LM2687 Low Noise Regulated Switched Capacitor Voltage Inverter General Description Features The LM2687 CMOS Negative Regulated Switched Capacitor Voltage Inverter delivers a very low noise adjustable output for an input voltage in the range of +2.7V to +5.5V. Four low cost capacitors are used in this circuit to provide up to 10mA of output current. The regulated output for the LM2687 is adjustable between −1.5V and −5.2V. The LM2687 operates at 100 kHz (typical) switching frequency to reduce output resistance and voltage ripple. With an operating current of only 500 µA (charge pump power efficiency greater than 90% with most loads) and 0.05 µA typical shutdown current, the LM2687 provides ideal performance for cellular phone power amplifier bias and other low current, low noise negative voltage needs. The device comes in a small 8-pin MSOP package. n n n n n Inverts and regulates the input supply voltage Small MSOP-8 package 91% typical charge pump power efficiency at 10mA Low output ripple (1mV typical) Shutdown lowers Quiescent current to 0.05 µA (typical) Applications n n n n n Wireless Communication Systems Cellular Phone Power Amplifier Biasing Interface Power Supplies Handheld Instrumentation Laptop Computers and PDA’s Typical Application Circuit DS101180-1 Connection Diagram 8-Pin MSOP DS101180-2 © 1999 National Semiconductor Corporation DS101180 www.national.com LM2687 Low Noise Regulated Switched Capacitor Voltage Inverter August 1999 Ordering Information Device Order Number Package Number Package Marking* Supplies As LM2687MM MUA08A S12A Tape and Reel (1000 units/reel) LM2687MMX MUA08A S12A Tape and Reel (3500 units/reel) Note: * The small physical size of the MSOP-8 package does not allow for the full part number marking. Devices will be marked with the designation shown in the column Package Marking. Pin Description Pin No. Name 1 Cap+ Function Positive terminal for C1. 2 GND Ground. 3 Cap− Negative terminal for C1. 4 SD Active low, logic-level shutdown input. 5 VNEG Negative unregulated output voltage. 6 VFB 7 VOUT 8 VIN www.national.com Feedback input. Connect VFB to an external resistor divider between VOUT and a positive adjust voltage VADJ (0≤VADJ≤VIN). DO NOT leave unconnected. Regulated negative output voltage. Positive power supply input. 2 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1) TJMAX (Note 3) If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. θJA (Note 3) Supply Voltage (VIN to GND or GND to OUT) Operating Input Voltage Range + 5.8V VNEG and VOUT Continuous Output Current 2.7V to 5.5V Operating Output Current Range 0mA to 10mA Operating Ambient −40˚C to 85˚C Temp. Range (GND − 0.3V) to (VIN + 0.3V) SD 150˚C 250˚C/W Operating Junction Temp. Range −40˚C to 110˚C Storage Temperature −65˚C to 150˚C Lead Temp. (Soldering, 10 sec.) 10mA 300˚C ESD Rating (Note 4) VOUT Short-Circuit Duration to GND (Note 2) 2kV 1 sec. Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = 25˚C) (Note 3) 600mW Electrical Characteristics Limits with standard typeface apply for TJ = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full temperature range. Unless otherwise specified VIN = 3.6V, C1 = C2 = 1µF, C3 = 10µF. Symbol Parameter IQ Supply Current ISD Shutdown Supply Current FSW Switching Frequency (Note 5) Conditions Min Open Circuit, No Load 2.7V ≤ VIN ≤.5.5V VIN = 3.6V IL = 3.6mA IL = 10mA 50 60 Typ Max 500 950 Units µA 0.05 1 µA 110 105 180 170 kHz ηPOWER Power Efficiency at VNEG TSTART Start Up time (Note 6) 120 Output Resistance to VNEG (Note 7) IL = 2.5mA, VOUT = −2.7V IL = 10mA, VOUT = −3.8V IL = 2.5mA (Note 9) 30 Ω 1 2 mV RNEG VR Output Voltage Ripple (Note 8) VFB Feedback Pin Reference Voltage 94 91 Load Regulation 5.5V ≥ VIN ≥ 2.7V, 2.5mA ≥ IL 5.5V ≥ VIN ≥ 3.0V, 10mA ≥ IL ≥ 0mA 0 to 10mA, VOUT = − 2.4V Line Regulation 5.5V ≥ VIN ≥ 2.7V, IL = 2.5mA VIH Shutdown Pin Input Voltage High 5.5V ≥ VIN ≥ 2.7V VIL Shutdown Pin Input Voltage Low 5.5V ≥ VIN ≥ 2.7V VOUT Adjustable Output Voltage −1.25 −1.20 % 600 −1.15 µs V V − (VIN −0.3V) − (VIN −1.2V) 5 mV/mA 1 mV/V 2.2 V 0.5 V Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Electrical specifications do not apply when operating the device beyond its rated operating conditions. Note 2: OUT may be shorted to GND for one second without damage. However, shorting OUT to VIN may damage the device and must be avoided. Also, for temperatures above TA = 85˚C, OUT must not be shorted to GND or VIN or device may be damaged. Note 3: The maximum power dissipation must be de-rated at elevated temperatures and is limited by TJMAX (maximum junction temperature), TA (ambient temperature) and θJA (junction-to-ambient thermal resistance). The maximum power dissipation at any temperature is: PDissMAX = (TJMAX — TA)/θJA up to the value listed in the Absolute Maximum Ratings. Note 4: Rating is for the human body model, a 100pF capacitor discharged through a 1.5 kΩ resistor into each pin. Note 5: The output switches operate at one half the oscillator frequency, fOSC = 2fSW. Note 6: All capacitors are 1µF. Note 7: Current drawn from VNEG pin decreases power efficiency and will increase output voltage ripple. Note 8: In the test circuit, capacitors C1 and C2 are 1µF, C3 = 10µF, 0.30Ω maximum ESR capacitors. Capacitors with higher ESR will increase output resistance, increase output voltage ripple, and reduce efficiency. Note 9: The feedback resistors R1 and R2 are 200kΩ resistors. 3 www.national.com Electrical Characteristics (Continued) DS101180-21 FIGURE 1. Standard Application Circuit for Minimum Capacitance Values DS101180-22 FIGURE 2. Standard Application Circuit for Low Output Noise Typical Performance Characteristics Output Voltage vs. Output Current Figure 2 Unless otherwise specified, TA = 25˚C, VOUT = −2.5V. Output Voltage vs. Output Current Figure 1 Output Voltage vs. Input Voltage DS101180-6 DS101180-4 www.national.com DS101180-5 4 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified, TA = 25˚C, VOUT = −2.5V. (Continued) Maximum Output Current vs. Input Voltage Maximum VNEG Current vs. Input Voltage No Load Supply Current vs. Input Voltage DS101180-8 DS101180-9 DS101180-7 Start-Up Time vs. Input Voltage Figure 1 Switching Frequency vs. Input Voltage Start-Up from Shutdown (no load) Figure 2 DS101180-12 DS101180-10 Output Ripple Figure 1 DS101180-11 Output Ripple Figure 2 Line Transient Response DS101180-17 DS101180-13 DS101180-14 5 www.national.com Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified, TA = 25˚C, VOUT = −2.5V. (Continued) Load Transient Response VFB vs. Temperature DS101180-18 DS101180-15 Output Noise Spectrum Figure 1 Output Noise Spectrum Figure 2 DS101180-24 DS101180-23 DS101180-3 FIGURE 3. Functional Block Diagram www.national.com 6 Device Description The LM2687 is an inverting, regulated charge-pump power converter. It features low noise, small physical size, and is simple to use. It is an ideal solution for biasing GaAsFET devices such as power amplifier modules found in portable devices and cellular phones. A switched capacitor charge-pump circuit is used to invert the input voltage VIN to its corresponding negative value which is seen at VNEG. This voltage is regulated by a low dropout linear regulator at VOUT (Figure 3). The output voltage can be regulated anywhere from −1.5V to −5.2V and is determined by a pair of feedback resistors (see Setting the Output Voltage). The PSRR of the linear regulator reduces the output voltage ripple produced by the charge-pump inverter to 1mVP-P (typical) at the output VOUT. The regulator also attenuates noise from the incoming supply due to its high PSRR. The switching frequency is fixed at 100kHz and RSW (the combined resistance of the internal switches) is typically 10Ω. It is clear from this equation that low ESR capacitors are desirable and that larger values of C1 will further reduce the output resistance. The output resistance of the entire circuit (in dropout) is: ROUT = RNEG + Rregulator Rregulator (the output impedance of the linear regulator) is approximately 10Ω. When the circuit is in regulation, the overall output resistance is equal to the linear regulator load regulation (5mV/mA). The dropout voltage is therefore affected by the capacitors used since it is simply defined as IOUT*ROUT. A larger value of capacitor and lower ESR for C2 will lower the output voltage ripple of the charge-pump. This ripple will then be subject to the PSRR of the linear regulator and reduced at VOUT. A larger value and lower ESR for C3 will further reduce this ripple. The Low Dropout Linear Regulator uses an N-channel FET device which behaves similarly to an NPN device. Because of this and the internal compensation there are no strict ESR requirements for the output capacitor to maintain stability. Using the minimum recommended values will ensure stability under all conditions. In summation, larger value capacitors with lower ESR will give the lowest output noise and ripple. C1, C2, and C3 should be 1.0µF minimum with less than 0.3Ω ESR. Larger values may be used for any or all capacitors. All capacitors should be either ceramic, surface-mount chip tantalum, or polymer electrolytic. Shutdown The LM2687 features a logic-level shutdown feature. The function is active-low and will reduce the supply current to 0.05µA (typical) when engaged. When shutdown is active VOUT and VNEG are switched to ground. Application Information Setting the Output Voltage The output voltage on the LM2687 is set by using a resistor divider between the output, the feedback pin, and an arbitrary voltage VADJ (Figure 3). VADJ can range from GND to any positive voltage up to VIN. VADJ is usually chosen to be GND and should not be connected to a different voltage unless it is well regulated so the output will stay constant. The feedback pin is held at a constant voltage VFB which equals −1.2V. The output voltage can be selected using the equation: Output Noise and Ripple Low output noise and output voltage ripple are two of the attractive features of the LM2687. Because they are small, the noise and ripple (1mV typ.) can be hard to measure accurately. Ground loop error between the circuit and the oscilloscope caused by the switching of the charge-pump produces ground currents in the probe wires. This causes sharp voltage spikes on the oscilloscope waveform. To reduce this error measure, the output directly at the output capacitor (C3) and use the shortest wires possible. Also, do not use the ground lead on the probe. Take the tip cover off of the probe and touch the grounding ring of the probe directly to the ground terminal of C3. This should give the most accurate reading of the actual output waveform. The current into the feedback pin IFB is in the range of 10nA to 100nA. Therefore using a value of 500kΩ or smaller for R1 should make this current of little concern when setting the output voltage. For best accuracy, use resistors with 1% or better tolerance. Capacitor Selection Selecting the right capacitors for your circuit is important. The capacitors affect the output resistance of the charge-pump, the output voltage ripple, and the overall dropout voltage (VIN-|VOUT|) of the circuit. The output resistance of the charge-pump inverter is: 7 www.national.com LM2687 Low Noise Regulated Switched Capacitor Voltage Inverter Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted MSOP-8 Package 8-Lead Mini SO-8 (MM) For Ordering, Refer to Ordering Information Table NS Package Number MUA08A LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. 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