LM2937-2.5, LM2937-3.3 400mA and 500mA Voltage Regulators General Description The LM2937-2.5 and LM2937-3.3 are positive voltage regulators capable of supplying up to 500 mA of load current. Both regulators are ideal for converting a common 5V logic supply, or higher input supply voltage, to the lower 2.5V and 3.3V supplies to power VLSI ASIC’s and microcontrollers. Special circuitry has been incorporated to minimize the quiescent current to typically only 10 mA with a full 500 mA load current when the input to output voltage differential is greater than 5V. The LM2937 requires an output bypass capacitor for stability. As with most regulators utilizing a PNP pass transistor, the ESR of this capacitor remains a critical design parameter, but the LM2937-2.5 and LM2937-3.3 include special compensation circuitry that relaxes ESR requirements. The LM2937 is stable for all ESR ratings less than 5Ω. This allows the use of low ESR chip capacitors. The regulators are also suited for automotive applications, with built in protection from reverse battery connections, two-battery jumps and up to +60V/−50V load dump transients. Familiar regulator features such as short circuit and thermal shutdown protection are also built in. Features n Fully specified for operation over −40˚C to +125˚C n Output current in excess of 500 mA (400mA for SOT-223 package) n Output trimmed for 5% tolerance under all operating conditions n Wide output capacitor ESR range, 0.01Ω up to 5Ω n Internal short circuit and thermal overload protection n Reverse battery protection n 60V input transient protection n Mirror image insertion protection Connection Diagram and Ordering Information TO-220 Plastic Package SOT-223 Plastic Package DS100113-24 Front View Order Number LM2937ET-2.5, LM2937ET-3.3, See NS Package Number T03B DS100113-25 Front View Order Number LM2937IMP-2.5, LM2937IMP-3.3, See NS Package Number MA04A TO-263 Surface-Mount Package DS100113-27 Side View DS100113-26 Top View Order Number LM2937ES-2.5, LM2937ES-3.3, See NS Package Number TS3B © 1998 National Semiconductor Corporation DS100113 www.national.com LM2937-2.5, LM2937-3.3 400mA and 500mA Voltage Regulators February 1998 Connection Diagram and Ordering Information (Continued) Temperature Range 2.5 Output Voltage 3.3 NSC Package −40˚C ≤ TA ≤ 125˚C LM2937ES-2.5 LM2937ES-3.3 TS3B LM2937ET-2.5 LM2937ET-3.3 T03B TO-220 −40˚C ≤ TA ≤ 85˚C LM2937IMP-2.5 LM2937IMP-3.3 MA04A SOT-223 SOT-223 Package Markings L68B L69B Package Drawing TO-263 The small physical size of the SOT-223 package does not allow sufficient space to provide the complete device part number. The actual devices will be labeled with the package markings shown. www.national.com 2 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1) TO-263 (10 seconds) SOT-223 (Vapor Phase, 60 seconds) SOT-223 (Infrared, 15 seconds) ESD Susceptibility (Note 3) If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Input Voltage Continuous Transient (t ≤ 100 ms) Internal Power Dissipation (Note 2) Maximum Junction Temperature Storage Temperature Range Lead Temperature Soldering TO-220 (10 seconds) 230˚C 215˚C 220˚C 2 kV Operating Conditions(Note 1) 26V 60V Internally Limited 150˚C −65˚C to +150˚C Temperature Range (Note 2) LM2937ES, LM2937ET −40˚C ≤ TA ≤ 125˚C LM2937IMP Input Voltage Range −40˚C ≤ TA ≤ 85˚C 4.75V to 26V 260˚C Electrical Characteristics(Note 4) VIN = VNOM + 5V, IOUTmax = 500 mA for the TO-220 and TO-263 packages, IOUTmax = 400mA for the SOT-223 package, COUT = 10 µF unless otherwise indicated. Boldface limits apply over the entire operating temperature range, of the indicated device, all other specifications are for TA = TJ = 25˚C. Output Voltage (VOUT) Parameter Output Voltage 2.5V Conditions Typ 5 mA ≤ IOUT ≤ IOUTmax 3.3V Limit Limit 3.3 3.14 V(Min) 3.40 V(Max) 2.42 2.5 2.38 Units Typ 3.20 2.56 2.62 V (Min) 3.46 V(Max) 33 mV(Max) 4.75V ≤ VIN ≤ 26V, IOUT = 5 mA 7.5 25 9.9 Load Regulation 5 mA ≤ IOUT ≤ IOUTmax 2.5 25 3.3 33 mV(Max) Quiescent Current 7V ≤ VIN ≤ 26V, IOUT = 5 mA 2 10 2 10 mA(Max) VIN = (VOUT + 5V), IOUT = IOUTmax 10 20 10 20 mA(Max) 66 100125 66 100125 mA(Max) Line Regulation(Note 5) VIN = 5V, IOUT = IOUTmax Output Noise Voltage 10 Hz–100 kHz, IOUT = 5 mA Long Term Stability 1000 Hrs. 75 10 Short-Circuit Current Peak Line Transient 99 tf < 100 ms, RL = 100Ω µVrms 13.2 mV 1.0 0.6 1.0 0.6 A(Min) 75 60 75 60 V(Min) 26 V(Min) Voltage Maximum Operational 26 Input Voltage Reverse DC VOUT ≥ −0.6V, RL = 100Ω −30 −15 −30 −15 V(Min) tr < 1 ms, RL = 100Ω −75 −50 −75 −50 V(Min) Input Voltage Reverse Transient Input Voltage Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Electrical specifications do not apply when operating the device outside of its rated Operating Conditions. Note 2: The maximum allowable power dissipation at any ambient temperature is PMAX = (125 − TA)/θJA, where 125 is the maximum junction temperature for operation, TA is the ambient temperature, and θJA is the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance. If this dissipation is exceeded, the die temperature will rise above 125˚C and the electrical specifications do not apply. If the die temperature rises above 150˚C, the regulator will go into thermal shutdown. The junction-to-ambient thermal resistance θJA is 65˚C/W, for the TO-220 package, 73˚C/W for the TO-263 package, and 174˚C/W for the SOT-223 package. When used with a heatsink, θJA is the sum of the device junction-to-case thermal resistance θJC of 3˚C/W and the heatsink case-to-ambient thermal resistance. If the TO-263 or SOT-223 packages are used, the thermal resistance can be reduced by increasing the P.C. board copper area thermally connected to the package (see Application Hints for more information on heatsinking). Note 3: ESD rating is based on the human body model, 100 pF discharged through 1.5 kΩ. Note 4: Typicals are at TJ = 25˚C and represent the most likely parametric norm. Note 5: The minimum input voltage required for proper biasing of these regulators is 4.75V. Below this level the outputs will fall out of regulation. This effect is not the normal dropout characteristic where the output falls out of regulation due to the PNP pass transistor entering saturation. If a value for worst case effective input to output dropout voltage is required in a specification, the values should be 2.37V maximum for the LM2937-2.5 and 1.6V maximum for the LM2937-3.3. 3 www.national.com Typical Performance Characteristics Output Voltage vs Temperature (2.5V) Output Voltage vs Temperature (3.3V) DS100113-2 Quiescent Current vs Output Current (3.3V) DS100113-3 Quiescent Current vs Input Voltage (2.5V) DS100113-5 Line Transient Response DS100113-4 Quiescent Current vs Input Voltage (3.3V) DS100113-6 DS100113-9 4 DS100113-7 Ripple Rejection Load Transient Response DS100113-8 www.national.com Quiescent Current vs Output Current (2.5V) DS100113-10 Typical Performance Characteristics Output Impedance (Continued) Maximum Power Dissipation (TO-220) Maximum Power Dissipation (TO-263) (Note 2) DS100113-11 DS100113-12 Low Voltage Behavior (2.5V) DS100113-13 Low Voltage Behavior (3.3) DS100113-14 Output at Voltage Extremes DS100113-15 Output Capacitor ESR Peak Output Current DS100113-17 DS100113-18 DS100113-16 Typical Application DS100113-1 * Required if the regulator is located more than 3 inches from the power supply filter capacitors. ** Required for stability. Cout must be at least 10 µF (over the full expected operating temperature range) and located as close as possible to the regulator. The equivalent series resistance, ESR, of this capacitor may be as high as 3Ω. 5 www.national.com The figure below shows the voltages and currents which are present in the circuit, as well as the formula for calculating the power dissipated in the regulator: Application Hints EXTERNAL CAPACITORS The output capacitor is critical to maintaining regulator stability, and must meet the required conditions for both ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance) and minimum amount of capacitance. MINIMUM CAPACITANCE: The minimum output capacitance required to maintain stability is 10 µF (this value may be increased without limit). Larger values of output capacitance will give improved transient response. ESR LIMITS: The ESR of the output capacitor will cause loop instability if it is too high or too low. The acceptable range of ESR plotted versus load current is shown in the graph below. It is essential that the output capacitor meet these requirements, or oscillations can result. DS100113-19 IIN = IL ÷ IG PD = (VIN − VOUT) IL + (VIN) IG FIGURE 2. Power Dissipation Diagram The next parameter which must be calculated is the maximum allowable temperature rise, TR (max). This is calculated by using the formula: TR (max) = TJ(max) − TA (max) Output Capacitor ESR where: TJ (max) is the maximum allowable junction temperature, which is 125˚C for commercial grade parts. TA (max) is the maximum ambient temperature which will be encountered in the application. Using the calculated values for TR(max) and PD, the maximum allowable value for the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance, θ(J−A), can now be found: θ(J−A) = TR (max)/PD IMPORTANT: If the maximum allowable value for θ(J−A) is found to be ≥ 53˚C/W for the TO-220 package, ≥ 80˚C/W for the TO-263 package, or ≥174˚C/W for the SOT-223 package, no heatsink is needed since the package alone will dissipate enough heat to satisfy these requirements. If the calculated value for θ(J−A)falls below these limits, a heatsink is required. DS100113-17 FIGURE 1. ESR Limits It is important to note that for most capacitors, ESR is specified only at room temperature. However, the designer must ensure that the ESR will stay inside the limits shown over the entire operating temperature range for the design. For aluminum electrolytic capacitors, ESR will increase by about 30X as the temperature is reduced from 25˚C to −40˚C. This type of capacitor is not well-suited for low temperature operation. Solid tantalum capacitors have a more stable ESR over temperature, but are more expensive than aluminum electrolytics. A cost-effective approach sometimes used is to parallel an aluminum electrolytic with a solid Tantalum, with the total capacitance split about 75/25% with the Aluminum being the larger value. If two capacitors are paralleled, the effective ESR is the parallel of the two individual values. The “flatter” ESR of the Tantalum will keep the effective ESR from rising as quickly at low temperatures. HEATSINKING TO-220 PACKAGE PARTS The TO-220 can be attached to a typical heatsink, or secured to a copper plane on a PC board. If a copper plane is to be used, the values of θ(J−A) will be the same as shown in the next section for the TO-263. If a manufactured heatsink is to be selected, the value of heatsink-to-ambient thermal resistance, θ(H−A), must first be calculated: θ(H−A) = θ(J−A) − θ(C−H) − θ(J−C) Where: θ(J−C) is defined as the thermal resistance from the junction to the surface of the case. A value of 3˚C/W can be assumed for θ(J−C) for this calculation. is defined as the thermal resistance beθ(C−H) tween the case and the surface of the heatsink. The value of θ(C−H) will vary from about 1.5˚C/W to about 2.5˚C/W (depending on method of attachment, insulator, etc.). If the exact value is unknown, 2˚C/W should be assumed for θ(C−H). When a value for θ(H−A) is found using the equation shown, a heatsink must be selected that has a value that is less than or equal to this number. HEATSINKING A heatsink may be required depending on the maximum power dissipation and maximum ambient temperature of the application. Under all possible operating conditions, the junction temperature must be within the range specified under Absolute Maximum Ratings. To determine if a heatsink is required, the power dissipated by the regulator, PD, must be calculated. www.national.com 6 θ(H−A) is specified numerically by the heatsink manufacturer in the catalog, or shown in a curve that plots temperature rise vs power dissipation for the heatsink. HEATSINKING TO-263 AND SOT-223 PACKAGE PARTS Both the TO-263 (“S”) and SOT-223 (“MP”) packages use a copper plane on the PCB and the PCB itself as a heatsink. To optimize the heat sinking ability of the plane and PCB, solder the tab of the package to the plane. Figure 3 shows for the TO-263 the measured values of θ(J−A) for different copper area sizes using a typical PCB with 1 ounce copper and no solder mask over the copper area used for heatsinking. DS100113-22 FIGURE 5. θ(J−A) vs Copper (2 ounce) Area for the SOT-223 Package DS100113-20 FIGURE 3. θ(J−A) vs Copper (1 ounce) Area for the TO-263 Package As shown in the figure, increasing the copper area beyond 1 square inch produces very little improvement. It should also be observed that the minimum value of θ(J−A) for the TO-263 package mounted to a PCB is 32˚C/W. As a design aid, Figure 4 shows the maximum allowable power dissipation compared to ambient temperature for the TO-263 device (assuming θ(J−A) is 35˚C/W and the maximum junction temperature is 125˚C). DS100113-23 FIGURE 6. Maximum Power Dissipation vs TAMB for the SOT-223 Package Please see AN1028 for power enhancement techniques to be used with the SOT-223 package. SOT-223 SOLDERING RECOMMENDATIONS It is not recommended to use hand soldering or wave soldering to attach the small SOT-223 package to a printed circuit board. The excessive temperatures involved may cause package cracking. Either vapor phase or infrared reflow techniques are preferred soldering attachment methods for the SOT-223 package. DS100113-21 FIGURE 4. Maximum Power Dissipation vs TAMB for the TO-263 Package Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the information for the SOT-223 package. Figure 6 assumes a θ(J−A) of 74˚C/W for 1 ounce copper and 51˚C/W for 2 ounce copper and a maximum junction temperature of 125˚C. 7 www.national.com Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted Plastic Package Order Number LM2937ET-2.5, LM2937ET-3.3, NS Package Number T03B www.national.com 8 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) TO-263 3-Lead Plastic Surface Mount Package Order Number LM2937ES-2.5, LM2937ES-3.3, NS Package Number TS3B 9 www.national.com LM2937-2.5, LM2937-3.3 400mA and 500mA Voltage Regulators Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) SOT-223 3-Lead Plastic Surface Mount Package Order Number LM2937IMP-2.5, LM2937IMP-3.3, NS Package Number MA04A LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 2. A critical component in any component of a life support 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or sysdevice or system whose failure to perform can be reatems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into sonably expected to cause the failure of the life support the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose faildevice or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. ure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation Americas Tel: 1-800-272-9959 Fax: 1-800-737-7018 Email: [email protected] www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Fax: +49 (0) 1 80-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-530 85 85 English Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-532 78 32 Français Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-532 93 58 Italiano Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-534 16 80 National Semiconductor Asia Pacific Customer Response Group Tel: 65-2544466 Fax: 65-2504466 Email: [email protected] National Semiconductor Japan Ltd. Tel: 81-3-5620-6175 Fax: 81-3-5620-6179 National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.