit
mand is required to set the Write Enable Latch bit
(WEL) before other commands to change data. The
WEL bit will return to its reset condition under the following situations:
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
8Mb
BP1
length will be checked whether it is at byte base and
completed on byte boundary.
¨
Protect
Level
BP2
16Mb
BP3 BP2 BP1 BP0
0
0
0
0
0 (none)
0
0
0
1
1 (1block, block 31th)
0
0
1
0
2 (2blocks, block 30~31th)
0
0
1
1
3 (4blocks, block 28~31th)
0
1
0
0
4 (8blocks, block 24~31th)
Page Program (PP) command completion
Continuous Program mode (CP) instruction
completion - only for HT82A6216 internal Flash
Memory
0
1
0
1
5 (16blocks, block 16~31th)
0
1
1
0
6 (32blocks, all)
0
1
1
1
7 (32blocks, all)
Sector Erase (SE) command completion
Block Erase (BE) command completion
Chip Erase (CE) command completion
Write Read-lock Bit (WRLB) instruction completion
- only for HT82A6216 internal Flash Memory
1
0
0
0
8 (32blocks, all)
1
0
0
1
9 (32blocks, all)
1
0
1
0
10 (16blocks, block 0~15th)
1
0
1
1
11 (24blocks, block 0~23th)
1
1
0
0
12 (28blocks, block 0~27th)
1
1
0
1
13 (30blocks, block 0~29th)
1
1
1
0
14 (31blocks, block 0~30th)
1
1
1
15 (32blocks, all)
Power-on
Write Disable (WRDI) command completion
Write Status Register (WRSR) command
completion
· Deep Power Down Mode: By entering the deep power
down mode, the flash memory is also under protection
from all write commands except for the Release from
deep power down mode command (RDP) and Read
Electronic Signature command (RES).
1
Protected Flash Area - HT82A6216
· Software Protection Mode (SPM): by using the BP
register bits BP0~BP3, sections of the Flash Memory
can be protected.
Hold Features
The FHHOLD pin signal goes low to hold any serial
communications with the device. The HOLD features
will not stop the function of the write status register or
any programming erase operation in progress.
· Hardware Protection Mode (HPM): keeping WP low
will protect the BP0~BP3 bits and the SRWD bit from
a state change.
Status Bit
Protect
Level
The HOLD operation requires that the Chip Select,
(FHCS#) is kept low and starts on the falling edge of the
FHHOLD pin signal while the Serial Clock (FHSCLK)
signal is low (if Serial Clock signal is not being low. The
HOLD operation will not start until the Serial Clock is
low). The HOLD condition ends on the rising edge of the
FHHOLD pin signal white the Serial Clock (FHSCLK)
8Mb
BP2
BP1
BP0
0
0
0
0 (none)
None
0
0
1
1 (1 block)
Block 15
0
1
0
2 (2 blocks)
Block 14~15
0
1
1
3 (4 blocks)
Block 12~15
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHHOLD
Figure 1. Hold Condition Operation
Rev. 1.30
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
signal is low. If the Serial Clock signal is low, the HOLD
operation will not end until the Serial Clock being is low
for the following figure 1.
high and FHCS# must be low.
For the HT82A6208/HT82A6216, the internal Flash
Memory FHHOLD pin must is bound to the VCC pin.
The Serial Data Output (FHSO) is high impedance, both
Serial Data Input (FHSI) and Serial Clock (FHSCLK) are
don¢t care during the HOLD operation. If the Chip Select
(FHCS#) is set high during the HOLD operation then it
will reset the internal logic of the device. To re-start communication with the device, the FHHOLD pin must be
Memory Organisation
The internal memory blocks of the Flash Memory including the sector and address range is shown in the following tables.
Table 1. Flash Memory Organisation - HT82A6208
Rev. 1.30
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Table 2. 16Mb Flash Memory Organisation HT82A6216
Rev. 1.30
Table 2. 16Mb Flah Memory Organisation HT82A6216
19
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Command Definitions
The internal Flash Memory operates using a range of
commands issued serially by the microcontroller to the
Flash Memory. These commands are summarised in
the accompanying table.
FHCS# goes
high
Flash Memory Command Definition - HT82A6208
Rev. 1.30
20
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
FHCS#
FHCS#
FHCS#
Flash Memory Command Definition - HT82A6216
Rev. 1.30
21
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
The sequence to execute the WREN instruction is:
FHCS# goes low ® send WREN instruction code ®
FHCS# goes high.
Flash Memory Operation
The following statements show the basic protocol behind each Flash Memory command execution.
· Before a command is issued, the status register
FHCS#
should be checked to ensure that the device is ready
for the intended operation.
FHSCLK
· When a correct command is input to the device, it will
enter the standby mode and remain in the standby
mode until the next FHCS# falling edge. In the standby
mode, the device FHSO pin should be High-Z.
FHSI
· When a correct command is input to the device, it will
FHSO
enter the active mode and remain in the active mode
until the next FHCS# rising edge.
Write Enable (WREN) Sequence (Command 06)
· The input data is latched on the rising edge of the Se-
· Write Disable - WRDI
rial Clock, FHSCLK, and the data is shifted out on the
falling edge of FHSCLK. The difference between SPI
mode 0 and mode 3 is shown in Figure 2.
The Write Disable, WRDI, instruction is for resetting
the Write Enable Latch, WEL, bit. The sequence of issuing the WRDI instruction is: FHCS# goes low ®
send WRDI instruction code ® FHCS# goes high.
· For the following instructions: RDID, RDSR, READ,
FAST_READ, RES and REMS the shifted-in instruction sequence is followed by a data-out sequence. After any data bit is shifted out, FSCS# can be high. For
the following instructions: WREN, WRDI, WRSR, SE,
BE, CE, PP, RDP and DP, CS must go high exactly at
the byte boundary; otherwise the instruction will be rejected and not executed.
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
· During the progress of Write Status Register, Pro-
gram, Erase operations, the memory array access is
neglected and therefore does not affect the current
operation of the Write Status Register, Program,
Erase.
FHSO
Write Disable (WRDI) Sequence (Command 04)
The WEL bit is reset by following conditions:
Command Description
¨
The following provides a detailed description of each
Flash Memory Command.
¨
¨
· Write Enable - WREN
¨
The Write Enable, WREN, instruction is used to set
the Write Enable Latch, WEL, bit. For instructions like
PP, SE, BE, CE, and WRSR, which are intended to
change the device contents, it should be set every
time after the WREN instruction sets the WEL bit.
¨
¨
¨
Power-up
Write Disable, WRDI, instruction completion
Write Status Register (WRSR) instruction
completion
Page Program (PP) instruction completion
Sector Erase (SE) instruction completion
Block Erase (BE) instruction completion
Chip Erase (CE) instruction completion
FHSCLK
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Note:
CPOL indicates clock polarity of the SPI master, CPOL=1 for SCLK high while idle, CPOL=0 for SCLK low
while not transmitting. CPHA indicates clock phase. The combination of the CPOL bit and CPHA bit decides
which SPI mode is supported.
Figure 2. Supported SPI Modes
Rev. 1.30
22
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
· Read Identification - RDID
The definition of the status register bits is shown below:
¨ WIP bit
The Write in Progress (WIP) bit, a volatile bit, indicates whether the device is busy in program/erase/write status register progress. When
the WIP bit is set to ²1², this means the device is
busy in program/erase/write status register progress. When the WIP bit is set to ²0², this means the
device is not in progress of program/erase/write status register cycle.
¨ WEL bit
The Write Enable Latch (WEL) bit, a volatile bit, indicates whether the device is set to internal write enable latch. When the WEL bit is set to ²1², which
means the internal write enable latch is set, the device can accept program/erase/write status register
instructions. When the WEL bit is cleared to ²0²,
which means no internal write enable latch; the device will not accept program/erase/write status register instructions.
¨ BP0~BP3 Bits
The Block Protect bits BP0~BP3, are non-volatile
bits, which indicate the protected area (as defined in
the table) of the device against the program/erase
instruction without the hardware protection mode
being set. To write the Block Protect bits requires
the Write Status Register (WRSR) instruction to be
executed. Those bits define the protected area of
The RDID instruction is for reading the manufacturer
1-byte ID followed by the 2-byte Device ID. The device
Manufacturer ID is C2(hex), the memory type ID is
20(hex) as the first-byte device ID, and the individual
device ID of second-byte ID is as follows: 14(hex) for
the HT82A6208/HT82A6216 internal Flash Memory.
The sequence for issuing the RDID instruction is:
FHCS# goes low ® sending RDID instruction code ®
24-bits ID data out on SO ® to end RDID operation
can use FHCS# high at any time during data out.
While the Program/Erase operation is in progress, it
will not decode the RDID instruction, so there is no effect on the cycle of program/erase operation which is
currently in progress. When FHCS# goes high, the device is in the standby stage.
· Read Status Register - RDSR
The instruction is for reading the Status Register Bits.
The Read Status Register can be read at any time
(even in the program/erase/write status register condition) and continuously. It is recommended to check
the Write in Progress (WIP) bit before sending a new
instruction when a program, erase, or write status register operation is in progress. The sequence to issue
the RDSR instruction is: FHCS# goes low ® sending
RDSR instruction code ® Status Register data out on
SO.
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Read Identification (RDID) Sequence (Command 9F)
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Read Status Register (RDSR) Sequence (Command 05)
Rev. 1.30
23
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
¨
· Write Status Register - WRSR
the memory against Page Program (PP), Sector
Erase (SE), Block Erase (BE) and Chip Erase(CE)
instructions (only if all Block Protect bits are set to
²0², can the CE instruction be executed).
SRWD bit
The Status Register Write Disable (SRWD) bit,
non-volatile bit, is operated together with the Write
Protection (FHWP) pin to provide the hardware protection mode. The hardware protection mode requires that SRWD is set to ²1² and the WP# pin
signal is low . In the hardware protection mode, the
Write Status Register (WRSR) instruction is no longer accepted for execution and the SRWD bit and
Block Protect bits (BP0~BP3) are read only.
For the HT82A6208/HT82A6216 internal Flash
memory, the Write Protection (FHWP) pin is always
bonded with the GND pin
The WRSR instruction is used to change the values of
the Status Register Bits. Before sending an WRSR instruction, the Write Enable (WREN) instruction must
be decoded and executed to set the Write Enable
Latch (WEL) bit in advance. The WRSR instruction
can change the value of the Block Protect (BP0~BP3)
bits to define the protected area of memory (as shown
in the table). The WRSR also can set or reset the Status Register Write Disable (SRWD) bit in accordance
with the Write Protection (WP#) pin signal. The WRSR
instruction cannot be executed once the Hardware
Protected Mode is entered.
The sequence to issue WRSR instruction is: FHCS#
goes low ® sending WRSR instruction code ® Status
Register data on SI ® FHCS# goes high. (see Figure
3). The WRSR instruction has no effect on b6, b5, b1,
b0 of the status register.
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Figure 3. Write Status Register (WRSR) Sequence (Command 01)
Note:
1. See the table ²Protected Flash Area ².
2. The endurance cycles for the protect bits are 100,000 cycles; however, the tW time out spec for the protect
bits is relaxed to tW = N ´ 15ms (N is a multiple of 10,000 cycles, ex. N = 2 for 20,000 cycles) after 10,000 cycles
on those bits.
Status Register - HT82A6208 Internal Flash Memory
Note:
See the table ²Protected Flash Area ²
Status Register - HT82A6216 Internal Flash Memory
Rev. 1.30
24
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
FHWP
FHWP
FHWP
FHWP
FHWP
Note:
As defined by the values in the Block Protect (BP2, BP1, BP0) bits of the Status Register, as shown in Table 1.
The above table shows the summary of the Software Protected Mode, SPM, and Hardware Protected Mode,
HPM.
Software Protected Mode - SPM:
· When the SRWD bit=0, no matter if FHWP is low or high, the WREN instruction may set the WEL bit and can
change the values of SRWD, BP2, BP1, BP0. The protected area, which is defined by bits BP2, BP1, BP0, is
in the software protected mode.
· When the SRWD bit=1 and FHWP is high, the WREN instruction may set the WEL bit and can change the
values of SRWD, BP2, BP1, BP0. The protected area, which is defined by BP2, BP1, BP0, is in the software
protected mode.
Note: If SRWD bit=1 but FHWP is low, it is impossible to write to the Status Register even if the WEL bit has
previously been set.
Hardware Protected Mode - HPM:
· When the SRWD bit=1, and then FHWP is low (or FHWP is low before SRWD bit=1), the device enters the
hardware protected mode. The protected area data, defined by bits BP2, BP1, BP0 and hardware protected
mode using FHWP is protected against data modification.
Note: to exit the hardware protected mode requires that FHWP is set high once the hardware protected mode
is entered. If the FHWP pin is permanently connected high, the hardware protected mode can never be entered; only software can be used to enter the protected mode via bits BP2, BP1, BP0.
Protection Modes - HT82A6208 Internal Flash Memory
Rev. 1.30
25
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
FHWP
FHWP
FHWP
FHWP
FHWP
Note:
As defined by the values in the Block Protect (BP3, BP2, BP1, BP0) bits of the Status Register, as shown in
Table 1.
The above table shows the summary of the Software Protected Mode (SPM) and Hardware Protected Mode
(HPM).
Software Protected Mode - SPM:
· When the SRWD bit=0, no matter if FHWP/ACC is low or high, the WREN instruction may set the WEL bit
and can change the values of SRWD, BP3, BP2, BP1, BP0. The protected area, which is defined by BP3,
BP2, BP1, BP0, is in the software protected mode (SPM).
· When the SRWD bit=1 and FHWP/ACC is high, the WREN instruction may set the WEL bit and can change
the values of SRWD, BP3, BP2, BP1, BP0. The protected area, which is defined by BP3, BP2, BP1, BP0, is
in the software protected mode (SPM)
Note: If the SRWD bit=1 but FHWP/ACC is low, it is impossible to write to the Status Register even if the WEL
bit has previously been set. It is rejected to write to the Status Register and not be executed.
Hardware Protected Mode - HPM:
· When the SRWD bit=1, and then FHWP/ACC is low (or FHWP/ACC is low before SRWD bit=1), it enters the
hardware protected mode. The data of the protected area is protected by the software protected mode by
BP3, BP2, BP1, BP0 and the hardware protected mode by the FHWP/ACC against data modification.
Note: to exit the hardware protected mode requires FHWP/ACC is driven high once the hardware protected
mode is entered. If the FHWP/ACC pin is permanently connected high, the hardware protected mode can
never be entered; only the software protected mode can be used via BP3, BP2, BP1, BP0.
Protection Modes - HT82A6216 Internal Flash Memory
Rev. 1.30
26
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
byte is shifted out, so the whole memory can be read
out with a single READ instruction. The address counter rolls over to ²0² when the highest address has
been reached.
The sequence to issue a READ instruction is: FHCS#
goes low ® sending READ instruction code ® 3-byte
address on SI ® data out on SO ® to end a READ
operation, FHCS# going high can be used at any time
during data out.
CS must go high exactly at the byte boundary; otherwise, the instruction will be rejected and not executed.
The self-timed Write Status Register cycle time (tW) is
initiated as soon as the Chip Select (FHCS#) goes
high. The Write in Progress (WIP) bit can still be
checked when the Write Status Register cycle is in
progress. The WIP is set to ²1² during the tW timing,
and cleared ²0² when the Write Status Register Cycle
has completed, and the Write Enable Latch (WEL) bit
is reset.
· Read Data Bytes at Higher Speed - FAST_READ
· Read Data Bytes - READ
The FAST_READ instruction is to read data out
quickly. The address is latched on the rising edge of
SCLK, and each bit of data is shifted out on the falling
edge of SCLK at a maximum frequency fC. The first
address byte can be at any location. The address is
automatically increased to the next higher address after each data byte is shifted out, so the whole memory
The read instruction is for reading data out. The address is latched on the rising edge of FHSCLK, and
data shifts out on the falling edge of FHSCLK at a
maximum frequency fR. The first address byte can be
at any location. The address is automatically increased to the next higher address after each data
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Read Data Bytes (READ) Sequence (Command 03)
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Figure 4. Read at Higher Speed (FAST_READ) Sequence (Command 0B)
Rev. 1.30
27
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Write in Progress (WIP) bit can still be checked when
a Sector Erase cycle is in progress. WIP is set to ²1²
during the tSE timing, and cleared to ²0² when the
Sector Erase Cycle is completed, and the Write Enable Latch (WEL) bit is reset. If the page is protected
by BP2, BP1, BP0 or BP3, BP2, BP1, BP0 bitts, the
Sector Erase (SE) instruction will not be executed on
the page.
can be read out with a single FAST_READ instruction.
The address counter rolls over to ²0² when the highest
address has been reached.
The sequence to issue a FAST_READ instruction is:
FHCS# goes low ® sending FAST_READ instruction
code ® 3-byte address on SI ® 1-dummy byte address on SI ® data out on SO ® to end FAST_READ
operation can use FHCS# going high at any time during da t a o u t . ( s e e F i g u r e 4 ) W h i l e P r ogram/Erase/Write Status Register cycle is in
progress, FAST_READ instruction is rejected without
any impact on the Program/Erase/Write Status Register current cycle.
· Block Erase - BE
The Block Erase (BE) instruction erases data of the
chosen block to ²1². A Write Enable (WREN) instruction must executed to set the Write Enable Latch
(WEL) bit before sending the Block Erase (BE). Any
addresses of the block (see Table 1 or Table 2) are
valid addressed for a Block Erase (BE) instruction. CS
must go high exactly at the byte boundary (when the
latest eighth address byte been latched-in); otherwise, the instruction will be rejected and not executed.
The sequence of issuing BE instruction is: FHCS#
goes low ® sending BE instruction code ® 3-byte address on SI ® FHCS# goes high.
The self-timed Block Erase Cycle time (tBE) is initiated as soon as Chip Select (FHCS#) goes high. The
Write in Progress (WIP) bit still can be checked out
when the Sector Erase cycle is in progress. The WIP
is set to ²1² during the tBE timing, and cleared to ²0²
when the Sector Erase Cycle has completed, and the
Write Enable Latch (WEL) bit is reset. If the page is
protected by BP0~BP3 bits, the Block Erase (BE) instruction will not be executed on the page.
· Sector Erase - SE
The Sector Erase (SE) instruction is used to erase the
data of the chosen sector to ²1². A Write Enable
(WREN) instruction must be executed to set the Write
Enable Latch (WEL) bit before sending the Sector
Erase (SE). Any address in the sector (see Table 1 or
Table 2) is a valid address for a Sector Erase (SE) instruction. CS must go high exactly at the byte boundary (when the latest eighth address byte has been
latched-in); otherwise, the instruction will be rejected
and not executed.
Address bits [Am-A12] (Am is the most significant address) select the sector address. The sequence to issue a SE instruction is: FHCS# goes low ® sending
SE instruction code ® 3-byte address on SI ®
FHCS# goes high.
The self-timed Sector Erase Cycle time (tSE) is initiated as soon as the Chip Select (CS) goes high. The
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
Note: SE command is 20(hex).
Sector Erase (SE) Sequence (Command 20)
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
Note: BE command is 52 or D8(hex).
Block Erase (BE) Sequence (Command 52 or D8)
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
· Chip Erase - CE
not be executed. It will be only executed when
BP0~BP3 are all set to ²0².
The Chip Erase (CE) instruction is used to erase the
data of the whole chip to ²1². A Write Enable (WREN)
instruction must be executed to set the Write Enable
Latch (WEL) bit before sending the Chip Erase (CE).
Any address of the sector (see Table 1 or Table 2) is a
valid address for the Chip Erase (CE) instruction.
FHCS# must go high exactly at the byte boundary
(when the latest eighth address byte has been
latched-in); otherwise, the instruction will be rejected
and not executed.
The sequence of issuing CE instruction is: FHCS#
goes low ® sending CE instruction code ® FHCS#
goes high. (see Figure 5).
The self-timed Chip Erase Cycle time (tCE) is initiated
as soon as the Chip Select (FHCS#) goes high. The
Write in Progress (WIP) bit still can be checked when
the Chip Erase cycle is in progress. The WIP is set to
²1² during the tCE timing, and cleared to ²0² when the
Chip Erase Cycle has completed, and the Write Enable Latch (WEL) bit is reset. If the chip is protected by
the BP0~BP3 bits, the Chip Erase (CE) instruction will
· Page Program - PP
The Page Program (PP) instruction is used to programming the memory to ²0². A Write Enable (WREN)
instruction must executed to set the Write Enable
Latch (WEL) bit before sending the Page Program
(PP). If the eighth least significant address bits
(A7~A0) are not all 0, all transmitted data which goes
beyond the end of the current page are programmed
from the start address if the same page (from the address whose 8 least significant address bits (A7~A0)
are all 0). FHCS# must go high exactly at the byte
boundary (when the latest eighth address byte been
latched-in); otherwise, the instruction will be rejected
and not executed. If more than 256 bytes are sent to
the device, the data of the last 256-bytes are programmed at the request page and previous data will
be disregarded. If less than 256 bytes are sent to the
device, the data is programmed at the request address of the page without effect on other address of
the same page.
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
Note: CE command is 60(hex) or C7(hex).
Figure 5. Chip Erase (CE) Sequence (Command 60 or C7)
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
Figure 6. Page Program (PP) Sequence (Command 02)
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
The sequence to issue a PP instruction is: FHCS#
goes low ® sending PP instruction code ® 3-byte address on SI ® at least 1-byte on data on SI ® FHCS#
goes high (see Figure 6).
The self-timed Page Program Cycle time(tPP) is initiated as soon as the Chip Select (FHCS#) goes high.
The Write in Progress (WIP) bit still can still be
checked when the Page Program cycle is in progress.
WIP is set to ²1² during the tPP timing, and cleared to
²0² when the Page Program Cycle has completed,
and the Write Enable Latch (WEL) bit is reset. If the
page is protected by the BP0~BP3 bits, the Page Program (PP) instruction will not be executed.
struction to allow the ID been read out). During
Power-down, the deep power-down mode automatically stops, and when powered-up, the device automatically is in standby mode. For the RDP instruction
FHCS# must go high exactly at the byte boundary
(when the latest eighth bit of the instruction code has
been latched-in); otherwise, the instruction will not be
executed. As soon as the Chip Select (FHCS#) goes
high, a delay of tDP is required before entering the
Deep Power-down mode and reducing the current to
ISB2.
· Release from Deep Power-down (RDP), Read Elec-
tronic Signature (RES)
The Release from Deep Power-down (RDP) instruction is terminated by driving Chip Select (FHCS#)
High. When Chip Select (FHCS#) is driven High, the
device is put into the Stand-by Power mode. If the device was not previously in the Deep Power-down
mode, the transition to the Stand-by Power mode is
immediate. If the device was previously in the Deep
Power-down mode, though, the transition to the
Stand-by Power mode is delayed by tRES2, and Chip
Select (FHCS#) must remain High for at least
tRES2(max), as specified in the Table. Once in the
Stand-by Power mode, the device waits to be selected, so that it can receive, decode and execute instructions. The RES instruction reads out the old style
of 8-bit Electronic Signature, whose values are shown
in the table of ID Definitions. This is not the same as
the RDID instruction. It is not recommended to use
· Deep Power-down - DP
The Deep Power-down (DP) instruction is used to set
the device to a condition of minimum power consumption. The standby current is reduced from ISB1 to
ISB2). The Deep Power-down mode requires the
Deep Power-down (DP) instruction to be executed.
During the Deep Power-down mode, the device is not
active and all Write/ Program/Erase instructions are
ignored. When FHCS# goes high, it will only be in
standby mode and not in deep power-down mode.
The sequence to issue a DP instruction is: FHCS#
goes low ® sending DP instruction code ® FHCS#
goes high. (see Figure 7) Once the DP instruction is
executed, all instructions will be ignored except the
Release from Deep Power-down mode (RDP) and
Read Electronic Signature (RES) instruction. (RES in-
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
Figure 7. Deep Power-down (DP) Sequence (Command B9)
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Release from Deep Power-down and Read Electronic Signature (RES) Sequence (Command AB)
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HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Figure 8. Release from Deep Power-down (RDP) Sequence (Command AB)
shifting the instruction code ²90h² followed by two
dummy bytes and one bytes address (A7~A0). After
this, the Manufacturer ID for the device (C2h) and the
Device ID are shifted out on the falling edge of
FHSCLK with the most significant bit (MSB) first as
shown in figure 9. The Device ID values are listed in
the ID Definition table. If the one-byte address is initially set to 01h, then the device ID will be read first
and then followed by the Manufacturer ID. The Manufacturer and Device IDs can be read continuously, alternating from one to the other. The instruction is
completed by driving FHCS# high.
this for new designs. For new designs, use the RDID
instruction. Even in Deep power-down mode, the RDP
and RES are also allowed to be executed, except
when the device is in the program/erase/write cycle;
here there is no effect on the current program/erase/write cycle in progress.
The sequence is shown as figure 8.
The RES instruction is ended when FHCS# goes high
after the ID has been read out at least once. The ID
outputs repeatedly if additional clock cycles on
FHSCLK are repeatedly sent while FHCS# is low. If
the device was not previously in the Deep
Power-down mode, the device transition to standby
mode is immediate. If the device was previously in the
Deep Power-down mode, there is a delay of tRES2 to
transition to the standby mode, and FHCS# must remain high for at least tRES2(max). Once in the
standby mode, the device waits to be selected, so it
can be receive, decode, and execute instruction.
The RDP instruction is to release the device from the
Deep Power-down Mode.
Command
Type
RDID
HT82A6208 Internal Flash Memory
Manufacture
ID
Memory
Type
Memory
Density
C2
20
14
Electronic ID
RES
13
· Read Electronic Manufacturer ID & Device ID (REMS)
- for the HT82A6208 internal Flash Memory
The REMS instruction is an alternative to the Release
from Power-down/Device ID instruction that provides
both the JEDEC assigned manufacturer ID and the
specific device ID.
The REMS instruction is very similar to the Release
from Power-down/Device ID instruction. The instruction is initiated by driving the FHCS# pin low and
Rev. 1.30
Manufacture ID
Device ID
C2
13
REMS
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Notes: ADD=00H will output the manufacturer's ID first and ADD=01H will output device ID first
Figure 9. Read Electronic Manufacturer & Device ID (REMS) Sequence (Command 90)
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
· Read Electronic Manufacturer ID & Device ID
Command
Type
(REMS), (REMS2) - HT82A6216 internal Flash Memory
The REMS & REMS2 instruction is an alternative to
the Release from Power-down/Device ID instruction
that provides both the JEDEC assigned manufacturer
ID and the specific device ID.
The REMS & REMS2 instruction is very similar to the
Release from Power-down/Device ID instruction. The
instruction is initiated by driving the FHCS# pin low
and shifting the instruction code ²90H² or ²EFh² followed by two dummy bytes and one bytes address
(A7~A0). After this, the Manufacturer ID for MXIC
(C2h) and the Device ID are shifted out on the falling
edge of FHSCLK with most significant bit (MSB) first
as shown in figure 10. The Device ID values are listed
in Table of ID Definitions. If the one-byte address is initially set to 01h, then the device ID will be read first
and then followed by the Manufacturer ID. The Manufacturer and Device IDs can be read continuously, alternating from one to the other. The instruction is
completed by driving FHCS# high.
RDID
(JEDEC ID)
HT82A6216
Internal Flash Memory
Manufacture
ID
Memory
Type
Memory
Density
C2
20
15
Electronic ID
RES
14
Manufacture ID
Device ID
C2
14
REMS/REMS2
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Notes: ADD=00H will output the manufacturer's ID first and ADD=01H will output device ID first
Figure 10. Read Electronic Manufacturer & Device ID (REMS) Sequence (Command 90)
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HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
FHCS# =VCC
FHCS# =VCC
FHSCLK
FHSCLK
FHSCLK
FHCS# =VCC
FHCS# =VCC
FHCS# =VCC
FHCS# =VCC
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
FHCS# Active Setup Time (relative to FHSCLK)
FHCS# Not Active Hold Time (relative to FHSCLK)
FHCS# Active Hold Time (relative to FHSCLK)
FHCS# Not Active Setup Time (relative to FHSCLK)
FHCS# Deselect Time
FHHOLD Setup Time (relative to FHSCLK)
FHHOLD Hold Time (relative to FHSCLK)
FHHOLD Setup Time (relative to FHSCLK)
FHHOLD Hold Time (relative to FHSCLK)
FHHOLD to Output Low-Z
FHHOLD to Output High-Z
FHCS# High to Deep Power-down Mode
FHCS# High to Standby Mode without Electronic Signature Read
FHCS# High to Standby Mode with Electronic Signature Read
Figure 11. Maximum Negative Overshoot Waveform
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
Serial Input Timing
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSO
FHSI
Output Timing
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSO
FHHOLD
Hold Timing
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
FHWP
FHCS#
FHSCLK
FHSI
FHSO
FHWP Disable Setup and Hold Timing during WRSR when SRWD=1
Power-up Timing
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HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Recommended Operating Conditions
At Device Power-Up
AC timing illustrated in Figure 12 is recommended for the supply voltages and the control signals at device power-up. If
the timing in the figure is ignored, the device may not operate correctly.
Figure 12. AC Timing at Device Power-Up
HT82A6208 Internal Flash Memory
HT82A6216 Internal Flash Memory
Rev. 1.30
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HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Erase and Programming Performance
HT82A6208 Internal Flash Memory
HT82A6216 Internal Flash Memory
Rev. 1.30
39
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HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Input/Output Ports
Holtek microcontrollers offer considerable flexibility on
their I/O ports. With the input or output designation of every pin fully under user program control, pull-high options for all ports and wake-up options on certain pins,
the user is provided with an I/O structure to meet the
needs of a wide range of application possibilities.
Port Pin Wake-up
If the HALT instruction is executed, the device will enter
the Power Down Mode, where the system clock will stop
resulting in power being conserved, a feature that is important for battery and other low-power applications.
Various methods exist to wake-up the microcontroller,
one of which is to change the logic condition on one of
the port pins from high to low. After a HALT instruction
forces the microcontroller into entering the Power Down
Mode, the processor will remain in a low-power state until the logic condition of the selected wake-up pin on the
port pin changes from high to low. This function is especially suitable for applications that can be woken up via
external switches.
Depending upon which package is chosen, the
microcontroller provides up to 32 bidirectional input/output lines labeled with port names PA, PB, PC and PD.
These registers are mapped to the Data Memory with an
addresses as shown in the Special Purpose Data Memory table. For input operation, these ports are
non-latching, which means the inputs must be ready at
the T2 rising edge of instruction ²MOV A,[m]², where m
denotes the port address. For output operation, all the
data is latched and remains unchanged until the output
latch is rewritten.
PA pins have bit select wake-up configuration options.
Other ports have nibble select wake-up configuration
options. All wake up the MCU on a high to low transition.
This means if the pin is low, the I/O cannot wake-up the
MCU.
Pull-high Resistors
Many product applications require pull-high resistors for
their switch inputs usually requiring the use of an external resistor. To eliminate the need for these external resistors, I/O pins, when configured as an input have the
capability of being connected to an internal pull-high resistor. The pull-high resistors are selectable via configuration options and are implemented using weak PMOS
transistors. PA pins have bit select pull-high configuration options. Other ports have nibble select pull-high
configuration options.
I/O Port Control Registers
Each I/O port has its own control register PAC, PBC,
PCC and PDC, to control the input/output configuration.
With this control register, each CMOS output or input with
or without pull-high resistor structures can be reconfigured dynamically under software control. Each of the I/O
ports is directly mapped to a bit in its associated port control register. Note that PA pins can be setup to have
NMOS outputs using configuration options.
For the I/O pin to function as an input, the corresponding
bit of the control register must be written as a ²1². This
V
D a ta B u s
W r ite C o n tr o l R e g is te r
C o n tr o l B it
Q
D
W r ite D a ta R e g is te r
P A 4 , P A 5
P W M 0 , P W M 1
R e a d D a ta R e g is te r
S y s te m
P A 0
P A 1
P A 2
P A 3
P A 4
P A 5
P A 6
P A 7
P B 0
P C 0
P D 0
P D 1
Q
C K
S
C h ip R e s e t
R e a d C o n tr o l R e g is te r
P u ll- h ig h
D a ta B it
Q
D
C K
S
Q
M
M
U
U
/S C
/S C
/S D
/S D
/P W
/P W
/IN T
/T M
/A N
/A N
/T M
~ P D
S A
L K A
IA
O A
M 0
M 1
R 0
0 ~ P B 7 /A N 7
8 ~ P C 7 /A N 1 5
R 1
7
X
E N
(P W M 0 , P W M 1 )
X
W a k e -u p
D D
W a k e - u p o p tio n
IN T fo r P A 6 o n ly
T M R 0 o r T M R 1 fo r P A 7 o r P D 0 o n ly
Input/Output Ports
Rev. 1.30
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
· A/D inputs
will then allow the logic state of the input pin to be directly read by instructions. When the corresponding bit
of the control register is written as a ²0², the I/O pin will
be setup as an output. If the pin is currently setup as an
output, instructions can still be used to read the output
register. However, it should be noted that the program
will in fact only read the status of the output data latch
and not the actual logic status of the output pin.
These devices can have up to 16 A/D converter inputs
depending upon which package type is chosen. All of
these analog inputs are pin-shared with I/O pins on
Port B and Port C. If these pins are to be used as A/D
inputs and not as normal I/O pins then the corresponding bits in the A/D Converter Control Register,
ADCR, must be properly set. There are no configuration options associated with the A/D function. If used
as I/O pins, then full pull-high resistor configuration
options remain, however if used as A/D inputs then
any pull-high resistor options associated with these
pins will be automatically disconnected.
Port B VDDIO Function
The output drivers of most I/O pins use the VDD power
supply line as their high voltage level. In this device pins
PB0~PB6 can use a different voltage, other than VDD
as their high level. This is supplied externally on pin
PB7. This function is selected using configuration options.
I/O Pin Structures
The vast range of I/O functions and pin-shared options
results in a huge variety of I/O pin structure types. For
this reason the generic Input/Output Port diagram provided here is for general reference only. As the exact
logical construction of the I/O pin will differ from the
drawing, they are supplied as a guide only to assist with
the functional understanding of the basic I/O pins.
Pin-shared Functions
The flexibility of the microcontroller range is greatly enhanced by the use of pins that have more than one function. Limited numbers of pins can force serious design
constraints on designers but by supplying pins with
multi-functions, many of these difficulties can be overcome. For some pins, the chosen function of the
multi-function I/O pins is set by configuration options
while for others the function is set by application program control.
Programming Considerations
Within the user program, one of the first things to consider is port initialisation. After a reset, all of the data and
port control register will be set high. This means that all
I/O pins will default to an input state, the level of which
depends on the other connected circuitry and whether
pull-high options have been selected. If the PAC, PBC,
PCC and PDC port control register, are then programmed to setup some pins as outputs, these output
pins will have an initial high output value unless the associated PA, PB, PC and PD port data registers are first
programmed. Selecting which pins are inputs and which
are outputs can be achieved byte-wide by loading the
correct value into the port control register or by programming individual bits in the port control register using the
²SET [m].i² and ²CLR [m].i² instructions. Note that when
using these bit control instructions, a read-modify-write
operation takes place. The microcontroller must first
read in the data on the entire port, modify it to the required new bit values and then rewrite this data back to
the output ports.
· External interrupt input
The external interrupt pin INT is pin-shared with the
I/O pin PA6. For applications not requiring an external
interrupt input, the pin-shared external interrupt pin
can be used as a normal I/O pin, however to do this,
the external interrupt enable bits in the INTC0 register
must be disabled.
· External Timer Clock Inputs
The external timer pins TMR0 and TMR1 are
pin-shared with I/O pins. To configure these pins to
operate as timer inputs, the corresponding control bits
in the timer control register must be correctly set. For
applications that do not require external timer inputs,
these pins can be used as normal I/O pins. Note that if
used as normal I/O pins the timer mode control bits in
the timer control register must select the timer mode,
which has an internal clock source, to prevent the input pin from interfering with the timer operation.
S y s te m
· PWM outputs
T 1
T 2
T 3
T 4
T 1
T 2
T 3
T 4
P o rt D a ta
The device contains two PWM outputs which are
pin-shared with I/O pins. The PWM output functions
are chosen via configuration options and remain fixed
after the device is programmed. Note that the corresponding bit of the port control register, PAC, must
setup the pin as an output to enable the PWM output.
If the PAC port control register has setup the pin as an
input, then the pin will function as a normal logic input
with the usual pull-high option, even if the PWM configuration option has been selected.
Rev. 1.30
C lo c k
W r ite to P o r t
R e a d fro m
P o rt
Read/Write Timing
The ports have the additional capability of providing
wake-up functions. When the device is in the Power
Down Mode, various methods are available to wake the
device up. One of these is a high to low transition of any
of the port pins. Single or multiple pins on the ports can
be setup to have this function.
41
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HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Timer/Event Counters
The internal clock source of Timer1 passes trough a
prescaler or can directly come from fsys/4 using bits
T1S and T1PSS0/T1PSS1 in the MODE register. The
prescaler clock source can come from either WDT OSC,
RTC Oscillator or fSYS/4. The prescaler value is conditioned by the bits PS1C0, PS1C1 and PS1C2 in the
TMR1C register.
The provision of timers form an important part of any
microcontroller giving the designer a means of carrying
out time related functions. The device contains two internal 16-bit count-up timer which has three operating
modes. The timer can be configured to operate as a
general timer, external event counter or as a pulse width
measurement device. The provision of an internal
16-stage prescaler on one of the timers clock circuitry
gives added range to the timer.
An external clock source is used when the timer is in the
event counting mode, the clock source being provided
on the shared TMR0 or TMR1 pin. Depending upon the
condition of the T0E or T1E bit, each high to low, or low
to high transition on the external timer pin will increment
the counter by one.
There are two types of registers related to the
Timer/Event Counters. The first is the register that contain the actual value of the Timer/Event Counter and into
which an initial value can be preloaded, and is known as
TMR0H, TMR0L, TMR1H or TMR1L. Reading from this
register retrieves the contents of the Timer/Event Counter. The second type of associated register is the Timer
Control Register, which defines the timer options and
determines how the Timer/Event Counter is to be used,
and has the name TMR0C or TMR1C. This device can
have the timer clocks configured to come from the internal clock sources. In addition, the timer clock sources
can also be configured to come from the external timer
pins.
Timer Register - TMR0H/TMR1H, TMR0L/TMR1L
The timer registers are special function registers located
in the Special Purpose Data Memory and are the places
where the actual timer values are stored. The timer registers are known as TMR0L, TMR0H, TMR1L and
TMR1H. The value in the timer registers increases by
one each time an internal clock pulse is received or an
external transition occurs on the external timer pin. The
timer will count from the initial value loaded by the
preload register to the full count of FFFFH for the 16-bit
timer at which point the timer overflows and an internal
interrupt signal is generated. The timer value will then
be reset with the initial preload register value and continue counting.
Configuring the Timer/Event Counter Input Clock
Source
The internal timers clock source can originate from a
choice of internal system clocks or from an external
clock source. The system clock input timer source is
used when the timer is in the timer mode or in the pulse
width measurement mode.
D a ta B u s
T 0 M 1
fS
Y S /4
L o w B y te
B u ffe r
T 0 M 0
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
M o d e C o n tro l
T M R 0
R e lo a d
1 6 - B it
P r e lo a d R e g is te r
T 0 O N
H ig h B y te
T 0 E
L o w
B y te
1 6 - B it T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
O v e r flo w
to In te rru p t
16-bit Timer/Event Counter 0 Structure
D a ta B u s
P S C IC 2 ~ P S C IC 0
fS
/4
W D T O S C
R T C O s c illa to r
Y S
M
T 1 P S S 0
U
X
T 1 P S S 1
fS
Y S
/4
8 - s ta g e P r e s c a le r
M
U
T 1 M 1
X
T 1 S
T M R 1
L o w B y te
B u ffe r
T 1 M 0
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
M o d e C o n tro l
1 6 - B it
P r e lo a d R e g is te r
T 1 O N
H ig h B y te
T 1 E
L o w
R e lo a d
B y te
1 6 - b it T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r
O v e r flo w
to In te rru p t
16-bit Timer/Event Counter 1 Structure
Rev. 1.30
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HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
TMR1H registers, these three registers control the full
operation of the Timer/Event Counter. Before the timer
can be used, it is essential that the TMR0C/TMR1C register is fully programmed with the right data to ensure its
correct operation, a process that is normally carried out
during program initialisation.
To achieve a maximum full range count of FFFFH, the
preload registers must first be cleared to all zeros. It
should be noted that after power-on, the preload register
will be in an unknown condition. Note that if the
Timer/Event Counter is switched off and data is written
to its preload registers, this data will be immediately written into the actual timer registers. However, if the
Timer/Event Counter is enabled and counting, any new
data written into the preload data registers during this
period will remain in the preload registers and will only
be written into the timer registers the next time an overflow occurs.
To choose which of the three modes the timer is to operate in, the timer mode, the event counting mode or the
pulse width measurement mode, bits T0M0/T1M0 and
T0M1/T1M1 must be set to the required logic levels. The
timer-on bit T0ON/T1ON or bit 4 of the TMR0C/TMR1C
register provides the basic on/off control of the timer,
setting the bit high allows the counter to run, clearing the
bit stops the counter. If the timer is in the event count or
pulse width measurement mode the active transition
edge level type is selected by the logic level of the
T0E/T1E or bit 3 of the TMR0C/TMR1C register.
For 16-bit Timer/Event Counters which have both low
byte and high byte timer registers, accessing these registers is carried out in a specific way. It must be note
when using instructions to preload data into the low byte
timer register, namely TMR1L, the data will only be
placed in a low byte buffer and not directly into the low
byte timer register. The actual transfer of the data into
the low byte timer register is only carried out when a
write to its associated high byte timer register, namely
TMR1H, is executed. On the other hand, using instructions to preload data into the high byte timer register will
result in the data being directly written to the high byte
timer register. At the same time the data in the low byte
buffer will be transferred into its associated low byte
timer register. For this reason, the low byte timer register
should be written first when preloading data into the
16-bit timer registers. It must also be noted that to read
the contents of the low byte timer register, a read to the
high byte timer register must be executed first to latch
the contents of the low byte timer register into its associated low byte buffer. After this has been done, the low
byte timer register can be read in the normal way. Note
that reading the low byte timer register will result in reading the previously latched contents of the low byte buffer
and not the actual contents of the low byte timer register.
Configuring the Timer Mode
In this mode, the Timer/Event Counter can be utilised to
measure fixed time intervals, providing an internal interrupt signal each time the Timer/Event Counter overflows. To operate in this mode, the Operating Mode
Select bit pair, T0M1/T0M0 or T1M1/T1M0, in the Timer
Control Register must be set to the correct value as
shown.
Control Register Operating Mode
Select Bits for the Timer Mode
Bit7 Bit6
1
0
In this mode the internal clock, fSYS/4 is used as the internal clock for the Timer/Event Counter. After the other
bits in the Timer Control Register have been setup, the
enable bit T0ON or T1ON, which is bit 4 of the Timer
Control Register, can be set high to enable the
Timer/Event Counter to run. Each time an internal clock
cycle occurs, the Timer/Event Counter increments by
one. When it is full and overflows, an interrupt signal is
generated and the Timer/Event Counter will reload the
value already loaded into the preload register and continue counting. The interrupt can be disabled by ensuring that the Timer/Event Counter Interrupt Enable bit in
the Interrupt Control Register, INTC, is reset to zero.
Timer Control Register - TMR0C/TMR1C
The flexible features of the Holtek microcontroller
Timer/Event Counters enable them to operate in three
different modes, the options of which are determined by
the contents of the Timer Control Register TMR0C/
TMR1C. Together with the TMR0L/TMR1L and TMR0H/
P r e s c a le r O u tp u t
In c re m e n t
T im e r C o n tr o lle r
T im e r + 1
T im e r + 2
T im e r + N
T im e r + N
+ 1
Timer Mode Timing Chart
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HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
b 7
T 0 M 1
T 0 M 0
T 0 O N
b 0
T 0 E
T M R 0 C
R e g is te r
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
E v e n t C o u n te r a c tiv e e d g e s e le c t
1 : c o u n t o n fa llin g e d g e
0 : c o u n t o n r is in g e d g e
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r c o u n tin g e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
O p e r a tin
T 0 M 1 T
0
0
1
1
g m o d e s
0 M 0
n o
0
e v
1
tim
0
1
p u
e le c t
m o d
e n t c
e r m
ls e w
e a v a ila b le
o u n te r m o d e
o d e
id th m e a s u r e m e n t m o d e
Timer/Event Counter 0 Control Register
b 7
T 1 M 1
T 1 M 0
T 1 O N
T 1 E
P S 1 C 2
P S 1 C 1
b 0
P S 1 C 0
T M R 1 C
R e g is te r
T im e r p r e s c a le r r a te s e le c t
P S 1 C 2
P S 1 C 1 P S 1 C 0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
E v e n t C
1 : c o u n
0 : c o u n
P u ls e W
1 : s ta rt
0 : s ta rt
o u n te r a c tiv e e d g
t o n fa llin g e d g e
t o n r is in g e d g e
id th M e a s u r e m e n
c o u n tin g o n r is in g
c o u n tin g o n fa llin g
fS P =
fS P =
fS P =
fS P =
fS P =
fS P =
fS P =
fS P =
fS /3
fS /6
fS /1
fS /2
fS /5
fS /1
fS /2
fS /4
4
2
2 8
5 6
1 2
0 2 4
0 4 8
0 9 6
e s e le c t
t a c tiv e e d g e s e le c t
e d g e , s to p o n fa llin g e d g e
e d g e , s to p o n r is in g e d g e
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r c o u n tin g e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
O p e r a tin g
T 1 M 1
T
0
0
1
1
m o d e s e le
1 M 0
0
n o
1
e v
0
tim
1
p u
c t
m o d
e n t c
e r m
ls e w
e a v a ila b le
o u n te r m o d e
o d e
id th m e a s u r e m e n t m o d e
Timer/Event Counter 1 Control Register
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Configuring the Event Counter Mode
As a result when the timer overflows it will generate a
timer interrupt and corresponding wake-up source.
In this mode, a number of externally changing logic
events, occurring on the external timer pin, can be recorded by the Timer/Event Counter. To operate in this
mode, the Operating Mode Select bit pair, T0M1/T0M0
or T1M1/T1M0, in the Timer Control Register must be
set to the correct value as shown.
Configuring the Pulse Width Measurement Mode
In this mode, the Timer/Event Counter can be utilised to
measure the width of external pulses applied to the external timer pin. To operate in this mode, the Operating
Mode Select bit pair, T0M1/T0M0 or T1M1/T1M0, in the
Timer Control Register must be set to the correct value
as shown.
Bit7 Bit6
Control Register Operating Mode
Select Bits for the Event Counter Mode
0
1
Control Register Operating Mode
Select Bits for the Pulse Width
Measurement Mode
In this mode, the external timer pin, TMR0 or TMR1, is
used as the Timer/Event Counter clock source, however
it is not divided by the internal prescaler. After the other
bits in the Timer Control Register have been setup, the
enable bit T0ON or T1ON, which is bit 4 of the Timer
Control Register, can be set high to enable the
Timer/Event Counter to run. If the Active Edge Select bit
T0E or T1E, which is bit 3 of the Timer Control Register,
is low, the Timer/Event Counter will increment each time
the external timer pin receives a low to high transition. If
the Active Edge Select bit is high, the counter will increment each time the external timer pin receives a high to
low transition. When it is full and overflows, an interrupt
signal is generated and the Timer/Event Counter will reload the value already loaded into the preload register
and continue counting. The interrupt can be disabled by
ensuring that the Timer/Event Counter Interrupt Enable
bit in the Interrupt Control Register, INTC, is reset to
zero.
Bit7 Bit6
1
1
In this mode the internal clock, fSYS/4 is used as the internal clock for the 16-bit Timer/Event Counter 0. The T1S
and T1PSS0/T1PSS1 bits select the internal clock for
the 16-bit Timer/Event Counter 1. After the other bits in
the Timer Control Register have been setup, the enable
bit T0ON or T1ON, which is bit 4 of the Timer Control
Register, can be set high to enable the Timer/Event
Counter, however it will not actually start counting until
an active edge is received on the external timer pin.
If the Active Edge Select bit T0E or T1E, which is bit 3 of
the Timer Control Register, is low, once a high to low
transition has been received on the external timer pin,
TMR0 or TMR1, the Timer/Event Counter will start
counting until the external timer pin returns to its original
high level. At this point the enable bit will be automatically reset to zero and the Timer/Event Counter will stop
counting. If the Active Edge Select bit is high, the
Timer/Event Counter will begin counting once a low to
high transition has been received on the external timer
pin and stop counting when the external timer pin returns to its original low level. As before, the enable bit
will be automatically reset to zero and the Timer/Event
Counter will stop counting. It is important to note that in
the Pulse Width Measurement Mode, the enable bit is
As the external timer pin is an independent pin and not
shared with an I/O pin, the only thing to ensure the timer
operate as an event counter is to ensure that the Operating Mode Select bits in the Timer Control Register
place the Timer/Event Counter in the Event Counting
Mode. It should be noted that in the event counting
mode, even if the microcontroller is in the Power Down
Mode, the Timer/Event Counter will continue to record
externally changing logic events on the timer input pin.
E x te rn a l E v e n t
In c re m e n t
T im e r C o u n te r
T im e r + 1
T im e r + 2
T im e r + 3
Event Counter Mode Timing Chart
E x te r n a l T im e r
P in In p u t
T 0 O N o r T 1 O N
( w ith T 0 E o r T 1 E = 0 )
P r e s c a le r O u tp u t
In c re m e n t
T im e r C o u n te r
+ 1
T im e r
+ 2
+ 3
+ 4
P r e s c a le r O u tp u t is s a m p le d a t e v e r y fa llin g e d g e o f T 1 .
Pulse Width Measure Mode Timing Chart
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Programming Considerations
automatically reset to zero when the external control
signal on the external timer pin returns to its original
level, whereas in the other two modes the enable bit can
only be reset to zero under program control.
When configured to run in the timer mode, the internal
system clock is used as the timer clock source and is
therefore synchronised with the overall operation of the
microcontroller. In this mode when the appropriate timer
register is full, the microcontroller will generate an internal
interrupt signal directing the program flow to the respective internal interrupt vector. For the pulse width measurement mode, the internal system clock is also used as
the timer clock source but the timer will only run when the
correct logic condition appears on the external timer input
pin. As this is an external event and not synchronised
with the internal timer clock, the microcontroller will only
see this external event when the next timer clock pulse
arrives. As a result, there may be small differences in
measured values requiring programmers to take this into
account during programming. The same applies if the
timer is configured to be in the event counting mode,
which again is an external event and not synchronised
with the internal system or timer clock.
The residual value in the Timer/Event Counter, which
can now be read by the program, therefore represents
the length of the pulse received on the external timer
pin. As the enable bit has now been reset, any further
transitions on the external timer pin will be ignored. Not
until the enable bit is again set high by the program can
the timer begin further pulse width measurements. In
this way, single shot pulse measurements can be easily
made.
It should be noted that in this mode the Timer/Event
Counter is controlled by logical transitions on the external timer pin and not by the logic level. When the
Timer/Event Counter is full and overflows, an interrupt
signal is generated and the Timer/Event Counter will reload the value already loaded into the preload register
and continue counting. The interrupt can be disabled by
ensuring that the Timer/Event Counter Interrupt Enable
bit in the Interrupt Control Register, INTC, is reset to
zero.
When the Timer/Event Counter is read, or if data is written to the preload register, the clock is inhibited to avoid
errors, however as this may result in a counting error,
this should be taken into account by the programmer.
Care must be taken to ensure that the timers are properly initialised before using them for the first time. The
associated timer enable bits in the interrupt control register must be properly set otherwise the internal interrupt
associated with the timer will remain inactive. The edge
select, timer mode and clock source control bits in timer
control register must also be correctly set to ensure the
timer is properly configured for the required application.
It is also important to ensure that an initial value is first
loaded into the timer registers before the timer is
switched on; this is because after power-on the initial
values of the timer registers are unknown. After the
timer has been initialised the timer can be turned on and
off by controlling the enable bit in the timer control register. Note that setting the timer enable bit high to turn the
timer on, should only be executed after the timer mode
bits have been properly setup. Setting the timer enable
bit high together with a mode bit modification, may lead
to improper timer operation if executed as a single timer
control register byte write instruction.
As the external timer pin is an independent pin and not
shared with an I/O pin, the only thing to ensure the timer
operate in Pulse Width Measurement mode is to ensure
that the Operating Mode Select bits in the Timer Control
Register place the Timer/Event Counter in the Pulse
Width Measurement Mode.
Prescaler
Bits PS1C0~PS1C2 of the TMR1C register are used to
define the pre-scaling stages of the internal clock source
of the Timer/Event Counter 1.
I/O Interfacing
The Timer/Event Counter, when configured to run in the
event counter or pulse width measurement mode, require the use of external pins for correct operation. As
these pins are shared pins they must be configured correctly to ensure they are setup for use as Timer/Event
Counter inputs and not as a normal I/O pins. This is implemented by ensuring that the mode select bits in the
Timer/Event Counter control register, select either the
event counter or pulse width measurement mode. Additionally the relevant Port Control Register for this pin
must be set high to ensure that the pin is setup as an input. Any pull-high resistor configuration option on this
pin will remain valid even if the pin is used as a
Timer/Event Counter input.
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Timer Program Example
When the Timer/Event counter overflows, its corresponding interrupt request flag in the interrupt control
register will be set. If the timer interrupt is enabled this
will in turn generate an interrupt signal. However irrespective of whether the interrupts are enabled or not, a
Timer/Event counter overflow will also generate a
wake-up signal if the device is in a Power-down condition. This situation may occur if the Timer/Event Counter
is in the Event Counting Mode and if the external signal
continues to change state. In such a case, the
Timer/Event Counter will continue to count these external events and if an overflow occurs the device will be
woken up from its Power-down condition. To prevent
such a wake-up from occurring, the timer interrupt request flag should first be set high before issuing the
²HALT² instruction to enter the Power Down Mode.
This program example shows how the Timer/Event
Counter registers are setup, along with how the interrupts are enabled and managed. Note how the
Timer/Event Counter is turned on, by setting bit 4 of the
Timer Control Register. The Timer/Event Counter can
be turned off in a similar way by clearing the same bit.
This example program sets the Timer/Event Counter to
be in the timer mode, which uses the internal system
clock as the clock source.
org 04h
; USB interrupt vector
reti
org 0ch
; Timer/Event Counter 0 interrupt vector
jmp tmrint
; jump here when Timer overflows
:
org 20h
; main program
;internal Timer/Event Counter 0 interrupt routine
tmrint:
:
; Timer/Event Counter main program placed here
:
reti
:
:
begin:
;setup Timer registers
mov a,09bh
; setup Timer preload value
mov tmr0l,a;
Mov a,0ffh
; setup Timer preload value
Mov trm0h,a
mov a,080h
; setup Timer control register
mov tmr0c,a
; timer mode
; setup interrupt register
mov a,009h
; enable master interrupt and timer interrupt
mov intc0,a
set tmr0c.4
; start Timer/Event Counter - note mode bits must be previously setup
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Interrupts
to be executed, will be transferred onto the stack. The
Program Counter will then be loaded with a new address which will be the value of the corresponding interrupt vector. The microcontroller will then fetch its next
instruction from this interrupt vector. The instruction at
this vector will usually be a JMP statement which will
jump to another section of program which is known as
the interrupt service routine. Here is located the code to
control the appropriate interrupt. The interrupt service
routine must be terminated with a RETI statement,
which retrieves the original Program Counter address
from the stack and allows the microcontroller to continue
with normal execution at the point where the interrupt
occurred.
Interrupts are an important part of any microcontroller
system. When an external interrupt pin transition or an
internal function such as a Timer/Event Counter overflow, an USB interrupt, or transmission or reception of
SPI data occurs, their corresponding interrupt will enforce a temporary suspension of the main program allowing the microcontroller to direct attention to their
respective needs. Each device contains two external interrupts and several internal interrupts functions. The
external interrupt is controlled by the action of the external interrupt pins, while the internal interrupts are controlled by the Timer/Event Counter overflow, a USB
interrupt and SPI data transmission or reception.
Interrupt Registers
The various interrupt enable bits, together with their associated request flags, are shown in the accompanying
diagram with their order of priority.
Overall interrupt control, which means interrupt enabling
and request flag setting, is controlled by the two interrupt control registers, which are located in the Data
Memory. By controlling the appropriate enable bits in
these registers each individual interrupt can be enabled
or disabled. Also when an interrupt occurs, the corresponding request flag will be set by the microcontroller.
The global enable flag if cleared to zero will disable all
interrupts.
Once an interrupt subroutine is serviced, all the other interrupts will be blocked, as the EMI bit will be cleared automatically. This will prevent any further interrupt nesting
from occurring. However, if other interrupt requests occur during this interval, although the interrupt will not be
immediately serviced, the request flag will still be recorded. If an interrupt requires immediate servicing
while the program is already in another interrupt service
routine, the EMI bit should be set after entering the routine, to allow interrupt nesting. If the stack is full, the interrupt request will not be acknowledged, even if the
related interrupt is enabled, until the Stack Pointer is
decremented. If immediate service is desired, the stack
must be prevented from becoming full.
Interrupt Operation
A USB interrupt , a Timer/Event Counter overflow, 8-bits
of data transmission or reception on either of the SPI interfaces or an active edge on external interrupt pin will
all generate an interrupt request by setting their corresponding request flag, if their appropriate interrupt enable bit is set. When this happens, the Program
Counter, which stores the address of the next instruction
A u to m a tic a lly D is a b le d b y IS R
C a n b e E n a b le d M a n u a lly
A u to m a tic a lly C le a r e d b y IS R
M a n u a lly S e t o r C le a r e d b y S o ftw a r e
U S B In te rru p t
R e q u e s t F la g U S B F _ A
E U I
E x te rn a l In te rru p t
R e q u e s t F la g E IF
E E I
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 0 O v e r flo w
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g T F 0
E T I0
S P I_ A In te rru p t
R e q u e s t F la g S IF _ A
E S II_ A
S P I_ B In te rru p t
R e q u e s t F la g S IF _ B
E S II_ B
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 1 O v e r flo w
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g T F 1
E M I
P r io r ity
H ig h
In te rru p t
P o llin g
E T I1
L o w
Interrupt Structure
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b 7
T F 0
E IF
U S B F
E T I0
E E I
E U I
b 0
E M I
IN T C 0 R e g is te r
M a s te r in te r r u p t g lo b a l e n a b le
1 : g lo b a l e n a b le
0 : g lo b a l d is a b le
U S B in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
E x te r n a l in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 0
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
in te r r u p t e n a b le
U S B in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
E x te r n a l in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 0 in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
F o r te s t m o d e u s e d o n ly
M u s t b e w r itte n a s " 0 " ; o th e r w is e m a y r e s u lt in u n p r e d ic ta b le o p e r a tio n
INTC0 Register
b 7
T F 1
S IF _ B
S IF _ A
E T I1
E S II_ B
b 0
E S II_ A
IN T C 1 R e g is te r
S P I S e r ia l In te r fa c e A in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
S P I S e r ia l In te r fa c e B in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 1 in te r r u p t e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
S P I S e r ia l in te r fa c e A d a ta tr a n s fe r r e d o r d a ta r e c e iv e d in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
S P I S e r ia l in te r fa c e B d a ta tr a n s fe r r e d o r d a ta r e c e iv e d in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
T im e r /E v e n t C o u n te r 1 in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
INTC1 Register
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Interrupt Priority
vector at location 0CH or 018H, will take place. When
the interrupt is serviced, the timer interrupt request flag,
TF0 or TF1, will be automatically reset and the EMI bit
will be automatically cleared to disable other interrupts.
Interrupts, occurring in the interval between the rising
edges of two consecutive T2 pulses, will be serviced on
the latter of the two T2 pulses, if the corresponding interrupts are enabled. In case of simultaneous requests,
the following table shows the priority that is applied.
These can be masked by resetting the EMI bit.
Interrupt Source
Priority
Vector
USB Interrupt
1
0004H
External Interrupt
2
0008H
Timer/Event Counter 0 Overflow
Interrupt
3
000CH
SPI_A Interrupt
4
0010H
SPI_B Interrupt
5
0014H
Timer/Event Counter 1 Overflow
Interrupt
6
0018H
SPI Interrupt
For an SPI Interrupt to occur, the global interrupt enable
bit, EMI, and the corresponding SPI interrupt enable bit,
ESII_A or ESII_B, must be first set. An actual SPI Interrupt will take place when one of the two SPI interrupt request flags, SIF_A or SIF_B, are set, a situation that will
occur when 8-bits of data are transferred or received
from either of the SPI interfaces. When the interrupt is
enabled, the stack is not full and an SPI_A interrupt occurs, a subroutine call to the SPI_A interrupt vector at location 10H, will take place. For an SPI_B interrupt, a
subroutine call to the SPI_B interrupt vector at location
14H, will take place. When the interrupt is serviced, the
SPI interrupt request flag, SIF_A or SIF_B, will be automatically reset and the EMI bit will be automatically
cleared to disable other interrupts.
Suitable masking of the individual interrupts using the
interrupt registers can prevent simultaneous occurrences.
USB Interrupt
External Interrupt
A USB interrupts will be triggered by the following USB
events, at which point the the related interrupt request
flag, USBF in the INTC0 register, will be set.
For an external interrupt to occur, the global interrupt enable bit, EMI, and external interrupt enable bit, EEI,
must first be set. An actual external interrupt will take
place when the external interrupt request flag, EIF is set,
a situation that will occur when a high to low transition
appears on the interrupt pins. The external interrupt pin
is pin-shared with the I/O pins PA6 can only be configured as an external interrupt pin if the corresponding external interrupt enable bits in the interrupt control
register INTC0 have been set. The pins must also be
setup as inputs by setting the corresponding PAC.6 bits
in the port control register. When the interrupt is enabled, the stack is not full and a high to low transition appears on the external interrupt pin, a subroutine call to
the external interrupt vector at location 08H will take
place. When the interrupt is serviced, the external interrupt request flag, EIF will be automatically reset and the
EMI bit will be automatically cleared to disable other interrupts. Note that any pull-high resistor configuration
options on these pins will remain valid even if the pins
are used as external interrupt inputs.
· Accessing the corresponding USB FIFO from the PC
· A USB suspend signal from the PC
· A USB resume signal from the PC
· A USB Reset signal
When the interrupt is enabled, the stack is not full and
the USB interrupt is active, a subroutine call to location
04H will occur. The interrupt request flag, USBF, and the
EMI bit will be cleared to disable other interrupts.
When PC Host accesses the FIFO of the device, the
corresponding request USR bit is set, and a USB interrupt is triggered. Therefore it can be determined which
FIFO has been accessed. When the interrupt has been
served, the corresponding bit should be cleared by the
program. When the device receive a USB Suspend signal from the Host PC, the suspend line, bit0 of USC, is
set and a USB interrupt is also triggered. Also when device receive a Resume signal from the Host PC, the resume line, bit3 of USC, is set and a USB interrupt is
triggered.
Timer/Event Counter Interrupt
Programming Considerations
For a Timer/Event Counter interrupt to occur, the global
interrupt enable bit, EMI, and the corresponding timer
interrupt enable bit, ETI0 or ETI1, must first be set. An
actual Timer/Event Counter interrupt will take place
when the Timer/Event Counter interrupt request flag,
TF0 or TF1, is set, a situation that will occur when the
Timer/Event Counter overflows. When the interrupt is
enabled, the stack is not full and a Timer/Event Counter
overflow occurs, a subroutine call to the timer interrupt
Rev. 1.30
By disabling the interrupt enable bits, a requested interrupt can be prevented from being serviced, however,
once an interrupt request flag is set, it will remain in this
condition in the interrupt control register until the corresponding interrupt is serviced or until the request flag is
cleared by a software instruction.
50
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
one that occurs after power is first applied to the
microcontroller. As well as ensuring that the Program
Memory begins execution from the first memory address, a power-on reset also ensures that certain
other registers are preset to known conditions. All the
I/O port and port control registers will power up in a
high condition ensuring that all pins will be first set to
inputs.
Although the microcontroller has an internal RC reset
function, if the VDD power supply rise time is not fast
enough or does not stabilise quickly at power-on, the
internal reset function may be incapable of providing a
proper reset operation. In such cases it is recommended that an external RC network is connected to
the RES pin, whose additional time delay will ensure
that the RES pin remains low for an extended period
to allow the power supply to stabilise. During this time
delay, normal operation of the microcontroller will be
inhibited. After the RES line reaches a certain voltage
value, the reset delay time tRSTD is invoked to provide
an extra delay time after which the microcontroller will
begin normal operation. The abbreviation SST in the
figures stands for System Start-up Timer.
It is recommended that programs do not use the ²CALL
subroutine² instruction within the interrupt subroutine.
Interrupts often occur in an unpredictable manner or
need to be serviced immediately in some applications. If
only one stack is left and the interrupt is not well controlled, the original control sequence will be damaged
once a ²CALL subroutine² is executed in the interrupt
subroutine.
All of these interrupts have the capability of waking up
the processor when in the Power Down Mode.
Only the Program Counter is pushed onto the stack. If
the contents of the accumulator or status register are altered by the interrupt service program, which may corrupt the desired control sequence, then the contents
should be saved in advance.
Reset and Initialisation
A reset function is a fundamental part of any
microcontroller ensuring that the device can be set to
some predetermined condition irrespective of outside
parameters. The most important reset condition is after
power is first applied to the microcontroller. In this case,
internal circuitry will ensure that the microcontroller, after a short delay, will be in a well defined state and ready
to execute the first program instruction. After this
power-on reset, certain important internal registers will
be set to defined states before the program commences. One of these registers is the Program Counter,
which will be reset to zero forcing the microcontroller to
begin program execution from the lowest Program
Memory address.
V D D
tR
S S T T im e - o u t
D D
S T D
In te rn a l R e s e t
Power-On Reset Timing Chart
For most applications a resistor connected between
VDD and the RES pin and a capacitor connected between VSS and the RES pin will provide a suitable external reset circuit. Any wiring connected to the RES
pin should be kept as short as possible to minimise
any stray noise interference.
In addition to the power-on reset, situations may arise
where it is necessary to forcefully apply a reset condition
when the microcontroller is running. One example of this
is where after power has been applied and the
microcontroller is already running, the RES line is forcefully pulled low. In such a case, known as a normal operation reset, some of the microcontroller registers remain
unchanged allowing the microcontroller to proceed with
normal operation after the reset line is allowed to return
high. Another type of reset is when the Watchdog Timer
overflows and resets the microcontroller. All types of reset operations result in different register conditions being setup.
V D D
1 0 0 k W
R E S
0 .1 m F
V S S
Basic Reset Circuit
For applications that operate within an environment
where more noise is present the Enhanced Reset Circuit shown is recommended.
0 .0 1 m F
Another reset exists in the form of a Low Voltage Reset,
LVR, where a full reset, similar to the RES reset is implemented in situations where the power supply voltage
falls below a certain threshold.
1 0 0 k W
0 .1 m F
There are five ways in which a microcontroller reset can
occur, through events occurring both internally and externally:
V D D
R E S
1 0 k W
Reset Functions
V S S
Enhanced Reset Circuit
More information regarding external reset circuits is
located in Application Note HA0075E on the Holtek
website.
· Power-on Reset
The most fundamental and unavoidable reset is the
Rev. 1.30
0 .9 V
R E S
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
· Watchdog Time-out Reset during Power Down
· RES Pin Reset
The Watchdog time-out Reset during Power Down is
a little different from other kinds of reset. Most of the
conditions remain unchanged except that the Program Counter and the Stack Pointer will be cleared to
²0² and the TO flag will be set to ²1². Refer to the A.C.
Characteristics for tSST details.
This type of reset occurs when the microcontroller is
already running and the RES pin is forcefully pulled
low by external hardware such as an external switch.
In this case as in the case of other reset, the Program
Counter will reset to zero and program execution initiated from this point. Note that as the external reset pin
is also pin-shared with PA7, if it is to be used as a reset
pin, the correct reset configuration option must be selected.
0 .4 V
R E S
0 .9 V
D D
tR
S S T T im e - o u t
W D T T im e - o u t
D D
S T
WDT Time-out Reset during Power Down
Timing Chart
S T D
Reset Initial Conditions
In te rn a l R e s e t
The different types of reset described affect the reset
flags in different ways. These flags, known as PDF and
TO are located in the status register and are controlled
by various microcontroller operations, such as the
Power Down function or Watchdog Timer. The reset
flags are shown in the table:
RES Reset Timing Chart
· Low Voltage Reset - LVR
The microcontroller contains a low voltage reset circuit in order to monitor the supply voltage of the device. The LVR function is selected via a configuration
option. If the supply voltage of the device drops to
within a range of 0.9V~VLVR such as might occur when
changing the battery, the LVR will automatically reset
the device internally. For a valid LVR signal, a low supply voltage, i.e., a voltage in the range between
0.9V~VLVR must exist for a time greater than that specified by tLVR in the A.C. characteristics. If the low supply voltage state does not exceed this value, the LVR
will ignore the low supply voltage and will not perform
a reset function. The actual VLVR value can be selected via configuration options.
L V R
S S T T im e - o u t
tR
TO PDF
RESET Conditions
0
0
RES reset during power-on
0
0
RES wake-up during Power Down
0
0
RES or LVR reset during normal operation
1
u
WDT time-out reset during normal operation
1
1
WDT time-out reset during Power Down
Note: ²u² stands for unchanged
The following table indicates the way in which the various components of the microcontroller are affected after
a power-on reset occurs.
S T D
Item
In te rn a l R e s e t
Program Counter
Low Voltage Reset Timing Chart
· Watchdog Time-out Reset during Normal Operation
The Watchdog time-out Reset during normal operation is the same as a hardware RES pin reset except
that the Watchdog time-out flag TO will be set to ²1².
W D T T im e - o u t
S S T T im e - o u t
tR
S T D
Condition After RESET
Reset to zero
Interrupts
All interrupts will be disabled
WDT
Clear after reset, WDT begins
counting
Timer/Event
Counter
Timer Counter will be turned off
Prescaler
The Timer Counter Prescaler will
be cleared
Input/Output Ports I/O ports will be setup as inputs
In te rn a l R e s e t
Stack Pointer
WDT Time-out Reset during Normal Operation
Timing Chart
Rev. 1.30
tS
S S T T im e - o u t
52
Stack Pointer will point to the top
of the stack
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
The different kinds of resets all affect the internal registers of the microcontroller in different ways. To ensure reliable
continuation of normal program execution after a reset occurs, it is important to know what condition the microcontroller
is in after a particular reset occurs. The following table describes how each type of reset affects the microcontroller internal registers.
Reset
(Power-on)
WDT Time-out
(Normal
Operation)
RES Reset
(Normal
Operation)
RES Reset
(HALT)
WDT
Time-out
(HALT)*
USB Reset
(Normal)
USB Reset
(HALT)
MP0
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
MP1
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
Register
ACC
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCL
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
TBLP
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TBLH
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
WDTS
---- -111
---- -111
---- -111
---- -111
---- -111
---- -111
---- -uuu
STATUS
--00 xxxx
--1u uuuu
--00 uuuu
--00 uuuu
--11 uuuu
--uu uuuu
--01 uuuu
INTC0
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
TMR1H
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TMR1L
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TMR1C
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
uu-u u---
uu-u u---
uu-u u---
TMR0H
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
TMR0L
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
TMR0C
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
00-0 1---
uu-u u---
uu-u u---
uu-u u---
PA
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
PAC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
PB
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
PBC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
PC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
PCC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
PD
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
PDC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
USB_STAT
--xx 0000
--xx 0000
--xx 0000
--xx 0000
--xx 0000
--xx 0000
--xx 0000
UINT
0000 1111
0000 uuuu
0000 1111
0000 1111
0000 uuuu
0000 1111
0000 1111
INTC1
-000 -000
-000 -000
-000 -000
-000 -000
-uuu -uuu
-000 -000
-000 -000
TBHP
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
USC
1000 0000
uuuu xuux
1000 0000
1000 0000
uuuu xuux
1uuu 0100
1uuu 0100
USR
---- 0000
---- uuuu
---- 0000
---- 0000
---- uuuu
---- 0000
---- 0000
UCC
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0uu0 u000
0uu0 u000
AWR
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
---- 0000
---- uuuu
---- 0000
---- 0000
---- uuuu
---- 0000
---- 0000
STALL
SIES
00-0 0000
uu-x xuuu
00-0 0000
00-0 0000
uu-x uuuu
00-0 0000
00-0 0000
MISC
0000 0000
xxuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
xxuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
UFIEN
---- 0000
---- uuuu
---- 0000
---- 0000
---- uuuu
---- 0000
---- 0000
FIFO0
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
Rev. 1.30
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Reset
(Power-on)
WDT Time-out
(Normal
Operation)
RES Reset
(Normal
Operation)
RES Reset
(HALT)
WDT
Time-out
(HALT)*
USB Reset
(Normal)
USB Reset
(HALT)
FIFO1
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
FIFO2
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
FIFO3
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
UFOEN
---- 0000
---- uuuu
---- 0000
---- 0000
---- uuuu
---- 0000
---- 0000
UFC0
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
SBCRA
0110 0000
0110 0000
0110 0000
0110 0000
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
SBDRA
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
ADRL
xxxx ----
xxxx ----
xxxx ----
xxxx ----
uuuu ----
xxxx ----
xxxx ----
ADRH
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
ADCR
0100 0000
0100 0000
0100 0000
0100 0000
uuuu uuuu
0100 0000
0100 0000
Register
ACSR
0--- --00
0--- --00
0--- --00
---- --00
u--- --uu
1--- --00
---- --00
SBCRB
0110 0000
0110 0000
0110 0000
0110 0000
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
SBDRB
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
MODE
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
SPI_REG
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
PWMBR0
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
PWM0DR
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
PWMBR1
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
PWM1DR
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
PWMCTL
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
Note:
²*² means ²warm reset², ²-² not implemented
²u² means ²unchanged², ²x² means ²unknown²
Rev. 1.30
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Oscillator
These devices provide two types of system oscillator circuits, an 6MHz or 12MHz crystal oscillator and a
32768Hz crystal oscillator, the choice of which is determined by software.
O S C 3
O S C 4
To use the 6MHz or 12MHz oscillator, a suitable crystal
is connected between OSC1 and OSC2. It is a default
option at IC power-on. The other oscillator circuit is designed for the real time clock. For this device, only a
32768Hz crystal oscillator can be used. The crystal
should be connected between OSC3 and OSC4. This
oscillator is designed for system clocks. The
Power-down mode stops the system oscillator to conserve power.
Crystal/Ceramic Oscillator
Watchdog Timer Oscillator
The WDT oscillator is a fully self-contained free running
on-chip RC oscillator with a typical period of 65ms at 5V
requiring no external components. When the device enters the Power Down Mode, the system clock will stop
running but the WDT oscillator continues to free-run and
to keep the watchdog active. However, to preserve
power in certain applications the WDT oscillator can be
disabled via a configuration option.
O S C 1
O S C 2
Operation Mode
Crystal Oscillator
The device supports two system clocks: a high frequency system clock (6MHz, 12MHz) or a low system
clock, 32768Hz. There is a single register that determines how to define which system mode is in operation.
The system clock is changed as shown in the following
procedure.
A crystal across OSC1 and OSC2 is needed to provide
the feedback and phase shift required for the oscillator.
No other external components are required. In stead of
a crystal, a resonator can also be connected between
OSC1 and OSC2 to get a frequency reference, but two
external capacitors in OSC1 and OSC2 may be required.
From high frequency to low frequency:
· Set MODS to ²1²
The devices can operate only with 6MHz or 12MHz system clocks. In order to ensure that the USB SIE functions properly, users should correctly configure the
SCLKSEL bit of the SCC Register. The default system
clock is 12MHz.
· Wait a delay time - 400ms if the 32K oscillator is off, no
delay if the if the 32K oscillator is on
· The MCU will switch to the low frequency 32768Hz
oscillator and turn-off the high frequency system clock
RTC Oscillator
From low frequency to high frequency:
When the device enter a Power-down condition, the internal clocks are normally switched off to stop
microcontroller activity and to conserve power. However, in many microcontroller applications it may be necessary to keep some internal functions operational,
such as timers, even when the microcontroller is in the
Power-down mode. To provide this feature, this device
incorporates an RTC oscillator, which will remain active
at all times, even when the microcontroller is in the
power down condition. This clock source has a fixed frequency of 32768Hz and requires a 32768Hz crystal to
be connected between pins OSC3 and OSC4.
· Set Hfreq_en to ²1² to turn-on the high frequency os-
cillator
· Wait a delay time to make sure that the high frequency
oscillator is stable - 5ms
· Set MODS to ²0²
· The MCU will switch to the high frequency oscillator
but the 32768Hz oscillator will continue to oscillate.
L o w S p e e d
O p e r a tio n
M O D E = 1
H fre q = 0
The RTC oscillator circuit enable/disable is controlled by
the F32K_dis bit in the MODE register. An additional bit
F32K_CTRL enables the RTC oscillator to be powered
up quickly.
H ig h S p e e d
O p e r a tio n
S e t H fre q to "1 "
D e la y fo r c lo c k to s ta b ilis e
C le a r M O D S to " 0 "
M O D E = 0
H fre q = 1
S e t M O D S to "1 "
D e la y is 3 2 K o s c illa to r O ff
H fr e q a u to c le a r e d to " 0 "
Mode Switching
Rev. 1.30
55
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Bit No.
Label
Function
0
MODS
High/Low frequency system clock select bit
0: High frequency system clock - 6MHz or 12MHz select - default
1: 32768Hz system clock select
1
Hfreq_en
1: Enable High frequency system clock, hardware will automatically clear this bit when
MODS switches from low to high
2
F32K_dis
1: Disable 32768Hz oscillator - default enable
0: Enable 32768Hz oscillator
3
2.2LVD
1: VDD < 2.2V
0: VDD > 2.2V
4
5
T1PSS0
T1PSS1
Timer/Event Counter 1 clock source select
00: RTC (default)
01: fSYS/4
10: WDT OSC
11: no source
6
T1S
Timer/Event Counter 1 clock source select
0: fSYS/4 (default)
1: Timer1 Prescaler output
F32K_ctrl
RTC oscillator quick start function
1: Quick start enabled
0: Quick start disabled - lower operating current
This bit will set by the hardware during power on, once the 32K oscillator is stable the bit can
be cleared by the application program to reduce power consumption.
7
MODE (40H) Register
Power Down Mode and Wake-up
· The WDT will be cleared and resume counting if the
Power Down Mode
WDT clock source is selected to come from the WDT
or RTC oscillator. The WDT will stop if its clock source
originates from the system clock.
All of the Holtek microcontrollers have the ability to enter
a Power Down Mode. When the device enters this mode,
the normal operating current, will be reduced to an extremely low standby current level. This occurs because
when the device enters the Power Down Mode, the system oscillator is stopped which reduces the power consumption to extremely low levels, however, as the device
maintains its present internal condition, it can be woken
up at a later stage and continue running, without requiring
a full reset. This feature is extremely important in application areas where the microcontroller must have its power
supply constantly maintained to keep the device in a
known condition but where the power supply capacity is
limited such as in battery applications.
· The I/O ports will maintain their present condition.
· In the status register, the Power Down flag, PDF, will
be set and the Watchdog time-out flag, TO, will be
cleared.
Standby Current Considerations
As the main reason for entering the Power Down Mode
is to keep the current consumption of the microcontroller
to as low a value as possible, perhaps only in the order
of several micro-amps, there are other considerations
which must also be taken into account by the circuit designer if the power consumption is to be minimised.
Entering the Power Down Mode
Special attention must be made to the I/O pins on the
device. All high-impedance input pins must be connected to either a fixed high or low level as any floating
input pins could create internal oscillations and result in
increased current consumption. Care must also be
taken with the loads, which are connected to I/O pins,
which are setup as outputs. These should be placed in a
condition in which minimum current is drawn or connected only to external circuits that do not draw current,
such as other CMOS inputs.
There is only one way for the device to enter the Power
Down Mode and that is to execute the ²HALT² instruction in the application program. When this instruction is
executed, the following will occur:
· The system oscillator will stop running and the appli-
cation program will stop at the ²HALT² instruction.
· If the RTC oscillator configuration option is enabled
then the RTC clock will keep running.
· The Data Memory contents and registers will maintain
their present condition.
Rev. 1.30
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
No matter what the source of the wake-up event is, once
a wake-up situation occurs, a time period equal to 1024
system clock periods will be required before normal system operation resumes. However, if the wake-up has
originated due to an interrupt, the actual interrupt subroutine execution will be delayed by an additional one or
more cycles. If the wake-up results in the execution of
the next instruction following the ²HALT² instruction, this
will be executed immediately after the 1024 system
clock period delay has ended.
If the configuration options have enabled the Watchdog
Timer internal oscillator then this will continue to run
when in the Power Down Mode and will thus consume
some power. For power sensitive applications it may be
therefore preferable to use the system clock source for
the Watchdog Timer. If any I/O pins are configured as
A/D analog inputs using the channel configuration bits in
the ADCR register, then the A/D converter will be turned
on and a certain amount of power will be consumed. It
may be therefore desirable before entering te Power
Down Mode to ensure that the A/D converter is powered
down by ensuring that any A/D input pins are setup as
normal logic inputs with pull-high resistors.
Low Voltage Detector - LVD
This Low Voltage Detect internal function provides a
means for the user to monitor when the power supply
voltage falls below a certain fixed level as specified in
the DC characteristics. The LVD is enabled using a configuration option. Bit 3 of the MODE register is used to
monitor the overall function of the LVD. Under normal
operation, and when the power supply voltage is above
the specified VLVD value in the DC characteristic section, the 2.2LVD bit will remain at a zero value. If the
power supply voltage should fall below this VLVD value
then the 2.2LVD bit will change to a high value indicating
a low voltage condition. Note that the LVDO bit is a
read-only bit. By polling the 2.2LVD bit in the MODE register, the application program can therefore determine
the presence of a low voltage condition.
Wake-up
After the system enters the Power Down Mode, it can be
woken up from one of various sources listed as follows:
· An external reset
· An external falling edge on any of the I/O pins
· A system interrupt
· A WDT overflow
If the system is woken up by an external reset, the device will experience a full system reset, however, if the
device is woken up by a WDT overflow, a Watchdog
Timer reset will be initiated. Although both of these
wake-up methods will initiate a reset operation, the actual source of the wake-up can be determined by examining the TO and PDF flags. The PDF flag is cleared by a
system power-up or executing the clear Watchdog
Timer instructions and is set when executing the ²HALT²
instruction. The TO flag is set if a WDT time-out occurs,
and causes a wake-up that only resets the Program
Counter and Stack Pointer, the other flags remain in
their original status.
It is important not to confuse the LVD with the LVR function. In the LVR function an automatic reset will be generated by the microcontroller, whereas in the LVD
function only the 2.2LVD bit will be affected with no influence on other microcontroller functions.
Watchdog Timer
Each pins on Port A or any nibble on the other ports can
be setup via an individual configuration option to permit
a negative transition on the pin to wake-up the system.
When a Port pins wake-up occurs, the program will resume execution at the instruction following the ²HALT²
instruction.
The Watchdog Timer is provided to prevent program
malfunctions or sequences from jumping to unknown locations, due to certain uncontrollable external events
such as electrical noise. It operates by providing a device reset when the WDT counter overflows. The WDT
clock is supplied by one of two sources selected by configuration option: its own self-contained dedicated internal WDT oscillator, or the instruction clock which is the
system clock divided by 4. Note that if the WDT configuration option has been disabled, then any instruction relating to its operation will result in no operation.
If the system is woken up by an interrupt, then two possible situations may occur. The first is where the related
interrupt is disabled or the interrupt is enabled but the
stack is full, in which case the program will resume execution at the instruction following the ²HALT² instruction.
In this situation, the interrupt which woke-up the device
will not be immediately serviced, but will rather be serviced later when the related interrupt is finally enabled or
when a stack level becomes free. The other situation is
where the related interrupt is enabled and the stack is
not full, in which case the regular interrupt response
takes place. If an interrupt request flag is set to ²1² before entering the Power Down Mode, the wake-up function of the related interrupt will be disabled.
Rev. 1.30
The internal WDT oscillator has an approximate period
of 32ms at a supply voltage of 5V. If selected, it is first divided by 256 via an 8-stage counter to give a nominal
period of 8ms. Note that this period can vary with VDD,
temperature and process variations. For longer WDT
time-out periods the WDT prescaler can be utilized. By
writing the required value to bits 0, 1 and 2 of the WDTS
register, known as WS0, WS1 and WS2, longer time-out
periods can be achieved. With WS0, WS1 and WS2 all
57
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
b 7
W S 2
W S 1
b 0
W S 0
W D T S R e g is te r
W D T p r e s c a le r r a te s e le c t
W S 2
W S 1
W S 0
W D T
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
:1
R a te
:2
:4
:8
:1 6
:3 2
:6 4
:1 2 8
N o t u s e d
Watchdog Timer Register
C L R W D T 1 F la g
C L R W D T 2 F la g
C le a r W D T T y p e
C o n fig u r a tio n O p tio n
1 o r 2 In s tr u c tio n s
fS
Y S
/4
W D T O s c illa to r
C L R
W D T C lo c k S o u r c e
C o n fig u r a tio n O p tio n
8 - b it C o u n te r
(¸ 2 5 6 )
W D T C lo c k S o u r c e
C L R
7 - b it P r e s c a le r
8 -to -1 M U X
W S 0 ~ W S 2
W D T T im e - o u t
Watchdog Timer
WDT1² and ²CLR WDT2² must both be executed to
successfully clear the WDT. Note that for this second
option, if ²CLR WDT1² is used to clear the WDT, successive executions of this instruction will have no effect,
only the execution of a ²CLR WDT2² instruction will
clear the WDT. Similarly, after the ²CLR WDT2² instruction has been executed, only a successive ²CLR WDT1²
instruction can clear the Watchdog Timer.
equal to ²1², the division ratio is 1:128 which gives a
maximum time-out period of about 1.0s.
A configuration option can select the instruction clock,
which is the system clock divided by 4, as the WDT clock
source instead of the internal WDT oscillator. If the instruction clock is used as the clock source, it must be
noted that when the system enters the Power Down
Mode, as the system clock is stopped, then the WDT
clock source will also be stopped. Therefore the WDT
will lose its protecting purposes. In such cases the system cannot be restarted by the WDT and can only be restarted using external signals. For systems that operate
in noisy environments, using the internal WDT oscillator
is therefore the recommended choice.
Pulse Width Modulator
The device is provided with two Pulse Width Modulator,
PWM, outputs. The internal PWM function within the device is useful for applications which require functions
such as motor control, heating control, illumination control etc. By providing a signal of fixed frequency but of
varying duty cycle on the PWM output pins, a square
wave AC waveform can be generated with varying
equivalent DC RMS values. As both the period and duty
cycle of the PWM waveform can be controlled the
choice of generated waveform is extremely flexible.
Under normal program operation, a WDT time-out will
initialise a device reset and set the status bit TO. However, if the system is in the Power Down Mode, when a
WDT time-out occurs, only the Program Counter and
Stack Pointer will be reset. Three methods can be
adopted to clear the contents of the WDT and the WDT
prescaler. The first is an external hardware reset, which
means a low level on the RES pin, the second is using
the watchdog software instructions and the third is via a
²HALT² instruction.
PWM Registers
There are a total of five registers to control the PWM
function. Each PWM output has a pair of registers, one
to control the waveform period, and another to control
the duty cycle. The period control registers are known
as PWMBR0 and PWMBR1 while the duty cycle registers have the name PWM0DR and PWM1DR. An addition register, the PWMCTL register, is the control
register for both outputs and contains the output enable/disable bits and also select the PWM clock source
to be either fSYS or fSYS/4.
There are two methods of using software instructions to
clear the Watchdog Timer, one of which must be chosen
by configuration option. The first option is to use the single ²CLR WDT² instruction while the second is to use
the two commands ²CLR WDT1² and ²CLR WDT2². For
the first option, a simple execution of ²CLR WDT² will
clear the WDT while for the second option, both ²CLR
Rev. 1.30
58
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
b 7
U S B d is P W M 1 _ e n P W M 0 _ e n P W M 1 _ S
b 0
P W M 0 _ S
P W M C T L R e g is te r
P W M 0 c lo c k s o u r c e
1 : fS Y S /4 ( d e fa u lt)
0 : fS Y S
P W M 1 c lo c k s o u r c e
1 : fS Y S /4 ( d e fa u lt)
0 : fS Y S
P W M e n a b le /d is a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le ( d e fa u lt)
D e s c r ib e d e ls e w h e r e
1 : U S B S IE d is a b le
0 : U S B S IE e n a b le ( d e fa u lt)
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
Pulse Width Modulator Control Register
P W M
P W M
H ig h P u ls e
need for external components is reduced significantly
with the corresponding follow-on benefits of lower costs
and reduced component space requirements.
C y c le P e r io d
A/D Overview
PWM Operation
The device contains a multi-channel channel analog to
digital converter which can directly interface to external
analog signals, such as that from sensors or other control signals and convert these signals directly into an
12-bit digital value. The number of available channels
depends upon which package type is chosen.
The clock source for the PWM output is selected to be
either fSYS or fSYS/4 using bits in the PWMCTL register.
The period of the PWM waveform for each PWM output
is setup by programming the required value into the
PWMBR0 or PWMBR1 register using the following formula:
Package Channels Resolution
PWM waveform period = 256´(1/fSYS)´(PWMBRn+1),
or 256 ´ (4/fSYS) ´ (PWMBRn+1) depending upon which
clock source is selected.
For example if the system frequency is 6MHz, if fSYS/4 is
selected as the PWM source clock and a decimal value
of 17 is in the PWMBRn register, then the PWM waveform will have a period of {256´(4/(6´10-6)´18}= 3072ms
which is equivalent to a frequency of 0.325kHz.
Input Pins
28-pin
7
12-bit
PB4~PB7
PC5~PC7
32-pin
8
12-bit
PB0~PB7
44-pin
16
12-bit
PB0~PB7
PC0~PC7
The A/D block diagram shows the overall internal structure of the A/D converter, together with its associated
registers.
The duty cycle for each PWM output can be by configured using the PWM0DR and PWM1DR registers. The
value in these registers represents the ratio of the high
to low pulse in each waveform period. Therefore the ratio of the high pulse to the low pulse, which is in fact just
the duty cycle, is given by (PWMnDR+1)/256.
A/D Converter Data Registers - ADRL, ADRH
The devices, which contain a single12-bit A/D converter,
require two data registers, known as ADRL and ADRH .
After the conversion process takes place, these registers can be directly read by the microcontroller to obtain
the digitised conversion value.
The PWM output can now be controlled using the enable/disable bits in the CTRL register. As the PWM outputs are pin shared with normal I/O pins they must first
be setup as outputs for correct operation. When the
PWM output is disabled using the enable/disable bit in
the CTRL register it can still be used as a normal I/O pin.
In the following tables, D0~D7 are the A/D conversion
data result bits.
Register
Bit
7
Bit
6
Bit
5
Bit
4
Bit
3
Bit
2
Bit
1
Bit
0
Analog to Digital Converter
ADRL
D3
D2
D1
D0
¾
¾
¾
¾
The need to interface to real world analog signals is a
common requirement for many electronic systems.
However, to properly process these signals by a
microcontroller, they must first be converted into digital
signals by A/D converters. By integrating the A/D conversion electronic circuitry into the microcontroller, the
ADRH
D11 D10 D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
Rev. 1.30
Note: D11~D0 is the A/D conversion result data bit
MSB~LSB.
A/D Data Register
59
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
A D C
fS
fS
Y S
Y S
S o u rc e
/3 , fS Y S /6 ,
/8 , fS Y S /1 6
C lo c k D iv id e
R a tio
A C S R R e g is te r
¸ N
V
P B 0 /A N 0 ~
P B 7 /A N 7
R E F
A /D r e fe r e n c e v o lta g e
A D C
P C 0 /A N 8 ~
P C 7 /A N 1 5
P C R 0 ~ P C R 3
P in C o n fig u r a tio n
B its
A D C S 0 ~ A D C S 3
C h a n n e l S e le c t
B its
S T A R T
E O C B
A D R
A /D D a ta
R e g is te r s
A D C R
R e g is te r
S ta r t B it E n d o f
C o n v e r s io n B it
A/D Converter Structure
b 7
S T A R T E O C B
A C S 3
A C S 2
A C S 1
b 0
A C S 0
A D C R
R e g is te r
S e le c t A /D
A C S 3
A
0
0
0
0
:
:
1
c h a n n e l
C S 2
A C S 1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
:
:
:
:
1
1
A C S 0
0
1
0
1
:
:
1
: A N
: A N
: A N
: A N
:
:
: A N
0
1
2
3
1 5
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
E n d o f A /D c o n v e r s io n fla g
1 : n o t e n d o f A /D c o n v e r s io n - A /D c o n v e r s io n w a itin g o r in p r o g r e s s
0 : e n d o f A /D c o n v e r s io n - A /D c o n v e r s io n e n d e d
S ta r t th e A /D c o n v e r s io n
0 ® 1 ® 0 : S ta rt
0 ® 1 : R e s e t A /D c o n v e rte r a n d s e t E O C B to "1 "
A/D Converter Control Register
A/D Converter Control Register - ADCR
digital conversion cycle will be initiated. When the
START bit is brought from low to high but not low again,
the EOCB bit in the ADCR register will be set to a ²1²
and the analog to digital converter will be reset. It is the
START bit that is used to control the overall on/off operation of the internal analog to digital converter.
To control the function and operation of the A/D converter, control registers known as ADCR and ADSR are
provided. These 8-bit registers define functions such as
the selection of which analog channel is connected to
the internal A/D converter, which pins are used as analog inputs and which are used as normal I/Os as well as
controlling the start function and monitoring the A/D converter end of conversion status.
The EOCB bit in the ADCR register is used to indicate
when the analog to digital conversion process is complete. This bit will be automatically set to ²0² by the
microcontroller after a conversion cycle has ended. In
addition, the corresponding A/D interrupt request flag
will be set in the interrupt control register, and if the interrupts are enabled, an appropriate internal interrupt signal will be generated. This A/D internal interrupt signal
will direct the program flow to the associated A/D internal interrupt address for processing. If the A/D internal
interrupt is disabled, the microcontroller can be used to
poll the EOCB bit in the ADCR register to check whether
it has been cleared as an alternative method of detecting the end of an A/D conversion cycle.
One section of this register contains the bits
ACS3~ACS0 which define the channel number. As each
of the devices contains only one actual analog to digital
converter circuit, each of the individual analog inputs
must be routed to the converter. It is the function of the
ACS3~ACS0 bits in the ADCR register to determine
which analog channel is actually connected to the internal A/D converter.
The START bit in the ADCR register is used to start and
reset the A/D converter. When the microcontroller sets
this bit from low to high and then low again, an analog to
Rev. 1.30
60
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
b 7
T E S T
P C R 3
P C R 2
P C R 1
P C R 0
A D O N
b 0
A D C S 1 A D C S 0
A C S R R e g is te r
S e le c t A /D c o n v e r te r
A D C S 0
A D C S 1
:
0
0
:
1
0
:
0
1
:
1
1
0 : d is a b le ( d e fa u lt)
1 : e n a b le
P B a n d P C A /D
P C R 2
P C R 3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
c lo c k s o u r c e
s y s
s y s
s y s
s y s
te m
te m
te m
te m
c h a n n e l c o n
P
P C R 1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
F o r te s t m o d e u s e o n ly
c lo
c lo
c lo
c lo
c k /3
c k /6
c k /8
c k /1 6
fig u r a tio n
C R 0
0
:
1
:
0
:
:
1
0
:
:
1
0
:
1
:
0
:
1
:
0
:
1
:
0
:
1
:
0
:
1
:
P B a n
P B 0 a
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
P B 0 ~
d P
s A
P B 1
P B 2
P B 3
P B 4
P B 5
P B 6
P B 7
P B 7
P B 7
P B 7
P B 7
P B 7
P B 7
P B 7
C A
N 0
a s
a s
a s
a s
a s
a s
a s
, P
, P
, P
, P
, P
, P
, P
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
/D c h a n n e l - a ll o ff
A N 0 ~
A N 0 ~
A N 0 ~
A N 0 ~
A N 0 ~
A N 0 ~
A N 0 ~
0 a s
0 ~ P C
0 ~ P C
0 ~ P C
0 ~ P C
0 ~ P C
0 ~ P C
A N 1
A N 2
A N 3
A N 4
A N 5
A N 6
A N 7
A N 0
1 a
2 a
3 a
4 a
5 a
7 a
~ A N
s A N
s A N
s A N
s A N
s A N
s A N
8
0 ~ A
0 ~ A
0 ~ A
0 ~ A
0 ~ A
0 ~ A
N 9
N 1 0
N 1 1
N 1 2
N 1 3
N 1 5
A/D Converter Clock Source Register
A/D Converter Clock Source Register - ACSR
A/D Input Pins
The clock source for the A/D converter, which originates
from the system clock fSYS, is first divided by a division
ratio, the value of which is determined by the ADCS1
and ADCS0 bits in the ACSR register.
All of the A/D analog input pins are pin-shared with the
I/O pins on Port B and Port C. Bits PCR3~PCR0 in the
ACSR register, not configuration options, determine
whether the input pins are setup as normal Port B and
Port C input/output pins or whether they are setup as analog inputs. In this way, pins can be changed under program control to change their function from normal I/O
operation to analog inputs and vice versa. Pull-high resistors, which are setup through configuration options, apply
to the input pins only when they are used as normal I/O
pins, if setup as A/D inputs the pull-high resistors will be
automatically disconnected. Note that it is not necessary
to first setup the A/D pin as an input in the PBC or PCC
port control register to enable the A/D input as when the
PCR3~PCR0 bits enable an A/D input, the status of the
port control register will be overridden.
The ACSR control register also contains the
PCR3~PCR0 bits which determine which pins on Port B
and Port C are used as analog inputs for the A/D converter and which pins are to be used as normal I/O pins.
If the 4-bit address on PCR3~PCR0 has a value of
²1111² or higher, then all 16 pins, namely AN0~ AN15 will
all be set as analog inputs. Note that if the PCR3~PCR0
bits are all set to zero, then all the Port B and Port C pins
will be setup as normal I/Os and the internal A/D converter circuitry will be powered off to reduce the power
consumption.
Although the A/D clock source is determined by the system clock fSYS, and by bits ADCS1 and ADCS0, there are
some limitations on the maximum A/D clock source speed
that can be selected. As the minimum value of permissible
A/D clock period, tAD, is 0.5ms, care must be taken for system clock speeds in excess of 4MHz. For system clock
speeds in excess of 4MHz, the ADCS1 and ADCS0 bits
should not be set to ²00². Doing so will give A/D clock periods that are less than the minimum A/D clock period which
may result in inaccurate A/D conversion values. Refer to
the following table for examples, where values marked
with an asterisk * show where, depending upon the device, special care must be taken, as the values may be
less than the specified minimum A/D Clock Period.
Rev. 1.30
Initialising the A/D Converter
The internal A/D converter must be initialised in a special way. Each time the Port B and Port C A/D channel
selection bits are modified by the program, the A/D converter must be re-initialised. If the A/D converter is not
initialised after the channel selection bits are changed,
the EOCB flag may have an undefined value, which may
produce a false end of conversion signal. To initialise the
A/D converter after the channel selection bits have
changed, then, within a time frame of one to ten instruction cycles, the START bit in the ADCR register must
first be set high and then immediately cleared to zero.
This will ensure that the EOCB flag is correctly set to a
high condition.
61
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
S T A R T b it s e t h ig h w ith in o n e to te n in s tr u c tio n c y c le s a fte r th e P C R 0 ~ P C R 2 b its c h a n g e s ta te
S T A R T
A /D
E O C B
P C R 3 ~
P C R 0
A C S 3 ~
A C S 0
s a m p lin g tim e
3 2 tA
A /D
0 0 0 B
0 0 0 B
0 0 0 B
0 0 1 B
S ta rt o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
S ta rt o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
R e s e t A /D
c o n v e rte r
E n d o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
tA
D C
A /D c o n v e r s io n tim e
Y S
D
1 0 0 B
0 1 0 B
1 : D e fin e P B , P C c o n fig u r a tio n
2 : S e le c t a n a lo g c h a n n e l
c lo c k m u s t b e fS
s a m p lin g tim e
3 2 tA
S ta rt o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
R e s e t A /D
c o n v e rte r
A /D
A /D
D
0 1 1 B
P o w e r-o n
R e s e t
N o te :
s a m p lin g tim e
3 2 tA
D
/3 , fS
Y S
/6 , fS
Y S
/8 , fS
Y S
0 0 0 B
1 . P o rt B a n d P o rt C s e tu p a s I/O s
2 . A /D c o n v e r te r is p o w e r e d o ff
to r e d u c e p o w e r c o n s u m p tio n
D o n 't c a r e
R e s e t A /D
c o n v e rte r
E n d o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
A /D
tA
D C
c o n v e r s io n tim e
E n d o f A /D
c o n v e r s io n
A /D
tA
D C
c o n v e r s io n tim e
/1 6
A/D Conversion Timing
Summary of A/D Conversion Steps
Note:
The following summarises the individual steps that
should be executed in order to implement an A/D conversion process.
· Step 1
The A/D conversion timing diagram shows graphically
the various stages involved in an analog to digital conversion process and its associated timing.
Select the required A/D conversion clock by correctly
programming bits ADCS1 and ADCS0 in the ACSR
register.
The setting up and operation of the A/D converter function is fully under the control of the application program
as there are no configuration options associated with
the A/D converter. After an A/D conversion process has
been initiated by the application program, the
microcontroller internal hardware will begin to carry out
the conversion, during which time the program can continue with other functions. The time taken for the A/D
conversion is 76tAD where tAD is equal to the A/D clock
period.
· Step 2
Select which channel is to be connected to the internal
A/D converter by correctly programming the ACS3~
ACS0 bits which are also contained in the ADCR register.
· Step 3
Select which pins on Port B and Port C are to be used
as A/D inputs and configure them as A/D input pins by
correctly programming the PCR3~PCR0 bits in the
ACSR register.
· Step 4
If the interrupts are to be used, the interrupt control
registers must be correctly configured to ensure the
A/D converter interrupt function is active. The master
interrupt control bit, EMI, in the INTC interrupt control
register must be set to ²1² and the A/D converter interrupt bit, EADI, in the INTC register must also be set to
²1².
Programming Considerations
When programming, special attention must be given to
the A/D channel selection bits in the ADSR register. If
these bits are all cleared to zero no external pins will be
selected for use as A/D input pins allowing the pins to be
used as normal I/O pins. When this happens the power
supplied to the internal A/D circuitry will be reduced resulting in a reduction of supply current. This ability to reduce power by turning off the internal A/D function by
clearing the A/D channel selection bits may be an important consideration in battery powered applications.
· Step 5
The analog to digital conversion process can now be
initialised by setting the START bit in the ADCR register from ²0² to ²1² and then to ²0² again. Note that this
bit should have been originally set to ²0².
· Step 6
Another important programming consideration is that
when the A/D channel selection bits change value, the
A/D converter must be re-initialised. This is achieved by
pulsing the START bit in the ADCR register immediately
after the channel selection bits have changed state. The
exception to this is where the channel selection bits are
all cleared, in which case the A/D converter is not required to be re-initialised.
To check when the analog to digital conversion process is complete, the EOCB bit in the ADCR register
can be polled. The conversion process is complete
when this bit goes low. When this occurs the A/D data
registers ADR can be read to obtain the conversion
value. As an alternative method if the interrupts are
enabled and the stack is not full, the program can wait
for an A/D interrupt to occur.
Rev. 1.30
When checking for the end of the conversion
process, if the method of polling the EOCB bit in
the ADCR register is used, the interrupt enable
step above can be omitted.
62
January 14, 2011
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A/D Programming Example
The following two programming examples illustrate how to setup and implement an A/D conversion. In the first example, the method of polling the EOCB bit in the ADCR register is used to detect when the conversion cycle is complete,
whereas in the second example, the A/D interrupt is used to determine when the conversion is complete.
Example: using an EOCB polling method to detect the end of conversion
clr EADI
; disable ADC interrupt
mov a,00011001
mov acsr,a
; setup the ACSR register to select fsys/6 as the A/D clock
; setup the ACSR register to configure Port PB0~PB2 as A/D
; Inputs
mov a,00000000
mov adcr,a
; setup the ADCR register and select AN0 to be connected to
; the A/D converter
; As the Port B and Port C channel bits have changed the
; following START signal (0®1®0) must be issued within
; 10 instruction cycles
:
Start_conversion:
clr START
set START
; reset A/D
clr START
; start A/D
Polling_:
sz
EOCB
; poll the ADCR register EOCB bit to detect end
; of A/D conversion
jmp polling_EOC
; continue polling
mov a,ADR
; read conversion result value
mov adrl_buffer,a
; save result to user defined register
:
jmp start_conversion
; start next A/D conversion
Example: using the interrupt method to detect the end of conversion
clr EADI
; disable ADC interrupt
mov a,00011001B
mov ACSR,a
; setup the ACSR register to select fSYS/6 as the A/D clock
mov
a,00000000B
mov
ADCR,a
:
; setup ADCR register to configure Port PB0~PB2
; as A/D inputs
; and select AN0 to be connected to the A/D
; As the Port B channel bits have changed the
; following START signal(0®1®0) must be issued
; within 10 instruction cycles
:
Start_conversion:
clr START
set START
clr START
clr ADF
set EADI
set EMI
:
:
:
; ADC interrupt service routine
ADC_:
mov acc_stack,a
a,STATUS
mov status_stack,a
:
:
mov a,ADR
mov adrl_buffer,a
:
:
EXIT_INT_ISR:
mov a,status_stack
mov STATUS,a
mov a,acc_stack
Rev. 1.30
;
;
;
;
;
reset A/D
start A/D
clear ADC interrupt request flag
enable ADC interrupt
enable global interrupt
; save ACC to user defined memory
; save STATUS to user defined memory
; read conversion result value
; save result to user defined register
; restore STATUS from user defined memory
; restore ACC from user defined memory
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
1 .5 L S B
F F F H
F F E H
F F D H
A /D C o n v e r s io n
R e s u lt
0 .5 L S B
0 3 H
0 2 H
0 1 H
0
1
2
3
4 0 9 3 4 0 9 4
A n a lo g In p u t V o lta g e
4 0 9 5 4 0 9 6
(
V D D
)
4 0 9 6
Ideal A/D Transfer Function
A/D Transfer Function
SPI Registers
As the device contain a 12-bit A/D converter, its
full-scale converted digitised value is equal to FFFH.
Since the full-scale analog input value is equal to the
VDD voltage, this gives a single bit analog input value of
VDD/4096. The diagram show the ideal transfer function
between the analog input value and the digitised output
value for the A/D converter.
There are two registers for control of the SPI Interface.
These are the SBCRA/B register which is the control
register and the SBDRA/B which is the data register.
The SBCRA/B register is used to setup the required
setup parameters for the SPI bus and also used to store
associated operating flags, while the SBDRA/B register
is used for data storage.
Note that to reduce the quantisation error, a 2.5 LSB offset is added to the A/D Converter input. Except for the
digitised zero value, the subsequent digitised values will
change at a point 2.5 LSB below where they would
change without the offset, and the last full scale digitised
value will change at a point 2.5 LSB below the VDD level.
After Power on, the contents of the SBDRA/B register
will be in an unknown condition while the SBCRA/B register will default to the condition below:
CKSn M1n M0n SBENn MLSn CSENn WCOLn TRFn
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Note: ²n² where n=A~B
SPI Serial Interface
Note that data written to the SBDRA/B register will only be
written to the TXRX buffer, whereas data read from the
SBDRA/B register will actual be read from the register.
The device includes two SPI Serial Interfaces. The SPI
interface is a full duplex serial data link, originally designed by Motorola, which allows multiple devices connected to the same SPI bus to communicate with each
other. The devices communicate using a master/slave
technique where only the single master device can initiate a data transfer. A simple four line signal bus is used
for all communication.
SPI Bus Enable/Disable
To enable the SPI bus, the SBENA/B bit should be set
high, then the SCLKA/B, SDIA/B, SDOA/B and SCSA/B
lines should all be zero, then wait for data to be written to
the SBDRA/B (TXRX buffer) register. For the Master
Mode, after data has been written to the SBDRA/B
(TXRX buffer) register then transmission or reception
will start automatically. When all the data has been
transferred, the TRFA/B bit should be set. For the Slave
Mode, when clock pulses are received on SCLKA/B,
data in the TXRX buffer will be shifted out or data on
SDIA/B will be shifted in.
SPI Interface Communication
Four lines are used for each SPI function. These are,
SDIA/B - Serial Data Input, SDOA/B - Serial Data Output, SCLKA/B - Serial Clock and SCSA/B - Slave Select.
Note that the condition of the Slave Select line is conditioned by the CSENA/B bit in the SBCRA/B control register. If the CSENA/B bit is high then the SCSA/B line is
active while if the bit is low then the SCSA/B line will be
in a floating condition. The accompanying timing diagram depicts the basic timing protocol of the SPI bus.
Rev. 1.30
1
To Disable the SPI bus SCLKA/B, SDIA/B, SDOA/B,
SCSA/B should be floating.
64
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
SPI Operation
In the Master Mode, the Master will always generate the
clock signal. The clock and data transmission will be initiated after data has been written to the SBDRA/B register. In the Slave Mode, the clock signal will be received
from an external master device for both data transmission or reception. The following sequences show the order to be followed for data transfer in both Master and
Slave Mode:
All communication is carried out using the 4-line interface for both Master or Slave Mode. The timing diagram
shows the basic operation of the bus.
The CSENA/B bit in the SBCRA/B register controls the
overall function of the SPI interface. Setting this bit high,
will enable the SPI interface by allowing the SCSA/B line
to be active, which can then be used to control the SPI interface. If the CSENA/B bit is low, the SPI interface will be
disabled and the SCSA/B line will be in a floating condition and can therefore not be used for control of the SPI
interface. The SBENA/B bit in the SBCRA/B register
must also be high which will place the SDIA/B line in a
floating condition and the SDOA/B line high. If in the Master Mode the SCLKA/B line will be either high or low depending upon the clock polarity configuration option. If in
the Slave Mode the SCLKA/B line will be in a floating condition. If SBENA/B is low then the bus will be disabled and
SCSA/B, SDIA/B, SDOA/B and SCLKA/B will all be in a
floating condition.
· Master Mode
Step 1. Select the clock source using the CKSA/B
bit in the SBCRA/B control register
Step 2. Setup the M0A/B and M1A/B bits in the
SBCRA/B control register to select the
Master Mode and the required Baud rate.
Values of 00, 01 or 10 can be selected.
Step 3. Setup the CSENA/B bit and setup the
MLSA/B bit to choose if the data is MSB
or LSB first, this must be same as the Slave
device.
Step 4. Setup the SBENA/B bit in the SBCRA/B
control register to enable the SPI interface.
D a ta B u s
S B D R
( R e c e iv e d D a ta R e g is te r )
D 7 D 6 D 5 D 4 D 3 D 2 D 1 D 0
M
X
M L S
In te r n a l B a u d R a te C lo c k
S C K A /B
E N
C lo c k P o la r ity
a n d , s ta rt
a n d , s ta rt
S D O
U
S D O A /B
S B E N A /B
M
U
X
M
B u ffe r
S D IA /B
U
X
M a s te r o r S la v e
S B E N A /B
a n d , s ta rt
E N
T R F A /B
C 0 C 1 C 2
In te r n a l B u s y F la g
S B E N A /B
A N D
W C O L A /B F la g
W r ite S B D R A /B
W r ite S B D R A /B E n a b le /D is a b le
W r ite S B D R A /B
S C S A /B
M a s te r o r S la v e
S B E N A /B
C S E N A /B
SPI Block Diagram
Note:
WCOLA/B: set by SPI cleared by users
CSENA/B: enable/disable chip selection function pin
master mode: 1/0 = with/without SCSA/B output function
Slave mode: 1/0 = with/without SCSA/B input control function
SBENA/B: enable/disable serial bus (0: initialise all status flags)
when SBENA/B=0, all status flags should be initialised
when SBENA/B=1, all SPI related function pins should stay at floating state
TRFA/B: 1 = data transmitted or received, 0= data is transmitting or still not received
CPOL: I/O = clock polarity rising/falling edge : mask option
If clock polarity set to rising edge (SPIA_CPOL/SPIB_CPOL=1), serial clock timing follow CLK, otherwise
(SPIA_CPOL/SPIB_CPOL=0) CLK is the serial clock timing.
Rev. 1.30
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
For read operations: the data transferred in
on the SDIA/B line will be stored in the
TXRX buffer until all the data has been
received at which point it will be latched into
the SBDRA/B register.
Step 6. Check the WCOLA/B bit, if set high
then a collision error has occurred so return to
step5. If equal to zero then goto the following
step.
Step 7. Check the TRFA/B bit or wait for an SPI
serial bus interrupt.
Step 8. Read data from the SBDRA/B register.
Step 9. Clear TRFA/B
Step10. step 5
Step 5. For write operations: write the data to the
SBDRA/B register, which will actually place
the data into the TXRX buffer. Then use
the SCLKA/B and SCSA/B lines to output
the data.
Goto to step 6.For read operations: the data
transferred in on the SDIA/B line will be
stored in the TXRX buffer until all the data has
been received at which point it will be latched
into the SBDRA/B register.
Step 6. Check the WCOLA/B bit, if set high then a
collision error has occurred so return to step5.
If equal to zero then go to the following step.
Step 7. Check the TRFA/B bit or wait for an SPI
serial bus interrupt.
Step 8. Read data from the SBDRA/B register.
Step 9. Clear TRFA/B.
Step10. Goto step 5.
SPI Configuration Options and Status Control
One option is to enable the operation of the WCOLA/B,
write collision bit, in the SBCRA/B register. Some control
in SPIR register. The SPIA_CPOL/ SPIB_CPOL select
the clock polarity of the SCK line. The SPIA_MODE/
SPIB_MODE select SPI data output mode.
· Slave Mode:
Step 1. The CKSA/B bit has a don¢t care value in
the slave mode.
Step 2. Setup the M0A/B and M1A/B bits to 00
to select the Slave Mode. The CKSA/B bit
is don¢t care.
Step 3. Setup the CSENA/B bit and setup the
MLSA/B bit to choose if the data is MSB
or LSB first, this must be same as the Master
device.
Step 4. Setup the SBENA/B bit in the SBCRA/B
control register to enable the SPI interface.
Step 5. For write operations: write data to the
SBCRA/B register, which will actually
place the data into the TXRX register, then
wait for the master clock and SCSA/B
signal. After this goto step 6.
SPI include four pins , can share I/O mode status . The
status control combine with four bits for SPI and
SBCRA/B register. Include SPIA_CSEN/SPIB_CSEN,
SPIA_IO/SPIB_IO for SPI register and CSENA/B,
SBENA/B for SBCRA/B register.
Control Bit for Register
SPIn_IO
Note:
SPIn_CSEN
SPI Share Function Pins Status
SBENn
CSENn
SCSn
SCKn
SDOn
SDIn
0
x
x
x
I/O Mode
I/O Mode
I/O Mode
I/O Mode
1
0
0
x
I/O Mode
I/O Mode
I/O Mode
I/O Mode
1
0
1
x
I/O Mode
SPI Mode
SPI Mode
SPI Mode(Z)
1
1
0
x
I/O Mode
I/O Mode
I/O Mode
I/O Mode
1
1
1
0
SPI Mode (Z)
SPI Mode
SPI Mode
SPI Mode(Z)
1
1
1
1
SPI Mode
SPI Mode
SPI Mode
SPI Mode(Z)
²n² where n=A~B
X: don¢t care
(Z) floating
Rev. 1.30
66
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
S P I_ m o d e = 0
S B E N A /B = 1 , C S E N A /B = 0 a n d w r ite d a ta to S B D R A /B ( if p u ll- h ig h e d )
P A 0 /S C S A , P B 0 /S C S B
(S P IA _ C S E N /S P IB _ C S E N = 1 )
S B E N A /B = C S E N A /B = 1 a n d w r ite d a ta to S B D R A /B
P A 1 /S C L K A , P B 1 /S C L K B
(S P IA _ C P O L /S P IB _ C P O L = 1 )
P A 1 /S C L K A , P B 1 /S C L K B
(S P IA _ C P O L /S P IB _ C P O L = 0 )
P A 2 /S D IA , P B 2 /S D IB
D 7 /D 0
D 6 /D 1
D 5 /D 2
D 4 /D 3
D 3 /D 4
D 2 /D 5
D 1 /D 6
D 0 /D 7
P A 3 /S D O A , P B 3 /S D O B
D 7 /D 0
D 6 /D 1
D 5 /D 2
D 4 /D 3
D 3 /D 4
D 2 /D 5
D 1 /D 6
D 0 /D 7
S P I_ m o d e = 1
S B E N A /B = 1 , C S E N A /B = 0 a n d w r ite d a ta to S B D R A /B ( if p u ll- h ig h e d )
P A 0 /S C S A , P B 0 /S C S B
(S P IA _ C S E N /S P IB _ C S E N = 1 )
S B E N A /B = C S E N A /B = 1 a n d w r ite d a ta to S B D R A /B
P A 1 /S C L K A , P B 1 /S C L K B
(S P IA _ C P O L /S P IB _ C P O L = 1 )
P A 1 /S C L K A , P B 1 /S C L K B
(S P IA _ C P O L /S P IB _ C P O L = 0 )
P A 2 /S D IA , P B 2 /S D IB
D 7 /D 0
D 6 /D 1
D 5 /D 2
D 4 /D 3
D 3 /D 4
D 2 /D 5
D 1 /D 6
D 0 /D 7
P A 3 /S D O A , P B 3 /S D O B
D 7 /D 0
D 6 /D 1
D 5 /D 2
D 4 /D 3
D 3 /D 4
D 2 /D 5
D 1 /D 6
D 0 /D 7
D 7
D 6
D 5
D 4
D 3
D 2
D 1
D 0
S B C R n : S e r ia l B u s
S B C R n
C K S n
M 1 n
M 0 n
S B E N n
M L S n
C S E N n
W C O L n
T R F n
D e fa u lt
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
S B D R n
D 7
D 6
D 5
D 4
D 3
D 2
D 1
D 0
S B D R n : S s e r ia l B u s
D e fa u lt
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
D A T A R e g is te r
C o n tr o l R e g is te r
N o te : "n " w h e re n = A ~ B
"U " m e a n s u n c h a n g e d .
SPI Bus Timing
Rev. 1.30
67
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Error Detection
takes place during a data transfer operation and will prevent the write operation from continuing. The bit will be
set high by the Serial Interface but has to be cleared by
the user application program. The overall function of the
WCOLA/B bit can be disabled or enabled by a configuration option.
The WCOLA/B bit in the SBCRA/B register is provided
to indicate errors during data transfer. The bit is set by
the Serial Interface but must be cleared by the application program. This bit indicates a data collision has occurred which happens if a write to the SBDRA/B register
b 7
C K S
M 1
M 0
S B E N
M L S
b 0
C S E N W C O L T R F
S B C R A /S B C R B
R e g is te r
T r a n s m itt/R e c e iv e fla g
0 : N o t c o m p le te
1 : T r a n s m is s io n /r e c e p tio n c o m p le te
W r ite c o llis io n b it
0 : C o llis io n fr e e
1 : C o llis io n d e te c te d
S e le c tio n s ig n a l e n a b le /d is a b le b it
0 : S C S A /S C S B flo a tin g
1 : E n a b le
M S B /L S B fir s t b it
0 : L S B s h ift fir s t
1 : M S B s h ift fir s t
S e r ia l B
0 : D is a b
1 : E n a b
D e p e
u s e n a b le /d is a b le b it
le
le
n d e n t u p o n C S E N A /C S E N B b it
M a s te r /S la
M 1
M 0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
v e /B a u d r a te b its
M a s
M a s
M a s
S la v
te r,
te r,
te r,
e m
b a u d ra te : fS
b a u d ra te : fS
b a u d ra te : fS
o d e
IO
IO
IO
/4
/1 6
C lo c k s o u r c e s e le c t b it
0 : f S IO = f S Y S / 4
1 : f S IO = f S Y S
SPI Interface Control Register
Rev. 1.30
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Programming Considerations
When the device is placed into the Power Down Mode note that data reception and transmission will continue. The
TRFA/B bit is used to generate an interrupt when the data has been transferred or received.
SPI Transfer Control Flowchart
A
S P I T ra n s fe r
M a s te r
M a s te r o r
S la v e
S IM [2 :0 ]= 0 0 0 ,
0 0 1 ,0 1 0 ,0 1 1 o r 1 0 0
W r ite D a ta in to
S B D R A /B
C le a r W C O L A /B
S la v e
Y e s
W C O L A /B = 1 ?
S IM [2 :0 ]= 1 0 1
N o
N o
C o n fig u r e
C S E N A /B a n d M L S
T r a n s m is s io n
C o m p le te d ?
(T R F A /B = 1 ? )
Y e s
S P IA _ IO = 1 o r
S P IB _ IO = 1
re a d d a ta fro m
S B D R A /B
A
c le a r T R F A /B
T ra n s fe r
F in is h e d ?
N o
Y e s
E N D
Rev. 1.30
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January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Bit No.
0
Label
Function
SPIA_IO
1: IO, 0: SPI (default)
1
SPIA_MODE
1: SPI first output the data immediately after the SPI is enable. And SPI output the data
in the falling edge (polarity=1) or rising edge (polarity=0); SPI read data in the in the rising edge (polarity=1) or falling edge (polarity=0)
0: SPI output the data in the rising edge (polarity=1) or falling edge (polarity=0); SPI
read data in the in the falling edge (polarity=1) or rising edge (polarity=0); (default)
2
SPIA_CPOL
1: clock polarity rising
0: clock polarity falling (default falling)
3
SPIA_CSEN
1: SPI_CSEN: Enable , this bit is used to enable/disable software CSEN function
(default enable)
0: SPI_CSEN disable, SCSA define as GPIO
4
SPIB_IO
1: IO, 0: SPI (default)
5
SPIB_MODE
1: SPI first output the data immediately after the SPI is enable. And SPI output the data
in the falling edge (polarity=1) or rising edge (polarity=0); SPI read data in the in the rising edge (polarity=1) or falling edge (polarity=0)
0: SPI output the data in the rising edge (polarity=1) or falling edge (polarity=0); SPI
read data in the in the falling edge (polarity=1) or rising edge (polarity=0); (default)
6
SPIB_CPOL
1: clock polarity rising
0: clock polarity falling (default falling)
7
SPIB_CSEN
1: SPI_CSEN: Enable, this bit is used to enable/disable software CSEN function
(default enable)
0: SPI_CSEN disable, SCSB define as GPIO
SPI Register
USB Interface
The device includes a USB interface function allowing
for the convenient design of USB peripheral products.
The USB disable/enable control bit ²USBdis² is in the
PWMCTL Register. If the USB is disabled, then V33O
and the D+/D- lines will be floating and the USB SIE will
be disabled.
USB Suspend Wake-Up Remote Wake-Up
If there is no signal on the USB bus for over 3ms, the device will enter a suspend mode. The Suspend flag,
SUSP, in the USC register, will then be set high and a
USB interrupt will be generated to indicate that the device should jump to the suspend state to meet the requirements of the USB suspend current spec. In order to
meet the requirements of the suspend current, the firmware should disable the USB clock by clearing the
USBCKEN bit to zero.
Power Plane
There are four power planes for the device: USB SIE
VDD, VDDIO and the MCU VDD and Flash memory
power for the HT82A6208/HT82A6216. For the USB
SIE VDD will supply all circuits related to the USB SIE
and be sourced from pin ²UBUS². Once the USB is removed from the USB and there is no power in the USB
BUS, the USB SIE circuit is no longer operational.
The suspend current can be further decreased by setting the SUSP2 bit in the UCC register. When the resume signal is sent out by the host, the device will be
woken up the by the USB interrupt and the Resume bit
in the USC register will be set. To ensure correct device
operation, the program must set the USBCKEN bit in the
UCC register high and clear the SUSP2 bit in the UCC
register. The Resume signal will be cleared before the
Idle signal is sent out by the host and the Suspend line in
the USC register will change to zero. So when the MCU
For the PB port, it can be configured using a
configuration option to define the if the pins PB0~PB7
are supplied by either the MCU VDD, or if pins
PB0~PB6 are supplied by the power pin VDDIO, in
which case power will be supplied on pin PB7. In the latter configuration, PB7 will be configured as a power pin
VDDIO and not a normal I/O pin.
S U S P E N D
For the MCU VDD, it supplies all the HT82A623R circuit
except the USB SIE which is supply by UBUS.
U S B R e s u m e S ig n a l
For the HT82A6208 and HT82A6216 the internal Flash
memory is supplied by VCC.
U S B _ IN T
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HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
USB Interface Operation
detects the Suspend bit in the USC register, the condition of the Resume line should be noted and taken into
consideration.
The device has 8 Endpoints, EP0~EP3. EP0 supports
Control transfer. All EP1~EP3 support Interrupt or Bulk
transfer.
The device has a remote wake up function which can
wake-up the USB Host by sending a wake-up pulse
through RMWK in the USC register. Once the USB Host
receives a wake-up signal from the device it will send a
Resume signal to the device.
S U S P E N D
All endpoints except EP0 can be configured as 8, 16, 32
or 64 FIFO size using the register UFC0 and UFC1. EP0
has an 8-byte FIFO size. The Total FIFO size is 64+8
bytes. The URD in the USC register is the USB reset
signal control function definition bit.
M in . 1
U S B C L K
R M W K
U S B R e s u m e S ig n a l
M in . 2 .5 m s
U S B _ IN T
Bit No.
Label
Function
0
ESD
This bit will set to ²1² when there are ESD issue.
This bit is set by SIE and clear by F/W.
1
PUB
Bit3=1, D+, and D- have a 500kW pull-high
Bit3=0, no pull-high (default on MCU reset)
2
SE0
This bit is used to indicate the SIE has detect a SE0 noise in the USB bus. This bit is set by
SIE and clear by F/W.
3
SE1
This bit is used to indicate the SIE has detect a SE1 noise in the USB bus. This bit is set by
SIE and clear by F/W.
4
PS2/DAI
USBD-/DATA input.
5
PS2/CKI
USBD+/CLK input.
6
PS2/DAO
Output for driving USBD-/DATA pin, when work under 3D PS2 mouse function. Default
value is ²1².
7
PS2/CKO
Output for driving USBD+/CLK pin, when work under 3D PS2 mouse function. Default value
is ²1².
USB_STAT Register
Bit No.
Label
Function
0
EP0EN
Control the USB endpoint0 interrupt (1=enabled; 0=disabled)
1
EP1EN
Control the USB endpoint1 interrupt (1=enabled; 0=disabled)
2
EP2EN
Control the USB endpoint2 interrupt (1=enabled; 0=disabled)
3
EP3EN
Control the USB endpoint3 interrupt (1=enabled; 0=disabled)
4~7
¾
Unused bit, read as ²0²
UINT1 Register
Rev. 1.30
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HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Bit No.
Label
Function
0
SUSP
Read only, USB suspend indication. When this bit is set to ²1² (set by SIE), it indicates that
the USB bus has entered the suspend mode. The USB interrupt is also triggered when this
bit changes from low to high.
1
RMWK
USB remote wake-up command. It is set by MCU to leave the USB host leaving the suspend
mode.
2
URST
USB reset indication. This bit is set/cleared by the USB SIE. This bit is used to detect a USB
reset event on the USB bus. When this bit is set to ²1², this indicates that a USB reset has
occurred and that a USB interrupt will be initialized.
3
USB resume indication. When the USB leaves the suspend mode, this bit is set to ²1² (set
by SIE). When the RESUME is set by SIE, an interrupt will be generated to wake-up the
MCU. In order to detect the suspend state, the MCU should set USBCKEN and clear
RESUME
SUSP2 (in the UCC register) to enable the SIE detect function. RESUME will be cleared
when the SUSP goes to ²0². When the MCU is detecting the SUSP, the condition of RESUME (causes the MCU to wake-up) should be noted and taken into consideration.
4
V33O
5
PLL
6
SELPS2
7
URD
0/1: Turn-off/on V33O output.
0: Turn-on PLL (default), 1: turn off PLL.
When set to ¢1¢, indicated the chip work under PS2 mode. Default value is ²0².
USB reset signal control function definition.
1: USB reset signal will reset MCU.
0: USB reset signal cannot reset MCU.
USC Register
The USR register which is the endpoint interrupt status register, is used to indicate which endpoint is accessed and to
select the USB bus. The endpoint request flags, EP0F, EP1F, EP2F and EP3F, are used to indicate which endpoints
are accessed. If an endpoint is accessed, the related endpoint request flag will be set high and a USB interrupt will be
generated, if the USB interrupt is enabled and the stack is not full. When the active endpoint request flag is serviced,
the endpoint request flag has to be cleared to zero using the program.
Bit No.
Label
Function
0
EP0F
When this bit is set to ²1² (set by SIE), it indicates that endpoint 0 has been accessed and a
USB interrupt will occur. When the interrupt has been serviced, this bit should be cleared by
software.
1
EP1F
When this bit is set to ²1² (set by SIE), it indicates that endpoint 1 has been accessed and a
USB interrupt will occur. When the interrupt has been serviced, this bit should be cleared by
software.
2
EP2F
When this bit is set to ²1² (set by SIE), it indicates that endpoint 2 has been accessed and a
USB interrupt will occur. When the interrupt has been serviced, this bit should be cleared by
software.
3
EP3F
When this bit is set to ²1² (set by SIE), it indicates that endpoint 3 has been accessed and a
USB interrupt will occur. When the interrupt has been serviced, this bit should be cleared by
software.
4~7
¾
Unused bit, read as ²0²
USR Register
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There is a system clock control register to select the clock used in the MCU. This register consists of a USB clock control bit, USBCKEN, a second suspend mode control bit, SUSP2, and a system clock selection bit, SYSCLK.
The endpoint selection is determined by EPS2, EPS1 and EPS0.
Bit No.
Label
Function
Accessing endpoint FIFO selection.
EPS2, EPS1, EPS0:
000: Select endpoint 0 FIFO (control)
001: Select endpoint 1 FIFO
010: Select endpoint 2 FIFO
011: Select endpoint 3 FIFO
If the selected endpoints do not exist, the related functions will be absent.
0
1
2
EPS0
EPS1
EPS2
3
USBCKEN
4
SUSP2
5
FSYS16MHz
6
SYSCLK
7
RCTRL
USB clock control bit. When this bit is set to ²1², it indicates that the USB clock is enabled. Otherwise, the USB clock is turned-off.
This bit is used for reducing power consumption in suspend mode.
In normal mode, clean this bit to ²0².
In halt mode, set this bit to ²1² for reducing power consumption.
This bit is used to define if the MCU system clock comes form an external OSC or comes
from the PLL output 16MHz clock.
0: system clock sourced from OSC.
1: system clock sourced from the PLL output 16MHz.
This bit is used to specify the MCU system clock oscillator frequency.
For a 6MHz crystal oscillator or resonator, set this bit to ²1².
For a 12MHz crystal oscillator or resonator, clear this bit to ²0².
This bit is used to control whether there is 7.5kW resistor between D+ and Vbus.
0: no 7.5kW between D+ and Vbus (default)
1: has 7.5kW between D+ and Vbus
UCC Register
The AWR register contains the current address and a remote wake up function control bit. The initial value of AWR is
²00H². The address value extracted from the USB command has not to be loaded into this register until the SETUP
stage has finished.
Bit No.
Label
0
WKEN
1~7
Function
USB remote-wake-up enable/disable (1/0)
AD0~AD6 USB device address
AWR Register
The STALL register shows if the corresponding endpoint has worked properly or not. As soon as endpoint improper operation occurs, the related bit in the STALL register has to be set high. The STALL register bits will be cleared by a USB
reset signal and a setup token event.
Bit No.
Label
0~3
STL0~
STL3
4~7
¾
Function
Set by the users when related USB endpoints were stalled. Cleared by a USB reset.
The STL0 is also cleared by a Setup Token event.
Unused bit, read as ²0²
STALL Register
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The SIES register is only used for EP0 except for the NMI bit, which can control all endpoints
Bit No.
Label
Function
0
ASET
This bit is used to configure the SIE to automatically change the device address by the
value stored in the AWR register. When this bit is set to ²1² by firmware, the SIE will update
the device address by the value stored in the AWR register after the PC host has successfully read the data from he device by an IN operation. Otherwise, when this bit is cleared to
²0², the SIE will update the device address immediately after an address is written to the
AWR register. So, in order to work properly, the firmware has to clear this bit after a next
valid SETUP token is received.
1
ERR
This bit is used to indicate that some errors have occurred when the FIFO is accessed.
This bit is set by SIE and should be cleared by firmware. This bit is used for all endpoint
2
OUT
This bit is used to indicate the OUT token (except the OUT zero length token) has been received. The firmware clears this bit after the OUT data has been read. Also, this bit will be
cleared by SIE after the next valid SETUP token is received.
3
IN
4
NO ACK
5
¾
6
CRCF
This bit will set to ²1² when there are the following three condition is happened: CRC error,
PID error, Bit stuffing error.
This bit is set by SIE and clear by F/W.
7
NMI
NAK token interrupt mask flag. If this bit set, when the device sent a NAK token to the host,
an interrupt will be disabled. Otherwise if this bit is cleared, when the device sends a NAK
token to the host, it will enter the interrupt sub-routine. This bit is used for all endpoint.
This bit is used to indicate the current USB receiving signal from PC host is IN token.
This bit will set to ²1² once SIE discover ther are some error condition so the SIE is not response (NAK or ACK or DATA) for the USB token. This bit is set by SIE and clear by F/W.
Unused bit, read as ²0²
SIES Register
The MISC register combines command and status to control the desired endpoint FIFO action and to show the status of
the desired endpoint FIFO. MISC will be cleared by a USB reset signal.
Bit No.
Label
Function
0
REQUEST
After setting the status of the desired one, FIFO can be requested by setting this bit high.
After finishing, this bit must be set low.
1
TX
To represent the direction and transition end MCU access. When set to logic 1, the MCU
desires to write data to the FIFO. After finishing, this bit must be set to logic 0 before terminating request to represent transition end. For an MCU read operation, this bit must be set
to logic 0 and set to logic 1 after finishing.
2
CLEAR
MCU requests to clear the FIFO, even if the FIFO is not ready. After clearing the FIFO, the
USB interface will send force_tx_err to tell the Host that data under-run if the Host wants to
read data.
3~4
¾
5
SETCMD
6
READY
7
LEN0
Unused bit, read as ²0²
To show that the data in the FIFO is a setup command. This bit is set by Hardware and
clear by Firmware.
To show that the desired FIFO is ready.
To show that the host sent a 0-sized packet to the MCU. This bit must be cleared by a read
action to the corresponding FIFO.
MISC Register
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Bit No.
Label
Function
0
FIFO_def
Once this bit set to ²1² by Firmware, The SIE should redefine the FIFO configuration. This bit
is automatically cleared by SIE
1
SETI1*
Input FIFO for EP1 eanble 1/disable 0; default disable
2
SETI2*
Input FIFO for EP2 eanble 1/disable 0; default disable
3
SETI3*
Input FIFO for EP3 eanble 1/disable 0; default disable
4~7
¾
Unused bit, read as ²0²
²*² It is only required to set the data pipe as an input pipe or output pipe. The purpose of this function is to avoid
the host sending an abnormal IN or OUT token and disabling the endpoint.
Note:
UFIEN Register, USB Endpoint 1~Endpoint 3 set IN Pipe Enable Register
Bit No.
Label
Function
0
¾
1
SETO1**
Unused bit, read as ²0²
Output FIFO for EP1 eanble 1/disable 0; default disable
2
SETO2**
Output FIFO for EP2 eanble 1/disable 0; default disable
3
SETO3**
Output FIFO for EP3 eanble 1/disable 0; default disable
4~7
¾
Unused bit, read as ²0²
²*² USB definition: when the host sends a ²set Configuration², the Data pipe should send the DATA0 (about the
Data toggle) first. So, when the Device receives a ²set configuration² setup command, the user needs to toggle
this bit as the following data will send a Data0 first.
Note:
²**² It is only required to set the data pipe as an input pipe or output pipe. The purpose of this function is to avoid
the host sending a abnormal IN or OUT token and disabling the endpoint.
UFOEN Register, USB Endpoint 1~Endpoint 3 set OUT Pipe Enable Register
Bit No.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Label
Function
00: RAM0 input FIFO, RAM1 output FIFO
RAM_def0 01: Both RAM0 and RAM1 are output FIFO
RAM_def1 10: Both RAM0 and RAM1 are input FIFO
11: RAM0 output FIFO, RAM1 input FIFO
E1FS0
E1FS1
Define endpoint 1 FIFO size
E1FS1, E1FS0:
00: 8-byte
01: 16-byte
10: 32-byte
11: 64-byte
E2FS0
E2FS1
Define endpoint 2 FIFO size
E2FS1, E2FS0:
00: 8-byte
01: 16-byte
10: 32-byte
11: 64-byte
E3FS0
E3FS1
Define endpoint 3 FIFO size
E3FS1, E3FS0:
00: 8-byte
01: 16-byte
10: 32-byte
11: 64-byte
UFC0 USB FIFO Size Control Register 0
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The total FIFO size is 64+8 bytes. All endpoints except EP0 can be defined by registers UFOEN, UFIEN, UFC0 and
UFC. There are three FIFO mapped as follow:
8 bytes FIFO for Endpoint0
RAM0 FIFO for other input Endpoint (1~3)
RAM1 FIFO for other output Endpoint (1~3)
Bit No.
Label
Function
0~3
FIFO0~
FIFO3
EPi accessing register (i=0~3). When an endpoint is disabled, the corresponding accessing
register should be disabled.
4~7
¾
Unused bit, read as ²0²
FIFO0~FIFO3 USB endpoint accessing registers definitions
Configuration Options
No.
Options
1
PA pull-high enable/disable (1/0) (default: enable)
2
PB pull-high enable/disable (1/0) by nibble (default: enable)
3
PC pull-high enable/disable (1/0) by nibble (default: enable)
4
PC, wake-up enable/disable (1/0) by nibble (default: disable)
5
SPIA WCOL: Enable/Disable (default disable)
6
Built-in 1.5K (default no built-in)
7
Has 7.5kW resistor enable bit (default no)
8
TBHP enable or disable (default disable)
9
Low voltage reset: enable/disable (default: enable)
10
WDT enable/disable (0/1) (default: enable)
11
WDT clock source: fSYS/4 or RC (default T1)
12
CLR WDT instructions: one or two clear WDT instruction(s) (0/1) (default: 1 inst.)
13
PA NMOS or CMOS output type (default CMOS)
14
Port A wake-up enable/disable (1/0) by bit (default: enable)
15
PB0~PB3 NMOS or CMOS output type (default CMOS)
16
Port B wake-up enable/disable (1/0) by bit (default: disable)
17
0: PB7 used as GPIO
1: PB7 used as VDDIO pin
18
0: PB0~PB6 use power=VDD
1: PB0~PB6 use power=VDDIO
19
PD NMOS or CMOS output type (default CMOS)
20
PD pull-high enable/disable (1/0) by nibble (default: enable)
21
PD, wake-up enable/disable (1/0) by nibble (default: disable)
22
SPIB WCOL: enable/disable (default disable)
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Application Circuits
Crystal or Ceramic Resonator for Multiple I/O Applications
0 .1 m F *
V D D
U S B -
1 0 m F *
U S B +
1 0 0 k W
0 .1 m F * *
V S S
V D D
X 1
O S C 2
R E S
V S S
Note:
P B 0 ~ P B 7
P C 0 ~ P C 7
O S C 1
0 .1 m F
P A 0 ~ P A 7
P D 0 ~ P D 7
V 3 3 O
U S B D -/D A T A
U S B D + /C L K
1 .5 k W
0 .1 m F
3 3 W
3 3 W
The resistance and capacitance for the reset circuit should be designed in such a way as to ensure that VDD is
stable and remains within a valid operating voltage range before bringing RES high.
X1 can be 6MHz or 12MHz, and should be located as close to the OSC1/OSC2 pins as possible.
* These capacitors should be placed close to the USB connector.
** This capacitor should be placed close to the MCU.
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Instruction Set
subtract instruction mnemonics to enable the necessary
arithmetic to be carried out. Care must be taken to ensure correct handling of carry and borrow data when results exceed 255 for addition and less than 0 for
subtraction. The increment and decrement instructions
INC, INCA, DEC and DECA provide a simple means of
increasing or decreasing by a value of one of the values
in the destination specified.
Introduction
Central t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f a n y
microcontroller is its instruction set, which is a set of program instruction codes that directs the microcontroller to
perform certain operations. In the case of Holtek
microcontrollers, a comprehensive and flexible set of
over 60 instructions is provided to enable programmers
to implement their application with the minimum of programming overheads.
Logical and Rotate Operations
For easier understanding of the various instruction
codes, they have been subdivided into several functional groupings.
The standard logical operations such as AND, OR, XOR
and CPL all have their own instruction within the Holtek
microcontroller instruction set. As with the case of most
instructions involving data manipulation, data must pass
through the Accumulator which may involve additional
programming steps. In all logical data operations, the
zero flag may be set if the result of the operation is zero.
Another form of logical data manipulation comes from
the rotate instructions such as RR, RL, RRC and RLC
which provide a simple means of rotating one bit right or
left. Different rotate instructions exist depending on program requirements. Rotate instructions are useful for
serial port programming applications where data can be
rotated from an internal register into the Carry bit from
where it can be examined and the necessary serial bit
set high or low. Another application where rotate data
operations are used is to implement multiplication and
division calculations.
Instruction Timing
Most instructions are implemented within one instruction cycle. The exceptions to this are branch, call, or table read instructions where two instruction cycles are
required. One instruction cycle is equal to 4 system
clock cycles, therefore in the case of an 8MHz system
oscillator, most instructions would be implemented
within 0.5ms and branch or call instructions would be implemented within 1ms. Although instructions which require one more cycle to implement are generally limited
to the JMP, CALL, RET, RETI and table read instructions, it is important to realize that any other instructions
which involve manipulation of the Program Counter Low
register or PCL will also take one more cycle to implement. As instructions which change the contents of the
PCL will imply a direct jump to that new address, one
more cycle will be required. Examples of such instructions would be ²CLR PCL² or ²MOV PCL, A². For the
case of skip instructions, it must be noted that if the result of the comparison involves a skip operation then
this will also take one more cycle, if no skip is involved
then only one cycle is required.
Branches and Control Transfer
Program branching takes the form of either jumps to
specified locations using the JMP instruction or to a subroutine using the CALL instruction. They differ in the
sense that in the case of a subroutine call, the program
must return to the instruction immediately when the subroutine has been carried out. This is done by placing a
return instruction RET in the subroutine which will cause
the program to jump back to the address right after the
CALL instruction. In the case of a JMP instruction, the
program simply jumps to the desired location. There is
no requirement to jump back to the original jumping off
point as in the case of the CALL instruction. One special
and extremely useful set of branch instructions are the
conditional branches. Here a decision is first made regarding the condition of a certain data memory or individual bits. Depending upon the conditions, the program
will continue with the next instruction or skip over it and
jump to the following instruction. These instructions are
the key to decision making and branching within the program perhaps determined by the condition of certain input switches or by the condition of internal data bits.
Moving and Transferring Data
The transfer of data within the microcontroller program
is one of the most frequently used operations. Making
use of three kinds of MOV instructions, data can be
transferred from registers to the Accumulator and
vice-versa as well as being able to move specific immediate data directly into the Accumulator. One of the most
important data transfer applications is to receive data
from the input ports and transfer data to the output ports.
Arithmetic Operations
The ability to perform certain arithmetic operations and
data manipulation is a necessary feature of most
microcontroller applications. Within the Holtek
microcontroller instruction set are a range of add and
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Bit Operations
Other Operations
The ability to provide single bit operations on Data Memory is an extremely flexible feature of all Holtek
microcontrollers. This feature is especially useful for
output port bit programming where individual bits or port
pins can be directly set high or low using either the ²SET
[m].i² or ²CLR [m].i² instructions respectively. The feature removes the need for programmers to first read the
8-bit output port, manipulate the input data to ensure
that other bits are not changed and then output the port
with the correct new data. This read-modify-write process is taken care of automatically when these bit operation instructions are used.
In addition to the above functional instructions, a range
of other instructions also exist such as the ²HALT² instruction for Power-down operations and instructions to
control the operation of the Watchdog Timer for reliable
program operations under extreme electric or electromagnetic environments. For their relevant operations,
refer to the functional related sections.
Instruction Set Summary
The following table depicts a summary of the instruction
set categorised according to function and can be consulted as a basic instruction reference using the following listed conventions.
Table Read Operations
Table conventions:
Data storage is normally implemented by using registers. However, when working with large amounts of
fixed data, the volume involved often makes it inconvenient to store the fixed data in the Data Memory. To overcome this problem, Holtek microcontrollers allow an
area of Program Memory to be setup as a table where
data can be directly stored. A set of easy to use instructions provides the means by which this fixed data can be
referenced and retrieved from the Program Memory.
Mnemonic
x: Bits immediate data
m: Data Memory address
A: Accumulator
i: 0~7 number of bits
addr: Program memory address
Description
Cycles
Flag Affected
1
1Note
1
1
1Note
1
1
1Note
1
1Note
1Note
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
C
1
1
1
1Note
1Note
1Note
1
1
1
1Note
1
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
1
1Note
1
1Note
Z
Z
Z
Z
Arithmetic
ADD A,[m]
ADDM A,[m]
ADD A,x
ADC A,[m]
ADCM A,[m]
SUB A,x
SUB A,[m]
SUBM A,[m]
SBC A,[m]
SBCM A,[m]
DAA [m]
Add Data Memory to ACC
Add ACC to Data Memory
Add immediate data to ACC
Add Data Memory to ACC with Carry
Add ACC to Data memory with Carry
Subtract immediate data from the ACC
Subtract Data Memory from ACC
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with result in Data Memory
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry, result in Data Memory
Decimal adjust ACC for Addition with result in Data Memory
Logic Operation
AND A,[m]
OR A,[m]
XOR A,[m]
ANDM A,[m]
ORM A,[m]
XORM A,[m]
AND A,x
OR A,x
XOR A,x
CPL [m]
CPLA [m]
Logical AND Data Memory to ACC
Logical OR Data Memory to ACC
Logical XOR Data Memory to ACC
Logical AND ACC to Data Memory
Logical OR ACC to Data Memory
Logical XOR ACC to Data Memory
Logical AND immediate Data to ACC
Logical OR immediate Data to ACC
Logical XOR immediate Data to ACC
Complement Data Memory
Complement Data Memory with result in ACC
Increment & Decrement
INCA [m]
INC [m]
DECA [m]
DEC [m]
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Increment Data Memory with result in ACC
Increment Data Memory
Decrement Data Memory with result in ACC
Decrement Data Memory
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Mnemonic
Description
Cycles
Flag Affected
Rotate Data Memory right with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory right
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry
Rotate Data Memory left with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory left
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry
1
1Note
1
1Note
1
1Note
1
1Note
None
None
C
C
None
None
C
C
Move Data Memory to ACC
Move ACC to Data Memory
Move immediate data to ACC
1
1Note
1
None
None
None
Clear bit of Data Memory
Set bit of Data Memory
1Note
1Note
None
None
Jump unconditionally
Skip if Data Memory is zero
Skip if Data Memory is zero with data movement to ACC
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is zero
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is not zero
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Subroutine call
Return from subroutine
Return from subroutine and load immediate data to ACC
Return from interrupt
2
1Note
1note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
2
2
2
2
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Read table (current page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Read table (last page) to TBLH and Data Memory
2Note
2Note
None
None
No operation
Clear Data Memory
Set Data Memory
Clear Watchdog Timer
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Swap nibbles of Data Memory
Swap nibbles of Data Memory with result in ACC
Enter power down mode
1
1Note
1Note
1
1
1
1Note
1
1
None
None
None
TO, PDF
TO, PDF
TO, PDF
None
None
TO, PDF
Rotate
RRA [m]
RR [m]
RRCA [m]
RRC [m]
RLA [m]
RL [m]
RLCA [m]
RLC [m]
Data Move
MOV A,[m]
MOV [m],A
MOV A,x
Bit Operation
CLR [m].i
SET [m].i
Branch
JMP addr
SZ [m]
SZA [m]
SZ [m].i
SNZ [m].i
SIZ [m]
SDZ [m]
SIZA [m]
SDZA [m]
CALL addr
RET
RET A,x
RETI
Table Read
TABRDC [m]
TABRDL [m]
Miscellaneous
NOP
CLR [m]
SET [m]
CLR WDT
CLR WDT1
CLR WDT2
SWAP [m]
SWAPA [m]
HALT
Note:
1. For skip instructions, if the result of the comparison involves a skip then two cycles are required,
if no skip takes place only one cycle is required.
2. Any instruction which changes the contents of the PCL will also require 2 cycles for execution.
3. For the ²CLR WDT1² and ²CLR WDT2² instructions the TO and PDF flags may be affected by
the execution status. The TO and PDF flags are cleared after both ²CLR WDT1² and
²CLR WDT2² instructions are consecutively executed. Otherwise the TO and PDF flags
remain unchanged.
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Instruction Definition
ADC A,[m]
Add Data Memory to ACC with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory, Accumulator and the carry flag are added. The
result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + [m] + C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADCM A,[m]
Add ACC to Data Memory with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory, Accumulator and the carry flag are added. The
result is stored in the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + [m] + C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADD A,[m]
Add Data Memory to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator are added. The result is
stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADD A,x
Add immediate data to ACC
Description
The contents of the Accumulator and the specified immediate data are added. The result is
stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + x
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADDM A,[m]
Add ACC to Data Memory
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator are added. The result is
stored in the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
AND A,[m]
Logical AND Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical AND operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²AND² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
AND A,x
Logical AND immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical AND
operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²AND² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
ANDM A,[m]
Logical AND ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical AND operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²AND² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
Rev. 1.30
81
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
CALL addr
Subroutine call
Description
Unconditionally calls a subroutine at the specified address. The Program Counter then increments by 1 to obtain the address of the next instruction which is then pushed onto the
stack. The specified address is then loaded and the program continues execution from this
new address. As this instruction requires an additional operation, it is a two cycle instruction.
Operation
Stack ¬ Program Counter + 1
Program Counter ¬ addr
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR [m]
Clear Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is cleared to 0.
Operation
[m] ¬ 00H
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR [m].i
Clear bit of Data Memory
Description
Bit i of the specified Data Memory is cleared to 0.
Operation
[m].i ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR WDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
CLR WDT1
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared. Note that this instruction works in conjunction with CLR WDT2 and must be executed alternately with CLR WDT2 to have effect. Repetitively executing this instruction without alternately executing CLR WDT2 will have no
effect.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
CLR WDT2
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared. Note that this instruction works in conjunction with CLR WDT1 and must be executed alternately with CLR WDT1 to have effect. Repetitively executing this instruction without alternately executing CLR WDT1 will have no
effect.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
Rev. 1.30
82
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
CPL [m]
Complement Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is logically complemented (1¢s complement). Bits
which previously contained a 1 are changed to 0 and vice versa.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
CPLA [m]
Complement Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is logically complemented (1¢s complement). Bits
which previously contained a 1 are changed to 0 and vice versa. The complemented result
is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
DAA [m]
Decimal-Adjust ACC for addition with result in Data Memory
Description
Convert the contents of the Accumulator value to a BCD ( Binary Coded Decimal) value resulting from the previous addition of two BCD variables. If the low nibble is greater than 9 or
if AC flag is set, then a value of 6 will be added to the low nibble. Otherwise the low nibble
remains unchanged. If the high nibble is greater than 9 or if the C flag is set, then a value of
6 will be added to the high nibble. Essentially, the decimal conversion is performed by adding 00H, 06H, 60H or 66H depending on the Accumulator and flag conditions. Only the C
flag may be affected by this instruction which indicates that if the original BCD sum is
greater than 100, it allows multiple precision decimal addition.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + 00H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 06H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 60H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 66H
Affected flag(s)
C
DEC [m]
Decrement Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is decremented by 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] - 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
DECA [m]
Decrement Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is decremented by 1. The result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] - 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
HALT
Enter power down mode
Description
This instruction stops the program execution and turns off the system clock. The contents
of the Data Memory and registers are retained. The WDT and prescaler are cleared. The
power down flag PDF is set and the WDT time-out flag TO is cleared.
Operation
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
Rev. 1.30
83
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
INC [m]
Increment Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is incremented by 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] + 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
INCA [m]
Increment Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is incremented by 1. The result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] + 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
JMP addr
Jump unconditionally
Description
The contents of the Program Counter are replaced with the specified address. Program
execution then continues from this new address. As this requires the insertion of a dummy
instruction while the new address is loaded, it is a two cycle instruction.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ addr
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV A,[m]
Move Data Memory to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are copied to the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV A,x
Move immediate data to ACC
Description
The immediate data specified is loaded into the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ x
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV [m],A
Move ACC to Data Memory
Description
The contents of the Accumulator are copied to the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC
Affected flag(s)
None
NOP
No operation
Description
No operation is performed. Execution continues with the next instruction.
Operation
No operation
Affected flag(s)
None
OR A,[m]
Logical OR Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²OR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
Rev. 1.30
84
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
OR A,x
Logical OR immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²OR² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
ORM A,[m]
Logical OR ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²OR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
RET
Return from subroutine
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack. Program execution continues at the restored address.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
Affected flag(s)
None
RET A,x
Return from subroutine and load immediate data to ACC
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack and the Accumulator loaded with the
specified immediate data. Program execution continues at the restored address.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
ACC ¬ x
Affected flag(s)
None
RETI
Return from interrupt
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack and the interrupts are re-enabled by setting the EMI bit. EMI is the master interrupt global enable bit. If an interrupt was pending
when the RETI instruction is executed, the pending Interrupt routine will be processed before returning to the main program.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
EMI ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
None
RL [m]
Rotate Data Memory left
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated left by 1 bit with bit 7 rotated into bit
0.
Operation
[m].(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
[m].0 ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
None
RLA [m]
Rotate Data Memory left with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated left by 1 bit with bit 7 rotated into bit
0. The rotated result is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
ACC.0 ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
None
Rev. 1.30
85
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
RLC [m]
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated left by 1 bit. Bit 7
replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 0.
Operation
[m].(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
[m].0 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
C
RLCA [m]
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated left by 1 bit. Bit 7 replaces
the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into the bit 0. The rotated result is stored in
the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
ACC.0 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
C
RR [m]
Rotate Data Memory right
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated right by 1 bit with bit 0 rotated into
bit 7.
Operation
[m].i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
[m].7 ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
RRA [m]
Rotate Data Memory right with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit with bit 0 rotated into bit 7. The rotated result is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data
Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
ACC.7 ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
RRC [m]
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit. Bit 0
replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 7.
Operation
[m].i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
[m].7 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
C
RRCA [m]
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit. Bit 0 replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 7. The rotated result is
stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
ACC.7 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
C
Rev. 1.30
86
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
SBC A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the complement of the carry flag are subtracted from the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result
of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or
zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - [m] - C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SBCM A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry and result in Data Memory
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the complement of the carry flag are subtracted from the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Data Memory. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is
positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC - [m] - C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SDZ [m]
Skip if decrement Data Memory is 0
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first decremented by 1. If the result is 0 the
following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while
the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program
proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] - 1
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SDZA [m]
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first decremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. The result is stored in the Accumulator but the specified
Data Memory contents remain unchanged. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not
0, the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] - 1
Skip if ACC = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SET [m]
Set Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ FFH
Affected flag(s)
None
SET [m].i
Set bit of Data Memory
Description
Bit i of the specified Data Memory is set to 1.
Operation
[m].i ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
None
Rev. 1.30
87
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
SIZ [m]
Skip if increment Data Memory is 0
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first incremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while
the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program
proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] + 1
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SIZA [m]
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first incremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. The result is stored in the Accumulator but the specified
Data Memory contents remain unchanged. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not
0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] + 1
Skip if ACC = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SNZ [m].i
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is not 0
Description
If bit i of the specified Data Memory is not 0, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two
cycle instruction. If the result is 0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m].i ¹ 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SUB A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC
Description
The specified Data Memory is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result
is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will
be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SUBM A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with result in Data Memory
Description
The specified Data Memory is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result
is stored in the Data Memory. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will
be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC - [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SUB A,x
Subtract immediate data from ACC
Description
The immediate data specified by the code is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will
be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - x
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
Rev. 1.30
88
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
SWAP [m]
Swap nibbles of Data Memory
Description
The low-order and high-order nibbles of the specified Data Memory are interchanged.
Operation
[m].3~[m].0 « [m].7 ~ [m].4
Affected flag(s)
None
SWAPA [m]
Swap nibbles of Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
The low-order and high-order nibbles of the specified Data Memory are interchanged. The
result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.3 ~ ACC.0 ¬ [m].7 ~ [m].4
ACC.7 ~ ACC.4 ¬ [m].3 ~ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZ [m]
Skip if Data Memory is 0
Description
If the contents of the specified Data Memory is 0, the following instruction is skipped. As
this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a
two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZA [m]
Skip if Data Memory is 0 with data movement to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are copied to the Accumulator. If the value is
zero, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the
program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZ [m].i
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is 0
Description
If bit i of the specified Data Memory is 0, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two
cycle instruction. If the result is not 0, the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m].i = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
TABRDC [m]
Read table (current page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Description
The low byte of the program code (current page) addressed by the table pointer (TBLP) is
moved to the specified Data Memory and the high byte moved to TBLH.
Operation
[m] ¬ program code (low byte)
TBLH ¬ program code (high byte)
Affected flag(s)
None
TABRDL [m]
Read table (last page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Description
The low byte of the program code (last page) addressed by the table pointer (TBLP) is
moved to the specified Data Memory and the high byte moved to TBLH.
Operation
[m] ¬ program code (low byte)
TBLH ¬ program code (high byte)
Affected flag(s)
None
Rev. 1.30
89
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
XOR A,[m]
Logical XOR Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical XOR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²XOR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
XORM A,[m]
Logical XOR ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical XOR operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²XOR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
XOR A,x
Logical XOR immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical XOR
operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²XOR² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
Rev. 1.30
90
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Package Information
28-pin SOP (300mil) Outline Dimensions
2 8
1 5
A
B
1
1 4
C
C '
G
D
E
H
a
F
· MS-013MS-013
Symbol
Nom.
Max.
A
0.393
¾
0.419
B
0.256
¾
0.300
C
0.012
¾
0.020
C¢
0.697
¾
0.713
D
¾
¾
0.104
E
¾
0.050
¾
F
0.004
¾
0.012
G
0.016
¾
0.050
H
0.008
¾
0.013
a
0°
¾
8°
Symbol
A
Rev. 1.30
Dimensions in inch
Min.
Dimensions in mm
Min.
Nom.
Max.
9.98
¾
10.64
B
6.50
¾
7.62
C
0.30
¾
0.51
C¢
17.70
¾
18.11
D
¾
¾
2.64
E
¾
1.27
¾
F
0.10
¾
0.30
G
0.41
¾
1.27
H
0.20
¾
0.33
a
0°
¾
8°
91
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
28-pin SSOP (150mil) Outline Dimensions
1 5
2 8
A
B
1
1 4
C
C '
G
D
E
Symbol
a
F
Dimensions in inch
Min.
Nom.
Max.
0.228
¾
0.244
B
0.150
¾
0.157
C
0.008
¾
0.012
C¢
0.386
¾
0.394
D
0.054
¾
0.060
E
¾
0.025
¾
F
0.004
¾
0.010
G
0.022
¾
0.028
H
0.007
¾
0.010
a
0°
¾
8°
A
Symbol
Rev. 1.30
H
Dimensions in mm
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
5.79
¾
6.20
B
3.81
¾
3.99
C
0.20
¾
0.30
C¢
9.80
¾
10.01
D
1.37
¾
1.52
E
¾
0.64
¾
F
0.10
¾
0.25
G
0.56
¾
0.71
H
0.18
¾
0.25
a
0°
¾
8°
92
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
SAW Type 48-pin (7mm´7mm) QFN Outline Dimensions
D
3 7
b
D 2
4 8
1
3 6
E
E 2
e
2 5
A 1
A 3
1 2
L
2 4
1 3
K
A
· ASECL
Symbol
Nom.
Max.
A
0.031
0.033
0.035
A1
0.000
0.001
0.002
A3
¾
0.008
¾
b
0.007
0.010
0.012
D
¾
0.276
¾
E
¾
0.276
¾
e
¾
0.020
¾
D2
0.219
0.222
0.226
E2
0.219
0.222
0.226
L
0.014
0.016
0.018
Symbol
Rev. 1.30
Dimensions in inch
Min.
Dimensions in mm
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
0.800
0.850
0.900
A1
0.000
0.035
0.050
A3
¾
0.203
¾
b
0.180
0.250
0.300
D
¾
7.000
¾
E
¾
7.000
¾
e
¾
0.500
¾
D2
5.550
5.650
5.750
E2
5.550
5.650
5.750
L
0.350
0.400
0.450
93
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
44-pin QFP (10mm´10mm) Outline Dimensions
C
3 3
D
G
2 3
H
I
3 4
2 2
L
F
A
B
E
1 2
4 4
K
1
Symbol
A
J
1 1
Dimensions in inch
Min.
Nom.
Max.
0.512
¾
0.528
B
0.390
¾
0.398
C
0.512
¾
0.528
D
0.390
¾
0.398
E
¾
0.031
¾
F
¾
0.012
¾
G
0.075
¾
0.087
H
¾
¾
0.106
I
0.010
¾
0.020
J
0.029
¾
0.037
K
0.004
¾
0.008
L
¾
0.004
¾
a
0°
¾
7°
Symbol
A
Rev. 1.30
a
Dimensions in mm
Min.
Nom.
Max.
13.00
¾
13.40
B
9.90
¾
10.10
C
13.00
¾
13.40
D
9.90
¾
10.10
E
¾
0.80
¾
F
¾
0.30
¾
G
1.90
¾
2.20
H
¾
¾
2.70
I
0.25
¾
0.50
J
0.73
¾
0.93
K
0.10
¾
0.20
L
¾
0.10
¾
a
0°
¾
7°
94
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
52-pin QFP (14mm´14mm) Outline Dimensions
C
D
3 9
G
2 7
H
I
2 6
4 0
F
A
B
E
1 4
5 2
K
1
Symbol
Dimensions in inch
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
0.681
¾
0.689
B
0.547
¾
0.555
C
0.681
¾
0.689
D
0.547
¾
0.555
E
¾
0.039
¾
F
¾
0.016
¾
G
0.098
¾
0.122
H
¾
¾
0.134
I
¾
0.004
¾
J
0.029
¾
0.041
K
0.004
¾
0.008
a
0°
¾
7°
Symbol
Rev. 1.30
J
1 3
Dimensions in mm
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
17.30
¾
17.50
B
13.90
¾
14.10
C
17.30
¾
17.50
D
13.90
¾
14.10
E
¾
1.00
¾
F
¾
0.40
¾
G
2.50
¾
3.10
H
¾
¾
3.40
I
¾
0.10
¾
J
0.73
¾
1.03
K
0.10
¾
0.20
a
0°
¾
7°
95
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Product Tape and Reel Specifications
Reel Dimensions
D
T 2
A
C
B
T 1
SOP 28W (300mil)
Symbol
Description
Dimensions in mm
A
Reel Outer Diameter
330.0±1.0
B
Reel Inner Diameter
100.0±1.5
C
Spindle Hole Diameter
D
Key Slit Width
T1
Space Between Flange
T2
Reel Thickness
13.0
+0.5/-0.2
2.0±0.5
24.8
+0.3/-0.2
30.2±0.2
SSOP 28S (150mil)
Symbol
Description
Dimensions in mm
A
Reel Outer Diameter
330.0±1.0
B
Reel Inner Diameter
100.0±1.5
C
Spindle Hole Diameter
D
Key Slit Width
T1
Space Between Flange
T2
Reel Thickness
Rev. 1.30
13.0
+0.5/-0.2
2.0±0.5
16.8
+0.3/-0.2
22.2±0.2
96
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Carrier Tape Dimensions
P 0
D
P 1
t
E
F
W
D 1
P
C
B 0
K 0
A 0
R e e l H o le
IC
p a c k a g e p in 1 a n d th e r e e l h o le s
a r e lo c a te d o n th e s a m e s id e .
SOP 28W (300mil)
Symbol
Description
Dimensions in mm
W
Carrier Tape Width
24.0±0.3
P
Cavity Pitch
12.0±0.1
E
Perforation Position
1.75±0.10
F
Cavity to Perforation (Width Direction)
11.5±0.1
D
Perforation Diameter
1.5
1.50
+0.1/-0.0
+0.25/-0.00
D1
Cavity Hole Diameter
P0
Perforation Pitch
4.0±0.1
P1
Cavity to Perforation (Length Direction)
2.0±0.1
A0
Cavity Length
10.85±0.10
B0
Cavity Width
18.34±0.10
K0
Cavity Depth
2.97±0.10
t
Carrier Tape Thickness
0.35±0.01
C
Cover Tape Width
21.3±0.1
SSOP 28S (150mil)
Symbol
Description
Dimensions in mm
W
Carrier Tape Width
16.0±0.3
P
Cavity Pitch
8.0±0.1
E
Perforation Position
1.75±0.1
F
Cavity to Perforation (Width Direction)
D
Perforation Diameter
7.5±0.1
1.55
+0.10/-0.00
1.50
+0.25/-0.00
D1
Cavity Hole Diameter
P0
Perforation Pitch
4.0±0.1
P1
Cavity to Perforation (Length Direction)
2.0±0.1
A0
Cavity Length
6.5±0.1
B0
Cavity Width
10.3±0.1
K0
Cavity Depth
2.1±0.1
t
Carrier Tape Thickness
0.30±0.05
C
Cover Tape Width
13.3±0.1
Rev. 1.30
97
January 14, 2011
HT82A623R/HT82A6208/HT82A6216
Holtek Semiconductor Inc. (Headquarters)
No.3, Creation Rd. II, Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan
Tel: 886-3-563-1999
Fax: 886-3-563-1189
http://www.holtek.com.tw
Holtek Semiconductor Inc. (Taipei Sales Office)
4F-2, No. 3-2, YuanQu St., Nankang Software Park, Taipei 115, Taiwan
Tel: 886-2-2655-7070
Fax: 886-2-2655-7373
Fax: 886-2-2655-7383 (International sales hotline)
Holtek Semiconductor Inc. (Shenzhen Sales Office)
5F, Unit A, Productivity Building, No.5 Gaoxin M 2nd Road, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, China 518057
Tel: 86-755-8616-9908, 86-755-8616-9308
Fax: 86-755-8616-9722
Holtek Semiconductor (USA), Inc. (North America Sales Office)
46729 Fremont Blvd., Fremont, CA 94538, USA
Tel: 1-510-252-9880
Fax: 1-510-252-9885
http://www.holtek.com
Copyright Ó 2011 by HOLTEK SEMICONDUCTOR INC.
The information appearing in this Data Sheet is believed to be accurate at the time of publication. However, Holtek assumes no responsibility arising from the use of the specifications described. The applications mentioned herein are used
solely for the purpose of illustration and Holtek makes no warranty or representation that such applications will be suitable
without further modification, nor recommends the use of its products for application that may present a risk to human life
due to malfunction or otherwise. Holtek¢s products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices
or systems. Holtek reserves the right to alter its products without prior notification. For the most up-to-date information,
please visit our web site at http://www.holtek.com.tw.
Rev. 1.30
98
January 14, 2011