AD EVAL-ADUC831QSZ

MicroConverter , 12-Bit ADCs and DACs
with Embedded 62 kBytes Flash MCU
ADuC831
®
FEATURES
ANALOG I/O
8-Channel, 247 kSPS 12-Bit ADC
DC Performance: 1 LSB INL
AC Performance: 71 dB SNR
DMA Controller for High Speed ADC-to-RAM Capture
2 12-Bit (Monotonic) Voltage Output DACs
Dual Output PWM/- DACs
On-Chip Temperature Sensor Function 3C
On-Chip Voltage Reference
Memory
62 kBytes On-Chip Flash/EE Program Memory
4 kBytes On-Chip Flash/EE Data Memory
Flash/EE, 100 Yr Retention, 100 kCycles Endurance
2304 Bytes On-Chip Data RAM
8051 Based Core
8051 Compatible Instruction Set (16 MHz Max)
12 Interrupt Sources, 2 Priority Levels
Dual Data Pointer
Extended 11-Bit Stack Pointer
On-Chip Peripherals
Time Interval Counter (TIC)
UART, I2C ®, and SPI® Serial I/O
Watchdog Timer (WDT), Power Supply Monitor (PSM)
Power
Specified for 3 V and 5 V Operation
Normal, Idle, and Power-Down Modes
Power-Down: 20 A @ 3 V
APPLICATIONS
Optical Networking—Laser Power Control
Base Station Systems
Precision Instrumentation, Smart Sensors
Transient Capture Systems
DAS and Communications Systems
Pin compatible upgrade to existing ADuC812 systems
that require additional code or data memory. Runs
from 1 MHz–16 MHz to external crystal.
The ADuC832 is also available. Functionally is the same
as the ADuC831, except the ADuC832 runs from a 32 kHz
external crystal with on-chip PLL.
MicroConverter is a registered trademark and QuickStart is a trademark
of Analog Devices, Inc.
SPI is a registered trademark of Motorola, Inc.
I2C is a registered trademark of Philips Corporation.
REV. 0
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its
use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that
may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise
under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective companies.
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
ADuC831
ADC0
T/H
ADC1
12-BIT
DAC
BUF
DAC
12-BIT
DAC
BUF
DAC
12-BIT ADC
16-BIT
- DAC
MUX
ADC5
ADC6
ADC7
HARDWARE
CALIBRATON
16-BIT
- DAC
PWM0
MUX
16-BIT
PWM
TEMP
SENSOR
PWM1
16-BIT
PWM
8051-BASED MCU WITH ADDITIONAL
PERIPHERALS
62 kBYTES FLASH/EE PROGRAM MEMORY
4 kBYTES FLASH/EE DATA MEMORY
2304 BYTES USER RAM
INTERNAL
BAND GAP
VREF
VREF
3 16 BIT TIMERS
1 REAL TIME CLOCK
POWER SUPPLY MON
WATCHDOG TIMER
PARALLEL
PORTS
UART, I2 C, AND SPI
SERIAL I/O
OSC
XTAL1
XTAL2
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The ADuC831 is a fully integrated 247 kSPS data acquisition
system incorporating a high performance self-calibrating multichannel 12-bit ADC, dual 12-bit DACs, and programmable
8-bit MCU on a single chip.
The microcontroller core is an 8052, and therefore 8051instruction-set compatible with 12 core clock periods per machine
cycle. 62 kBytes of nonvolatile Flash/EE program memory are
provided on-chip. Four kBytes of nonvolatile Flash/EE data
memory, 256 bytes RAM and 2 kBytes of extended RAM are
also integrated on-chip.
The ADuC831 also incorporates additional analog functionality
with two 12-bit DACs, power supply monitor, and a band gap
reference. On-chip digital peripherals include two 16-bit Σ-∆
DACs, dual output 16-bit PWM, watchdog timer, time interval
counter, three timers/counters, Timer 3 for baud rate generation
and serial I/O ports (I2C, SPI and UART).
On-chip factory firmware supports in-circuit serial download and
debug modes (via UART), as well as single-pin emulation mode
via the EA pin. The ADuC831 is supported by QuickStart™ and
QuickStart Plus development systems featuring low cost software
and hardware development tools. A functional block diagram of
the ADuC831 is shown above with a more detailed block diagram
shown in Figure 1.
The part is specified for 3 V and 5 V operation over the extended
industrial temperature range, and is available in a 52-lead plastic
quad flatpack package and in a 56-lead chip scale package.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781/329-4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781/326-8703 © Analog Devices, Inc., 2002. All rights reserved.
ADuC831
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Flash/EE Program Memory Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Flash/EE Data Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ECON—Flash/EE Memory Control SFR . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flash/EE Memory Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENERAL DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
28
29
29
30
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
ADuC831 CONFIGURATION REGISTER (CFG831) . . 31
ORDERING GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
USER INTERFACE TO OTHER ON-CHIP
ADuC831 PERIPHERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the DAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pulsewidth Modulator (PWM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Peripheral Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I2C Compatible Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual Data Pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Supply Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Watchdog Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer Interval Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
33
35
38
40
42
43
44
45
8052 COMPATIBLE ON-CHIP PERIPHERALS . . . .
Parallel I/O Ports 0–3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timers/Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UART Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UART Serial Port Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UART Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UART Serial Port Baud Rate Generation . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer 1 Generated Baud Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer 2 Generated Baud Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer 3 Generated Baud Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interrupt System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
47
50
55
55
56
56
57
57
58
59
ADuC831 HARDWARE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Clock Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Memory Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Saving Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power-On Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grounding and Board Layout Recommendations . . . . . .
60
60
60
61
62
62
62
63
OTHER HARDWARE CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . .
In-Circuit Serial Download Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Embedded Serial Port Debugger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single-Pin Emulation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
63
64
64
64
PIN CONFIGURATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
PIN FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
TERMINOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS . . 11
MEMORY ORGANIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
OVERVIEW OF MCU-RELATED SFRS . . . . . . . . . .
Accumulator SFR (ACC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B SFR (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stack Pointer SFR (SP AND SPH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Pointer (DPTR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program Status Word SFR (PSW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Control SFR (PCON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
ADC CIRCUIT INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADC Transfer Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADCCON1 – (ADC Control SFR #1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADCCON2 – (ADC Control SFR #2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADCCON3 – (ADC Control SFR #3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driving the A/D Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Voltage Reference Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADC DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Micro Operation during ADC DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . .
ADC Offset and Gain Calibration Coefficients . . . . . . . .
Calibrating the ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
18
18
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
24
25
25
25
NONVOLATILE FLASH MEMORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flash Memory Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flash/EE Memory and the ADuC831 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADuC831 Flash/EE Memory Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Flash/EE Program Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ULOAD Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
27
27
27
28
28
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
TIMING SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
–2–
REV. 0
ADuC831
= DV = 2.7 V to 3.3 V or 4.5 V to 5.5 V. V = 2.5 V Internal Reference, MCLKIN = 16 MHz,
T = T to T , unless otherwise noted.)
SPECIFICATIONS1 (AVall specifications
DD
DD
REF
A
Parameter
VDD = 5 V
MIN
MAX
VDD = 3 V
Unit
Test Conditions/Comments
ADC CHANNEL SPECIFICATIONS
DC ACCURACY2, 3
Resolution
Integral Nonlinearity
Differential Nonlinearity
Integral Nonlinearity4
Differential Nonlinearity4
Code Distribution
CALIBRATED ENDPOINT ERRORS5, 6
Offset Error
Offset Error Match
Gain Error
Gain Error Match
fSAMPLE = 147 kHz, see Page 11 for
Typical Performance at other fSAMPLE
12
±1
± 0.3
± 0.9
± 0.25
± 1.5
+1.5/-0.9
1
12
±1
± 0.3
± 0.9
± 0.25
± 1.5
+1.5/–0.9
1
Bits
LSB max
LSB typ
LSB max
LSB typ
LSB max
LSB max
LSB typ
±4
±1
±2
–85
±4
±1
±3
–85
LSB max
LSB typ
LSB max
dB typ
ANALOG INPUT
Input Voltage Ranges
Leakage Current
Input Capacitance
TEMPERATURE SENSOR9
Voltage Output at 25°C
Voltage TC
Accuracy
71
–85
–85
–80
71
–85
–85
–80
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
0 to VREF
±1
32
0 to VREF
±1
32
V
µA max
pF typ
650
–2.0
±3
± 1.5
650
–2.0
±3
± 1.5
mV typ
mV/°C typ
°C typ
°C typ
DAC CHANNEL SPECIFICATIONS
Internal Buffer Enabled
DC ACCURACY10
Resolution
Relative Accuracy
Differential Nonlinearity11
2.5 V Internal Reference
1 V External Reference
1 V External Reference
ADC Input is a DC Voltage
fIN = 10 kHz Sine Wave
fSAMPLE = 147 kHz
DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)7
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Peak Harmonic or Spurious Noise
Channel-to-Channel Crosstalk8
2.5 V Internal Reference
Internal 2.5 V VREF
External 2.5 V VREF
DAC Load to AGND
RL = 10 kΩ, CL = 100 pF
12
±3
–1
± 1/2
± 50
±1
±1
0.5
12
±3
–1
± 1/2
± 50
±1
±1
0.5
Bits
LSB typ
LSB max
LSB typ
mV max
% max
% typ
% typ
ANALOG OUTPUTS
Voltage Range_0
Voltage Range_1
Output Impedance
0 to VREF
0 to VDD
0.5
0 to VREF
0 to VDD
0.5
V typ
V typ
Ω typ
DAC VREF = 2.5 V
DAC VREF = VDD
DAC AC CHARACTERISTICS
Voltage Output Settling Time
15
15
µs typ
10
10
nV sec typ
Full-Scale Settling Time to
within 1/2 LSB of Final Value
1 LSB Change at Major Carry
Offset Error
Gain Error
Gain Error Mismatch
Digital-to-Analog Glitch Energy
REV. 0
–3–
Guaranteed 12-bit Monotonic
VREF Range
AVDD Range
VREF Range
% of Full Scale on DAC1
ADuC831
SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
Parameter
VDD = 5 V
VDD = 3 V
Unit
Test Conditions/Comments
12
±3
–1
± 1/2
±5
–0.3
0.5
12
±3
–1
± 1/2
±5
–0.3
0.5
Bits
LSB typ
LSB max
LSB typ
mV max
% typ
% max
VREF Range
VREF Range
% of Full-Scale on DAC1
ANALOG OUTPUTS
Voltage Range_0
0 to VREF
0 to VREF
V typ
DAC VREF = 2.5 V
REFERENCE INPUT/OUTPUT
REFERENCE OUTPUT14
Output Voltage (VREF)
Accuracy
Power Supply Rejection
Reference Temperature Coefficient
Internal VREF Power-On Time
2.5
± 2.5
47
± 100
80
2.5
± 2.5
57
± 100
80
V
% max
dB typ
ppm/∞C typ
ms typ
0.1
VDD
20
1
0.1
VDD
20
1
V min
V max
kW typ
mA max
12, 13
DAC CHANNEL SPECIFICATIONS
Internal Buffer Disabled
DC ACCURACY10
Resolution
Relative Accuracy
Differential Nonlinearity11
Offset Error
Gain Error
Gain Error Mismatch4
EXTERNAL REFERENCE INPUT15
Voltage Range (VREF)4
Input Impedance
Input Leakage
POWER SUPPLY MONITOR (PSM)
DVDD Trip Point Selection Range
DVDD Power Supply Trip Point Accuracy
2.63
4.37
V min
V max
± 3.5
% max
Guaranteed 12-bit Monotonic
Of VREF Measured at the CREF Pin
VREF and CREF Pins Shorted
Internal Band Gap Deselected via
ADCCON1.6
Four Trip Points Selectable in
This Range Programmed via
TPD1–0 in PSMCON
4
WATCHDOG TIMER (WDT)
Time-out Period
FLASH/EE MEMORY RELIABILITY
CHARACTERISTICS16
Endurance17
Data Retention18
DIGITAL INPUTS
Input High Voltage (VINH)4
Input Low Voltage (VINL)4
Input Leakage Current (Port 0, EA)
Logic 1 Input Current
(All Digital Inputs)
Logic 0 Input Current (Port 1, 2, 3)
Logic 1-0 Transition Current (Port 2, 3)
0
2000
0
2000
ms min
ms max
100,000
100
100,000
100
Cycles min
Years min
2.4
0.8
± 10
±1
2
0.4
± 10
±1
V min
V max
mA max
mA typ
± 10
±1
–75
–40
–660
–400
± 10
±1
–25
–15
–250
–140
mA max
mA typ
mA max
mA typ
mA max
mA typ
–4–
Nine Time-out Periods
Selectable in This Range
VIN = 0 V or VDD
VIN = 0 V or VDD
VIN = VDD
VIN = VDD
VIL = 450 mV
VIL = 2 V
VIL = 2 V
REV. 0
ADuC831
Parameter
VDD = 5 V
VDD = 3 V
Unit
1.3
3.0
0.8
1.4
0.3
0.85
0.95
2.5
0.4
1.1
0.3
0.85
V min
V max
V min
V max
V min
V max
Test Conditions/Comments
4
SCLOCK and RESET Only
(Schmitt-Triggered Inputs)
VT+
VT–
VT+ – VT–
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
Logic Inputs, XTAL1 Only
VINL, Input Low Voltage
VINH, Input High Voltage
XTAL1 Input Capacitance
XTAL2 Output Capacitance
0.8
3.5
18
18
0.4
2.5
18
18
MCU CLOCK RATE
16
16
MHz max
2.4
2.6
V min
V typ
V min
V typ
VDD = 4.5 V to 5.5 V
ISOURCE = 80 µA
VDD = 2.7 V to 3.3 V
ISOURCE = 20 µA
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.4
± 10
±1
10
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.4
± 10
±1
10
V max
V typ
V max
V max
µA max
µA typ
pF typ
ISINK = 1.6 mA
ISINK = 1.6 mA
ISINK = 4 mA
ISINK = 8 mA, I2C Enabled
500
100
500
100
ms typ
µs typ
150
150
150
30
3
400
400
400
30
3
µs typ
µs typ
µs typ
ms typ
ms typ
DIGITAL OUTPUTS
Output High Voltage (VOH)
Output Low Voltage (VOL)
ALE, Ports 0 and 2
Port 3
SCLOCK/SDATA
Floating State Leakage Current4
Floating State Output Capacitance
START UP TIME
At Power-On
From Idle Mode
From Power-Down Mode
Wakeup with INT0 Interrupt
Wakeup with SPI/I2C Interrupt
Wakeup with External RESET
After External RESET in Normal Mode
After WDT Reset in Normal Mode
REV. 0
2.4
4.0
V typ
V typ
pF typ
pF typ
MCLKIN = 16 MHz
–5–
Controlled via WDCON SFR
ADuC831
SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
Parameter
POWER REQUIREMENTS
Power Supply Voltages
AVDD/DVDD to AGND
VDD = 5 V
VDD = 3 V
Unit
Test Conditions/Comments
2.7
3.3
V min
V max
V min
V max
AVDD /DVDD = 3 V nom
19, 20
4.5
5.5
Power Supply Currents Normal Mode
DVDD Current
AVDD Current
DVDD Current
AVDD Current
Power Supply Currents Idle Mode
DVDD Current
AVDD Current
DVDD Current4
AVDD Current
Power Supply Currents Power Down Mode
AVDD Current
DVDD Current
Typical Additional Power Supply Currents
PSM Peripheral
ADC
DAC
AVDD /DVDD = 5 V nom
6
1.7
25
21
1.7
3
1.7
12
10
1.7
mA typ
mA max
mA max
mA typ
mA max
MCLKIN = 1 MHz
MCLKIN = 1 MHz
MCLKIN = 16 MHz
MCLKIN = 16 MHz
MCLKIN = 16 MHz
5
0.14
11
10
0.14
1
0.14
5
4
0.14
mA typ
mA typ
mA max
mA typ
mA typ
MCLKIN = 1 MHz
MCLKIN = 1 MHz
MCLKIN = 16 MHz
MCLKIN = 16 MHz
MCLKIN = 16 MHz
MCLKIN = 2 MHz or 16 MHz
3
35
25
160
2.5
20
12
125
A typ
A max
A typ
A typ
A typ
mA typ
A typ
50
1.5
150
TIMECON.1 = 0
TIMECON.1 = 1
AVDD = DVDD = 5 V
NOTES
1
Temperature Range –40ºC to +125ºC.
2
ADC linearity is guaranteed during normal Micro Converter core operation.
3
ADC LSB Size = V REF/212 i.e., for Internal V REF = 2.5 V, 1 LSB = 610 V and for External VREF =1 V, 1 LSB = 244 V.
4
These numbers are not production tested but are guaranteed by design and/or characterization data on production release.
5
Offset and Gain Error and Offset and Gain Error Match are measured after factory calibration.
6
Based on external ADC system components, the user may need to execute a system calibration to remove additional external channel errors and achieve
these specifications.
7
SNR calculation includes distortion and noise components.
8
Channel-to-channel Crosstalk is measured on adjacent channels.
9
The Temperature Monitor will give a measure of the die temperature directly; air temperature can be inferred from this result.
10
DAC linearity is calculated using:
Reduced code range of 100 to 4095, 0 to V REF range.
Reduced code range of 100 to 3945, 0 to V DD range.
DAC Output Load = 10 kΩ and 100 pF.
11
DAC differential nonlinearity specified on 0 to V REF and 0 to VDD ranges
12
DAC specification for output impedance in the unbuffered case depends on DAC code.
13
DAC specifications for I SINK, voltage output settling time, and digital-to-analog glitch energy depend on external buffer implementation in unbuffered mode. DAC
in unbuffered mode tested with OP270 external buffer, which has a low input leakage current.
14
Measured with V REF and CREF pins decoupled with 0.1 µF capacitors to ground. Power-up time for the internal reference will be determined by the value of the
decoupling capacitor chosen for both the V REF and CREF pins.
15
When using an external reference device, the internal band gap reference input can be bypassed by setting the ADCCON1.6 bit. In this mode the V REF and CREF
pins need to be shorted together for correct operation.
16
Flash/EE Memory reliability characteristics apply to both the Flash/EE program memory and the Flash/EE data memory.
17
Endurance is qualified to 100,000 cycles as per JEDEC Std. 22 method A117 and measured at -40ºC, +25ºC, and +125ºC. Typical endurance at
25ºC is 700,000 cycles.
18
Retention lifetime equivalent at junction temperature (Tj) = 55ºC as per JEDEC Std. 22 method A117. Retention lifetime based on an activation energy of 0.6 eV
will derate with junction temperature as shown in Figure 18 in the Flash/EE Memory description section of this data sheet.
19
Power supply current consumption is measured in Normal, Idle, and Power-Down Modes under the following conditions:
Normal Mode:
Reset = 0.4 V, Digital I/O pins = open circuit, Core Executing internal software loop.
Idle Mode:
Reset = 0.4 V, Digital I/O pins = open circuit, Core Execution suspended in idle mode.
Power-Down Mode: Reset = 0.4 V, All Port 0 pins = 0.4 V, All other digital I/O pins and Port 1 are open circuit, OSC off, TIC off.
20
DVDD power supply current will increase typically by 3 mA (3 V operation) and 10 mA (5 V operation) during a Flash/EE memory program or erase cycle.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
–6–
REV. 0
ADuC831
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS*
(TA = 25°C unless otherwise noted.)
AVDD to DVDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to +0.3 V
AGND to DGND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to +0.3 V
DVDD to DGND, AVDD to AGND . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to +7 V
Digital Input Voltage to DGND . . . . –0.3 V to DVDD + 0.3 V
Digital Output Voltage to DGND . . . –0.3 V to DVDD + 0.3 V
VREF to AGND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to AVDD + 0.3 V
Analog Inputs to AGND . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to AVDD + 0.3 V
Operating Temperature Range Industrial
ADuC831BS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –40°C to +125°C
Operating Temperature Range Industrial
ADuC831BCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –40°C to +85°C
Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . –65°C to +150°C
Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150°C
θJA Thermal Impedance (ADuC831BS) . . . . . . . . . . 90°C/W
θJA Thermal Impedance (ADuC831BCP) . . . . . . . . . 52°C/W
Lead Temperature, Soldering
Vapor Phase (60 sec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215°C
Infrared (15 sec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220°C
*Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only; functional operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those listed in the operational
sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
Temperature
Range
ADuC831BS
–40°C to +125°C
ADuC831BCP
–40°C to +85°C
EVAL-ADuC831QS
EVAL-ADuC831QSP
Package
Description
Package
Option
52-Lead Plastic Quad Flatpack
56-Lead Chip Scale Package
QuickStart Development System
QuickStart Plus Development System
S-52
CP-56
CAUTION
ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device. Electrostatic charges as high as 4000 V readily
accumulate on the human body and test equipment and can discharge without detection. Although the
ADuC831 features proprietary ESD protection circuitry, permanent damage may occur on devices
subjected to high energy electrostatic discharges. Therefore, proper ESD precautions are recommended
to avoid performance degradation or loss of functionality.
REV. 0
–7–
ADuC831
P1.1/ADC1/T2EX
P1.2/ADC2
1
P2.5/A13/A21
P1.3/ADC3
3
36
P2.4/A12/A20
AVDD
AVDD
4
AGND
AGND
6
8
39
P2.7/PWM1/A15/A23
38
P2.6/PWM0/A14/A22
P1.2/ADC2 3
37
P1.3/ADC3 4
AVDD 5
35
DGND
ADuC831 52-LEAD PQFP
34
DVDD
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
33
XTAL2
32
XTAL1
DAC0 9
DAC1 10
31
P2.3/A11/A19
AGND
CREF
30
P2.2/A10/A18
VREF
P1.4/ADC4 11
29
P2.1/A9/A17
P1.5/ADC5/SS 12
P1.6/ADC6 13
28
27
ADC
CONTROL
AND
CALIBRATION
DAC
CONTROL
MCU
CORE
ALE
PSEN
44
43
EA
P0.0/AD0
28
27
P3.7/RD
SCLOCK
16-BIT
⌺-⌬ DAC
PWM0
MUX
16-BIT
PWM
PWM1
T0
16-BIT
COUNTER
TIMERS
T1
T2
T2EX
POWER SUPPLY
MONITOR
INT0
INT1
OSC
XTAL2
MISO
SDATA\MOSI
SYNCHRONOUS
SERIAL INTERFACE
(I2C AND SPI )
SCLOCK
ALE
PSEN
EA
SINGLE-PIN
EMULATOR
TIME INTERVAL
COUNTER
(WAKEUP CCT)
UART
TIMER
TxD
RxD
DGND
RESET
DGND
DGND
DVDD
DVDD
DVDD
45
26
WATCHDOG
TIMER
DOWNLOADER
DEBUGGER
AGND
P0.1/AD1
P3.6/WR
256 BYTES USER
RAM
2 ⴛ DATA POINTERS
11-BIT STACK POINTER
ASYNCHRONOUS
SERIAL PORT
(UART)
P2.0/A8/A16
SDATA/MOSI
16-BIT
PWM
8052
2 kBYTES USER XRAM
AVDD
46
25
P3.5/T1/CONVST
DAC1
SS
4 kBYTES DATA
FLASH/EE
P2.1/A9/A17
16-BIT
⌺-⌬ DAC
62 kBYTES PROGRAM
FLASH/EE INCLUDING
USER DOWNLOAD
MODE
POR
P0.2/AD2
24
12-BIT
VOLTAGE
OUTPUT DAC
ADC7
CREF
47
23
DGND
P3.4/T0/PWMC/PWM0
DAC0
PWM
CONTROL
BUF
48
22
12-BIT
VOLTAGE
OUTPUT DAC
...
VREF
DGND
P0.3/AD3
21
P3.1/TxD
14
20
13
P3.2/INT0
P1.4/ADC4
P1.5/ADC5/SS
P3.3/INT1/MISO/PWM1
DVDD
SDATA/MOSI
19
12
18
DAC1
17
P2.2/A10/A18
P2.0/A8/A16
RESET
P2.3/A11/A19
32
31
30
29
P3.0/RxD
33
11
ADC6
BAND GAP
REFERENCE
DVDD
DAC0
MUX
TEMP
SENSOR
DGND
9
XTAL1
ADC1
...
P2.4/A12/A20
DGND
10
12-BIT
ADC
T/H
49
52
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
ADuC831
ADC0
P2.5/A13/A21
39
XTAL2
XTAL1
SCLOCK
P3.5/T1/CONVST
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD
DGND
P3.4/T0/PWMC/PWM1
P3.3/INT1/MISO/PWM0
DVDD
P3.2/INT0
P3.1/TXD
P3.0/RXD
RESET
7
P2.6/A14/A22
40
38
37
36
ADuC831 56-LEAD CSP
P2.7/A15/A23
35
34
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
P1.7/ADC7
5
16
VREF 8
42
41
PIN 1
IDENTIFIER
15
AGND 6
CREF 7
2
P.7/ADC7
PIN 1
IDENTIFIER
P1.6/ADC6
P1.0/ADC0/T2 1
P1.1/ADC1/T2EX 2
51
P0.5/AD5
P0.4/AD4
DVDD
53
56
52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40
50
P0.6/AD6
54
P1.0/ADC0/T2
P0.7/AD7
55
EA
ALE
PSEN
P0.0/AD0
P0.1/AD1
P0.2/AD2
P0.3/AD3
DVDD
DGND
P0.4/AD4
P0.5/AD5
P0.6/AD6
P0.7/AD7
PIN CONFIGURATION
Figure 1. ADuC831 Block Diagram (Shaded areas are features not present on the ADuC812)
–8–
REV. 0
ADuC831
PIN FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
Mnemonic
Type Function
DVDD
AVDD
CREF
VREF
P
P
I
I/O
AGND
P1.0–P1.7
G
I
ADC0–ADC7
T2
I
I
T2EX
I
SS
SDATA
SCLOCK
MOSI
MISO
DAC0
DAC1
RESET
P3.0–P3.7
I
I/O
I/O
I/O
I/O
O
O
I
I/O
PWMC
PWM0
PWM1
RxD
TxD
INT0
I
O
O
I/O
O
I
INT1
I
T0
T1
CONVST
I
I
I
WR
RD
XTAL2
XTAL1
DGND
P2.0–P2.7
(A8–A15)
(A16–A23)
O
O
O
I
G
I/O
REV. 0
Digital Positive Supply Voltage, 3 V or 5 V Nominal
Analog Positive Supply Voltage, 3 V or 5 V Nominal
Decoupling Input for On-Chip Reference. Connect 0.1 µF between this pin and AGND.
Reference Input/Output. This pin is connected to the internal reference through a series resistor and is the
reference source for the analog-to-digital converter. The nominal internal reference voltage is 2.5 V and this
appears at the pin. This pin can be overdriven by an external reference.
Analog Ground. Ground reference point for the analog circuitry.
Port 1 is an 8-bit input port only. Unlike other ports, Port 1 defaults to Analog Input mode, to configure
any of these Port Pins as a digital input, write a “0” to the port bit. Port 1 pins are multifunction and share
the following functionality.
Analog Inputs. Eight single-ended analog inputs. Channel selection is via ADCCON2 SFR.
Timer 2 Digital Input. Input to Timer/Counter 2. When enabled, Counter 2 is incremented in response to a
1-to-0 transition of the T2 input.
Digital Input. Capture/Reload trigger for Counter 2 and also functions as an Up/Down control input for
Counter 2.
Slave Select Input for the SPI Interface
User Selectable, I2C Compatible or SPI Data Input/Output Pin
Serial Clock Pin for I2C Compatible or SPI Serial Interface Clock
SPI Master Output/Slave Input Data I/O Pin for SPI Interface
SPI Master Input/Slave Output Data I/O Pin for SPI Serial Interface
Voltage Output from DAC0
Voltage Output from DAC1
Digital Input. A high level on this pin for 24 master clock cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.
Port 3 is a bidirectional port with internal pull-up resistors. Port 3 pins that have 1s written to them are
pulled high by the internal pull-up resistors, and in that state they can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3
pins being pulled externally low will source current because of the internal pull-up resistors. Port 3 pins
also contain various secondary functions which are described below.
PWM Clock Input
PWM0 Voltage Output. PWM outputs can be configured to use ports 2.6 and 2.7, or 3.4 and 3.3.
PWM1 Voltage Output. See CFG831 Register for further information.
Receiver Data Input (Asynchronous) or Data Input/Output (Synchronous) of Serial (UART) Port
Transmitter Data Output (Asynchronous) or Clock Output (Synchronous) of Serial (UART) Port
Interrupt 0, programmable edge- or level-triggered Interrupt input, which can be programmed to one of two
priority levels. This pin can also be used as a gate control input to Timer 0.
Interrupt 1, programmable edge- or level-triggered Interrupt input, which can be programmed to one of two
priority levels. This pin can also be used as a gate control input to Timer 1.
Timer/Counter 0 Input
Timer/Counter 1 Input
Active Low Convert Start Logic Input for the ADC Block when the External Convert Start Function is Enabled.
A low-to-high transition on this input puts the track-and-hold into its hold mode and starts conversion.
Write Control Signal, Logic Output. Latches the data byte from Port 0 into the external data memory.
Read Control Signal, Logic Output. Enables the external data memory to Port 0.
Output of the Inverting Oscillator Amplifier
Input to the Inverting Oscillator Amplifier, and input to the internal clock generator circuits.
Digital Ground. Ground reference point for the digital circuitry.
Port 2 is a bidirectional port with internal pull-up resistors. Port 2 pins that have 1s written to them are
pulled high by the internal pull-up resistors, and in that state they can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2
pins being pulled externally low will source current because of the internal pull-up resistors. Port 2 emits
the high order address bytes during fetches from external program memory and middle and high order
address bytes during accesses to the external 24-bit external data memory space.
–9–
ADuC831
PIN FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS (continued)
Mnemonic
Type Function
PSEN
O
ALE
O
EA
I
P0.7–P0.0
(A0–A7)
I/O
Program Store Enable, Logic Output. This output is a control signal that enables the external program
memory to the bus during external fetch operations. It is active every six oscillator periods except during
external data memory accesses. This pin remains high during internal program execution. PSEN can also be
used to enable serial download mode when pulled low through a resistor on power-up or RESET.
Address Latch Enable, Logic Output. This output is used to latch the low byte (and page byte for 24-bit
address space accesses) of the address into external memory during normal operation. It is activated every
six oscillator periods except during an external data memory access.
External Access Enable, Logic Input. When held high, this input enables the device to fetch code from
internal program memory locations 0000H to 1FFFH. When held low this input enables the device to fetch
all instructions from external program memory. This pin should not be left floating.
Port 0 is an 8-bit Open Drain Bidirectional I/O port. Port 0 pins that have 1s written to them float, and in
that state can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 is also the multiplexed low order address and data
bus during accesses to external program or data memory. In this application it uses strong internal pull-ups
when emitting 1s.
TERMINOLOGY
dependent upon the number of quantization levels in the digitization process; the more levels, the smaller the quantization
noise. The theoretical signal to (noise + distortion) ratio for an
ideal N-bit converter with a sine wave input is given by:
ADC SPECIFICATIONS
Integral Nonlinearity
This is the maximum deviation of any code from a straight line
passing through the endpoints of the ADC transfer function.
The endpoints of the transfer function are zero scale, a point
1/2 LSB below the first code transition and full scale, a point
1/2 LSB above the last code transition.
Signal to(Noise + Distortion)= (6.02N + 1.76) dB
Thus for a 12-bit converter, this is 74 dB.
Total Harmonic Distortion
Differential Nonlinearity
This is the difference between the measured and the ideal 1 LSB
change between any two adjacent codes in the ADC.
Total Harmonic Distortion is the ratio of the rms sum of the
harmonics to the fundamental.
DAC SPECIFICATIONS
Relative Accuracy
Offset Error
This is the deviation of the first code transition (0000 . . . 000)
to (0000 . . . 001) from the ideal, i.e., +1/2 LSB.
Relative accuracy or endpoint linearity is a measure of the
maximum deviation from a straight line passing through the
endpoints of the DAC transfer function. It is measured after
adjusting for zero error and full-scale error.
Gain Error
This is the deviation of the last code transition from the ideal
AIN voltage (Full Scale – 1.5 LSB) after the offset error has
been adjusted out.
Voltage Output Settling Time
This is the amount of time it takes for the output to settle to a
specified level for a full-scale input change.
Signal to (Noise + Distortion) Ratio
This is the measured ratio of signal to (noise + distortion) at the
output of the ADC. The signal is the rms amplitude of the fundamental. Noise is the rms sum of all nonfundamental signals up
to half the sampling frequency (fS/2), excluding dc. The ratio is
Digital-to-Analog Glitch Impulse
This is the amount of charge injected into the analog output
when the inputs change state. It is specified as the area of the
glitch in nV sec.
–10–
REV. 0
Typical Performance Characteristics–ADuC831
The typical performance plots presented in this section illustrate
typical performance of the ADuC831 under various operating
conditions.
TPC 1 and TPC 2 below show typical ADC Integral Nonlinearity
(INL) errors from ADC code 0 to code 4095 at 5 V and 3 V
supplies respectively. The ADC is using its internal reference
(2.5 V) and operating at a sampling rate of 152 kHz and the
typically worst-case errors in both plots is just less than 0.3 LSBs.
TPC 3 and TPC 4 below show the variation in Worst Case
Positive (WCP) INL and Worst Case Negative (WCN) INL
versus external reference input voltage.
TPC 5 and TPC 6 show typical ADC differential nonlinearity
(DNL) errors from ADC code 0 to code 4095 at 5 V and 3 V supplies, respectively. The ADC is using its internal reference (2. V) and
operating at a sampling rate of 152 kHz and the typically worst case
errors in both plots is just less than 0.2 LSBs.
TPC 7 and TPC 8 show the variation in worst case positive
(WCP) DNL and worst-case negative (WCN) DNL versus
external reference input voltage.
TPC 9 shows a histogram plot of 10,000 ADC conversion
results on a dc input with VDD = 5 V. The plot illustrates an
excellent code distribution pointing to the low noise performance of the on-chip precision ADC.
TPC 10 shows a histogram plot of 10,000 ADC conversion
results on a dc input for VDD = 3 V. The plot again illustrates a
very tight code distribution of 1 LSB with the majority of codes
appearing in one output bin.
TPC 11 and TPC 12 show typical FFT plots for the ADuC831.
These plots were generated using an external clock input. The
ADC is using its internal reference (2.5 V) sampling a full-scale,
10 kHz sine wave test tone input at a sampling rate of 149.79 kHz.
The resultant FFTs shown at 5 V and 3 V supplies illustrate an
excellent 100 dB noise floor, 71 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
and THD greater than –80 dB.
TPC 13 and TPC 14 show typical dynamic performance versus
external reference voltages. Again excellent ac performance can
be observed in both plots with some roll-off being observed as
VREF falls below 1 V.
TPC 15 shows typical dynamic performance versus sampling
frequency. SNR levels of 71 dBs are obtained across the sampling range of the ADuC831.
TPC 16 shows the voltage output of the on-chip temperature
sensor versus temperature. Although the initial voltage output at
25ºC can vary from part to part, the resulting slope of
–2 mV/ºC is constant across all parts.
1.0
1.2
AVDD/DVDD = 5V
AVDD / DVDD = 5V
fS = 152kHz
0.8
0.4
0.6
WCP–INL – LSBs
0.2
0
–0.2
–0.4
0.6
0.2
WCP INL
0.4
0
0.2
–0.2
0
WCN INL
–0.2
–0.6
WCN–INL – LSBs
0.8
0.4
LSBs
0.6
fS = 152kHz
1.0
–0.4
–0.4
–0.8
–1.0
–0.6
–0.6
0
511
1023
1535 2047 2559
ADC CODES
3071
3583
4095
0.5
TPC 1. Typical INL Error, VDD = 5 V
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
EXTERNAL REFERENCE – V
5.0
TPC 3. Typical Worst Case INL Error vs. VREF, VDD = 5 V
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.4
WCP–INL – LSBs
0.4
0.2
LSBs
0.8
AVDD/DVDD = 3V
fS = 152kHz
fS = 152kHz
0
–0.2
–0.4
WCP INL
0.2
0
–0.2
–0.4
–0.8
–0.6
0.4
0.2
0
–0.6
0.6
–0.2
WCN INL
WCN–INL – LSBs
AVDD/DVDD = 3V
0.8
–0.4
–0.6
–1.0
0
511
1023
1535
2047
2559
ADC CODES
3071
3583
4095
–0.8
TPC 2. Typical INL Error, VDD = 3 V
REV. 0
–0.8
0.5
1.0
2.0
1.5
2.5
EXTERNAL REFERENCE – V
3.0
TPC 4. Typical Worst Case INL Error vs. VREF, VDD = 3 V
–11–
ADuC831
1.0
0.7
0.7
AV DD /DVDD = 3V
AV DD /DVDD = 5V
fS = 152kHz
0.8
fS = 152kHz
0.5
0.5
0.6
WCP–DNL – LSBs
LSBs
0.2
0
–0.2
–0.4
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
–0.1
–0.1
WCN DNL
–0.3
–0.3
–0.5
–0.5
WCN–DNL – LSBs
WCP DNL
0.4
–0.6
–0.8
–0.7
–0.7
–1.0
0
511
1023
1535
2047
2559
ADC CODES
3071
3583
0.5
4095
TPC 5. Typical DNL Error, VDD = 5 V
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
EXTERNAL REFERENCE – V
3.0
TPC 8. Typical Worst Case DNL Error vs. VREF, VDD = 3 V
10000
1.0
AV DD /DVDD = 3V
fS = 152kHz
0.8
8000
0.6
OCCURRENCE
0.4
LSBs
0.2
0
–0.2
6000
4000
–0.4
2000
–0.6
–0.8
0
–1.0
0
511
1023
1535
2047
2559
ADC CODES
3071
3583
817
4095
0
0
–0.2
–0.2
7000
OCCURRENCE
0.2
8000
WCN–DNL – LSBs
WCP–DNL – LSBs
WCP DNL
821
9000
0.4
0.2
820
10000
0.6
AVDD / DVDD = 5V
fS = 152kHz
0.4
819
CODE
TPC 9. Code Histogram Plot, VDD = 5 V
TPC 6. Typical DNL Error, VDD = 3 V
0.6
818
6000
5000
4000
3000
WCN DNL
–0.4
–0.4
–0.6
–0.6
2000
1000
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
EXTERNAL REFERENCE – V
0
5.0
817
TPC 7. Typical Worst Case DNL Error vs. VREF, VDD = 5 V
818
819
CODE
820
821
TPC 10. Code Histogram Plot, VDD = 3 V
–12–
REV. 0
ADuC831
80
20
–20
–80
70
–60
dBs
–75
SNR
SNR – dBs
–40
fS = 152kHz
75
–80
–100
THD
65
–85
60
–90
55
–95
THD – dBs
0
–70
AV DD /DVDD = 3V
AVDD / DVDD = 5V
fS = 152kHz
fIN = 9.910kHz
SNR = 71.3dB
THD = –88.0dB
ENOB = 11.6
–120
–140
–160
–100
50
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0.5
FREQUENCY – kHz
TPC 11. Dynamic Performance at VDD = 5 V
80
AVDD / DVDD = 3V
fS = 149.79kHz
fIN = 9.910kHz
SNR = 71.0dB
THD = –83.0dB
ENOB = 11.5
0
–20
76
74
–60
–80
72
70
68
–100
66
–120
64
–140
62
60
65.476 92.262
–160
0
10
20
30
40
50
AVDD / DVDD = 5V
78
SNR – dBs
–40
60
70
119.05
TPC 12. Dynamic Performance at VDD = 3 V
172.62
199.41
226.19
TPC 15. Typical Dynamic Performance vs.
Sampling Frequency
0.80
–70
80
AVDD / DVDD = 5V
fS = 152kHz
75
145.83
FREQUENCY – kHz
FREQUENCY – kHz
0.75
–75
SNR
60
–90
55
–95
VOLTAGE – V
THD
THD – dBs
–85
65
AVDD / DVDD = 3V
SLOPE = 2mV/C
0.70
–80
70
SNR – dBs
3.0
TPC 14. Typical Dynamic Performance vs. VREF, VDD = 3 V
20
dBs
1.0
2.0
1.5
2.5
EXTERNAL REFERENCE – V
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.40
–100
50
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
EXTERNAL REFERENCE – V
–40
5.0
TPC 13. Typical Dynamic Performance vs. VREF, VDD = 5 V
REV. 0
–20
25
0
TEMPERATURE – C
50
85
TPC 16. Typical Temperature Sensor Output vs.
Temperature
–13–
ADuC831
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
7FH
The ADuC831 contains four different memory blocks:
• 62 kBytes of On-Chip Flash/EE Program Memory
• 4 kBytes of On-Chip Flash/EE Data Memory
• 256 Bytes of General-Purpose RAM
• 2 kBytes of Internal XRAM
GENERAL-PURPOSE
AREA
30H
2FH
BANKS
BIT-ADDRESSABLE
(BIT ADDRESSES)
SELECTED
Flash/EE Program Memory
VIA
The ADuC831 provides 62 kBytes of Flash/EE program memory
to run user code. The user can choose to run code from this
internal memory or run code from an external program memory.
20H
BITS IN PSW
1FH
11
18H
If the user applies power or resets the device while the EA pin is
pulled low, the part will execute code from the external program
space, otherwise the part defaults to code execution from its
internal 62 kBytes of Flash/EE program memory. Unlike the
ADuC812, where code execution can overflow from the internal
code space to external code space once the PC becomes greater
than 1FFFH, the ADuC831 does not support the rollover from
F7FFH in internal code space to F800H in external code space.
Instead the 2048 bytes between F800H and FFFFH will appear
as NOP instructions to user code.
This internal code space can be downloaded via the UART serial
port while the device is in-circuit. 56 kBytes of the program
memory can be reprogrammed during runtime thus the code
space can be upgraded in the field using a user defined protocol
or it can be used as a data memory. This will be discussed in
more detail in the Flash/EE Memory section.
17H
10
10H
0FH
01
FOUR BANKS OF EIGHT
REGISTERS
R0 R7
08H
07H
00
RESET VALUE OF
STACK POINTER
00H
Figure 2. Lower 128 Bytes of Internal Data Memory
The ADuC831 contains 2048 bytes of internal XRAM,
1792 bytes of which can be configured to be used as an
extended 11-bit stack pointer.
By default, the stack will operate exactly like an 8052 in that it
will roll over from FFH to 00H in the general-purpose RAM. On
the ADuC831 however, it is possible (by setting CFG831.7)
to enable the 11-bit extended stack pointer. In this case, the
stack will roll over from FFH in RAM to 0100H in XRAM.
Flash/EE Data Memory
4 kBytes of Flash/EE Data Memory are available to the user and
can be accessed indirectly via a group of control registers mapped
into the Special Function Register (SFR) area. Access to the
Flash/EE data memory is discussed in detail later as part of the
Flash/EE Memory section.
The 11-bit stack pointer is visible in the SP and SPH SFRs.
The SP SFR is located at 81H as with a standard 8052. The
SPH SFR is located at B7H. The 3 LSBs of this SFR contain
the three extra bits necessary to extend the 8-bit stack pointer
into an 11-bit stack pointer.
General-Purpose RAM
07FFH
The general-purpose RAM is divided into two separate memories,
namely the upper and the lower 128 bytes of RAM. The lower
128 bytes of RAM can be accessed through direct or indirect
addressing. The upper 128 bytes of RAM can only be accessed
through indirect addressing as it shares the same address space
as the SFR space, which can only be accessed through direct
addressing.
UPPER 1792
BYTES OF
ON-CHIP XRAM
(DATA + STACK
FOR EXSP = 1,
DATA ONLY
FOR EXSP = 0)
The lower 128 bytes of internal data memory are mapped as
shown in Figure 2. The lowest 32 bytes are grouped into four
banks of eight registers addressed as R0 through R7. The next
16 bytes (128 bits), locations 20H through 2FH above the register
banks, form a block of directly addressable bit locations at bit
addresses 00H through 7FH. The stack can be located anywhere
in the internal memory address space, and the stack depth can
be expanded up to 2048 bytes.
CFG831.7 = 0
CFG831.7 = 1
100H
FFH
00H
Reset initializes the stack pointer to location 07H and increments
it once before loading the stack to start from locations 08H which
is also the first register (R0) of register bank 1. Thus, if one is
going to use more than one register bank, the stack pointer
should be initialized to an area of RAM not used for data storage.
–14–
256 BYTES OF
ON-CHIP DATA
RAM
(DATA +
STACK)
LOWER 256
BYTES OF
ON-CHIP XRAM
(DATA ONLY)
00H
Figure 3. Extended Stack Pointer Operation
REV. 0
ADuC831
External Data Memory (External XRAM)
Just like a standard 8051 compatible core, the ADuC831 can
access external data memory using a MOVX instruction. The
MOVX instruction automatically outputs the various control
strobes required to access the data memory.
4-kBYTE
ELECTRICALLY
REPROGRAMMABLE
NONVOLATILE
FLASH/EE DATA
MEMORY
62-kBYTE
ELECTRICALLY
REPROGRAMMABLE
NONVOLATILE
FLASH/EE PROGRAM
MEMORY
The ADuC831, however, can access up to 16 MBytes of external
data memory. This is an enhancement of the 64 kBytes external
data memory space available on a standard 8051 compatible core.
8051COMPATIBLE
CORE
The external data memory is discussed in more detail in the
ADuC831 Hardware Design Considerations section.
Internal XRAM
2 kBytes of on-chip data memory exist on the ADuC831. This
memory, although on-chip, is also accessed via the MOVX
instruction. The 2 kBytes of internal XRAM are mapped into
the bottom 2 kBytes of the external address space if the
CFG831 bit is set. Otherwise, access to the external data memory
will occur just like a standard 8051. When using the internal
XRAM, ports 0 and 2 are free to be used as general-purpose I/O.
128-BYTE
SPECIAL
FUNCTION
REGISTER
AREA
2304 BYTES
RAM
8-CHANNEL
12-BIT ADC
OTHER ON-CHIP
PERIPHERALS
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
2 12-BIT DACs
SERIAL I/O
WDT
PSM
TIC
Figure 5. Programming Model
FFFFFFH
FFFFFFH
Accumulator SFR (ACC)
EXTERNAL
DATA
MEMORY
SPACE
(24-BIT
ADDRESS
SPACE)
EXTERNAL
DATA
MEMORY
SPACE
(24-BIT
ADDRESS
SPACE)
000000H
CFG831.0 = 0
B SFR (B)
The B register is used with the ACC for multiplication and
division operations. For other instructions it can be treated as a
general-purpose scratchpad register.
Stack Pointer (SP and SPH)
000800H
0007FFH
000000H
ACC is the Accumulator register and is used for math operations including addition, subtraction, integer multiplication and
division, and Boolean bit manipulations. The mnemonics for
accumulator-specific instructions refer to the Accumulator as A.
2 kBYTES
ON-CHIP
XRAM
CFG831.0 = 1
Figure 4. Internal and External XRAM
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS (SFRS)
The SP SFR is the stack pointer and is used to hold an internal
RAM address that is called the top of the stack. The SP register is
incremented before data is stored during PUSH and CALL
executions. While the Stack may reside anywhere in on-chip
RAM, the SP register is initialized to 07H after a reset. This
causes the stack to begin at location 08H.
As mentioned earlier, the ADuC831 offers an extended 11-bit
stack pointer. The three extra bits to make up the 11-bit stack
pointer are the 3 LSBs of the SPH byte located at B7H.
The SFR space is mapped into the upper 128 bytes of internal
data memory space and accessed by direct addressing only. It
provides an interface between the CPU and all on-chip peripherals. A block diagram showing the programming model of the
ADuC831 via the SFR area is shown in Figure 5.
All registers, except the Program Counter (PC) and the four
general-purpose register banks, reside in the SFR area. The SFR
registers include control, configuration, and data registers that
provide an interface between the CPU and all on-chip peripherals.
REV. 0
–15–
ADuC831
Data Pointer (DPTR)
The Data Pointer is made up of three 8-bit registers, named
DPP (page byte), DPH (high byte) and DPL (low byte). These
are used to provide memory addresses for internal and external
code access and external data access. It may be manipulated as
a 16-bit register (DPTR = DPH, DPL), although INC DPTR
instructions will automatically carry over to DPP, or as three
independent 8-bit registers (DPP, DPH, DPL).
The ADuC831 supports dual data pointers. Refer to the Dual
Data Pointer section.
Program Status Word (PSW)
The PSW SFR contains several bits reflecting the current status
of the CPU as detailed in Table I.
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
D0H
00H
Yes
Table I. PSW SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
5
4
3
CY
AC
F0
RS1
RS0
2
1
0
OV
F1
P
Carry Flag
Auxiliary Carry Flag
General-Purpose Flag
Register Bank Select Bits
RS1
RS0
Selected Bank
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
2
1
1
3
Overflow Flag
General-Purpose Flag
Parity Bit
Power Control SFR (PCON)
The PCON SFR contains bits for power-saving options and
general-purpose status flags as shown in Table II.
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
87H
00H
No
Table II. PCON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SMOD
SERIPD
INT0PD
ALEOFF
GF1
GF0
PD
IDL
Double UART Baud Rate
I2C/SPI Power-Down Interrupt Enable
INT0 Power-Down Interrupt Enable
Disable ALE Output
General-Purpose Flag Bit
General-Purpose Flag Bit
Power-Down Mode Enable
Idle Mode Enable
–16–
REV. 0
ADuC831
figure below (NOT USED). Unoccupied locations in the SFR
address space are not implemented, i.e., no register exists at this
location. If an unoccupied location is read, an unspecified value
is returned. SFR locations reserved for on-chip testing are shown
lighter shaded below (RESERVED) and should not be accessed
by user software. Sixteen of the SFR locations are also bit
addressable and denoted by '1' in the figure below, i.e., the bit
addressable SFRs are those whose address ends in 0H or 8H.
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
All registers except the program counter and the four generalpurpose register banks, reside in the special function register
(SFR) area. The SFR registers include control, configuration,
and data registers that provide an interface between the CPU
and other on-chip peripherals.
Figure 6 shows a full SFR memory map and SFR contents on
Reset. Unoccupied SFR locations are shown dark-shaded in the
ISPI
WCOL
SPE
SPIM
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
FFH
0 FEH
0 FDH
0 FCH
0 FBH
0 FAH
1 F9H
0 F8H
0
F7H
0 F6H
0 F5H
0 F4H
0 F3H
0 F2H
0 F1H
0 F0H
0
EFH
0 EEH
E7H
0 E6H
ADCI
DFH
PSI
BFH
0 BEH
B7H
EA
AFH
A7H
1 A6H
SM0
9FH
SM1
0 9EH
PT2
0 BDH
T1
1 B5H
EADC
0 AEH
0 DCH
0 EBH
ET2
0 ADH
1 A5H
SM2
0 9DH
PS
0 BCH
T0
1 B4H
ES
0 ACH
1 A4H
REN
0 9CH
0 E2H
CS3
0 DBH
CS2
0 DAH
RS0
0 D3H
OV
0 D2H
EXEN2
0 CBH
PRE0
0 C4H
0 EAH
0 E3H
TCLK
0 CCH
I2CRS
I2CM
RS1
0 D4H
PRE1
0 C5H
WR
1 B6H
0 E4H
RCLK
0 CDH
PADC
RD
0 ECH
F0
0 D5H
PRE2
0 C6H
MDI
CCONV SCONV
0 DDH
EXF2
0 CEH
PRE3
C7H
0 E5H
AC
0 D6H
TF2
CFH
0 EDH
DMA
0 DEH
CY
D7H
MCO
MDE
MDO
TR2
0 CAH
WDIR
1 C3H
WDS
0 C2H
PT1
0 BBH
PX1
0 BAH
INT1
1 B3H
INT0
1 B2H
ET1
0 ABH
EX1
0 AAH
1 A3H
1 A2H
TB8
0 9BH
RB8
0 9AH
I2CTX
0 E9H
0 E1H
WDE
0 C1H
PT0
0 B9H
TxD
1 B1H
ET0
0 A9H
1 A1H
TI
0 99H
1 96H
TF1
TR1
1 95H
TF0
1 94H
TR0
1 93H
1 92H
IE1
IT1
0
CS0
0 D8H
0
P
0 D0H
CNT2
0 C9H
0
0 E0H
FI
0 D1H
0
CAP2
0 C8H
0
WDWR
0 C0H
1 91H
PX0
0 B8H
0
RxD
1 B0H
1
EX0
0 A8H
0
1 A0H
1
RI
0
T2
1 90H
IE0
1
IT0
8FH
0 8EH
0 8DH
0 8CH
0 8BH
0 8AH
0 89H
0 88H
0
87H
1 86H
1 85H
1 84H
1 83H
1 82H
1 81H
1 80H
1
SFR MAP KEY:
F8H
F0H
E8H
00H
ADCOFSH3
ADCGAINL3 ADCGAINH3 ADCCON3
F2H
F3H
20H
RESERVED
RESERVED
ADCCON21 ADCDATAL
ADCDATAH
D8H
DAH
00H
C8H
C0H
RESERVED
B8H
RESERVED
B0H
C2H
ECON
00H
B9H
A8H
BITS
A0H
00H
98H
A9H
BITS
90H
88H
80H
RESERVED
RESERVED
RESERVED
RESERVED
IE0
89H
00H
99H
0
00H
FFH
88H
DEFAULT VALUE
DMAH
D3H
00H
RCAP2H
CBH
00H
RESERVED
DMAP
D4H
00H
RESERVED
TL2
CCH
RESERVED
00H
NOT USED
RESERVED
RESERVED
00H
RESERVED
TH2
CDH
RESERVED
RESERVED
00H
RESERVED
EDARL
C6H
RESERVED
PWM0H
PWM1L
EDATA1
BCH
00H
EDATA2
BDH
00H
00H B4H
RESERVED
EDATA3
BEH
00H A3H
9AH
00H 9BH
NOT USED
00H
I2CADD
NOT USED
RESERVED
RESERVED
MIN
HOUR
A4H
00H
A5H
00H
T3FD
A6H
00H
EDATA4
BFH
00H
SPH
00H
CFG8314
00H AFH
INTVAL
10H
DPCON
00H A7H
00H
T3CON
NOT USED
NOT USED
9DH
NOT USED
EDARH
C7H
B7H
PWMCON
55H
NOT USED
00H
00H
AEH
SEC
HTHSEC
00H
PWM1H
NOT USED
00H B3H
I2CDAT
PSMCON
00H
TMOD
89H
TL0
00H
SP
81H
8AH
00H
TL1
8BH
DPL
07H
82H
00H
00H
DPH
83H
00H
TH0
8CH
00H
DPP
84H
00H
00H
MNEMONIC
DEFAULT VALUE
SFR ADDRESS
NOTES:
1SFRs WHOSE ADDRESS ENDS IN 0H OR 8H ARE BIT ADDRESSABLE.
2THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF PORT1 IS AS AN ANALOG INPUT PORT;
THEREFORE, TO ENABLE THE DIGITAL SECONDARY FUNCTIONS ON THESE
PORT PINS, WRITE A '0' TO THE CORRESPONDING PORT 1 SFR BIT.
ON POWER-UP TO FACTORY CALIBRATED VALUES.
3CALIBRATION COEFFICIENTS ARE PRECONFIGURED
4VALUE DEPENDS ON EXTERNAL CRYSTAL.
Figure 6. Special Function Register Locations and Reset Values
REV. 0
00H
ADCCON1
00H 9EH
NOT USED
00H
NOT USED
NOT USED
RESERVED
RESERVED
FFH
TCON
IT0
0 88H
SPIDAT
DFH DEH
THESE BITS ARE CONTAINED IN THIS BYTE.
MNEMONIC
SFR ADDRESS
RESERVED
RESERVED
RESERVED
00H A2H
SBUF
P01
BITS
RESERVED
F7H
RESERVED
3XH
RESERVED
TIMECON
TCON1
BITS
RESERVED
A0H
FFH A1H
P11, 2
00H
00H B2H
IEIP2
SCON1
BITS
RESERVED
00H
RESERVED
00H
PWM0L
FFH B1H
P21
00H
CHIPID
RESERVED
10H
IE1
BITS
RESERVED
F5H
RESERVED
04H
00H
RCAP2L
CAH
P31
BITS
00H
FDH
RESERVED
DMAL
D2H
IP1
BITS
00H
00H
WDCON1
BITS
D9H
00H
T2CON1
BITS
RESERVED
F4H
00H
00H
PSW1
D0H
00H
FCH
EFH
BITS
BITS
00H
00H
RESERVED
E0H
FBH
DACCON
ADCOFSL3
RESERVED
00H
DAC1H
F1H
00H
FAH
DAC1L
00H
ACC1
BITS
DAC0H
F9H
I2CCON1
BITS
DAC0L
04H
B1
BITS
0
0 98H
T2EX
97H
0 E8H
CS1
0 D9H
I2CI
SPICON1
BITS
–17–
TH1
8DH
00H
RESERVED
RESERVED
PCON
87H
00H
ADuC831
ADC CIRCUIT INFORMATION
General Overview
ADC Transfer Function
The ADC conversion block incorporates a fast, 8-channel,
12-bit, single supply ADC. This block provides the user with
multichannel mux, track/hold, on-chip reference, calibration
features, and ADC. All components in this block are easily
configured via a 3-register SFR interface.
The ADC consists of a conventional successive-approximation
converter based around a capacitor DAC. The converter accepts
an analog input range of 0 to VREF. A high precision, low drift,
and factory calibrated 2.5 V reference is provided on-chip. An
external reference can be connected as described later. This
external reference can be in the range of 1 V to AVDD.
The analog input range for the ADC is 0 V to VREF. For this
range, the designed code transitions occur midway between
successive integer LSB values (i.e., 1/2 LSB, 3/2 LSBs,
5/2 LSBs, . . ., FS –3/2 LSBs). The output coding is straight
binary with 1 LSB = FS/4096 or 2.5 V/4096 = 0.61 mV when
VREF = 2.5 V. The ideal input/output transfer characteristic for
the 0 to VREF range is shown in Figure 7.
OUTPUT
CODE
111...111
111...110
111...101
111...100
Single step or continuous conversion modes can be initiated in
software or alternatively by applying a convert signal to an external pin. Timer 2 can also be configured to generate a repetitive
trigger for ADC conversions. The ADC may be configured to
operate in a DMA Mode whereby the ADC block continuously
converts and captures samples to an external RAM space without
any interaction from the MCU core. This automatic capture facility
can extend through a 16 MByte external data memory space.
The ADuC831 is shipped with factory programmed calibration
coefficients that are automatically downloaded to the ADC on
power-up ensuring optimum ADC performance. The ADC core
contains internal offset and gain calibration registers, that can
be hardware calibrated to minimize system errors.
A voltage output from an on-chip band gap reference proportional to absolute temperature can also be routed through the
front end ADC multiplexor (effectively a ninth ADC channel
input) facilitating a temperature sensor implementation.
1LSB =
FS
4096
000...011
000...010
000...001
000...000
0V 1LSB
VOLTAGE INPUT
+FS
–1LSB
Figure 7. ADC Transfer Function
Typical Operation
Once configured via the ADCCON 1-3 SFRs the ADC will
convert the analog input and provide an ADC 12-bit result word in
the ADCDATAH/L SFRs. The top four bits of the ADCDATAH
SFR will be written with the channel selection bits so as to identify
the channel result. The format of the ADC 12 bit result word is
shown in Figure 8.
ADCDATAH SFR
CH–ID
TOP 4 BITS
HIGH 4 BITS OF
ADC RESULT WORD
ADCDATAL SFR
LOW 8 BITS OF THE
ADC RESULT WORD
Figure 8. ADC Result Format
–18–
REV. 0
ADuC831
ADCCON1 – (ADC Control SFR #1)
The ADCCON1 register controls conversion and acquisition
times, hardware conversion modes and power-down modes as
detailed below.
SFR Address:
EFH
SFR Power-On Default Value: 00H
Bit Addressable:
NO
Table III. ADCCON1 SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
ADCCON1.7
MD1
ADCCON1.6
EXT_REF
ADCCON1.5
ADCCON1.4
CK1
CK0
The Mode bit selects the active operating mode of the ADC.
Set by the user to power up the ADC.
Cleared by the user to power down the ADC.
Set by the user to select an external reference.
Cleared by the user to use the internal reference.
The ADC clock divide bits (CK1, CK0) select the divide ratio for the master clock used to generate the
ADC clock. To ensure correct ADC operation, the divider ratio must be chosen to reduce the ADC clock
to 4.5 MHz and below. A typical ADC conversion will require 17 ADC clocks.
The divider ratio is selected as follows:
CK1 CK0 MCLK Divider
0
0
16
0
1
2
1
0
4
1
1
8
ADCCON1.3
ADCCON1.2
AQ1
AQ0
The ADC acquisition select bits (AQ1, AQ0) select the time provided for the input track-and-hold amplifier
to acquire the input signal. An acquisition of three or more ADC clocks is recommended; clocks are
selected as follows:
AQ1
0
0
1
1
ADCCON1.1 T2C
ADCCON1.0 EXC
REV. 0
AQ0
0
1
0
1
#ADC Clks
1
2
3
4
The Timer 2 conversion bit (T2C) is set by the user to enable the Timer 2 overflow bit be used as
the ADC convert start trigger input.
The external trigger enable bit (EXC) is set by the user to allow the external Pin P3.5 (CONVST) to
be used as the active low convert start input. This input should be an active low pulse (minimum
pulsewidth >100 ns) at the required sample rate.
–19–
ADuC831
ADCCON2 – (ADC Control SFR #2)
The ADCCON2 register controls ADC channel selection and
conversion modes as detailed below.
SFR Address:
SFR Power-On Default Value:
Bit Addressable:
D8H
00H
YES
Table IV. ADCCON2 SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
ADCCON2.7 ADCI
ADCCON2.6 DMA
ADCCON2.5 CCONV
ADCCON2.4 SCONV
ADCCON2.3
ADCCON2.2
ADCCON2.1
ADCCON2.0
CS3
CS2
CS1
CS0
Description
The ADC interrupt bit (ADCI) is set by hardware at the end of a single ADC conversion cycle or at
the end of a DMA block conversion. ADCI is cleared by hardware when the PC vectors to the ADC Interrupt Service Routine. Otherwise, the ADCI bit should be cleared by user code.
The DMA mode enable bit (DMA) is set by the user to enable a preconfigured ADC DMA mode operation. A more detailed description of this mode is given in the ADC DMA Mode section. The DMA bit is
automatically set to “0” at the end of a DMA cycle. Setting this bit causes the ALE output to cease, it will
start again when DMA is started and will operate correctly after DMA is complete.
The continuous conversion bit (CCONV) is set by the user to initiate the ADC into a continuous mode of
conversion. In this mode, the ADC starts converting based on the timing and channel configuration
already set up in the ADCCON SFRs; the ADC automatically starts another conversion once a previous conversion has completed.
The single conversion bit (SCONV) is set to initiate a single conversion cycle. The SCONV bit is
automatically reset to “0” on completion of the single conversion cycle.
The channel selection bits (CS3-0) allow the user to program the ADC channel selection under
software control. When a conversion is initiated, the channel converted will be the one pointed to by
these channel selection bits. In DMA mode, the channel selection is derived from the channel ID
written to the external memory.
CS3 CS2 CS1 CS0 CH#
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
2
0
0
1
1
3
0
1
0
0
4
0
1
0
1
5
0
1
1
0
6
0
1
1
1
7
1
0
0
0
Temp Monitor
Requires minimum of 1 s to acquire
1
0
0
1
DAC0
Only use with Internal DAC o/p buffer on
1
0
1
0
DAC1
Only use with Internal DAC o/p buffer on
1
0
1
1
AGND
1
1
0
0
VREF
1
1
1
1
DMA STOP
Place in XRAM location to finish DMA sequence,
see the ADC DMA Mode section.
All other combinations reserved
–20–
REV. 0
ADuC831
ADCCON3 – (ADC Control SFR #3)
The ADCCON3 register controls the operation of various calibration modes as well as giving an indication of ADC busy status.
SFR Address:
SFR Power-On Default Value:
Bit Addressable:
F5H
00H
NO
Table V. ADCCON3 SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
ADCCON3.7 BUSY
ADCCON3.6 GNCLD
ADCCON3.5 AVGS1
ADCCON3.4 AVGS0
ADCCON3.3 RSVD
ADCCON3.2 RSVD
ADCCON3.1 TYPICAL
ADCCON3.0 SCAL
REV. 0
Description
The ADC Busy Status Bit (BUSY) is a read-only status bit that is set during a valid ADC conversion or
calibration cycle. Busy is automatically cleared by the core at the end of conversion or calibration.
Gain Calibration Disable Bit
Set to “0” to Enable Gain Calibration.
Set to “1” to Disable Gain Calibration.
Number of Averages Selection Bits
This bit selects the number of ADC readings averaged during a calibration cycle.
AVGS1 AVGS0
Number of Averages
0
0
15
0
1
1
1
0
31
1
1
63
Reserved. This bit should always be written as “0.”
This bit should always be written as “1” by the user when performing calibration.
Calibration Type Select Bit.
This bit selects between Offset (zero-scale) and gain (full-scale) calibration.
Set to 0 for Offset Calibration.
Set to 1 for Gain Calibration.
Start Calibration Cycle Bit.
When set, this bit starts the selected calibration cycle. It is automatically cleared when the calibration
cycle is completed.
–21–
ADuC831
incoming high-frequency noise, its primary function is to ensure
that the transient demands of the ADC input stage are met. It
Driving the A/D Converter
The ADC incorporates a successive approximation (SAR) architecture involving a charge-sampled input stage. Figure 9 shows
the equivalent circuit of the analog input section. Each ADC
conversion is divided into two distinct phases as defined by the
position of the switches in Figure 9. During the sampling phase
(with SW1 and SW2 in the “track” position) a charge proportional to the voltage on the analog input is developed across the
input sampling capacitor. During the conversion phase (with
both switches in the “hold” position) the capacitor DAC is
adjusted via internal SAR logic until the voltage on node A is
zero, indicating that the sampled charge on the input capacitor is
balanced out by the charge being output by the capacitor DAC.
The digital value finally contained in the SAR is then latched out
as the result of the ADC conversion. Control of the SAR, and
timing of acquisition and sampling modes, is handled automatically by built-in ADC control logic. Acquisition and
conversion times are also fully configurable under user control.
ADuC831
10
Figure 10. Buffering Analog Inputs
does so by providing a capacitive bank from which the 32 pF
sampling capacitor can draw its charge. Its voltage will not
change by more than one count (1/4096) of the 12-bit transfer function when the 32 pF charge from a previous channel
is dumped onto it. A larger capacitor can be used if desired,
but not a larger resistor (for reasons described below).
The Schottky diodes in Figure 10 may be necessary to limit the
voltage applied to the analog input pin as per the data sheet
absolute maximum ratings. They are not necessary if the op
amp is powered from the same supply as the ADuC831 since
in that case the op amp is unable to generate voltages above
VDD or below ground. An op amp of some kind is necessary
unless the signal source is very low impedance to begin with.
DC leakage currents at the ADuC831’s analog inputs can
cause measurable dc errors with external source impedances
as little as 100 Ω or so. To ensure accurate ADC operation, keep
the total source impedance at each analog input less than 61 Ω.
The table below illustrates examples of how source impedance
can affect dc accuracy.
ADuC831
VREF
AGND
DAC1
DAC0
TEMPERATURE MONITOR
AIN7
CAPACITOR
DAC
200
AIN0
TRACK
sw1
HOLD
200
NODE A
sw2
TRACK
AGND
Error from 1 µA
Leakage Current
61 µV = 0.1 LSB
610 µV = 1 LSB
Source
Impedance
61 Ω
610 Ω
COMPARATOR
32pF
AIN0
0.1F
HOLD
Figure 9. Internal ADC Structure
Note that whenever a new input channel is selected, a residual
charge from the 32 pF sampling capacitor places a transient on
the newly selected input. The signal source must be capable of
recovering from this transient before the sampling switches click
into “hold” mode. Delays can be inserted in software (between
channel selection and conversion request) to account for input
stage settling, but a hardware solution will alleviate this burden
from the software design task and will ultimately result in a
cleaner system implementation. One hardware solution would
be to choose a very fast settling op amp to drive each analog
input. Such an op amp would need to fully settle from a small
signal transient in less than 300 ns in order to guarantee adequate
settling under all software configurations. A better solution, recommended for use with any amplifier, is shown in Figure 10.
Though at first glance the circuit in Figure 10 may look like a
simple antialiasing filter, it actually serves no such purpose since its
corner frequency is well above the Nyquist frequency, even at a
200 kHz sample rate. Though the R/C does helps to reject some
Error from 10 µA
Leakage Current
610 µV = 1 LSB
6.1 mV = 10 LSB
Although Figure 10 shows the op amp operating at a gain of 1,
you can, of course, configure it for any gain needed. Also, you
can just as easily use an instrumentation amplifier in its place to
condition differential signals. Use any modern amplifier that is
capable of delivering the signal (0 to VREF) with minimal saturation. Some single-supply rail-to-rail op amps that are useful for
this purpose include, but are certainly not limited to, the ones
given in Table VI. Check Analog Devices literature (CD ROM
data book, and so on) for details on these and other op amps
and instrumentation amps.
Table VI. Some Single-Supply Op Amps
Op Amp Model
Characteristics
OP281/OP481
OP191/OP291/OP491
OP196/OP296/OP496
OP183/OP283
OP162/OP262/OP462
AD820/AD822/AD824
AD823
Micropower
I/O Good up to VDD, Low Cost
I/O to VDD, Micropower, Low Cost
High Gain-Bandwidth Product
High GBP, Micro Package
FET Input, Low Cost
FET Input, High GBP
–22–
REV. 0
ADuC831
Keep in mind that the ADC’s transfer function is 0 to VREF, and
any signal range lost to amplifier saturation near ground will
impact dynamic range. Though the op amps in Table VI are
capable of delivering output signals very closely approaching
ground, no amplifier can deliver signals all the way to ground when
powered by a single supply. Therefore, if a negative supply is
available, you might consider using it to power the front end
amplifiers. If you do, however, be sure to include the Schottky
diodes shown in Figure 10 (or at least the lower of the two
diodes) to protect the analog input from undervoltage conditions. To summarize this section, use the circuit of Figure 10 to
drive the analog input pins of the ADuC831.
To ensure accurate ADC operation, the voltage applied to VREF
must be between 1 V and AVDD. In situations where analog
input signals are proportional to the power supply (such as some
strain gage applications) it may be desirable to connect the CREF
and VREF pins directly to AVDD.
Operation of the ADC or DACs with a reference voltage below
1 V, however, may incur loss of accuracy eventually resulting in
missing codes or non-monotonicity. For that reason, do not use
a reference voltage less than 1 V.
ADuC831
Voltage Reference Connections
VDD
The on-chip 2.5 V band gap voltage reference can be used as the
reference source for the ADC and DACs. To ensure the accuracy of the voltage reference, you must decouple the VREF pin to
ground with a 0.1 µF capacitor and the CREF pin to ground with
a 0.1 µF capacitor as shown in Figure 11.
EXTERNAL
VOLTAGE
REFERENCE
51
2.5V
BAND GAP
REFERENCE
BUFFER
"0" = INTERNAL
VREF
"1" = EXTERNAL
0.1F
ADuC831
ADCCON1.6
CREF
51
2.5V
BAND GAP
REFERENCE
0.1F
Figure 12. Using an External Voltage Reference
VREF
BUFFER
To maintain compatibility with the ADuC812, the external
reference can also be connected to the VREF pin as shown in
Figure 13, to overdrive the internal reference. Note this introduces a gain error for the ADC that has to be calibrated out,
thus the previous method is the recommended one for most
users. For this method to work, ADCCON1.6 should be configured to use the internal reference. The external reference will
then overdrive this.
0.1F
CREF
BUFFER
0.1F
Figure 11. Decoupling VREF and CREF
If the internal voltage reference is to be used as a reference for
external circuitry, the CREF output should be used. However, a
buffer must be used in this case to ensure that no current is
drawn from the CREF pin itself. The voltage on the CREF pin is
that of an internal node within the buffer block, and its voltage
is critical to ADC and DAC accuracy. On the ADuC812 VREF
was the recommended output for the external reference; this
can be used but it should be noted that there will be a gain error
between this reference and that of the ADC.
51
VDD
EXTERNAL
VOLTAGE
REFERENCE
VREF
2.5V
BAND GAP
REFERENCE
BUFFER
0.1F
The ADuC831 powers up with its internal voltage reference in
the “on” state. This is available at the VREF pin, but as noted
before there will be a gain error between this and that of the
ADC. The CREF output becomes available when the ADC is
powered up.
CREF
0.1F
If an external voltage reference is preferred, it should be
connected to the VREF and CREF pins as shown in Figure 12.
Bit 6 of the ADCCON1 SFR must be set to 1 to switch in the
external reference voltage.
REV. 0
ADuC831
Figure 13. Using an External Voltage Reference
–23–
ADuC831
3. The external memory must be preconfigured. This consists
of writing the required ADC channel IDs into the top four
bits of every second memory location in the external SRAM
starting at the first address specified by the DMA address
pointer. As the ADC DMA mode operates independent from
the ADuC831 core, it is necessary to provide it with a stop
command. This is done by duplicating the last channel ID to
be converted followed by “1111” into the next channel selection field. A typical preconfiguration of external memory is
as follows.
Configuring the ADC
The ADuC831’s successive approximation ADC is driven by a
divided down version of the master clock. To ensure adequate
ADC operation, this ADC clock must be between 400 kHz and
6 MHz, and optimum performance is obtained with ADC clock
between 400 kHz and 4.5 MHz. Frequencies within this range
can easily be achieved with master clock frequencies from
400 kHz to well above 16 MHz with the four ADC clock divide
ratios to choose from. For example, with a 12 MHz master
clock, set the ADC clock divide ratio to 4 (i.e., ADCCLK =
MCLK/4 = 3 MHz) by setting the appropriate bits in
ADCCON1 (ADCCON1.5 = 1, ADCCON1.4 = 0).
00000AH
The total ADC conversion time is 15 ADC clocks, plus 1 ADC
clock for synchronization, plus the selected acquisition time
(1, 2, 3, or 4 ADC clocks). For the example above, with three
clocks acquisition time, total conversion time is 19 ADC clocks
(or 6.3 µs for a 3 MHz ADC clock).
In continuous conversion mode, a new conversion begins each
time the previous one finishes. The sample rate is then simply
the inverse of the total conversion time described above. In the
example above, the continuous conversion mode sample rate
would be 157.8 kHz.
000000H
1
1
1
1
STOP COMMAND
0
0
1
1
REPEAT LAST CHANNEL
FOR A VALID STOP
CONDITION
0
0
1
1
CONVERT ADC CH#3
1
0
0
0
CONVERT TEMP SENSOR
0
1
0
1
CONVERT ADC CH#5
0
0
0
CONVERT ADC CH#2
1
Figure 14. Typical DMA External Memory Preconfiguration
If using the temperature sensor as the ADC input, the ADC
should be configured to use an ADCCLK of MCLK/16 and
four acquisition clocks.
4. The DMA is initiated by writing to the ADC SFRs in the
following sequence:
a. ADCCON2 is written to enable the DMA mode, i.e.,
MOV ADCCON2, #40H; DMA mode enabled.
b. ADCCON1 is written to configure the conversion time and
power-up of the ADC. It can also enable Timer 2 driven
conversions or external triggered conversions if required.
c. ADC conversions are initiated. This is done by starting
single conversions, starting Timer 2 running for Timer 2
conversions or by receiving an external trigger.
Increasing the conversion time on the temperature monitor
channel improves the accuracy of the reading. To further
improve the accuracy, an external reference with low temperature drift should also be used.
ADC DMA Mode
The on-chip ADC has been designed to run at a maximum
conversion speed of 4 µs (247 kHz sampling rate). When converting at this rate, the ADuC831 MicroConverter has 4 µs to
read the ADC result and store the result in memory for further
postprocessing, otherwise the next ADC sample could be lost.
In an interrupt driven routine the MicroConverter would also
have to jump to the ADC Interrupt Service routine, which will
also increase the time required to store the ADC results. In
applications where the ADuC831 cannot sustain the interrupt
rate, an ADC DMA mode is provided.
When the DMA conversions are completed, the ADC interrupt
bit ADCI, is set by hardware and the external SRAM contains
the new ADC conversion results as shown below. It should be
noted that no result is written to the last two memory locations.
When the DMA mode logic is active, it takes the responsibility of
storing the ADC results away from both the user and ADuC831
core logic. As it writes the results of the ADC conversions to
external memory, it takes over the external memory interface
from the core. Thus, any core instructions that access the external
memory while DMA mode is enabled will not get access to it. The
core will execute the instructions and they will take the same time
to execute but they will not gain access to the external memory.
To enable DMA mode, Bit 6 in ADCCON2 (DMA) must be
set. This allows the ADC results to be written directly to a
16 MByte external static memory SRAM (mapped into data
memory space) without any interaction from the ADuC831
core. This mode allows the ADuC831 to capture a contiguous
sample stream at full ADC update rates (247 kHz).
00000AH
A Typical DMA Mode Configuration Example
To set the ADuC831 into DMA mode a number of steps must
be followed:
1. The ADC must be powered down. This is done by ensuring
MD1 and MD0 are both set to 0 in ADCCON1.
2. The DMA address pointer must be set to the start address of
where the ADC results are to be written. This is done by
writing to the DMA mode address pointers DMAL, DMAH,
and DMAP. DMAL must be written to first, followed by
DMAH, and then by DMAP.
–24–
000000H
1
1
1
1
STOP COMMAND
0
0
1
1
NO CONVERSION
RESULT WRITTEN HERE
0
0
1
1
CONVERSION RESULT
FOR ADC CH#3
1
0
0
0
CONVERSION RESULT
FOR TEMP SENSOR
0
1
0
1
CONVERSION RESULT
FOR ADC CH#5
0
0
1
0
CONVERSION RESULT
FOR ADC CH#2
Figure 15. Typical External Memory Configuration
Post ADC DMA Operation
REV. 0
ADuC831
The DMA logic operates from the ADC clock and uses
pipelining to perform the ADC conversions and access the
external memory at the same time. The time it takes to perform
one ADC conversion is called a DMA cycle. The actions performed by the logic during a typical DMA cycle are shown in
the following diagram.
ADC Offset and Gain Calibration Coefficients
The ADuC831 has two ADC calibration coefficients, one for
offset calibration and one for gain calibration. Both the offset and
gain calibration coefficients are 14-bit words, and are each stored
in two registers located in the Special Function Register (SFR)
area. The offset calibration coefficient is divided into ADCOFSH
(six bits) and ADCOFSL (eight bits) and the gain calibration
coefficient is divided into ADCGAINH (six bits) and ADCGAINL
(eight bits).
CONVERT CHANNEL READ DURING PREVIOUS DMA CYCLE
WRITE ADC RESULT
CONVERTED DURING
PREVIOUS DMA CYCLE
The offset calibration coefficient compensates for dc offset errors
in both the ADC and the input signal. Increasing the offset coefficient compensates for positive offset, and effectively pushes the
ADC transfer function down. Decreasing the offset coefficient
compensates for negative offset, and effectively pushes the ADC
transfer function up. The maximum offset that can be compensated
is typically ± 5% of VREF, which equates to typically ± 125 mV
with a 2.5 V reference.
READ CHANNEL ID
TO BE CONVERTED DURING
NEXT DMA CYCLE
DMA CYCLE
Figure 16. DMA Cycle
From the previous diagram, it can be seen that during one DMA
cycle the following actions are performed by the DMA logic:
1. An ADC conversion is performed on the channel whose ID
was read during the previous cycle.
Similarly, the gain calibration coefficient compensates for dc gain
errors in both the ADC and the input signal. Increasing the gain
coefficient compensates for a smaller analog input signal range
and scales the ADC transfer function up, effectively increasing
the slope of the transfer function. Decreasing the gain coefficient,
compensates for a larger analog input signal range and scales the
ADC transfer function down, effectively decreasing the slope of
the transfer function. The maximum analog input signal range
for which the gain coefficient can compensate is 1.025 VREF
and the minimum input range is 0.975 VREF which equates
to typically ± 2.5% of the reference voltage.
2. The 12-bit result and the channel ID of the conversion performed in the previous cycle is written to the external memory.
3. The ID of the next channel to be converted is read from
external memory.
For the previous example, the complete flow of events is shown
in Figure 16. Because the DMA logic uses pipelining, it takes
three cycles before the first correct result is written out.
Micro Operation during ADC DMA Mode
During ADC DMA mode the MicroConverter core is free to
continue code execution, including general housekeeping and
communication tasks. However, note that MCU core accesses
to Ports 0 and 2 (which of course are being used by the DMA
controller) are gated “OFF” during ADC DMA mode of
operation. This means that even though the instruction that
accesses the external Ports 0 or 2 will appear to execute, no data
will be seen at these external ports as a result. Note that during
DMA the internally contained XRAM Ports 0 and 2 are
available for use.
The only case in which the MCU will be able to access XRAM
during DMA, is when the internal XRAM is enabled and the
section of RAM to which the DMA ADC results are being written to lies in an external XRAM. Then the MCU will be able to
access the internal XRAM only. This is also the case for use of
the extended stack pointer.
The MicroConverter core can be configured with an interrupt to
be triggered by the DMA controller when it had finished filling
the requested block of RAM with ADC results, allowing the
service routine for this interrupt to postprocess data without any
real-time timing constraints.
REV. 0
CALIBRATING THE ADC
There are two hardware calibration modes provided which can
be easily initiated by user software. The ADCCON3 SFR is
used to calibrate the ADC. Bit 1 (TYPICAL) and the CS3 to
CS0 (ADCCON2) set up the calibration modes.
Device calibration can be initiated to compensate for significant
changes in operating conditions frequency, analog input range,
reference voltage and supply voltages. In this calibration mode,
offset calibration uses internal AGND selected via ADCCON2
register bits CS3–CS0 (1011) and gain calibration uses internal
VREF selected by CS3–CS0 (1100). Offset calibration should be
executed first, followed by gain calibration.
System calibration can be initiated to compensate for both internal and external system errors. To perform system calibration
using an external reference, tie system ground and reference to
any two of the six selectable inputs. Enable external reference
mode (ADCCON1.6). Select the channel connected to AGND
via CS3–CS0 and perform system offset calibration. Select the
channel connected to VREF via CS3–CS0 and perform system
gain calibration.
The ADC should be configured to use settings for an ADCCLK
of divide by 16 and 4 acquisition clocks.
–25–
ADuC831
INITIATING CALIBRATION IN CODE
When calibrating the ADC, using ADCCON1 the ADC should
be set up into the configuration in which it will be used. The
ADCCON3 register can then be used to set the device up and
calibrate the ADC offset and gain.
MOV ADCCON1,#08CH
;select internal AGND
;select offset calibration,
;31 averages per bit,
;offset calibration
;select internal VREF
;select offset calibration,
;31 averages per bit,
;offset calibration
To calibrate system offset:
Connect system AGND to an ADC channel input (0).
MOV ADCCON2,#00H
MOV ADCCON3,#25H
;select external VREF
;select offset calibration,
;31 averages per bit,
;offset calibration
The calibration cycle time, TCAL, is calculated by the following
equation assuming a 16 MHz crystal:
To calibrate device gain:
MOV ADCCON2,#0CH
MOV ADCCON3,#27H
MOV ADCCON2,#01H
MOV ADCCON3,#27H
;ADC on; ADCCLK set
;to divide by 16, 4
;acquisition clock
To calibrate device offset:
MOV ADCCON2,#0BH
MOV ADCCON3,#25H
To calibrate system gain:
Connect system VREF to an ADC channel input (1).
;select external AGND
;select offset calibration,
;31 averages per bit
TCAL = 14 × ADCCLK × NUMAV × (16 + TACQ )
For an ADCCLK/FCORE divide ratio of 16, a TACQ = 4 ADCCLK,
NUMAV = 15, the calibration cycle time is:
TCAL = 14 × (1 / 1000000 ) × 15 × (16 + 4 )
TCAL = 4.2 ms
In a calibration cycle the ADC busy flag (Bit 7), instead of
framing an individual ADC conversion as in normal mode, will
go high at the start of calibration and only return to zero at the
end of the calibration cycle. It can therefore be monitored in
code to indicate when the calibration cycle is completed. The
following code can be used to monitor the BUSY signal during
a calibration cycle:
WAIT:
MOV A, ADCCON3
JB ACC.7, WAIT
–26–
;move ADCCON3 to A
;If Bit 7 is set jump to
WAIT else continue
REV. 0
ADuC831
NONVOLATILE FLASH/EE MEMORY
Flash/EE Memory Overview
The ADuC831 incorporates Flash/EE memory technology on-chip
to provide the user with nonvolatile, in-circuit reprogrammable
code, and data memory space. Flash/EE memory is a relatively
recent type of nonvolatile memory technology and is based on a
single transistor cell architecture.
This technology is basically an outgrowth of EPROM technology
and was developed through the late 1980s. Flash/EE memory
takes the flexible in-circuit reprogrammable features of EEPROM
and combines them with the space efficient/density features of
EPROM (see Figure 17).
Because Flash/EE technology is based on a single transistor cell
architecture, a Flash memory array, like EPROM, can be implemented to achieve the space efficiencies or memory densities
required by a given design. Like EEPROM, Flash memory can
be programmed in-system at a byte level, although it must first be
erased; the erase being performed in page blocks. Thus, Flash
memory is often and more correctly referred to as Flash/EE memory.
EPROM
TECHNOLOGY
EEPROM
TECHNOLOGY
SPACE EFFICIENT/
DENSITY
IN-CIRCUIT
REPROGRAMMABLE
FLASH/EE MEMORY
TECHNOLOGY
Figure 17. Flash/EE Memory Development
Overall, Flash/EE memory represents a step closer to the ideal
memory device that includes nonvolatility, in-circuit programmability, high density and low cost. Incorporated in the ADuC831,
Flash/EE memory technology allows the user to update program
code space in-circuit, without the need to replace onetime
programmable (OTP) devices at remote operating nodes.
Endurance quantifies the ability of the Flash/EE memory to be
cycled through many program, read, and erase cycles. In real
terms, a single endurance cycle is composed of four independent, sequential events. These events are defined as:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Initial page erase sequence
Read/verify sequence
Byte program sequence
Second read/verify sequence
In reliability qualification, every byte in both the program and
data Flash/EE memory is cycled from 00H to FFH until a first
fail is recorded, signifying the endurance limit of the on-chip
Flash/EE memory.
As indicated in the specification pages of this data sheet, the
ADuC831 Flash/EE Memory Endurance qualification has been
carried out in accordance with JEDEC Specification A117 over
the industrial temperature range of –40°C to +25°C and +85°C
to +125°C. The results allow the specification of a minimum
endurance figure over supply and temperature of 100,000
cycles, with an endurance figure of 700,000 cycles being typical
of operation at 25°C.
Retention quantifies the ability of the Flash/EE memory to
retain its programmed data over time. Again, the ADuC831 has
been qualified in accordance with the formal JEDEC Retention
Lifetime Specification (A117) at a specific junction temperature
(TJ = 55°C). As part of this qualification procedure, the Flash/EE
memory is cycled to its specified endurance limit described above
before data retention is characterized. This means that the
Flash/EE memory is guaranteed to retain its data for its full
specified retention lifetime every time the Flash/EE memory is
reprogrammed. It should also be noted that retention lifetime,
based on an activation energy of 0.6 eV, will derate with TJ as
shown in Figure 18.
300
Flash/EE Memory and the ADuC831
250
RETENTION – Years
The ADuC831 provides two arrays of Flash/EE memory for user
applications. 62 kBytes of Flash/EE program space are provided
on-chip to facilitate code execution without any external discrete ROM device requirements. The program memory can be
programmed in-circuit using the serial download mode provided,
using conventional third party memory programmers, or via a
user defined protocol that can configure it as data if required.
A 4 kByte Flash/EE data memory space is also provided on-chip.
This may be used as a general-purpose nonvolatile scratchpad
area. User access to this area is via a group of six SFRs. This
space can be programmed at a byte level, although it must first
be erased in 4-byte pages.
200
ADI SPECIFICATION
100 YEARS MIN.
AT TJ = 55 C
150
100
50
0
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
TJ JUNCTION TEMPERATURE – C
ADuC831 Flash/EE Memory Reliability
Figure 18. Flash/EE Memory Data Retention
The Flash/EE program and data memory arrays on the ADuC831
are fully qualified for two key Flash/EE memory characteristics,
namely Flash/EE Memory Cycling Endurance and Flash/EE
Memory Data Retention.
REV. 0
A single Flash/EE
Memory
Endurance Cycle
–27–
ADuC831
after Reset.” If using a bootloader, this option is recommended
to ensure that the bootloader always executes the correct code
after reset.
Using the Flash/EE Program Memory
The 62 kByte Flash/EE program memory array is mapped into the
lower 62 kBytes of the 64 kBytes program space addressable by
the ADuC831, and is used to hold user code in typical applications.
The program memory Flash/EE memory arrays can be programmed
in three ways:
Programming the Flash/EE program memory via ULOAD
mode is described in more detail in the description of ECON
and also in technical note uC007.
(1) Serial Downloading (In-Circuit Programming)
EMBEDDED DOWNLOAD/DEBUG KERNEL
PERMANENTLY EMBEDDED FIRMWARE ALLOWS
CODE TO BE DOWNLOADED TO ANY OF THE
62 kBYTES OF ON-CHIP PROGRAM MEMORY. THE
KERNEL PROGRAM APPEARS AS 'NOP' INSTRUCTIONS TO USER CODE.
The ADuC831 facilitates code download via the standard
UART serial port. The ADuC831 will enter serial download
mode after a reset or power cycle if the PSEN pin is pulled low
through an external 1 k resistor. Once in serial download
mode, the user can download code to the full 62 kBytes of
Flash/EE program memory while the device is in circuit in its
target application hardware.
62 kBYTES
OF USER
CODE
MEMORY
A PC serial download executable is provided as part of the ADuC831
QuickStart development system. The Serial Download protocol
is detailed in a MicroConverter Applications Note uC004.
USER BOOTLOADER SPACE
THE USER BOOTLOADER SPACE
CAN BE PROGRAMMED IN
DOWNLOAD/DEBUG MODE VIA THE
KERNEL BUT IS READ ONLY WHEN
EXECUTING USER CODE
(2) Parallel Programming
The parallel programming mode is fully compatible with conventional third party Flash or EEPROM device programmers.
In this mode Ports P0, P1, and P2 operate as the external data
and address bus interface, ALE operates as the Write Enable
strobe, and Port P3 is used as a general configuration port that
configures the device for various program and erase operations
during parallel programming. The high voltage (12 V) supply
required for Flash programming is generated using on-chip charge
pumps to supply the high voltage program lines.
6 kBYTE
E000H
DFFFH
56 kBYTE
0000H
Figure 19. Flash/EE Program Memory Map in
ULOAD Mode
Flash/EE Program Memory Security
The complete parallel programming specification is available on the
MicroConverter home page at www.analog.com/microconverter.
(3) User Download Mode (ULOAD)
In Figure 19 we can see that it was possible to use the 62 kBytes
of Flash/EE program memory available to the user as one single
block of memory. In this mode all of the Flash/EE memory is
read-only to user code.
However, the Flash/EE program memory can also be written to
during runtime simply by entering ULOAD mode. In ULOAD
mode the lower 56 kBytes of program memory can be erased
and reprogrammed by user software as shown in Figure 19.
ULOAD mode can be used to upgrade your code in the field via
any user defined download protocol. Configuring the SPI port
on the ADuC831 as a slave, it is possible to completely reprogram the 56 kBytes of Flash/EE program memory in only
5 seconds (see uC007).
Alternatively, ULOAD mode can be used to save data to the
56 kBytes of Flash/EE memory. This can be extremely useful in
data logging applications where the ADuC831 can provide up
to 60 kBytes of NV data memory on chip (4 kBytes of dedicated
Flash/EE data memory also exist).
The upper 6 kBytes of the 62 kBytes of Flash/EE program
memory is only programmable via serial download or parallel
programming. This means that this space appears as read only
to user code. Therefore, it cannot be accidentally erased or
reprogrammed by erroneous code execution. This makes it very
suitable to use the 6 kBytes as a bootloader. A Bootload Enable
option exists in the serial downloader to “Always RUN from E000h
USER DOWNLOAD SPACE
EITHER THE DOWNLOAD/DEBUG
KERNEL OR USER CODE (IN
ULOAD MODE) CAN PROGRAM
THIS SPACE.
FFFFH
2 kBYTE
F800H
F7FFH
The ADuC831 facilitates three modes of Flash/EE program
memory security. These modes can be independently activated, restricting access to the internal code space. These
security modes can be enabled as part of serial download
protocol as described in technical note uC004 or via parallel
programming. The security modes available on the ADuC831
are described as follows:
Lock Mode
This mode locks the code memory, disabling parallel programming of the program memory. However, reading the memory in
parallel mode and reading the memory via a MOVC command
from external memory is still allowed. This mode is deactivated
by initiating a code-erase command in serial download or parallel
programming modes.
Secure Mode
This mode locks code in memory, disabling parallel programming
(program and verify/read commands) as well as disabling the
execution of a ‘MOVC’ instruction from external memory, which
is attempting to read the op codes from internal memory. Read/
Write of internal data Flash/EE from external memory is also
disabled. This mode is deactivated by initiating a code-erase
command in serial download or parallel programming modes.
Serial Safe Mode
This mode disables serial download capability on the device. If
Serial Safe mode is activated and an attempt is made to reset
the part into serial download mode, i.e., RESET asserted and
de-asserted with PSEN low, the part will interpret the serial
download reset as a normal reset only. It will therefore not enter
serial download mode but only execute a normal reset sequence.
Serial Safe mode can only be disabled by initiating a code-erase
command in parallel programming mode.
–28–
REV. 0
ADuC831
A block diagram of the SFR interface to the Flash/EE data
memory array is shown in Figure 20.
BYTE 4
(0FFFH)
BYTE 1
(0FF8H)
BYTE 3
(0FFAH)
BYTE 4
(0FFBH)
03H
BYTE 1
(000CH)
BYTE 2
(000DH)
BYTE 3
(000EH)
BYTE 4
(000FH)
02H
BYTE 1
(0008H)
BYTE 2
(0009H)
BYTE 3
(000AH)
BYTE 4
(000BH)
01H
BYTE 1
(0004H)
BYTE 2
(0005H)
BYTE 3
(0006H)
BYTE 4
(0007H)
00H
BYTE 1
(0000H)
BYTE 2
(0001H)
BYTE 3
(0002H)
BYTE 4
(0003H)
BYTE
ADDRESSES
ARE GIVEN IN
BRACKETS
ECON—Flash/EE Memory Control SFR
Programming of either the Flash/EE data memory or the Flash/EE
program memory is done through the Flash/EE memory control
SFR (ECON). This SFR allows the user to read, write, erase, or
verify the 4 kBytes of Flash/EE data memory or the 56 kBytes of
Flash/EE program memory.
BYTE 3
(0FFEH)
EDATA4 SFR
3FEH
BYTE 2
(0FFDH)
BYTE 2
(0FF9H)
EDATA3 SFR
BYTE 1
(0FFCH)
EDATA2 SFR
3FFH
PAGE ADDRESS
(EADRH/L)
The 4 kBytes of Flash/EE data memory is configured as 1024
pages, each of four bytes. As with the other ADuC831 peripherals,
the interface to this memory space is via a group of registers mapped
in the SFR space. A group of four data registers (EDATA1–4)
are used to hold the four bytes of data at each page. The page is
addressed via the two registers EADRH and EADRL. Finally,
ECON is an 8-bit control register that may be written with one
of nine Flash/EE memory access commands to trigger various
read, write, erase, and verify functions.
EDATA1 SFR
USING THE FLASH/EE DATA MEMORY
Figure 20. Flash/EE Data Memory Control and Configuration
Table VII. ECON—Flash/EE Memory Commands
COMMAND DESCRIPTION
ECON VALUE (NORMAL MODE) (Power-On Default)
COMMAND DESCRIPTION
(ULOAD MODE)
01H
READ
Results in 4 bytes in the Flash/EE data memory,
addressed by the page address EADRH/L, being read
into EDATA1–4.
Not Implemented. Use the MOVC instruction.
02H
WRITE
Results in four bytes in EDATA1–4 being written to
the Flash/EE data memory, at the page address given by
EADRH/L (0 ≤ EADRH/L < 0400H.
Note: The four bytes in the page being addressed must
be pre-erased.
Results in bytes 0-255 of internal XRAM being written
to the 256 bytes of Flash/EE program memory at the
page address given by EADRH. (0 ≤ EADRH < E0H)
Note: The 256 bytes in the page being addressed must
be pre-erased.
03H
Reserved Command
Reserved Command
04H
VERIFY
Verifies if the data in EDATA1–4 is contained in the
page address given by EADRH/L. A subsequent read
of the ECON SFR will result in a 0 being read if the
verification is valid, or a nonzero value being read to
indicate an invalid verification.
Not Implemented. Use the MOVC and MOVX
instructions to verify the WRITE in software.
05H
ERASE PAGE
Results in the Erase of the 4-byte page of Flash/EE data
memory addressed by the page address EADRH/L.
Results in the 64-byte page of Flash/EE program
memory, addressed by the byte address EADRH/L
being erased. EADRL can equal any of 64 locations
within the page. A new page starts whenever EADRL
is equal to 00H, 40H, 80H, or C0H.
06H
ERASE ALL
Results in the erase of entire 4 kBytes of Flash/EE
data memory.
Results in the Erase of the entire 56 kBytes of ULOAD
Flash/EE program memory.
81H
READBYTE
Results in the byte in the Flash/EE data memory,
addressed by the byte address EADRH/L, being read
into EDATA1. (0 ≤ EADRH/L ≤ 0FFFH).
Not Implemented. Use the MOVC command.
82H
WRITEBYTE
Results in the byte in EDATA1 being written into
Flash/EE data memory, at the byte address EADRH/L.
Results in the byte in EDATA1 being written into
Flash/EE program memory, at the byte address
EADRH/L (0 ≤ EADRH/L ≤ DFFFH).
0FH
EXULOAD
Leaves the ECON instructions to operate on the
Flash/EE data memory.
Enters NORMAL mode directing subsequent ECON
instructions to operate on the Flash/EE data memory.
F0H
ULOAD
Enters ULOAD mode, directing subsequent ECON
instructions to operate on the Flash/EE program memory.
Leaves the ECON instructions to operate on the
Flash/EE program memory.
REV. 0
–29–
ADuC831
Example: Programming the Flash/EE Data Memory
Flash/EE Memory Timing
A user wishes to program F3H into the second byte on Page
03H of the Flash/EE data memory space while preserving the
other three bytes already in this page.
Typical program and erase times for the ADuC831 are as
follows:
NORMAL MODE (operating on Flash/EE data memory)
A typical program of the Flash/EE Data array will involve:
READPAGE (4 bytes)
WRITEPAGE (4 bytes)
VERIFYPAGE (4 bytes)
ERASEPAGE (4 bytes)
ERASEALL (4 kBytes)
READBYTE (1 byte)
WRITEBYTE (1 byte)
1) setting EADRH/L with the page address
2) writing the data to be programmed to the EDATA1–4
3) writing the ECON SFR with the appropriate command
Step 1: Set Up the Page Address
The two address registers EADRH and EADRL hold the high
byte address and the low byte address of the page to be
addressed. The assembly language to set up the address may
appear as:
MOV EADRH,#0
; Set Page Address Pointer
MOV EADRL,#03H
ULOAD MODE (operating on Flash/EE program memory)
WRITEPAGE (256 bytes)
ERASEPAGE (64 bytes)
ERASEALL (56 kBytes)
WRITEBYTE (1 byte)
Step 2: Set Up the EDATA Registers
We must now write the four values to be written into the page
into the four SFRs EDATA–14. Unfortunately, we do not know
three of them. Thus, we must read the current page and overwrite the second byte.
MOV ECON,#1
MOV EDATA2,#0F3H
; Read Page into EDATA1-4
; Overwrite byte 2
Step 3: Program Page
A byte in the Flash/EE array can only be programmed if it has
previously been erased. To be more specific, a byte can only be
programmed if it already holds the value FFH. Because of the
Flash/EE architecture, this erase must happen at a page level;
therefore, a minimum of four bytes (one page) will be erased
when an erase command is initiated. Once the page is erased we
can program the four bytes in-page and then perform a verification
of the data.
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
JNZ
ECON,#5
ECON,#2
ECON,#4
A,ECON
ERROR
;
;
;
;
– 5 machine cycles
– 380 µs
– 5 machine cycles
– 2 ms
– 2 ms
– 3 machine cycle
– 200 µs
– 15 ms
– 2 ms
– 2 ms
– 200 µs
It should be noted that a given mode of operation is initiated as
soon as the command word is written to the ECON SFR. The
core microcontroller operation on the ADuC831 is idled until the
requested Program/Read or Erase mode is completed.
In practice, this means that even though the Flash/EE memory
mode of operation is typically initiated with a two-machine cycle
MOV instruction (to write to the ECON SFR), the next instruction will not be executed until the Flash/EE operation is complete.
This means that the core will not respond to interrupt requests
until the Flash/EE operation is complete, although the core
peripheral functions like counter/timers will continue to count
and time as configured throughout this period.
ERASE Page
WRITE Page
VERIFY Page
Check if ECON=0 (OK!)
Although the 4 kBytes of Flash/EE data memory are shipped
from the factory pre-erased, i.e., byte locations set to FFH, it is
nonetheless good programming practice to include an erase-all
routine as part of any configuration/setup code running on the
ADuC831. An “ERASE-ALL” command consists of writing
“06H” to the ECON SFR, which initiates an erase of the
4 kByte Flash/EE array. This command coded in 8051 assembly
would appear as:
MOV ECON,#06H
; Erase all Command
; 2 ms Duration
–30–
REV. 0
ADuC831
ADuC831 Configuration SFR (CFG831)
The CFG831 SFR contains the necessary bits to configure the
internal XRAM, EPROM controller, PWM output selection
and frequency, DAC buffer, and the extended SP. By default it
configures the user into 8051 mode, i.e., extended SP is disabled,
internal XRAM is disabled.
CFG831
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
ADuC831 Config SFR
AFH
10*H
No
Table VIII. CFG831 SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
EXSP
6
PWPO
5
DBUF
4
3
2
EPM2
EPM1
EPM0
1
0
RSVD
XRAMEN
Extended SP Enable.
When set to “1” by the user, the stack will rollover from SPH/SP = 00FFH to 0100H.
When set to “0” by the user, the stack will roll over from SP = FFH to SP = 00H.
PWM Pin Out Selection.
Set to “1” by the user = PWM output pins selected as P3.4 and P3.3.
Set to “0” by the user = PWM output pins selected as P2.6 and P2.7.
DAC Output Buffer.
Set to “1” by the user = DAC. Output Buffer Bypassed.
Set to “0” by the user = DAC Output Buffer Enabled.
Flash/EE Controller and PWM Clock Frequency Configuration Bits.
Frequency should be configured such that Fosc/Divide Factor = 32 kHz + 50%.
EPM2 EPM1 EPM0
Divide Factor
0
0
0
32
0
0
1
64
0
1
0
128
0
1
1
256
1
0
0
512
1
0
1
1024
Reserved. This bit should always contain 0.
XRAM Enable Bit.
When set to “1” the internal XRAM will be mapped into the lower 2 kBytes of the external address space.
When set to “0” the internal XRAM will not be accessible and the external data memory will be mapped
into the lower 2 kBytes of external data memory.
*Note that the Flash/EE controller bits EPM2, EPM1, EPM0 are set to their
correct values depending on the crystal frequency at power-up. The user should
not modify these bits so all instructions to the CFG831 register should use the
ORL, XRL, or ANL instructions. Value of 10H is for a 11.0592 MHz crystal.
REV. 0
–31–
ADuC831
USER INTERFACE TO OTHER ON-CHIP ADuC831
PERIPHERALS
The following section gives a brief overview of the various
peripherals also available on-chip. A summary of the SFRs
used to control and configure these peripherals is also given.
DAC
The ADuC831 incorporates two 12-bit, voltage output DACs
on-chip. Each has a rail-to-rail voltage output buffer capable of
driving 10 kΩ/100 pF. Each has two selectable ranges, 0 V to
VREF (the internal band gap 2.5 V reference) and 0 V to AVDD.
Each can operate in 12-bit or 8-bit mode. Both DACs share a
control register, DACCON, and four data registers, DAC1H/L,
DAC0H/L. It should be noted that in 12-bit asynchronous
mode, the DAC voltage output will be updated as soon as the
DACL data SFR has been written; therefore, the DAC data
registers should be updated as DACH first, followed by DACL.
Note: for correct DAC operation on the 0 to VREF range, the
ADC must be switched on. This results in the DAC using the
correct reference value.
DACCON
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
DAC Control Register
FDH
04H
No
Table IX. DACCON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
MODE
6
RNG1
5
RNG0
4
CLR1
3
CLR0
2
SYNC
1
PD1
0
PD0
The DAC MODE bit sets the overriding operating mode for both DACs.
Set to “1” = 8-Bit Mode (Write 8 Bits to DACxL SFR).
Set to “0”= 12-Bit Mode.
DAC1 Range Select Bit.
Set to “1” = DAC1 Range 0–VDD.
Set to “0” = DAC1 Range 0–VREF.
DAC0 Range Select Bit.
Set to “1” = DAC0 Range 0–VDD.
Set to “0” = DAC0 Range 0–VREF.
DAC1 Clear Bit.
Set to “0” = DAC1 Output Forced to 0 V.
Set to “1” = DAC1 Output Normal.
DAC0 Clear Bit.
Set to “0” = DAC1 Output Forced to 0 V.
Set to “1” = DAC1 Output Normal.
DAC0/1 Update Synchronization Bit.
When set to “1” the DAC outputs update as soon as DACxL SFRs are written. The user can
simultaneously update both DACs by first updating the DACxL/H SFRs while SYNC is “0.” Both
DACs will then update simultaneously when the SYNC bit is set to “1.”
DAC1 Power-Down Bit.
Set to “1” = Power-On DAC1.
Set to “0” = Power-Off DAC1.
DAC0 Power-Down Bit.
Set to “1” = Power-On DAC0.
Set to “0” = Power-Off DAC0.
DACxH/L
DAC Data Registers
Function
SFR Address
DAC Data Registers, written by user to update the DAC output.
DAC0L (DAC0 Data Low Byte)
F9H; DAC1L (DAC1 Data Low Byte)
DAC0H (DAC0 Data High Byte)
FAH; DAC1H(DAC1 Data High Byte)
00H
All four Registers
No
All four Registers
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
FBH
FCH
The 12-bit DAC data should be written into DACxH/L right-justified such that DACxL contains the lower eight bits, and the lower
nibble of DACxH contains the upper four bits.
–32–
REV. 0
ADuC831
VDD
Using the DAC
The on-chip DAC architecture consists of a resistor string DAC
followed by an output buffer amplifier, the functional equivalent
of which is illustrated in Figure 21. Details of the actual DAC
architecture can be found in U.S. Patent Number 5969657
(www.uspto.gov). Features of this architecture include inherent
guaranteed monotonicity and excellent differential linearity.
AVDD
VREF
VDD –50mV
VDD –100mV
ADuC831
100mV
R
OUTPUT
BUFFER
50mV
R
0mV
DAC0
FFFH
000H
R
Figure 22. Endpoint Nonlinearities Due to Amplifier
Saturation
R
R
Figure 21. Resistor String DAC Functional Equivalent
As illustrated in Figure 21, the reference source for each DAC is
user selectable in software. It can be either AVDD or VREF. In
0-to-AVDD mode, the DAC output transfer function spans from
0 V to the voltage at the AVDD pin. In 0-to-VREF mode, the
DAC output transfer function spans from 0 V to the internal
VREF, or if an external reference is applied, the voltage at the
VREF pin. The DAC output buffer amplifier features a true railto-rail output stage implementation. This means that, unloaded,
each output is capable of swinging to within less than 100 mV of
both AVDD and ground. Moreover, the DAC’s linearity specification (when driving a 10 kΩ resistive load to ground) is
guaranteed through the full transfer function except codes 0 to
100, and, in 0-to-AVDD mode only, codes 3945 to 4095. Linearity degradation near ground and VDD is caused by saturation of
the output amplifier, and a general representation of its effects
(neglecting offset and gain error) is illustrated in Figure 22. The
dotted line in Figure 22 indicates the ideal transfer function,
and the solid line represents what the transfer function might
look like with endpoint nonlinearities due to saturation of the
output amplifier. Note that Figure 22 represents a transfer
function in 0-to-VDD mode only. In 0-to-VREF mode (with VREF
< VDD) the lower nonlinearity would be similar, but the upper
portion of the transfer function would follow the “ideal” line
right to the end (VREF in this case, not VDD), showing no signs
of endpoint linearity errors.
The end point nonlinearities conceptually illustrated in Figure
22 get worse as a function of output loading. Most of the
ADuC831’s data sheet specifications assume a 10 kΩ resistive
load to ground at the DAC output. As the output is forced to
source or sink more current, the nonlinear regions at the top or
bottom (respectively) of Figure 22 become larger. With larger
current demands, this can significantly limit output voltage
swing. Figure 23 and Figure 24 illustrate this behavior. It
should be noted that the upper trace in each of these figures is
only valid for an output range selection of 0-to-AVDD. In 0-toVREF mode, DAC loading will not cause highside voltage drops
as long as the reference voltage remains below the upper trace in
the corresponding figure. For example, if AVDD = 3 V and VREF
= 2.5 V, the highside voltage will not be affected by loads less
than 5 mA. But somewhere around 7 mA the upper curve in
Figure 24 drops below 2.5 V (VREF) indicating that at these
higher currents the output will not be capable of reaching VREF.
5
DAC LOADED WITH 0FFFH
4
OUTPUT VOLTAGE – V
HIGH Z
DISABLE
(FROM MCU)
3
2
1
DAC LOADED WITH 0000H
0
0
5
10
SOURCE/SINK CURRENT – mA
15
Figure 23. Source and Sink Current Capability with
VREF = VDD = 5 V
REV. 0
–33–
ADuC831
3
To drive significant loads with the DAC outputs, external buffering may be required (even with the internal buffer enabled),
as illustrated in Figure 25. A list of recommended op-amps is in
Table VI.
OUTPUT VOLTAGE – V
DAC LOADED WITH 0FFFH
2
DAC0
1
ADuC831
DAC LOADED WITH 0000H
0
0
5
10
SOURCE/SINK CURRENT – mA
DAC1
15
Figure 25. Buffering the DAC Outputs
Figure 24. Source and Sink Current Capability with
VREF = VDD = 3 V
To reduce the effects of the saturation of the output amplifier at
values close to ground and to give reduced offset and gain errors,
the internal buffer can be bypassed. This is done by setting the
DBUF bit in the CFG831 register. This allows a full rail-to-rail
output from the DAC which should then be buffered externally
using a dual supply op-amp in order to get a rail-to-rail output.
This external buffer should be located as near as physically
possible to the DAC output pin on the PCB. Note the unbuffed
mode only works in the 0 to VREF range.
The DAC output buffer also features a high-impedance disable
function. In the chip’s default power-on state, both DACs are
disabled, and their outputs are in a high-impedance state (or
“three-state”) where they remain inactive until enabled in software.
This means that if a zero output is desired during power-up or
power-down transient conditions, then a pull-down resistor must
be added to each DAC output. Assuming this resistor is in place,
the DAC outputs will remain at ground potential whenever the
DAC is disabled.
–34–
REV. 0
ADuC831
PULSEWIDTH MODULATOR (PWM)
The PWM on the ADuC831 is highly flexible PWM offering
programmable resolution and input clock, and can be configured for any one of six different modes of operation. Two of
these modes allow the PWM to be configured as a - DAC
with up to 16 bits of resolution. A block diagram of the PWM is
shown in Figure 26.
fOSC
T0/ EXTERNAL PWM CLOCK
fOSC /DIVIDE FACTOR/15
CLOCK
SELECT
PROGRAMMABLE
DIVIDER
fOSC /DIVIDE FACTOR
16-BIT PWM COUNTER
P2.6
COMPARE
P2.7
MODE
PWM0H/L
PWM1H/L
Figure 26. PWM Block Diagram
The PWM uses five SFRs: the control SFR (PWMCON), and
four data SFRs (PWM0H, PWM0L, PWM1H, and PWM1L).
PWMCON (as described below) controls the different modes of
operation of the PWM as well as the PWM clock frequency.
PWM0H/L and PWM1H/L are the data registers that determine
the duty cycles of the PWM outputs. The output pins that the
PWM uses are determined by the CFG831 register and they can
be either P2.6 and P2.7 or P3.4 and P3.3. In this section of the
data sheet, it is assumed that P2.6 and P2.7 are selected as the
PWM outputs.
To use the PWM user software, first write to PWMCON to select
the PWM mode of operation and the PWM input clock. Writing
to PWMCON also resets the PWM counter. In any of the 16-bit
modes of operation (modes 1, 3, 4, 6), user software should
write to the PWM0L or PWM1L SFRs first. This value is written
to a hidden SFR. Writing to the PWM0H or PWM1H SFRs
updates both the PWMxH and the PWMxL SFRs but does not
change the outputs until the end of the PWM cycle in progress.
The values written to these 16-bit registers are then used in the
next PWM cycle.
PWMCON
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
PWM Control SFR
AEH
00H
No
Table X. PWMCON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
5
4
SNGL
MD2
MD1
MD0
Turns Off PWM output at P2.6 or P3.4 Leaving Port Pin Free for Digital I/O.
PWM Mode Bits
The MD2/1/0 bits choose the PWM mode as follows:
MD2
MD1
MD0
Mode
0
0
0
Mode 0: PWM Disabled
0
0
1
Mode 1: Single variable resolution PWM on P2.7 or P3.3
0
1
0
Mode 2: Twin 8-bit PWM
0
1
1
Mode 3: Twin 16-bit PWM
1
0
0
Mode 4: Dual NRZ 16-bit Σ-∆ DAC
1
0
1
Mode 5: Dual 8-bit PWM
1
1
0
Mode 6: Dual RZ 16-bit Σ-∆ DAC
1
1
1
Reserved for future use
3
2
CDIV1
CDIV0
PWM Clock Divider
Scale the clock source for the PWM counter as shown below:
CDIV1 CDIV0 Description
0
0
PWM Counter = Selected Clock/1
0
1
PWM Counter = Selected Clock/4
1
0
PWM Counter = Selected Clock/16
1
1
PWM Counter = Selected Clock/64
1
0
CSEL1
CSEL0
PWM Clock Divider
Select the clock source for the PWM as shown below:
CSEL1 CSEL0 Description
0
0
PWM Clock = fOCS/DIVIDE FACTOR /15 (see CFG831 register)
0
1
PWM Clock = fOCS/DIVIDE FACTOR (see CFG831 register)
1
0
PWM Clock = External input at P3.4/T0
1
1
PWM Clock = fOSC
REV. 0
–35–
ADuC831
PWM1L
PWM MODES OF OPERATION
MODE 0: PWM Disabled
PWM COUNTER
The PWM is disabled, allowing P2.6 and P2.7 to be used as
normal.
PWM0L
MODE 1: Single Variable Resolution PWM
PWM1H
PWM0H
In Mode 1, both the pulse length and the cycle time (period) are
programmable in user code, allowing the resolution of the PWM
to be variable.
0
P2.6
PWM1H/L sets the period of the output waveform. Reducing
PWM1H/L reduces the resolution of the PWM output but
increases the maximum output rate of the PWM.
P2.7
(For example, setting PWM1H/L to 65536 gives a 16-bit PWM
with a maximum output rate of 244 Hz (16 MHz/65536). Setting
PWM1H/L to 4096 gives a 12-bit PWM with a maximum output
rate of 3906 Hz (16 MHz/4096).)
PWM0H/L sets the duty cycle of the PWM output waveform, as
shown in the diagram below.
Figure 28. PWM Mode 2
MODE 3: Twin 16-Bit PWM
In Mode 3, the PWM counter is fixed to count from 0 to 65536
giving a fixed 16-bit PWM. Operating from the 16 MHz core clock
results in a PWM output rate of 244 Hz. The duty cycle of the
PWM outputs at P2.6 and P2.7 are independently programmable.
As shown in Figure 29, while the PWM counter is less than
PWM0H/L, the output of PWM0 (P2.6) is high. Once the PWM
counter equals PWM0H/L, then PWM0 (P2.6) goes low and
remains low until the PWM counter rolls over.
PWM1H/L
PWM COUNTER
PWM0H/L
Similarly while the PWM counter is less than PWM1H/L, the
output of PWM1 (P2.7) is high. Once the PWM counter equals
PWM1H/L, then PWM1 (P2.7) goes low and remains low until
the PWM counter rolls over.
0
P2.7
In this mode, both PWM outputs are synchronized. Once the
PWM counter rolls over to 0, both PWM0 (P2.6) and PWM1
(P2.7) will go high.
Figure 27. ADuC831 PWM in Mode 1
MODE 2: Twin 8-Bit PWM
In Mode 2, the duty cycle of the PWM outputs and the resolution
of the PWM outputs are both programmable. The maximum
resolution of the PWM output is eight bits.
65536
PWM COUNTER
PWM1H/L
PWM1L sets the period for both PWM outputs. Typically, this
will be set to 255 (FFH) to give an 8-bit PWM, although it is
possible to reduce this as necessary. A value of 100 could be
loaded here to give a percentage PWM (i.e., the PWM is
accurate to 1%).
PWM0H/L
0
P2.6
The outputs of the PWM at P2.6 and P2.7 are shown in the
diagram below. As can be seen, the output of PWM0 (P2.6) goes
low when the PWM counter equals PWM0L. The output of
PWM1 (P2.7) goes high when the PWM counter equals PWM1H,
and goes low again when the PWM counter equals PWM0H.
Setting PWM1H to 0 ensures that both PWM outputs start
simultaneously.
–36–
P2.7
Figure 29. PWM Mode 3
REV. 0
ADuC831
MODE 4: Dual NRZ 16-Bit - DAC
PWM1L
PWM COUNTERS
Mode 4 provides a high speed PWM output similar to that of a
- DAC. Typically, this mode will be used with the PWM
clock equal to 16 MHz.
PWM1H
PWM0L
In this mode P2.6 and P2.7 are updated every PWM clock
(62 ns in the case of 16 MHz). Over any 65536 cycles (16 bit
PWM) PWM0 (P2.6) is high for PWM0H/L cycles and low for
(65536 - PWM0H/L) cycles. Similarly PWM1 (P2.7) is high for
PWM1H/L cycles and low for (65536 - PWM1H/L) cycles.
For example, if PWM1H was set to 4010H (slightly above one
quarter of FS) then typically P2.7 will be low for three clocks
and high for one clock (each clock is approximately 80 ns). Over
every 65536 clocks the PWM will compensate for the fact that
the output should be slightly above one quarter of full scale by
having a high cycle followed by only two low cycles.
PWM0H/L = C000H
CARRY OUT AT P2.6
0 1
16-BIT
1
1
0 1
1
62s
16-BIT
16-BIT
16MHz
16-BIT
0
0
0 1
0
0
0
P2.6
P2.7
Figure 31. PWM Mode 5
MODE 6: Dual RZ 16-Bit - DAC
Mode 6 provides a high speed PWM output similar to that of a
- DAC. Mode 6 operates very similarly to Mode 4. However,
the key difference is that Mode 6 provides return to zero (RZ)
- DAC output. Mode 4 provides non-return-to-zero - DAC
outputs. The RZ mode ensures that any difference in the rise
and fall times will not effect the - DAC INL. However, the
RZ mode halves the dynamic range of the - DAC outputs
from 0–AVDD down to 0–AVDD/2. For best results, this mode
should be used with a PWM clock divider of four.
If PWM1H was set to 4010H (slightly above one quarter of
FS), then typically P2.7 will be low for three full clocks (3 62 ns), high for half a clock (31 ns) and then low again for half
a clock (31 ns) before repeating itself. Over every 65536 clocks
the PWM will compensate for the fact that the output should be
slightly above one quarter of full scale by leaving the output
high for two half clocks in four every so often.
LATCH
16-BIT
PWM0H
0
CARRY OUT AT P2.7
16-BIT
62s
PWM0H/L = C000H
PWM1H/L = 4000H
CARRY OUT AT P2.6
0 1
16-BIT
1
1
0 1
1
Figure 30. PWM Mode 4
For faster DAC outputs (at lower resolution) write 0s to the
LSBs that are not required. If for example only 12-bit performance is required then write 0s to the 4LSBs. This means that a
12-bit accurate Σ-∆ DAC output can occur at 3.906 kHz. Similarly, writing 0s to the 8 LSBs gives an 8-bit accurate Σ-∆ DAC
output at 62 kHz.
248s
16-BIT
16-BIT
4MHz
16-BIT
LATCH
16-BIT
MODE 5: Dual 8-Bit PWM
In Mode 5, the duty cycle of the PWM outputs and the resolution of the PWM outputs are individually programmable. The
maximum resolution of the PWM output is eight bits. The
output resolution is set by the PWM1L and PWM1H SFRs for
the P2.6 and P2.7 outputs, respectively. PWM0L and PWM0H
sets the duty cycles of the PWM outputs at P2.6 and P2.7, respectively. Both PWMs have same clock source and clock divider.
REV. 0
0, 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 0
0
0
CARRY OUT AT P2.7
16-BIT
248s
PWM1H/L = 4000H
Figure 32. PWM Mode 6
–37–
0 1
0
0
0
ADuC831
SERIAL PERIPHERAL INTERFACE
The ADuC831 integrates a complete hardware Serial Peripheral
Interface (SPI) on-chip. SPI is an industry standard synchronous
serial interface that allows eight bits of data to be synchronously
transmitted and received simultaneously, i.e., full duplex.
It should be noted that the SPI pins are shared with the I2C
interface pins. Therefore, the user can only enable one or the
other interface at any given time (see SPE in Table XI below).
The SPI Port can be configured for Master or Slave operation,
and typically consists of four pins, namely:
MISO (Master In, Slave Out Data I/O Pin)
The MISO (master in slave out) pin is configured as an input
line in master mode and an output line in slave mode. The MISO
line on the master (data in) should be connected to the MISO
line in the slave device (data out). The data is transferred as
byte wide (8-bit) serial data, MSB first.
MOSI (Master Out, Slave In Pin)
The MOSI (master out slave in) pin is configured as an output line
in master mode and an input line in slave mode. The MOSI
line on the master (data out) should be connected to the MOSI
line in the slave device (data in). The data is transferred as byte
wide (8-bit) serial data, MSB first.
SCLOCK (Serial Clock I/O Pin)
The master serial clock (SCLOCK) is used to synchronize the
data being transmitted and received through the MOSI and MISO
SPICON
SPI Control Register
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
F8H
OOH
Yes
data lines. A single data bit is transmitted and received in each
SCLOCK period. Therefore, a byte is transmitted/received
after eight SCLOCK periods. The SCLOCK pin is configured as
an output in master mode and as an input in slave mode. In master
mode the bit-rate, polarity and phase of the clock are controlled by
the CPOL, CPHA, SPR0, and SPR1 bits in the SPICON SFR
(see Table XI). In slave mode the SPICON register will have to
be configured with the phase and polarity (CPHA and CPOL) of
the expected input clock. In both master and slave modes, the data
is transmitted on one edge of the SCLOCK signal and sampled
on the other. It is important therefore, that the CPHA and CPOL
are configured the same for the master and slave devices.
Slave Select Input Pin (SS)
The Slave Select (SS) input pin is shared with the ADC5 input.
In order to configure this pin as a digital input, the bit must be
cleared, e.g., CLR P1.5.
This line is active low. Data is only received or transmitted in slave
mode when the SS pin is low, allowing the ADuC831 to be used
in single master, multislave SPI configurations. If CPHA = 1 then the
SS input may be permanently pulled low. With CPHA = 0, the SS
input must be driven low before the first bit in a byte wide transmission or reception and return high again after the last bit in that byte
wide transmission or reception. In SPI slave mode, the logic level on
the external SS pin can be read via the SPR0 bit in the SPICON SFR.
The following SFR registers are used to control the SPI interface.
Table XI. SPICON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
ISPI
6
WCOL
5
SPE
4
SPIM
3
CPOL
2
CPHA
1
0
SPR1
SPR0
SPI Interrupt Bit.
Set by MicroConverter at the end of each SPI transfer.
Cleared directly by user code or indirectly by reading the SPIDAT SFR.
Write Collision Error Bit.
Set by MicroConverter if SPIDAT is written to while an SPI transfer is in progress.
Cleared by user code.
SPI Interface Enable Bit.
Set by user to enable the SPI interface.
Cleared by user to enable the I2C interface.
SPI Master/Slave Mode Select Bit.
Set by user to enable Master Mode operation (SCLOCK is an output).
Cleared by user to enable Slave Mode operation (SCLOCK is an input).
Clock Polarity Select Bit.
Set by user if SCLOCK idles high.
Cleared by user if SCLOCK idles low.
Clock Phase Select Bit.
Set by user if leading SCLOCK edge is to transmit data.
Cleared by user if trailing SCLOCK edge is to transmit data.
SPI Bit-Rate Select Bits.
These bits select the SCLOCK rate (bit-rate) in Master Mode as follows:
SPR1
SPR0
Selected Bit Rate
0
0
fOSC/2
0
1
fOSC/4
1
0
fOSC/8
1
1
fOSC/16
In SPI Slave Mode, i.e., SPIM = 0, the logic level on the external SS pin can be read via the SPR0 bit.
The CPOL and CPHA bits should both contain the same values for master and slave devices.
–38–
REV. 0
ADuC831
SPIDAT
SPI Data Register
Function
The SPIDAT SFR is written by the user to transmit data over the SPI interface or read by user code to
read data just received by the SPI interface.
F7H
00H
No
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
Using the SPI Interface
SPI Interface—Master Mode
Depending on the configuration of the bits in the SPICON SFR
shown in Table XI, the ADuC831 SPI interface will transmit or
receive data in a number of possible modes. Figure 33 shows all
possible ADuC831 SPI configurations and the timing relationships and synchronization between the signals involved. Also
shown in this figure is the SPI interrupt bit (ISPI) and how it is
triggered at the end of each byte-wide communication.
In master mode, the SCLOCK pin is always an output and generates a burst of eight clocks whenever user code writes to the
SPIDAT register. The SCLOCK bit rate is determined by
SPR0 and SPR1 in SPICON. It should also be noted that the
SS pin is not used in master mode. If the ADuC831 needs to
assert the SS pin on an external slave device, a port digital output
pin should be used.
SCLOCK
(CPOL = 1)
SCLOCK
(CPOL = 0)
SS
SAMPLE INPUT
(CPHA = 1)
DATA OUTPUT
? MSB BIT 6 BIT 5 BIT 4 BIT 3 BIT 2 BIT 1 LSB
In master mode, a byte transmission or reception is initiated
by a write to SPIDAT. Eight clock periods are generated via the
SCLOCK pin and the SPIDAT byte being transmitted via MOSI.
With each SCLOCK period a data bit is also sampled via MISO.
After eight clocks, the transmitted byte will have been completely
transmitted and the input byte will be waiting in the input shift
register. The ISPI flag will be set automatically and an interrupt
will occur if enabled. The value in the shift register will be latched
into SPIDAT.
SPI Interface—Slave Mode
In slave mode the SCLOCK is an input. The SS pin must
also be driven low externally during the byte communication.
ISPI FLAG
SAMPLE INPUT
DATA OUTPUT
MSB BIT 6 BIT 5 BIT 4 BIT 3 BIT 2 BIT 1 LSB ?
(CPHA = 0)
ISPI FLAG
Figure 33. SPI Timing, All Modes
REV. 0
Transmission is also initiated by a write to SPIDAT. In slave
mode, a data bit is transmitted via MISO and a data bit is received
via MOSI through each input SCLOCK period. After eight clocks,
the transmitted byte will have been completely transmitted and the
input byte will be waiting in the input shift register. The ISPI flag
will be set automatically and an interrupt will occur if enabled.
The value in the shift register will be latched into SPIDAT only
when the transmission/reception of a byte has been completed.
The end of transmission occurs after the eighth clock has been
received if CPHA = 1, or when SS returns high if CPHA = 0.
–39–
ADuC831
I2C COMPATIBLE INTERFACE
The ADuC831 supports a fully licensed* I2C serial interface. The
I2C interface is implemented as a full hardware slave and software
master. SDATA is the data I/O pin and SCLOCK is the serial
clock. These two pins are shared with the MOSI and SCLOCK pins
of the on-chip SPI interface. Therefore, the user can only enable
one or the other interface at any given time (see SPE in SPICON
previously). Application Note uC001 describes the operation
of this interface as implemented, and is available from the
MicroConverter website at www.analog.com/microconverter.
Three SFRs are used to control the I2C interface. These are described below:
I2CCON
I2C Control Register
SFR Address
E8H
Power-On Default Value 00H
Bit Addressable
Yes
Table XII. I2CCON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
MDO
6
MDE
5
MCO
4
MDI
3
I2CM
2
I2CRS
1
I2CTX
0
I2CI
I2C Software Master Data Output Bit (Master Mode Only). This data bit is used to implement a
master I2C transmitter interface in software. Data written to this bit will be output on the SDATA
pin if the data output enable (MDE) bit is set.
I2C Software Master Data Output Enable Bit (Master Mode Only). Set by user to enable the SDATA
pin as an output (Tx). Cleared by the user to enable SDATA pin as an input (Rx).
I2C Software Master Clock Output Bit (Master Mode Only). This data bit is used to implement a master
I2C transmitter interface in software. Data written on this bit will be output on the SCLOCK pin.
I2C Software Master Data Input Bit (Master Mode Only). This data bit is used to implement a master
I2C receiver interface in software. Data on the SDATA pin is latched into this bit on SCLOCK if
the Data Output Enable (MDE) bit is ‘0.’
I2C Master/Slave Mode Bit. Set by user to enable I2C software master mode. Cleared by user to
enable I2C hardware slave mode.
I2C Reset Bit (Slave Mode Only). Set by user to reset the I2C interface. Cleared by user code for
normal I2C operation.
I2C Direction Transfer Bit (Slave Mode Only). Set by the MicroConverter if the interface is
transmitting. Cleared by the MicroConverter if the interface is receiving.
I2C Interrupt Bit (Slave Mode Only). Set by the MicroConverter after a byte has been transmitted
or received. Cleared automatically when user code reads the I2CDAT SFR (see I2CDAT below).
I2CADD
I2C Address Register
Function
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
Holds the I2C peripheral address for the part. It may be overwritten by user code. Technical Note uC001
at www.analog.com/microconverter describes the format of the I2C standard 7-bit address in detail.
9BH
55H
No
I2CDAT
I2C Data Register
Function
The I2CDAT SFR is written by the user to transmit data over the I2C interface or read by user code to
read data just received by the I2C interface. Accessing I2CDAT automatically clears any pending I2C
interrupt and the I2CI bit in the I2CCON SFR. User software should only access I2CDAT once per
interrupt cycle.
9AH
00H
No
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
*Purchase of licensed I2C components of Analog Devices or one of its sublicensed Associated Companies conveys a license for the purchaser under the Philips I2C
Patent Rights to use the ADuC831 in an I2C system, provided that the system conforms to the I2C Standard Specification as defined by Philips.
–40–
REV. 0
ADuC831
The main features of the MicroConverter I2C interface are:
• Only two bus lines are required; a serial data line (SDATA)
and a serial clock line (SCLOCK).
• An I2C master can communicate with multiple slave devices.
Because each slave device has a unique 7-bit address, single
master/slave relationships can exist at all times even in
a multislave environment (Figure 34).
Once enabled in I2C slave mode the slave controller waits for a
START condition. If the ADuC831 detects a valid start condition, followed by a valid address, followed by the R/W bit, the
I2CI interrupt bit will get set by the hardware automatically.
The I2C peripheral will only generate a core interrupt if the user
has preconfigured the I2C interrupt enable bit in the IEIP2 SFR
as well as the global interrupt bit EA in the IE SFR.
; Enabling I2C Interrupts for the ADuC831
MOV IEIP2,#01H
; enable I2C interrupt
SETB EA
• On-Chip filtering rejects <50 ns spikes on the SDATA and
the SCLOCK lines to preserve data integrity.
On the ADuC831 an autoclear of the I2CI bit is implemented
so this bit is cleared automatically on a read or write access to
the I2CDAT SFR.
DVDD
I2C
MASTER
MOV
MOV
I2C
SLAVE #1
; I2CI auto cleared
; I2CI auto cleared
If for any reason the user tries to clear the interrupt more than
once, i.e., access the data SFR more than once per interrupt
then the I2C controller will halt. The interface will then have to
be reset using the I2CRS bit.
I2C
SLAVE #2
Figure 34. Typical I 2C System
Software Master Mode
The ADuC831 can be used as an I2C master device by configuring the I2C peripheral in master mode and writing software to
output the data bit by bit. This is referred to as a software master.
Master mode is enabled by setting the I2CM bit in the I2CCON
register.
To transmit data on the SDATA line, MDE must be set to
enable the output driver on the SDATA pin. If MDE is set, then
the SDATA pin will be pulled high or low depending on
whether the MDO bit is set or cleared. MCO controls the
SCLOCK pin and is always configured as an output in master
mode. In master mode the SCLOCK pin will be pulled high or
low depending on the whether MCO is set or cleared.
To receive data, MDE must be cleared to disable the output
driver on SDATA. Software must provide the clocks by toggling
the MCO bit and read the SDATA pin via the MDI bit. If MDE
is cleared MDI can be used to read the SDATA pin. The value of
the SDATA pin is latched into MDI on a rising edge of SCLOCK.
MDI is set if the SDATA pin was high on the last rising edge of
SCLOCK. MDI is cleared if the SDATA pin was low on the last
rising edge of SCLOCK.
Software must control MDO, MCO, and MDE appropriately to
generate the START condition, slave address, acknowledge bits,
data bytes, and STOP conditions appropriately. These functions
are provided in technical note uC001.
Hardware Slave Mode
After reset the ADuC831 defaults to hardware slave mode. The
I2C interface is enabled by clearing the SPE bit in SPICON.
Slave mode is enabled by clearing the I2CM bit in I2CCON.
The ADuC831 has a full hardware slave. In slave mode the I2C
address is stored in the I2CADD register. Data received or to be
transmitted is stored in the I2CDAT register.
REV. 0
I2CDAT, A
A, I2CDAT
The user can choose to poll the I2CI bit or enable the interrupt.
In the case of the interrupt, the PC counter will vector to
003BH at the end of each complete byte. For the first byte
when the user gets to the I2CI ISR, the 7-bit address and the
R/W bit will appear in the I2CDAT SFR.
The I2CTX bit contains the R/W bit sent from the master. If
I2CTX is set then the master would like to receive a byte.
Thus the slave will transmit data by writing to the I2CDAT
register. If I2CTX is cleared, the master would like to transmit
a byte. Therefore, the slave will receive a serial byte. Software
can interrogate the state of I2CTX to determine whether it
should write to or read from I2CDAT.
Once the ADuC831 has received a valid address, hardware will
hold SCLOCK low until the I2CI bit is cleared by software.
This allows the master to wait for the slave to be ready before
transmitting the clocks for the next byte.
The I2CI interrupt bit will be set every time a complete data
byte is received or transmitted, provided it is followed by a valid
ACK. If the byte is followed by a NACK an interrupt is NOT
generated. The ADuC831 will continue to issue interrupts for
each complete data byte transferred until a STOP condition is
received or the interface is reset.
When a STOP condition is received, the interface will reset to a
state where it is waiting to be addressed (idle). Similarly, if the
interface receives a NACK at the end of a sequence it also returns
to the default idle state. The I2CRS bit can be used to reset the
I2C interface. This bit can be used to force the interface back to
the default idle state.
It should be noted that there is no way (in hardware) to distinguish
between an interrupt generated by a received START + valid
address and an interrupt generated by a received data byte. User
software must be used to distinguish between these interrupts.
–41–
ADuC831
DUAL DATA POINTER
The ADuC831 incorporates two data pointers. The second data
pointer is a shadow data pointer and is selected via the data
pointer control SFR (DPCON). DPCON also includes some
nice features such as automatic hardware post-increment and
post-decrement as well as automatic data pointer toggle.
DPCON is described in Table XIII.
DPCON
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
Data Pointer Control SFR
A7H
00H
No
Table XIII. DPCON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
---DPT
5
4
DP1m1
DP1m0
3
2
DP0m1
DP0m0
Reserved for Future Use.
Data Pointer Automatic Toggle Enable.
Cleared by user to disable auto swapping of the DPTR.
Set in user software to enable automatic toggling of the DPTR after each MOVX or MOVC instruction.
Shadow Data Pointer Mode.
These two bits enable extra modes of the shadow data pointer operation, allowing for more compact
and more efficient code size and execution.
m1
m0
Behavior of the Shadow Data Pointer
0
0
8052 Behavior
0
1
DPTR is post-incremented after a MOVX or a MOVC instruction.
1
0
DPTR is post-decremented after a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
1
1
DPTR LSB is toggled after a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
(This instruction can be useful for moving 8-bit blocks to/from 16-bit devices.)
Main Data Pointer Mode.
These two bits enable extra modes of the main data pointer operation, allowing for more compact and
more efficient code size and execution.
m1
m0
Behavior of the Main Data Pointer
0
0
8052 Behavior
0
1
DPTR is post-incremented after a MOVX or a MOVC instruction.
1
0
DPTR is post-decremented after a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
1
1
DPTR LSB is toggled after a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
(This instruction can be useful for moving 8-bit blocks to/from 16-bit devices.)
This bit is not implemented to allow the INC DPCON instruction toggle the data pointer without
incrementing the rest of the SFR.
Data Pointer Select.
Cleared by user to select the main data pointer. This means that the contents of this 24-bit register
is placed into the three SFRs DPL, DPH, and DPP.
Set by the user to select the shadow data pointer. This means that the contents of a separate 24-bit
register appears in the three SFRs DPL, DPH, and DPP.
1
0
DPSEL
Note 1: This is the only place where the main and shadow data
pointers are distinguished. Everywhere else in this data sheet
wherever the DPTR is mentioned, operation on the active
DPTR is implied.
Note 2: Only MOVC/MOVX @DPTR instructions are relevant
above. MOVC/MOVX [email protected] instructions will not cause the
DPTR to automatically post increment/decrement, and so on.
To illustrate the operation of DPCON, the following code will
copy 256 bytes of code memory at address D000H into XRAM
starting from address 0000H.
MOV
MOV
DPTR,#0
DPCON,#55H
MOV DPTR,#0D000H
MOVELOOP:
CLR A
MOVC A,@A+DPTR
MOVX @DPTR,A
The following code uses 16 bytes and 2054 cycles. To perform
this on a standard 8051 requires approximately 33 bytes and
7172 cycles (depending on how it is implemented).
MOV
JNZ
–42–
;
;
;
;
;
;
Main DPTR = 0
Select shadow DPTR
DPTR1 increment mode,
DPTR0 increment mode
DPTR auto toggling ON
Shadow DPTR = D000H
;
;
;
;
;
;
Get data
Post Inc DPTR
Swap to Main DPTR (Data)
Put ACC in XRAM
Increment main DPTR
Swap Shadow DPTR (Code)
A, DPL
MOVELOOP
REV. 0
ADuC831
POWER SUPPLY MONITOR
As its name suggests, the Power Supply Monitor, once enabled,
monitors the DVDD supply on the ADuC831. It will indicate
when any of the supply pins drops below one of four userselectable voltage trip points, from 4.63 V to 4.39 V. For
correct operation of the Power Supply Monitor function, AVDD
must be equal to or greater than 2.7 V. Monitor function is
controlled via the PSMCON SFR. If enabled via the IEIP2 SFR,
the monitor will interrupt the core using the PSMI bit in the
PSMCON SFR. This bit will not be cleared until the failing power
supply has returned above the trip point for at least 250 ms. This
monitor function allows the user to save working registers to
avoid possible data loss due to the low supply condition, and also
ensures that normal code execution will not resume until a safe
supply level has been well established. The supply monitor is also
protected against spurious glitches triggering the interrupt circuit.
PSMCON
Power Supply Monitor Control Register
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
DFH
DEH
No
Table XIV. PSMCON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
---CMPD
5
PSMI
4
3
TPD1
TPD0
2
1
0
------PSMEN
Reserved.
DVDD Comparator Bit.
This is a read-only bit and directly reflects the state of the DVDD comparator.
Read “1” indicates the DVDD supply is above its selected trip point.
Read “0” indicates the DVDD supply is below its selected trip point.
Power Supply Monitor Interrupt Bit.
This bit will be set high by the MicroConverter if either CMPA or CMPD is low, indicating low analog
or digital supply. The PSMI bit can be used to interrupt the processor. Once CMPD and/or CMPA
return (and remain) high, a 250 ms counter is started. When this counter times out, the PSMI interrupt
is cleared. PSMI can also be written by the user. However, if either comparator output is low, it is
not possible for the user to clear PSMI.
DVDD Trip Point Selection Bits.
These bits select the DVDD trip point voltage as follows:
TPD1
TPD0
Selected DVDD Trip Point (V)
0
0
4.37
0
1
3.08
1
0
2.93
1
1
2.63
Reserved.
Reserved.
Power Supply Monitor Enable Bit.
Set to “1” by the user to enable the Power Supply Monitor Circuit.
Cleared to “0” by the user to disable the Power Supply Monitor Circuit.
REV. 0
–43–
ADuC831
WATCHDOG TIMER
The purpose of the watchdog timer is to generate a device
reset or interrupt within a reasonable amount of time if the
ADuC831 enters an erroneous state, possibly due to a programming error or electrical noise. The watchdog function can be
disabled by clearing the WDE (Watchdog Enable) bit in the
Watchdog Control (WDCON) SFR. When enabled, the watchdog circuit will generate a system reset or interrupt (WDS) if
the user program fails to set the watchdog (WDE) bit within a
predetermined amount of time (see PRE3–0 bits in WDCON).
The watchdog timer itself is a 16-bit counter that is clocked at
32 kHz by the internal R/C oscillator. The watchdog time out
interval can be adjusted via the PRE3–0 bits in WDCON. Full
control and status of the watchdog timer function can be controlled via the watchdog timer control SFR (WDCON). The
WDCON SFR can only be written by user software if the
double write sequence described in WDWR below is initiated
on every write access to the WDCON SFR.
WDCON
Watchdog Timer Control Register
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
C0H
10H
Yes
Table XV. WDCON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
5
4
PRE3
PRE2
PRE1
PRE0
3
WDIR
2
WDS
1
WDE
0
WDWR
Watchdog Timer Prescale Bits.
The Watchdog timeout period is given by the equation: tWD = (2PRE (29/fR/C OSC))
(0 ≤ PRE ≤ 7; fR/C OSC = 32 kHz 10% at 25ºC)
PRE3 PRE2 PRE1 PRE0 Timeout Period (ms) Action
0
0
0
0
15.6
Reset or Interrupt
0
0
0
1
31.2
Reset or Interrupt
0
0
1
0
62.5
Reset or Interrupt
0
0
1
1
125
Reset or Interrupt
0
1
0
0
250
Reset or Interrupt
0
1
0
1
500
Reset or Interrupt
0
1
1
0
1000
Reset or Interrupt
0
1
1
1
2000
Reset or Interrupt
1
0
0
0
0.0
Immediate Reset
PRE3–0 > 1000
Reserved
Watchdog Interrupt Response Enable Bit.
If this bit is set by the user, the watchdog will generate an interrupt response instead of a
system reset when the watchdog timeout period has expired. This interrupt is not disabled by
the CLR EA instruction and it is also a fixed, high-priority interrupt. If the watchdog is not
being used to monitor the system, it can alternatively be used as a timer. The prescaler is used
to set the timeout period in which an interrupt will be generated.
Watchdog Status Bit.
Set by the Watchdog Controller to indicate that a watchdog timeout has occurred.
Cleared by writing a “0” or by an external hardware reset. It is not cleared by a watchdog reset.
Watchdog Enable Bit.
Set by the user to enable the watchdog and clear its counters. If this bit is not set by the user
within the watch dog timeout period, the watchdog will generate a reset or interrupt, depending
on WDIR. Cleared under the following conditions, user writes “0,” Watchdog Reset (WDIR = “0”);
Hardware Reset; PSM Interrupt.
Watchdog Write Enable Bit.
To write data into the WDCON SFR involves a double instruction sequence. The WDWR bit
must be set and the very next instruction must be a write instruction to the WDCON SFR.
For example:
CLR EA
;disable interrupts while writing
;to WDT
SETB WDWR
;allow write to WDCON
MOV WDCON, #72H ;enable WDT for 2.0s timeout
SETB EA
;enable interrupts again (if rqd)
–44–
REV. 0
ADuC831
TCEN
TIME INTERVAL COUNTER (TIC)
A time interval counter is provided on-chip for counting longer
intervals than the standard 8051 compatible timers are capable
of. The TIC is capable of timeout intervals ranging from 1/128
second to 255 hours. Furthermore, this counter is clocked by
an internal R/C oscillator rather than the external crystal and
has the ability to remain active in power-down mode and time
long power-down intervals. This has obvious applications for
remote battery-powered sensors where regular widely spaced
readings are required. The R/C oscillator is accurate to +10% at
25ºC. Note: Instructions to the TIC SFRs are also clocked at
32 kHz, sufficient time must be allowed for in user code for
these instructions to execute.
Six SFRs are associated with the time interval counter, TIMECON
being its control register. Depending on the configuration of the
IT0 and IT1 bits in TIMECON, the selected time counter register overflow will clock the interval counter. When this counter is
equal to the time interval value loaded in the INTVAL SFR, the
TII bit (TIMECON.2) is set and generates an interrupt if enabled.
If the ADuC831 is in power-down mode, again with TIC interrupt enabled, the TII bit will wake up the device and resume
code execution by vectoring directly to the TIC interrupt service
vector address at 0053H. The TIC-related SFRs are described
below. Note also that the time-base SFRs can be written initially
with the current time, the TIC can then be controlled and
accessed by user software. In effect, this facilitates the implementation of a real-time clock. A block diagram of the TIC is
shown in Figure 35.
TIMECON
TIC Control Register
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
A1H
00H
No
32kHz INTERNAL R/C OSC.
ITS0, 1
8-BIT
PRESCALER
HUNDREDTHS COUNTER
HTHSEC
SECOND COUNTER
SEC
INTERVAL
TIMEBASE
SELECTION
MUX
TIEN
MINUTE COUNTER
MIN
HOUR COUNTER
HOUR
INTERVAL TIMEOUT
TIME INTERVAL COUNTER INTERRUPT
8-BIT
INTERVAL COUNTER
COMPARE
COUNT = INTVAL?
TIME INTERVAL
INTVAL
Figure 35. TIC, Simplified Block Diagram
Table XVI. TIMECON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
---TFH
5
4
ITS1
ITS0
3
STI
2
TII
1
TIEN
0
TCEN
Reserved for Future Use.
Twenty-Four Hour Select Bit.
Set by the user to enable the Hour counter to count from 0 to 23.
Cleared by the user to enable the Hour counter to count from 0 to 255.
Interval Timebase Selection Bits.
Written by user to determine the interval counter update rate.
ITS1
ITS0
Interval Timebase
0
0
1/128 Second
0
1
Seconds
1
0
Minutes
1
1
Hours
Single Time Interval Bit.
Set by user to generate a single interval timeout. If set, a timeout will clear the TIEN bit.
Cleared by user to allow the interval counter to be automatically reloaded and start counting
again at each interval timeout.
TIC Interrupt Bit.
Set when the 8-bit Interval Counter matches the value in the INTVAL SFR.
Cleared by user software.
Time Interval Enable Bit.
Set by user to enable the 8-bit time interval counter.
Cleared by user to disable the interval counter.
Time Clock Enable Bit.
Set by user to enable the time clock to the time interval counters.
Cleared by user to disable the clock to the time interval counters and reset the time interval SFRs
to the last value written to them by the user. The time registers (HTHSEC, SEC, MIN, and HOUR)
can be written while TCEN is low.
REV. 0
–45–
ADuC831
INTVAL
User Time Interval Select Register
Function
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
Valid Value
User code writes the required time interval to this register. When the 8-bit interval counter is
equal to the time interval value loaded in the INTVAL SFR, the TII bit (TIMECON.2) is
set and generates an interrupt if enabled.
A6H
00H
No
0 to 255 decimal
HTHSEC
Hundredths Seconds Time Register
Function
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
Valid Value
This register is incremented in 1/128 second intervals once TCEN in TIMECON is active. The
HTHSEC SFR counts from 0 to 127 before rolling over to increment the SEC time register.
A2H
00H
No
0 to 127 decimal
SEC
Seconds Time Register
Function
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
Valid Value
This register is incremented in 1-second intervals once TCEN in TIMECON is active.
The SEC SFR counts from 0 to 59 before rolling over to increment the MIN time register.
A3H
00H
No
0 to 59 decimal
MIN
Minutes Time Register
Function
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
Valid Value
This register is incremented in 1-minute intervals once TCEN in TIMECON is active.
The MIN counts from 0 to 59 before rolling over to increment the HOUR time register.
A4H
00H
No
0 to 59 decimal
HOUR
Hours Time Register
Function
This register is incremented in 1-hour intervals once TCEN in TIMECON is active.
The HOUR SFR counts from 0 to 23 before rolling over to 0.
A5H
00H
No
0 to 23 decimal
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
Valid Value
–46–
REV. 0
ADuC831
8052 COMPATIBLE ON-CHIP PERIPHERALS
This section gives a brief overview of the various secondary
peripheral circuits that are also available to the user on-chip.
These remaining functions are mostly 8052 compatible (with a
few additional features) and are controlled via standard 8052
SFR bit definitions.
Parallel I/O
The ADuC831 uses four input/output ports to exchange data
with external devices. In addition to performing general-purpose
I/O, some ports are capable of external memory operations while
others are multiplexed with alternate functions for the peripheral
features on the device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled,
that pin may not be used as a general-purpose I/O pin.
Port 0
Port 0 is an 8-bit, open-drain, bidirectional I/O port that is directly
controlled via the Port 0 SFR. Port 0 is also the multiplexed
low-order address and data bus during accesses to external program or data memory.
Figure 36 shows a typical bit latch and I/O buffer for a Port 0
port pin. The bit latch (one bit in the port’s SFR) is represented
as a Type D flip-flop, which will clock in a value from the internal bus in response to a “write to latch” signal from the CPU.
The Q output of the flip-flop is placed on the internal bus in
response to a “read latch” signal from the CPU. The level of the
port pin itself is placed on the internal bus in response to a
“read pin” signal from the CPU. Some instructions that read a
port activate the “read latch” signal, and others activate the
“read pin” signal. See the following Read-Modify-Write Instructions section for more details.
ADDR/DATA
WRITE
TO LATCH
Port 1 is also an 8-bit port directly controlled via the P1 SFR.
Port 1 digital output capability is not supported on this device.
Port 1 pins can be configured as digital inputs or analog inputs.
By (power-on) default these pins are configured as analog
inputs, i.e., 1 written in the corresponding Port 1 register bit.
To configure any of these pins as digital inputs, the user should
write a 0 to these port bits to configure the corresponding pin as
a high impedance digital input.
These pins also have various secondary functions described in
Table XVII.
Table XVII. Port 1, Alternate Pin Functions
Pin
Alternate Function
P1.0
P1.1
P1.5
T2 (Timer/Counter 2 External Input)
T2EX (Timer/Counter 2 Capture/Reload Trigger)
SS (Slave Select for the SPI Interface)
READ
LATCH
DVDD
INTERNAL
BUS
P0.x
PIN
D
WRITE
TO LATCH
D
Q
CL
Q
LATCH
Q
READ
PIN
CL Q
LATCH
TO ADC
P1.x
PIN
Figure 37. Port 1 Bit Latch and I/O Buffer
READ
PIN
Port 2
Figure 36. Port 0 Bit Latch and I/O Buffer
As shown in Figure 36, the output drivers of Port 0 pins are
switchable to an internal ADDR and ADDR/DATA bus by an
internal CONTROL signal for use in external memory accesses.
During external memory accesses the P0 SFR gets 1s written to it
(i.e., all of its bit latches become 1). When accessing external
memory, the CONTROL signal in Figure 36 goes high, enabling
push-pull operation of the output pin from the internal address or
data bus (ADDR/DATA line). Therefore, no external pull-ups are
required on Port 0 in order for it to access external memory.
REV. 0
Port 1
CONTROL
READ
LATCH
INTERNAL
BUS
In general-purpose I/O port mode, Port 0 pins that have 1s written
to them via the Port 0 SFR will be configured as “open drain”
and will therefore float. In this state, Port 0 pins can be used as
high impedance inputs. This is represented in Figure 36 by the
NAND gate whose output remains high as long as the CONTROL
signal is low, thereby disabling the top FET. External pull-up
resistors are therefore required when Port 0 pins are used as
general-purpose outputs. Port 0 pins with 0s written to them
will drive a logic low output voltage (VOL) and will be capable of
sinking 1.6 mA.
Port 2 is a bidirectional port with internal pull-up resistors
directly controlled via the P2 SFR. Port 2 also emits the high
order address bytes during fetches from external program memory
and middle and high order address bytes during accesses to the
24-bit external data memory space.
As shown in Figure 38, the output drivers of Ports 2 are switchable
to an internal ADDR and ADDR/DATA bus by an internal
CONTROL signal for use in external memory accesses (as for
Port 0). In external memory addressing mode (CONTROL = 1)
the port pins feature push-pull operation controlled by the internal address bus (ADDR line). However, unlike the P0 SFR
during external memory accesses, the P2 SFR remains unchanged.
–47–
ADuC831
In general-purpose I/O port mode, Port 2 pins that have 1s written
to them are pulled high by the internal pull-ups (Figure 39) and,
in that state, they can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins
being pulled externally low will source current because of the
internal pull-up resistors. Port 2 pins with 0s written to them
will drive a logic low output voltage (VOL) and will be capable of
sinking 1.6 mA.
DVDD
READ
LATCH
INTERNAL
BUS
WRITE
TO LATCH
P2.6 and P2.7 can also be used as PWM outputs. In the case that
they are selected as the PWM outputs via the CFG831 SFR, the
PWM outputs will overwrite anything written to P2.6 or P2.7.
ADDR
CONTROL
READ
LATCH
WRITE
TO LATCH
D
Q
CL
Q
DVDD
Q
FROM
PORT
LATCH
Q4
DVDD
Q2
Q
READ
PIN
Notice that in I2C mode (SPE = 0) the strong pull-up FET
(Q1) is disabled, leaving only a weak pull-up (Q2) present. By
contrast, in SPI mode (SPE = 1) the strong pull-up FET (Q1)
is controlled directly by SPI hardware, giving the pin push/pull
capability.
DVDD
Q3
In I2C mode (SPE = 0) two pull-down FETs (Q3 and Q4)
operate in parallel in order to provide an extra 60% or 70% of
current sinking capability. In SPI mode (SPE = 1), however,
only one of the pull-down FETs (Q3) operates on each pin
resulting in sink capabilities identical to that of Port 0 and
Port 2 pins.
Px.x
PIN
Figure 39. Internal Pull-Up Configuration
Port 3
Port 3 is a bidirectional port with internal pull-ups directly controlled via the P3 SFR. Port 3 pins that have 1s written to them
are pulled high by the internal pull-ups, and in that state, can be
used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins being pulled externally low
will source current because of the internal pull-ups. Port 3 pins
with 0s written to them will drive a logic low output voltage (VOL)
and will be capable of sinking 4 mA.
Port 3 pins also have various secondary functions described in
Table XVIII. The alternate functions of Port 3 pins can only be
activated if the corresponding bit latch in the P3 SFR contains a 1.
Otherwise, the port pin is stuck at 0.
On the input path of SCLOCK, notice that a Schmitt trigger
conditions the signal going to the SPI hardware to prevent false
triggers (double triggers) on slow incoming edges. For incoming
signals from the SCLOCK and SDATA pins going to I2C hardware, a filter conditions the signals in order to reject glitches of
up to 50 ns in duration.
Notice also that direct access to the SCLOCK and SDATA/MOSI
pins is afforded through the SFR interface in I2C master mode.
Therefore, if you are not using the SPI or I2C functions, you can
use these two pins to give additional high current digital outputs.
Pin
Alternate Function
P3.0
P3.1
RxD (UART Input Pin) (or Serial Data I/O in Mode 0)
TxD (UART Output Pin)
(or Serial Clock Output in Mode 0)
INT0 (External Interrupt 0)
INT1 (External Interrupt 1)/PWM 1/MISO
T0 (Timer/Counter 0 External Input)
PWM External Clock/PWM 0
T1 (Timer/Counter 1 External Input)
WR (External Data Memory Write Strobe)
RD (External Data Memory Read Strobe)
P3.5
P3.6
P3.7
DVDD
SPE = 1 (SPI ENABLE)
Q1
Table XVIII. Port 3, Alternate Pin Functions
P3.2
P3.3
P3.4
*SEE FIGURE 39
FOR DETAILS OF
INTERNAL PULL-UP
ALTERNATE
INPUT
FUNCTION
In addition to the port pins, the dedicated SPI/I2C pins
(SCLOCK and SDATA/MOSI) also feature both input and
output functions. Their equivalent I/O architectures are illustrated in Figure 41 and Figure 43, respectively, for SPI
operation and in Figure 42 and Figure 44 for I2C operation.
Figure 38. Port 2 Bit Latch and I/O Buffer
Q1
CL
P3.x
PIN
Additional Digital I/O
P2.x
PIN
*SEE FIGURE 39 FOR
DETAILS OF INTERNAL PULL-UP
2 CLK
DELAY
Q
Figure 40. Port 3 Bit Latch and I/O Buffer
LATCH
READ
PIN
D
INTERNAL
PULL-UP*
LATCH
DVDD DVDD
INTERNAL
PULL-UP*
INTERNAL
BUS
ALTERNATE
OUTPUT
FUNCTION
Q2 (OFF)
HARDWARE SPI
(MASTER/SLAVE)
SCLOCK
PIN
SCHMITT
TRIGGER
Q4 (OFF)
Q3
Figure 41. SCLOCK Pin I/O Functional Equivalent
in SPI Mode
P3.4 and P2.3 can also be used as PWM outputs. In the case that
they are selected as the PWM outputs via the CFG831 SFR, the
PWM outputs will overwrite anything written to P3.4 or P3.3.
–48–
REV. 0
ADuC831
DVDD
SPE = 0 (I2C ENABLE)
HARDWARE I2C
(SLAVE ONLY)
SFR
BITS
Read-Modify-Write Instructions
Some 8051 instructions that read a port read the latch, and
others read the pin. The instructions that read the latch rather
than the pins are the ones that read a value, possibly change it,
and then rewrite it to the latch. These are called “read-modifywrite” instructions. Listed below are the read-modify-write
instructions. When the destination operand is a port, or a port
bit, these instructions read the latch rather than the pin.
Q1
(OFF)
Q2
50ns GLITCH
REJECTION FILTER
SCLOCK
PIN
MCO
Q4
Q3
I2CM
Figure 42. SCLOCK Pin I/O Functional Equivalent
in I 2C Mode
ANL
(Logical AND, e.g., ANL P1, A)
ORL
(Logical OR, e.g., ORL P2, A)
XRL
(Logical EX-OR, e.g., XRL P3, A)
JBC
(Jump if Bit = 1 and Clear Bit, e.g., JBC P1.1,
LABEL)
CPL
(Complement Bit, e.g., CPL P3.0)
INC
(Increment, e.g., INC P2)
DEC
(Decrement, e.g., DEC P2)
DJNZ
(Decrement and Jump if Not Zero, e.g.,
DJNZ P3, LABEL)
DVDD
SPE = 1 (SPI ENABLE)
Q1
Q2 (OFF)
SDATA/
MOSI
PIN
HARDWARE SPI
(MASTER/SLAVE)
Q4 (OFF)
MOV PX.Y, C* (Move Carry to Bit Y of Port X)
Q3
Figure 43. SDATA/MOSI Pin I/O Functional Equivalent
in SPI Mode
DVDD
SFR
BITS
Q1
(OFF)
Q2
50ns GLITCH
REJECTION FILTER
SDATA/
MOSI
PIN
MDI
Q4
MDO
MDE
Q3
I2CM
Figure 44. SDATA/MOSI Pin I/O Functional Equivalent
in I 2C Mode
MISO is shared with P3.3 and as such has the same configuration
as shown in Figure 40.
*These instructions read the port byte (all 8 bits), modify the addressed bit, and
then write the new byte back to the latch.
REV. 0
(Clear Bit Y of Port X)
SETB PX.Y*
(Set Bit Y of Port X)
The reason that read-modify-write instructions are directed to the
latch rather than the pin is to avoid a possible misinterpretation of
the voltage level of a pin. For example, a port pin might be used to
drive the base of a transistor. When a 1 is written to the bit, the
transistor is turned on. If the CPU then reads the same port bit at
the pin rather than the latch, it will read the base voltage of the
transistor and interpret it as a logic 0. Reading the latch rather than
the pin will return the correct value of 1.
SPE = 0 (I2C ENABLE)
HARDWARE I2C
(SLAVE ONLY)
CLR PX.Y*
–49–
ADuC831
In “Counter” function, the TLx register is incremented by a 1-to-0
transition at its corresponding external input pin, T0, T1, or T2.
In this function, the external input is sampled during S5P2 of
every machine cycle. When the samples show a high in one
cycle and a low in the next cycle, the count is incremented. The
new count value appears in the register during S3P1 of the cycle
following the one in which the transition was detected. Since it
takes two machine cycles (24 core clock periods) to recognize a
1-to-0 transition, the maximum count rate is 1/24 of the core
clock frequency. There are no restrictions on the duty cycle of the
external input signal, but to ensure that a given level is sampled
at least once before it changes, it must be held for a minimum of
one full machine cycle.
Timers/Counters
The ADuC831 has three 16-bit Timer/Counters: Timer 0,
Timer 1, and Timer 2. The Timer/Counter hardware has been
included on-chip to relieve the processor core of the overhead
inherent in implementing Timer/Counter functionality in software. Each Timer/Counter consists of two 8-bit registers THx
and TLx (x = 0, 1, and 2). All three can be configured to operate either as timers or event counters.
In “Timer” function, the TLx register is incremented every
machine cycle. Thus, one can think of it as counting machine
cycles. Since a machine cycle consists of 12 core clock periods,
the maximum count rate is 1/12 of the core clock frequency.
User configuration and control of all Timer operating modes is achieved via three SFRs:
TMOD, TCON
Control and configuration for Timers 0 and 1.
T2CON
Control and configuration for Timer 2.
TMOD
Timer/Counter 0 and 1 Mode Register
89H
00H
No
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
Table XIX. TMOD SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
Gate
6
C/T
5
4
M1
M0
3
Gate
2
C/T
1
0
M1
M0
Timer 1 Gating Control.
Set by software to enable timer/counter 1 only while INT1 pin is high and TR1 control bit is set.
Cleared by software to enable Timer 1 whenever TR1 control bit is set.
Timer 1 Timer or Counter Select Bit.
Set by software to select counter operation (input from T1 pin).
Cleared by software to select timer operation (input from internal system clock).
Timer 1 Mode Select Bit 1 (Used with M0 Bit).
Timer 1 Mode Select Bit 0.
M1
M0
0
0
TH1 operates as an 8-bit timer/counter. TL1 serves as 5-bit prescaler.
0
1
16-Bit Timer/Counter. TH1 and TL1 are cascaded; there is no prescaler.
1
0
8-Bit Auto-Reload Timer/Counter. TH1 holds a value which is to be
reloaded into TL1 each time it overflows.
1
1
Timer/Counter 1 Stopped.
Timer 0 Gating Control.
Set by software to enable timer/counter 0 only while INT0 pin is high and TR0 control bit is set.
Cleared by software to enable Timer 0 whenever TR0 control bit is set.
Timer 0 Timer or Counter Select Bit.
Set by software to select counter operation (input from T0 pin).
Cleared by software to select timer operation (input from internal system clock).
Timer 0 Mode Select Bit 1.
Timer 0 Mode Select Bit 0.
M1
M0
0
0
TH0 operates as an 8-bit timer/counter. TL0 serves as 5-bit prescaler.
0
1
16-Bit Timer/Counter. TH0 and TL0 are cascaded; there is no prescaler.
1
0
8-Bit Auto-Reload Timer/Counter. TH0 holds a value which is to
be reloaded into TL0 each time it overflows.
1
1
TL0 is an 8-bit timer/counter controlled by the standard timer 0 control bits.
TH0 is an 8-bit timer only, controlled by Timer 1 control bits.
–50–
REV. 0
ADuC831
TCON
Timer/Counter 0 and 1 Control Register
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
88H
00H
Yes
Table XX. TCON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
TF1
6
TR1
5
TF0
4
TR0
3
IE1*
2
IT1*
1
IE0*
0
IT0*
Timer 1 Overflow Flag.
Set by hardware on a Timer/Counter 1 overflow.
Cleared by hardware when the Program Counter (PC) vectors to the interrupt service routine.
Timer 1 Run Control Bit.
Set by user to turn on Timer/Counter 1.
Cleared by user to turn off Timer/Counter 1.
Timer 0 Overflow Flag.
Set by hardware on a Timer/Counter 0 overflow.
Cleared by hardware when the PC vectors to the interrupt service routine.
Timer 0 Run Control Bit.
Set by user to turn on Timer/Counter 0.
Cleared by user to turn off Timer/Counter 0.
External Interrupt 1 (INT1) Flag.
Set by hardware by a falling edge or zero level being applied to external interrupt Pin INT1,
depending on bit IT1 state.
Cleared by hardware when the PC vectors to the interrupt service routine only if the interrupt was
transition-activated. If level-activated, the external requesting source controls the request flag,
rather than the on-chip hardware.
External Interrupt 1 (IE1) Trigger Type.
Set by software to specify edge-sensitive detection (i.e., 1-to-0 transition).
Cleared by software to specify level-sensitive detection (i.e., zero level).
External Interrupt 0 (INT0) Flag.
Set by hardware by a falling edge or zero level being applied to external interrupt Pin INT0,
depending on bit IT0 state.
Cleared by hardware when the PC vectors to the interrupt service routine only if the interrupt
was transition-activated. If level-activated, the external requesting source controls the request
flag, rather than the on-chip hardware.
External Interrupt 0 (IE0) Trigger Type.
Set by software to specify edge-sensitive detection (i.e., 1-to-0 transition).
Cleared by software to specify level-sensitive detection (i.e., zero level).
*These bits are not used in the control of timer/counter 0 and 1, but are used instead in the control and monitoring of the external INT0 and INT1 interrupt pins.
Timer/Counter 0 and 1 Data Registers
Each timer consists of two 8-bit registers. These can be used as
independent registers or combined to be a single 16-bit register,
depending on the timer mode configuration.
TH0 and TL0
Timer 0 high byte and low byte.
SFR Address = 8CH, 8AH respectively.
TH1 and TL1
Timer 1 high byte and low byte.
SFR Address = 8DH, 8BH respectively.
REV. 0
–51–
ADuC831
TIMER/COUNTER 0 AND 1 OPERATING MODES
Mode 2 (8-Bit Timer/Counter with Autoreload)
The following paragraphs describe the operating modes for
Timer/Counters 0 and 1. Unless otherwise noted, it should be
assumed that these modes of operation are the same for Timer 0
as for Timer 1.
Mode 2 configures the timer register as an 8-bit counter (TL0)
with automatic reload, as shown in Figure 47. Overflow from
TL0 not only sets TF0, but also reloads TL0 with the contents
of TH0, which is preset by software. The reload leaves TH0
unchanged.
Mode 0 (13-Bit Timer/Counter)
Mode 0 configures an 8-bit Timer/Counter with a divide-by-32
prescaler. Figure 45 shows mode 0 operation.
CORE
CLK
12
C/ T = 0
CORE
CLK
TL0
(8 BITS)
12
C/ T = 0
TL0
TH0
(5 BITS) (8 BITS)
INTERRUPT
TF0
C/ T = 1
INTERRUPT
P3.4/T0
TF0
CONTROL
C/ T = 1
TR0
P3.4/T0
CONTROL
TR0
RELOAD
TH0
(8 BITS)
GATE
P3.2/INT0
GATE
Figure 47. Timer/Counter 0, Mode 2
P3.2/INT0
Mode 3 (Two 8-Bit Timer/Counters)
Figure 45. Timer/Counter 0, Mode 0
In this mode, the timer register is configured as a 13-bit register.
As the count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s, it sets the timer overflow flag TF0. The overflow flag, TF0, can then be used to request
an interrupt. The counted input is enabled to the timer when
TR0 = 1 and either Gate = 0 or INT0 = 1. Setting Gate = 1
allows the timer to be controlled by external input INT0, to
facilitate pulsewidth measurements. TR0 is a control bit in the
special function register TCON; Gate is in TMOD. The 13-bit
register consists of all eight bits of TH0 and the lower five bits of
TL0. The upper three bits of TL0 are indeterminate and should
be ignored. Setting the run flag (TR0) does not clear the registers.
Mode 1 (16-Bit Timer/Counter)
Mode 1 is the same as Mode 0, except that the timer register is
running with all 16 bits. Mode 1 is shown in Figure 46.
Mode 3 has different effects on Timer 0 and Timer 1. Timer 1 in
Mode 3 simply holds its count. The effect is the same as setting
TR1 = 0. Timer 0 in Mode 3 establishes TL0 and TH0 as two
separate counters. This configuration is shown in Figure 50.
TL0 uses the Timer 0 control bits: C/T, Gate, TR0, INT0, and
TF0. TH0 is locked into a timer function (counting machine
cycles) and takes over the use of TR1 and TF1 from Timer 1.
Thus, TH0 now controls the Timer 1 interrupt. Mode 3 is
provided for applications requiring an extra 8-bit timer or counter.
When Timer 0 is in Mode 3, Timer 1 can be turned on and off
by switching it out of, and into, its own Mode 3, or can still be
used by the serial interface as a baud rate generator. In fact, it can
be used in any application not requiring an interrupt from
Timer 1 itself.
CORE
CLK
CORE
CLK
CORE
CLK/12
12
12
C/ T = 0
C/ T = 0
TL0
TH0
(8 BITS) (8 BITS)
INTERRUPT
TF0
INTERRUPT
TL0
(8 BITS)
TF0
TH0
(8 BITS)
TF1
C/ T = 1
P3.4/T0
C/ T = 1
CONTROL
P3.4/T0
TR0
CONTROL
TR0
GATE
P3.2/INT0
GATE
P3.2/INT0
Figure 46. Timer/Counter 0, Mode 1
CORE
CLK/12
INTERRUPT
TR1
Figure 48. Timer/Counter 0, Mode 3
–52–
REV. 0
ADuC831
T2CON
Timer/Counter 2 Control Register
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
C8H
00H
Yes
Table XXI. T2CON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
TF2
6
EXF2
5
RCLK
4
TCLK
3
EXEN2
2
TR2
1
CNT2
0
CAP2
Timer 2 Overflow Flag.
Set by hardware on a Timer 2 overflow. TF2 will not be set when either RCLK = 1 or TCLK = 1.
Cleared by user software.
Timer 2 External Flag.
Set by hardware when either a capture or reload is caused by a negative transition on T2EX and EXEN2 = 1.
Cleared by user software.
Receive Clock Enable Bit.
Set by user to enable the serial port to use Timer 2 overflow pulses for its receive clock in serial port
Modes 1 and 3.
Cleared by user to enable Timer 1 overflow to be used for the receive clock.
Transmit Clock Enable Bit.
Set by user to enable the serial port to use Timer 2 overflow pulses for its transmit clock in serial port
Modes 1 and 3.
Cleared by user to enable Timer 1 overflow to be used for the transmit clock.
Timer 2 External Enable Flag.
Set by user to enable a capture or reload to occur as a result of a negative transition on T2EX if
Timer 2 is not being used to clock the serial port.
Cleared by user for Timer 2 to ignore events at T2EX.
Timer 2 Start/Stop Control Bit.
Set by user to start Timer 2.
Cleared by user to stop Timer 2.
Timer 2 Timer or Counter Function Select Bit.
Set by user to select counter function (input from external T2 pin).
Cleared by user to select timer function (input from on-chip core clock).
Timer 2 Capture/Reload Select Bit.
Set by user to enable captures on negative transitions at T2EX if EXEN2 = 1.
Cleared by user to enable auto-reloads with Timer 2 overflows or negative transitions at T2EX
when EXEN2 = 1. When either RCLK = 1 or TCLK = 1, this bit is ignored and the timer is forced to
autoreload on Timer 2 overflow.
Timer/Counter 2 Data Registers
Timer/Counter 2 also has two pairs of 8-bit data registers
associated with it. These are used as both timer data registers
and timer capture/reload registers.
TH2 and TL2
Timer 2, data high byte and low byte.
SFR Address = CDH, CCH respectively.
RCAP2H and RCAP2L
Timer 2, Capture/Reload byte and low byte.
SFR Address = CBH, CAH respectively.
REV. 0
–53–
ADuC831
Timer/Counter Operation Modes
16-Bit Capture Mode
The following paragraphs describe the operating modes for
Timer/Counter 2. The operating modes are selected by bits in the
T2CON SFR as shown in Table XXII.
In the Capture mode, there are again two options, which are
selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0, then Timer 2
is a 16-bit timer or counter which, upon overflowing, sets bit TF2,
the Timer 2 overflow bit, which can be used to generate an interrupt. If EXEN2 = 1, then Timer 2 still performs the above, but
a l-to-0 transition on external input T2EX causes the current value
in the Timer 2 registers, TL2 and TH2, to be captured into registers RCAP2L and RCAP2H, respectively. In addition, the
transition at T2EX causes bit EXF2 in T2CON to be set, and
EXF2, like TF2, can generate an interrupt. The Capture mode
is illustrated in Figure 50.
Table XXII. T2CON Operating Modes
RCLK (or) TCLK
CAP2
TR2
Mode
0
0
1
X
0
1
X
X
1
1
1
0
16-Bit Autoreload
16-Bit Capture
Baud Rate
OFF
16-Bit Autoreload Mode
In Autoreload mode, there are two options, which are selected
by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0, then when Timer 2
rolls over it not only sets TF2, but also causes the Timer 2 registers
to be reloaded with the 16-bit value in registers RCAP2L and
RCAP2H, which are preset by software. If EXEN2 = 1, then
Timer 2 still performs the above, but with the added feature that
a 1-to-0 transition at external input T2EX will also trigger the
16-bit reload and set EXF2. The Autoreload mode is illustrated
in Figure 49.
CORE
CLK
12
The baud rate generator mode is selected by RCLK = 1 and/or
TCLK = 1.
In either case, if Timer 2 is being used to generate the baud
rate, the TF2 interrupt flag will not occur. Therefore, Timer 2
interrupts will not occur so they do not have to be disabled. In
this mode the EXF2 flag, however, can still cause interrupts and
this can be used as a third external interrupt.
Baud rate generation will be described as part of the UART
serial port operation in the following pages.
C/ T2 = 0
TL2
(8 BITS)
TH2
(8 BITS)
RCAP2L
RCAP2H
C/ T2 = 1
T2
PIN
CONTROL
TR2
RELOAD
TRANSITION
DETECTOR
TF2
TIMER
INTERRUPT
T2EX
PIN
EXF2
CONTROL
EXEN2
Figure 49. Timer/Counter 2, 16-Bit Autoreload Mode
CORE
CLK
12
C/ T2 = 0
TL2
(8 BITS)
TH2
(8 BITS)
TF2
C/ T2 = 1
T2
PIN
CONTROL
TR2
TIMER
INTERRUPT
CAPTURE
TRANSITION
DETECTOR
RCAP2L
T2EX
PIN
RCAP2H
EXF2
CONTROL
EXEN2
Figure 50. Timer/Counter 2, 16-Bit Capture Mode
–54–
REV. 0
ADuC831
UART SERIAL INTERFACE
The serial port is full duplex, meaning it can transmit and receive
simultaneously. It is also receive-buffered, meaning it can commence reception of a second byte before a previously received
byte has been read from the receive register. However, if the first
byte still has not been read by the time reception of the second
byte is complete, the first byte will be lost. The physical interface to
the serial data network is via pins RXD(P3.0) and TXD(P3.1),
while the SFR interface to the UART is comprised of SBUF
and SCON, as described below.
SBUF
The serial port receive and transmit registers are both accessed
through the SBUF SFR (SFR address = 99H). Writing to SBUF
loads the transmit register and reading SBUF accesses a physically separate receive register.
SCON
UART Serial Port Control Register
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
98H
00H
Yes
Table XXIII. SCON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
SM0
SM1
5
SM2
4
REN
3
TB8
2
RB8
1
TI
0
RI
UART Serial Mode Select Bits.
These bits select the Serial Port operating mode as follows:
SM0
SM1
Selected Operating Mode
0
0
Mode 0: Shift Register, fixed baud rate (Core_Clk/2)
0
1
Mode 1: 8-bit UART, variable baud rate
1
0
Mode 2: 9-bit UART, fixed baud rate (Core_Clk/64) or (Core_Clk/32)
1
1
Mode 3: 9-bit UART, variable baud rate
Multiprocessor Communication Enable Bit.
Enables multiprocessor communication in Modes 2 and 3. In Mode 0, SM2 should be cleared.
In Mode 1, if SM2 is set, RI will not be activated if a valid stop bit was not received. If SM2 is set,
cleared, RI will be set as soon as the byte of data has been received. In Modes 2 or 3, if SM2 is
RI will not be activated if the received ninth data bit in RB8 is 0. If SM2 is cleared, RI will be set
as soon as the byte of data has been received.
Serial Port Receive Enable Bit.
Set by user software to enable serial port reception.
Cleared by user software to disable serial port reception.
Serial Port Transmit (Bit 9).
The data loaded into TB8 will be the ninth data bit that will be transmitted in Modes 2 and 3.
Serial Port Receiver Bit 9.
The ninth data bit received in Modes 2 and 3 is latched into RB8. For Mode 1 the stop bit is
latched into RB8.
Serial Port Transmit Interrupt Flag.
Set by hardware at the end of the eighth bit in Mode 0, or at the beginning of the stop bit in
Modes 1, 2, and 3. TI must be cleared by user software.
Serial Port Receive Interrupt Flag.
Set by hardware at the end of the eighth bit in mode 0, or halfway through the stop bit in
Modes 1, 2, and 3. RI must be cleared by software.
REV. 0
–55–
ADuC831
Mode 0: 8-Bit Shift Register Mode
Mode 2: 9-Bit UART with Fixed Baud Rate
Mode 0 is selected by clearing both the SM0 and SM1 bits in
the SFR SCON. Serial data enters and exits through RxD.
TxD outputs the shift clock. Eight data bits are transmitted or
received. Transmission is initiated by any instruction that writes
to SBUF. The data is shifted out of the RxD line. The eight bits
are transmitted with the least-significant bit (LSB) first, as shown
in Figure 51.
Mode 2 is selected by setting SM0 and clearing SM1. In this
mode the UART operates in 9-bit mode with a fixed baud rate.
The baud rate is fixed at Core_Clk/64 by default, although by
setting the SMOD bit in PCON, the frequency can be doubled
to Core_Clk/32. Eleven bits are transmitted or received, a start
bit (0), eight data bits, a programmable ninth bit, and a stop bit
(1). The ninth bit is most often used as a parity bit, although it
can be used for anything, including a ninth data bit if required.
MACHINE
CYCLE 1
MACHINE
CYCLE 2
MACHINE
CYCLE 7
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S1 S2 S3 S4
MACHINE
CYCLE 8
To transmit, the eight data bits must be written into SBUF.
The ninth bit must be written to TB8 in SCON. When transmission is initiated, the eight data bits (from SBUF) are loaded
onto the transmit shift register (LSB first). The contents of TB8
are loaded into the ninth bit position of the transmit shift register. The transmission will start at the next valid baud rate clock.
The TI flag is set as soon as the stop bit appears on TxD.
S4 S5 S6 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
CORE
CLK
ALE
RxD
(DATA OUT)
DATA BIT 0
DATA BIT 1
DATA BIT 6
DATA BIT 7
TxD
(SHIFT CLOCK)
Figure 51. UART Serial Port Transmission, Mode 0
Reception is initiated when the receive enable bit (REN) is 1 and
the receive interrupt bit (RI) is 0. When RI is cleared the data is
clocked into the RxD line and the clock pulses are output from
the TxD line.
Reception for Mode 2 is similar to that of Mode 1. The eight
data bytes are input at RxD (LSB first) and loaded onto the
receive shift register. When all eight bits have been clocked in,
the following events occur:
The eight bits in the receive shift register are latched into SBUF.
The ninth data bit is latched into RB8 in SCON.
The Receiver Interrupt flag (RI) is set.
Mode 1: 8-Bit UART, Variable Baud Rate
Mode 1 is selected by clearing SM0 and setting SM1. Each data
byte (LSB first) is preceded by a start bit (0) and followed by a
stop bit (1). Therefore, 10 bits are transmitted on TxD or
received on RxD. The baud rate is set by the Timer 1 or Timer 2
overflow rate, or a combination of the two (one for transmission
and the other for reception).
Transmission is initiated by writing to SBUF. The “write to
SBUF” signal also loads a 1 (stop bit) into the ninth bit position
of the transmit shift register. The data is output bit by bit until
the stop bit appears on TxD and the transmit interrupt flag (TI)
is automatically set as shown in Figure 52.
START
BIT
TxD
STOP BIT
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
This will be the case if, and only if, the following conditions are
met at the time the final shift pulse is generated:
RI = 0, and either SM2 = 0, or SM2 = 1 and the received stop
bit = 1.
If either of these conditions is not met, the received frame is
irretrievably lost, and RI is not set.
Mode 3: 9-Bit UART with Variable Baud Rate
Mode 3 is selected by setting both SM0 and SM1. In this mode,
the 8051 UART serial port operates in 9-bit mode with a variable baud rate determined by either Timer 1 or Timer 2. The
operation of the 9-bit UART is the same as for Mode 2 but the
baud rate can be varied as for Mode 1.
In all four modes, transmission is initiated by any instruction
that uses SBUF as a destination register. Reception is initiated
in Mode 0 by the condition RI = 0 and REN = 1. Reception is
initiated in the other modes by the incoming start bit if REN = 1.
TI
(SCON.1)
SET INTERRUPT
i.e., READY FOR MORE DATA
UART Serial Port Baud Rate Generation
Mode 0 Baud Rate Generation
Figure 52. UART Serial Port Transmission, Mode 0
The baud rate in Mode 0 is fixed:
Reception is initiated when a 1-to-0 transition is detected on RxD.
Assuming a valid start bit was detected, character reception
continues. The start bit is skipped and the eight data bits are
clocked into the serial port shift register. When all eight bits
have been clocked in, the following events occur:
Mode 0 Baud Rate = (Core Clock Frequency / 12 )
Mode 2 Baud Rate Generation
The eight bits in the receive shift register are latched into SBUF.
The baud rate in Mode 2 depends on the value of the SMOD bit
in the PCON SFR. If SMOD = 0, the baud rate is 1/64 of the core
clock. If SMOD = 1, the baud rate is 1/32 of the core clock:
The ninth bit (Stop bit) is clocked into RB8 in SCON.
Mode 2 Baud Rate = ( 2SMOD / 64 ) × (Core Clock Frequency)
The Receiver Interrupt flag (RI) is set.
This will be the case if, and only if, the following conditions are
met at the time the final shift pulse is generated:
RI = 0, and either SM2 = 0, or SM2 = 1 and the received
stop bit = 1.
Mode 1 and 3 Baud Rate Generation
The baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by the overflow
rate in Timer 1 or Timer 2, or both (one for transmit and the
other for receive).
If either of these conditions is not met, the received frame is
irretrievably lost, and RI is not set.
–56–
REV. 0
ADuC831
Timer 1 Generated Baud Rates
When Timer 1 is used as the baud rate generator, the baud rates
in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by the Timer 1 overflow rate
and the value of SMOD as follows:
Modes 1 and 3 Baud Rate =
( 2SMOD / 32 ) × (Timer 1 Overflow Rate)
The Timer 1 interrupt should be disabled in this application. The
Timer itself can be configured for either timer or counter operation, and in any of its three running modes. In the most typical
application, it is configured for timer operation in the Autoreload
mode (high nibble of TMOD = 0010 binary). In that case, the baud
rate is given by the formula:
Modes 1 and 3 Baud Rate =
Autoreload mode, a wider range of baud rates is possible using
Timer 2.
Modes 1 and 3 Baud Rate = ( 1/ 16 ) × (Timer 2 Overflow Rate)
Therefore, when Timer 2 is used to generate baud rates, the timer
increments every two clock cycles and not every core machine
cycle as before. Thus, it increments six times faster than Timer 1,
and therefore baud rates six times faster are possible. Because
Timer 2 has 16-bit autoreload capability, very low baud rates are
still possible.
Timer 2 is selected as the baud rate generator by setting the TCLK
and/or RCLK in T2CON. The baud rates for transmit and receive
can be simultaneously different. Setting RCLK and/or TCLK puts
Timer 2 into its baud rate generator mode as shown in Figure 53.
In this case, the baud rate is given by the formula:
(2SMOD / 32) × (Core Clock / ( 12 × [256 – TH 1]))
Table XXIV shows some commonly used baud rates and how they
might be calculated from a core clock frequency of 11.0592 MHz
and 12 MHz. Generally speaking, a 5% error is tolerable using
asynchronous (start/stop) communications.
Modes 1 and 3 Baud Rate =
(Core Clk)/( 32 × [65536 – (RCAP 2H, RCAP 2L )])
Table XXV shows some commonly used baud rates and how they
might be calculated from a core clock frequency of 11.0592 MHz
and 12 MHz.
Table XXIV. Commonly-Used Baud Rates, Timer 1
Table XXV. Commonly Used Baud Rates, Timer 2
Ideal
Baud
Core
CLK
(MHz)
SMOD TH1-Reload Actual
Value
Value
Baud
%
Error
9600
19200
9600
2400
12
11.0592
11.0592
11.0592
1
1
0
0
7
0
0
0
–7
–3
–3
–12
(F9H)
(FDH)
(FDH)
(F4H)
8929
19200
9600
2400
Timer 2 Generated Baud Rates
Baud rates can also be generated using Timer 2. Using Timer 2 is
similar to using Timer 1 in that the timer must overflow 16 times
before a bit is transmitted/received. Because Timer 2 has a 16-bit
Ideal
Baud
Core
CLK
(MHz)
RCAP2H
Value
RCAP2L
Value
Actual %
Baud Error
19200
9600
2400
1200
19200
9600
2400
1200
12
12
12
12
11.0592
11.0592
11.0592
11.0592
–1 (FFH)
–1 (FFH)
–1 (FFH)
–2 (FEH)
–1 (FFH)
–1 (FFH)
–1 (FFH)
–2 (FFH)
–20
–41
–164
–72
–18
–36
–144
–32
19661
9591
2398
1199
19200
9600
2400
1200
(ECH)
(D7H)
(5CH)
(B8H)
(EEH)
(DCH)
(70H)
(E0H)
TIMER 1
OVERFLOW
2
NOTE: OSC. FREQ. IS DIVIDED BY 2, NOT 12.
0
CORE
CLK
2
SMOD
C/ T2 = 0
TL2
(8 BITS)
T2
PIN
TH2
(8 BITS)
TIMER 2
OVERFLOW
1
RCLK
16
TR2
RELOAD
16
RCAP2L
T2EX
PIN
RX
CLOCK
0
TCLK
NOTE: AVAILABILITY OF ADDITIONAL
EXTERNAL INTERRUPT
EXF 2
RCAP2H
TIMER 2
INTERRUPT
CONTROL
EXEN2
Figure 53. Timer 2, UART Baud Rates
REV. 0
0
C/ T2 = 1
1
TRANSITION
DETECTOR
1
CONTROL
–57–
TX
CLOCK
2.4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0
0
0
0
ADuC831
Timer 3 Generated Baud Rates
The high integer dividers in a UART block mean that high speed
baud rates are not always possible using some particular crystals.
For example, using a 12 MHz crystal, a baud rate of 115200 is
not possible. To address this problem, the ADuC831 has added
a dedicated baud rate timer (Timer 3) specifically for generating
highly accurate baud rates.
Timer 3 can be used instead of Timer 1 or Timer 2 for generating
very accurate high speed UART baud rates including 115200
and 230400. Timer 3 also allows a much wider range of baud
rates to be obtained. In fact, every desired bit rate from 12 bit/s
to 393216 bit/s can be generated to within an error of ± 0.8%.
Timer 3 also frees up the other three timers, allowing them to
be used for different applications. A block diagram of Timer 3 is
shown in Figure 54 below.
CORE
CLK
(1 + T3FD/64)
T3FD is the fractional divider ratio required to achieve the
required baud rate. We can calculate the appropriate value for
T3FD using the following formula.
Note: T3FD should be rounded to the nearest integer.
T 3FD =
2
× Baud Rate
2 × fCORE
2
DIV
0
(
T3 RX/TX
CLOCK
)
DIV = LOG 11059200 / (32 × 115200) / LOG 2 = 1.58 = 1
0
16
× (T3FD+ 64)
For example, to get a baud rate of 115200 while operating at
11.0592 MHz:
RX CLOCK
1
2 × fCORE
DIV
Actual Baud Rate =
2DIV
T3EN
(
)
T 3FD = (2 × 11059200) / 2 × 115200 – 64 = 32 = 20 H
TX CLOCK
Figure 54. Timer 3, UART Baud Rates
1
Therefore, the actual baud rate is 115200 bit/s.
Two SFRs (T3CON and T3FD) are used to control Timer 3.
T3CON is the baud rate control SFR, allowing Timer 3 to be
used to set up the UART baud rate, and setting up the binary
divider (DIV).
Table XXVII. Commonly Used Baud Rates Using Timer 3
Table XXVI. T3CON SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
T3BAUDEN
T3UARTBAUD Enable
Set to enable Timer 3 to generate
the baud rate. When set, PCON.7,
T2CON.4 and T2CON.5 are ignored.
Cleared to let the baud rate be
generated as per a standard 8052.
–
–
–
–
Binary Divider Factor.
DIV2 DIV1 DIV0 Bin Divider
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
DIV2
DIV1
DIV0
fCORE


log 

 32 × Baud Rate 
DIV =
log(2)
TIMER 1/TIMER 2
RX CLOCK (FIG 53)
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Note: The DIV value must be rounded down.
Once the values for DIV and T3FD are calculated the actual
baud rate can be calculated using the following formula.
2
TIMER 1/TIMER 2
TX CLOCK (FIG 53)
FRACTIONAL
DIVIDER
The appropriate value to write to the DIV2-1-0 bits can be calculated using the following formula where fCORE is the crystal
frequency:
Ideal
Baud
Crystal
DIV
T3CON
T3FD
%
Error
230400
115200
57600
38400
19200
9600
11.0592
11.0592
11.0592
11.0592
11.0592
11.0592
0
1
2
3
4
5
80H
81H
82H
83H
84H
85H
20H
20H
20H
08H
08H
08H
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
230400
115200
57600
38400
19200
9600
12
12
12
12
12
12
0
1
2
3
4
5
80H
81H
82H
83H
84H
85H
28H
28H
28H
0EH
0EH
0EH
0.16
0.16
0.16
0.16
0.16
0.16
230400
115200
57600
38400
19200
9600
14
14
14
14
14
14
0
1
2
3
4
5
80H
81H
82H
83H
84H
85H
3AH
3AH
3AH
1BH
1BH
1BH
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.16
0.16
0.16
230400
115200
57600
38400
19200
9600
16
16
16
16
16
16
1
2
3
3
4
5
81H
82H
83H
83H
84H
85H
05H
05H
05H
28H
28H
28H
0.64
0.64
0.64
0.16
0.16
0.16
–58–
REV. 0
ADuC831
INTERRUPT SYSTEM
The ADuC831 provides a total of nine interrupt sources with
two priority levels. The control and configuration of the interrupt
system is carried out through three Interrupt-related SFRs.
IE
IP
IEIP2
Interrupt Enable Register
Interrupt Priority Register
Secondary Interrupt Enable Register
IE
Interrupt Enable Register
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
A8H
00H
Yes
Table XXVIII. IE SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EA
EADC
ET2
ES
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” All Interrupt Sources
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” ADC Interrupt
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” Timer 2 Interrupt
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” UART Serial Port Interrupt
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” Timer 1 Interrupt
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” External Interrupt 1
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” Timer 0 Interrupt
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” External Interrupt 0
IP
Interrupt Priority Register
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
B8H
00H
Yes
Table XXIX. IP SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
---PADC
PT2
PS
PT1
PX1
PT0
PX0
Reserved for Future Use
Written by User to Select ADC Interrupt Priority (“1” = High; “0” = Low)
Written by User to Select Timer 2 Interrupt Priority (“1” = High; “0” = Low)
Written by User to Select UART Serial Port Interrupt Priority (“1” = High; “0” = Low)
Written by User to Select Timer 1 Interrupt Priority (“1” = High; “0” = Low)
Written by User to Select External Interrupt 1 Priority (“1” = High; “0” = Low)
Written by User to Select Timer 0 Interrupt Priority (“1” = High; “0” = Low)
Written by User to Select External Interrupt 0 Priority (“1” = High; “0” = Low)
IEIP2
Secondary Interrupt Enable Register
SFR Address
Power-On Default Value
Bit Addressable
A9H
A0H
No
Table XXX. IEIP2 SFR Bit Designations
Bit
Name
Description
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
---PTI
PPSM
PSI
---ETI
EPSMI
ESI
Reserved for Future Use
Priority for Time Interval Interrupt
Priority for Power Supply Monitor Interrupt
Priority for SPI/I2C Interrupt
This Bit Must Contain Zero
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” Time Interval Counter Interrupt
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” Power Supply Monitor Interrupt
Written by User to Enable “1” or Disable “0” SPI/I2C Serial Port Interrupt
REV. 0
–59–
ADuC831
Interrupt Priority
ADuC831 HARDWARE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The Interrupt Enable registers are written by the user to enable
individual interrupt sources, while the Interrupt Priority registers
allow the user to select one of two priority levels for each interrupt.
An interrupt of a high priority may interrupt the service routine
of a low priority interrupt, and if two interrupts of different
priority occur at the same time, the higher level interrupt will be
serviced first. An interrupt cannot be interrupted by another
interrupt of the same priority level. If two interrupts of the same
priority level occur simultaneously, a polling sequence is observed
as shown in Table XXXI.
This section outlines some of the key hardware design considerations that must be addressed when integrating the ADuC831
into any hardware system.
Clock Oscillator
The clock source for the ADuC831 can come either from an
external source or from the internal clock oscillator. To use the
internal clock oscillator, connect a parallel resonant crystal between
XTAL1 and XTAL2, and connect a capacitor from each pin to
ground as shown below.
ADuC831
Table XXXI. Priority within an Interrupt Level
Source
Priority
Description
PSMI
WDS
IE0
ADCI
TF0
IE1
TF1
I2CI + ISPI
RI + TI
TF2 + EXF2
TII
1 (Highest)
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 (Lowest)
11 (Lowest)
Power Supply Monitor Interrupt
Watchdog Timer Interrupt
External Interrupt 0
ADC Interrupt
Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt
External Interrupt 1
Timer/Counter 1 Interrupt
SPI Interrupt
Serial Interrupt
Timer/Counter 2 Interrupt
Time Interval Counter Interrupt
XTAL1
XTAL2
Figure 55. External Parallel Resonant Crystal Connections
ADuC831
EXTERNAL XTAL1
CLOCK
SOURCE
Interrupt Vectors
XTAL2
When an interrupt occurs, the program counter is pushed onto
the stack and the corresponding interrupt vector address is
loaded into the program counter. The Interrupt Vector Addresses
are shown in Table XXXII.
Table XXXII. Interrupt Vector Addresses
Source
Vector Address
IE0
TF0
IE1
TF1
RI + TI
TF2 + EXF2
ADCI
I2CI + ISPI
PSMI
TII
WDS
0003H
000BH
0013H
001BH
0023H
002BH
0033H
003BH
0043H
0053H
005BH
TO INTERNAL
TIMNG CIRCUITS
TO INTERNAL
TIMNG CIRCUITS
Figure 56. Connecting an External Clock Source
Whether using the internal oscillator or an external clock
source, the ADuC831’s specified operational clock speed range is
400 kHz to 16 MHz. The core itself is static, and will function
all the way down to dc. But at clock speeds slower that 400 kHz
the ADC will no longer function correctly. Therefore, to ensure
specified operation, use a clock frequency of at least 400 kHz
and no more than 16 MHz. Note: the Flash/EE memory may
not program correctly at a clock frequency of less than 2 MHz.
External Memory Interface
In addition to its internal program and data memories, the ADuC831
can access up to 64 kBytes of external program memory (ROM/
PROM/etc.) and up to 16 MBytes of external data memory (SRAM).
To select from which code space (internal or external program
memory) to begin executing instructions, tie the EA (external
access) pin high or low, respectively. When EA is high (pulled up
to VDD), user program execution will start at address 0 of the
internal 62 kBytes Flash/EE code space. When EA is low (tied
to ground) user program execution will start at address 0 of the
external code space.
A second very important function of the EA pin is described
in the Single Pin Emulation Mode section.
External program memory (if used) must be connected to the
ADuC831 as illustrated in Figure 57. Note that 16 I/O lines
–60–
REV. 0
ADuC831
(Ports 0 and 2) are dedicated to bus functions during external
program memory fetches. Port 0 (P0) serves as a multiplexed
address/data bus. It emits the low byte of the program counter
(PCL) as an address, and then goes into a float state awaiting
the arrival of the code byte from the program memory. During
the time that the low byte of the program counter is valid on P0,
the signal ALE (Address Latch Enable) clocks this byte into an
address latch. Meanwhile, Port 2 (P2) emits the high byte of
the program counter (PCH), then PSEN strobes the EPROM
and the code byte is read into the ADuC831.
ADuC831
LATCH
LATCH
OE
Figure 57. External Program Memory Interface
Note that program memory addresses are always 16 bits wide,
even in cases where the actual amount of program memory used
is less than 64 kBytes. External program execution sacrifices two
of the 8-bit ports (P0 and P2) to the function of addressing the
program memory. While executing from external program memory,
Ports 0 and 2 can be used simultaneously for read/write access
to external data memory, but not for general-purpose I/O.
Though both external program memory and external data memory
are accessed by some of the same pins, the two are completely
independent of each other from a software point of view. For
example, the chip can read/write external data memory while
executing from external program memory.
SRAM
D0–D7
(DATA)
P0
LATCH
A0–A7
ALE
P2
OE
WR
WE
OE
WE
In either implementation, Port 0 (P0) serves as a multiplexed
address/data bus. It emits the low byte of the data pointer (DPL)
as an address, which is latched by a pulse of ALE prior to data
being placed on the bus by the ADuC831 (write operation) or
the SRAM (read operation). Port 2 (P2) provides the data
pointer page byte (DPP) to be latched by ALE, followed by the
data pointer high byte (DPH). If no latch is connected to P2,
DPP is ignored by the SRAM, and the 8051 standard of 64 kBytes
external data memory access is maintained.
Power Supplies
The ADuC831’s operational power supply voltage range is 2.7 V
to 5.25 V. Although the guaranteed data sheet specifications are
given only for power supplies within 2.7 V to 3.6 V or ± 10% of
the nominal 5 V level, the chip will function equally well at any
power supply level between 2.7 V and 5.5 V.
Note: Figures 60 and 61 refer to the PQFP package, for the CSP
package connect the extra DVDD, DGND, AVDD, and AGND in the
same manner. Note: for the CSP package, the bottom paddle
should be left unconnected.
A8–A15
RD
RD
WR
Separate analog and digital power supply pins (AVDD and DVDD,
respectively) allow AVDD to be kept relatively free of noisy digital
signals often present on the system DVDD line. However, though
you can power AVDD and DVDD from two separate supplies if
desired, you must ensure that they remain within ± 0.3 V of one
another at all times in order to avoid damaging the chip (as per the
Absolute Maximum Ratings section). Therefore, it is recommended
that unless AVDD and DVDD are connected directly together, you
connect back-to-back Schottky diodes between them as shown
in Figure 60.
Figure 58 shows a hardware configuration for accessing up to
64 kBytes of external RAM. This interface is standard to any 8051
compatible MCU.
ADuC831
A16–A23
Figure 59. External Data Memory Interface
(16 MBytes Address Space)
A0–A7
A8–A15
PSEN
A8–A15
P2
ALE
P2
A0–A7
ALE
EPROM
LATCH
D0–D7
(DATA)
P0
D0–D7
(INSTRUCTION)
P0
SRAM
ADuC831
ANALOG SUPPLY
DIGITAL SUPPLY
+
–
10F
10F
+
–
ADuC831
Figure 58. External Data Memory Interface
(64 K Address Space)
DVDD
AVDD
DGND
AGND
0.1F
0.1F
If access to more than 64 kBytes of RAM is desired, a feature
unique to the ADuC831 allows addressing up to 16 MBytes
of external RAM simply by adding an additional latch as illustrated
in Figure 59.
Figure 60. External Dual-Supply Connections
REV. 0
–61–
ADuC831
As an alternative to providing two separate power supplies, the
user can help keep AVDD quiet by placing a small series resistor
and/or ferrite bead between it and DVDD, and then decoupling
AVDD separately to ground. An example of this configuration is
shown in Figure 61. With this configuration other analog circuitry
(such as op amps, voltage reference, and so on) can be powered
from the AVDD supply line as well. The user will still want to
include back-to-back Schottky diodes between AVDD and DVDD
in order to protect from power-up and power-down transient conditions that could separate the two supply voltages momentarily.
A software switch allows the chip to be switched from normal
mode into idle mode, and also into full power-down mode.
Below are brief descriptions of power-down and idle modes.
DIGITAL SUPPLY
10F
BEAD
+
–
1.6V
10F
Power Saving Modes
ADuC831
DVDD
AVDD
DGND
AGND
In idle mode, the oscillator continues to run but is gated off to the
core only. The on-chip peripherals continue to receive the clock,
and remain functional. Port pins and DAC output pins retain their
states in this mode. The chip will recover from idle mode upon
receiving any enabled interrupt, or on receiving a hardware reset.
0.1F
0.1F
Figure 61. External Single-Supply Connections
Notice that in both Figure 60 and Figure 61, a large value (10 µF)
reservoir capacitor sits on DVDD and a separate 10 µF capacitor
sits on AVDD. Also, local small-value (0.1 µF) capacitors are located at
each VDD pin of the chip. As per standard design practice, be sure
to include all of these capacitors, and ensure the smaller capacitors
are close to each AVDD pin with trace lengths as short as possible.
Connect the ground terminal of each of these capacitors directly to
the underlying ground plane. Finally, it should also be noted that,
at all times, the analog and digital ground pins on the ADuC831
must be referenced to the same system ground reference point.
The currents consumed by the various sections of the ADuC831
are shown in Table XXXIII. The CORE values given represent
the current drawn by DVDD, while the rest (ADC, DAC, voltage
ref) are pulled by the AVDD pin and can be disabled in software
when not in use. The other on-chip peripherals (watchdog timer,
power supply monitor, and so on) consume negligible current
and are therefore lumped in with the Core operating current here.
Of course, the user must add any currents sourced by the parallel
and serial I/O pins, and that sourced by the DAC, in order to
determine the total current needed at the ADuC831’s supply pins.
Also, current drawn from the DVDD supply will increase by
approximately 10 mA during Flash/EE erase and program cycles.
Table XXXIII. Typical IDD of Core and Peripherals
Core:
(Normal Mode) (1.6 nAs MCLK) +
6 mA
Core:
(0.75 nAs MCLK) +
(Idle Mode)
5 mA
ADC:
1.3 mA
DAC (Each):
250 µA
Voltage Ref:
200 µA
In full power-down mode, the on-chip oscillator stops and all
on-chip peripherals are shut down. Port pins retain their logic
levels in this mode, but the DAC output goes to a high-impedance
state (three-state). During full power-down mode, the ADuC831
consumes a total of approximately 15 µA. There are five ways of
terminating power-down mode:
Asserting the RESET Pin (Pin 15)
Returns to normal mode. All registers are set to their default
state and program execution starts at the reset vector once the
Reset pin is de-asserted.
Cycling Power
All registers are set to their default state and program execution
starts at the reset vector approximately 128 ms later.
Time Interval Counter (TIC) Interrupt
Power Consumption
VDD = 5 V
Since operating DVDD current is primarily a function of clock
speed, the expressions for CORE supply current in Table XXXIII
are given as functions of MCLK, the oscillator frequency. Plug in
a value for MCLK in hertz to determine the current consumed by
the core at that oscillator frequency. Since the ADC and DACs
can be enabled or disabled in software, add only the currents
from the peripherals you expect to use. And again, do not forget
to include current sourced by I/O pins, serial port pins, DAC
outputs, and so forth, plus the additional current drawn during
Flash/EE erase and program cycles.
VDD = 3 V
Power-down mode is terminated and the CPU services the TIC
interrupt. The RETI at the end of the TIC ISR will return the
core to the instruction after that which enabled power-down.
I 2C or SPI Interrupt
Power-down mode is terminated and the CPU services the I2C/SPI
interrupt. The RETI at the end of the ISR will return the core to
the instruction after that which enabled power-down. It should be
noted that the I2C/SPI power down interrupt enable bit (SERIPD)
in the PCON SFR must first be set to allow this mode of operation.
INT0 Interrupt
Power-down mode is terminated and the CPU services the INT0
interrupt. The RETI at the end of the ISR will return the core
to the instruction after that which enabled power-down. It should
be noted that the INT0 power-down interrupt enable bit (INT0PD)
in the PCON SFR must first be set to allow this mode of operation.
Power-On Reset
(0.8 nAs MCLK) +
3 mA
(0.25 nAs MCLK)+
3 mA
1.0 mA
200 µA
150 µA
An internal POR (Power-On Reset) is implemented on the
ADuC831. For DVDD below 2.45 V, the internal POR will hold
the ADuC831 in reset. As DVDD rises above 2.45 V an internal
timer will timeout for approximately 128 ms before the part is
released from reset with a 16 MHz crystal. With other crystal
values the timeout will increase. The user must ensure that the
power supply has reached a stable 2.7 V minimum level by this
time. Likewise on power-down, the internal POR will hold the
ADuC831 in reset until the power supply has dropped below 1 V.
Figure 62 illustrates the operation of the internal POR in detail.
–62–
REV. 0
ADuC831
2.45V TYP
DVDD
1.0V TYP
128ms TYP
128ms TYP
1.0V TYP
a.
PLACE ANALOG
COMPONENTS
HERE
PLACE DIGITAL
COMPONENTS
HERE
AGND
INTERNAL
CORE RESET
DGND
Figure 62. Internal POR Operation
Grounding and Board Layout Recommendations
As with all high resolution data converters, special attention must
be paid to grounding and PC board layout of ADuC831-based
designs in order to achieve optimum performance from the
ADC and DACs.
b.
PLACE DIGITAL
COMPONENTS
HERE
AGND
Although the ADuC831 has separate pins for analog and digital
ground (AGND and DGND), the user must not tie these to two
separate ground planes unless the two ground planes are connected together very close to the ADuC831, as illustrated in the
simplified example of Figure 63a. In systems where digital and
analog ground planes are connected together somewhere else
(at the system’s power supply for example), they cannot be connected again near the ADuC831 since a ground loop would result.
In these cases, tie the ADuC831’s AGND and DGND pins all
to the analog ground plane, as illustrated in Figure 63b. In systems
with only one ground plane, ensure that the digital and analog
components are physically separated onto separate halves of the
board such that digital return currents do not flow near analog
circuitry and vice versa. The ADuC831 can then be placed between
the digital and analog sections, as illustrated in Figure 63c.
In all of these scenarios, and in more complicated real-life applications, keep in mind the flow of current from the supplies and back
to ground. Make sure the return paths for all currents are as
close as possible to the paths the currents took to reach their destinations. For example, do not power components on the analog
side of Figure 63b with DVDD since that would force return currents
from DVDD to flow through AGND. Also, try to avoid digital
currents flowing under analog circuitry, which could happen if
the user placed a noisy digital chip on the left half of the board in
Figure 63c. Whenever possible, avoid large discontinuities in the
ground plane(s) (such as are formed by a long trace on the same
layer), since they force return signals to travel a longer path. And
of course, make all connections to the ground plane directly,
with little or no trace separating the pin from its via to ground.
Note that the bottom paddle of the CSP package should not
be connected to ground. It should be left unconnected.
If the user plans to connect fast logic signals (rise/fall time < 5 ns) to
any of the ADuC831’s digital inputs, add a series resistor to each
relevant line to keep rise and fall times longer than 5 ns at the
ADuC831 input pins. A value of 100 Ω or 200 Ω is usually sufficient to prevent high speed signals from coupling capacitively into
the ADuC831 and affecting the accuracy of ADC conversions.
c.
DGND
PLACE ANALOG
COMPONENTS
HERE
PLACE DIGITAL
COMPONENTS
HERE
GND
Figure 63. System Grounding Schemes
OTHER HARDWARE CONSIDERATIONS
To facilitate in-circuit programming, plus in-circuit debug and
emulation options, users will want to implement some simple
connection points in their hardware that will allow easy access
to download, debug, and emulation modes.
In-Circuit Serial Download Access
Nearly all ADuC831 designs will want to take advantage of the
in-circuit reprogrammability of the chip. This is accomplished by
a connection to the ADuC831’s UART, which requires an external RS-232 chip for level translation if downloading code from
a PC. Basic configuration of an RS-232 connection is illustrated
in Figure 66 with a simple ADM202-based circuit. If users would
rather not design an RS-232 chip onto a board, refer to the
application note “uC006–A 4-Wire UART-to-PC Interface”* for
a simple (and zero-cost-per-board) method of gaining in-circuit
serial download access to the ADuC831.
In addition to the basic UART connections, users will also need
a way to trigger the chip into download mode. This is accomplished via a 1 kΩ pull-down resistor that can be jumpered onto
the PSEN pin, as shown in Figure 64. To get the ADuC831 into
download mode, simply connect this jumper and power-cycle the
device (or manually reset the device, if a manual reset button is
available) and it will be ready to receive a new program serially.
With the jumper removed, the device will come up in normal
mode (and run the program) whenever power is cycled or RESET
is toggled.
*Application Note uC006 is available at www.analog.com/microconverter
REV. 0
PLACE ANALOG
COMPONENTS
HERE
–63–
ADuC831
DOWNLOAD/DEBUG
ENABLE JUMPER
(NORMALLY OPEN)
DVDD
1k
DVDD
ANALOG INPUT
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
EA
49
PSEN
50
DVDD
51
52
ADC0
DGND
1k
2-PIN HEADER FOR
EMULATION ACCESS
(NORMALLY OPEN)
39
38
37
AVDD
DVDD
36
AVDD
DGND 35
AGND
VREF OUTPUT
DVDD 34
ADuC831
CREF
XTAL2 33
VREF
XTAL1 32
DAC0
31
DAC1
30
DAC OUTPUT
11.0592MHz
DGND
DVDD
TXD
RXD
RESET
ADC7
29
28
27
NOT CONNECTED IN THIS EXAMPLE
DVDD
DVDD
ADM202
C1+
V+
9-PIN D-SUB
FEMALE
VCC
GND
1
C1–
T1OUT
2
C2+
R1IN
3
C2–
R1OUT
4
V–
T1IN
5
T2OUT
T2IN
6
R2OUT
7
R2IN
8
9
Figure 64. Example ADuC831 System (PQFP Package)
Note that PSEN is normally an output (as described in the External
Memory Interface section) and is sampled as an input only on the
falling edge of RESET (i.e., at power-up or upon an external
manual reset). Note also that if any external circuitry unintentionally pulls PSEN low during power-up or reset events, it could
cause the chip to enter download mode and therefore fail to begin
user code execution as it should. To prevent this, ensure that no
external signals are capable of pulling the PSEN pin low, except
for the external PSEN jumper itself.
Embedded Serial Port Debugger
From a hardware perspective, entry into serial port debug mode
is identical to the serial download entry sequence described
above. In fact, both serial download and serial port debug modes
can be thought of as essentially one mode of operation used in
two different ways.
Note that the serial port debugger is fully contained on the ADuC831
device, (unlike ROM monitor type debuggers) and therefore no
external memory is needed to enable in-system debug sessions.
Single-Pin Emulation Mode
Also built into the ADuC831 is a dedicated controller for
single-pin in-circuit emulation (ICE) using standard production
ADuC831 devices. In this mode, emulation access is gained by
connection to a single pin, the EA pin. Normally, this pin is hardwired either high or low to select execution from internal or
external program memory space, as described earlier. To enable
single-pin emulation mode, however, users will need to pull the
EA pin high through a 1 kΩ resistor as shown in Figure 64. The
emulator will then connect to the 2-pin header also shown in
Figure 64. To be compatible with the standard connector that
comes with the single-pin emulator available from Accutron Limited (www.accutron.com), use a 2-pin 0.1-inch pitch “Friction
Lock” header from Molex (www.molex.com) such as their
part number 22-27-2021. Be sure to observe the polarity of this
header. As represented in Figure 64, when the Friction Lock tab
is at the right, the ground pin should be the lower of the two
pins (when viewed from the top).
Typical System Configuration
A typical ADuC831 configuration is shown in Figure 64. It summarizes some of the hardware considerations discussed in the
previous paragraphs.
–64–
REV. 0
ADuC831
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
Download—In-Circuit Serial Downloader
There are two models of development tools available for the
ADuC831, namely:
QuickStart—Entry-level development system
QuickStart Plus—Comprehensive development system
These systems are described briefly below.
The Serial Downloader is a Windows application that allows
the user to serially download an assembled program (Intel Hex
format file) to the on-chip program FLASH memory via the
serial COM1 port on a standard PC. An Application Note
(uC004) detailing this serial download protocol is available from
www.analog.com/microconverter.
QuickStart Development System
ASPIRE—IDE
The QuickStart Development System is an entry-level, low cost
development tool suite supporting the ADuC831. The system
consists of the following PC-based (Windows® compatible)
hardware and software development tools.
The ASPIRE Integrated Development Environment is a Windows
application that allows the user to compile, edit, and debug code
in the same environment. The ASPIRE software allows users to
debug code execution on silicon using the MicroConverter UART
serial port. The debugger provides access to all on-chip peripherals
during a typical debug session as well as single-step, animate,
and break-point code execution control.
Hardware:
ADuC831 Evaluation Board and
Serial Port Programming Cable.
Software:
ASPIRE Integrated Development
Environment. Incorporates 8051
assembler and serial port debugger.
Serial Download Software.
Miscellaneous:
CD-ROM Documentation and
Prototype Device.
Figure 65 shows the typical components of a QuickStart
Development System. A brief description of some of the software
tools components in the QuickStart Development System follows.
Note, the ASPIRE IDE software is also included as part of the
QuickStart Plus System. As part of the QuickStart Plus System,
the ASPIRE IDE also supports mixed level and C source debug.
This is not available in the QuickStart System, but there is an
example project that demonstrates this capability.
QuickStart Plus Development System
The QuickStart Plus Development system offers users enhanced
nonintrusive debug and emulation tools. The System consists of
the following PC based (Windows compatible) hardware and
software development tools.
Hardware:
ADuC831 Prototype Board
Software:
ASPIRE Integrated Development
Environment. Features full ‘C’ and
assembly emulation using the Accutron
single pin emulator.
Miscellaneous:
CD-ROM Documentation.
Accutron Nonintrusive Single Pin Emulator
Figure 65. Components of the QuickStar
Development System
Figure 67. Accutron Single Pin Emulator
Figure 66. Typical Debug Session
Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
REV. 0
–65–
ADuC831
TIMING SPECIFICATIONS1, 2, 3 (AV
DD
= DVDD = 3.0 V or 5.0 V 10%. All specifications TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted.)
Parameter
Min
CLOCK INPUT (External Clock Driven XTAL1)
XTAL1 Period
tCK
tCKL
XTAL1 Width Low
XTAL1 Width High
tCKH
XTAL1 Rise Time
tCKR
tCKF
XTAL1 Fall Time
tCYC4
ADuC831 Machine Cycle Time
12 MHz
Typ
Max
83.33
Variable Clock
Min
Typ
Max
62.5
20
20
20
20
Unit
1000
20
20
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
µs
20
20
1
12tCK
Figure
68
68
68
68
68
NOTES
1
AC inputs during testing are driven at DV DD – 0.5 V for a Logic 1 and 0.45 V for a Logic 0. Timing measurements are made at V IH min for a Logic 1 and V IL max for
a Logic 0.
2
For timing purposes, a port pin is no longer floating when a 100 mV change from load voltage occurs. A port pin begins to float when a 100 mV change from the
loaded VOH/VOL level occurs.
3
CLOAD for Port0, ALE, PSEN outputs = 100 pF; C LOAD for all other outputs = 80 pF unless otherwise noted.
4
ADuC831 Machine Cycle Time is nominally defined as MCLKIN/12.
tCKR
tCKH
tCKL
tCKF
tCK
Figure 68. XTAL 1 Input
DVDD – 0.5V
0.45V
0.2DVDD + 0.9V
TEST POINTS
0.2DVDD – 0.1V
VLOAD – 0.1V
VLOAD
VLOAD + 0.1V
TIMING
REFERENCE
POINTS
VLOAD – 0.1V
VLOAD
VLOAD – 0.1V
Figure 69. Timing Waveform Characteristics
–66–
REV. 0
ADuC831
Parameter
12 MHz
Min
Max
Variable Clock
Min
Max
127
43
53
2tCK – 40
tCK – 40
tCK – 30
Unit
Figure
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
EXTERNAL PROGRAM MEMORY READ CYCLE
tLHLL
tAVLL
tLLAX
tLLIV
tLLPL
tPLPH
tPLIV
tPXIX
tPXIZ
tAVIV
tPLAZ
tPHAX
ALE Pulsewidth
Address Valid to ALE Low
Address Hold after ALE Low
ALE Low to Valid Instruction In
ALE Low to PSEN Low
PSEN Pulsewidth
PSEN Low to Valid Instruction In
Input Instruction Hold after PSEN
Input Instruction Float after PSEN
Address to Valid Instruction In
PSEN Low to Address Float
Address Hold after PSEN High
234
4tCK – 100
53
205
tCK – 30
3tCK – 45
145
3tCK – 105
0
0
59
312
25
tCK – 25
5tCK – 105
25
0
0
MCLK
tLHLL
ALE (O)
tAVLL
tPLPH
tLLPL
tLLIV
tPLIV
PSEN (O)
PORT 0 (I/O)
tPXIZ
tPLAZ
tLLAX
tPXIX
PCL
(OUT)
INSTRUCTION
(IN)
tAVIV
PORT 2 (O)
tPHAX
PCH
Figure 70. External Program Memory Read Cycle
REV. 0
–67–
ADuC831
Parameter
12 MHz
Min
Max
Variable Clock
Min
Max
400
43
48
6tCK – 100
tCK – 40
tCK – 35
Unit
Figure
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
71
EXTERNAL DATA MEMORY READ CYCLE
tRLRH
tAVLL
tLLAX
tRLDV
tRHDX
tRHDZ
tLLDV
tAVDV
tLLWL
tAVWL
tRLAZ
tWHLH
RD Pulsewidth
Address Valid after ALE Low
Address Hold after ALE Low
RD Low to Valid Data In
Data and Address Hold after RD
Data Float after RD
ALE Low to Valid Data In
Address to Valid Data In
ALE Low to RD or WR Low
Address Valid to RD or WR Low
RD Low to Address Float
RD or WR High to ALE High
252
5tCK – 165
0
0
97
517
585
300
200
203
3tCK – 50
4tCK – 130
0
123
43
2tCK –70
8tCK – 150
9tCK – 165
3tCK + 50
0
6tCK – 100
tCK – 40
MCLK
ALE (O)
tWHLH
PSEN (O)
tLLDV
tLLWL
tRLRH
RD (O)
tAVWL
tRLDV
tAVLL
tLLAX
tRHDX
tRHDZ
tRLAZ
PORT 0 (I/O)
A0–A7
(OUT)
DATA (IN)
tAVDV
PORT 2 (O)
A16–A23
A8–A15
Figure 71. External Data Memory Read Cycle
–68–
REV. 0
ADuC831
Parameter
12 MHz
Min
Max
Variable Clock
Min
Max
Unit
Figure
400
43
48
200
203
33
433
33
43
6tCK – 100
tCK – 40
tCK – 35
3tCK – 50
4tCK – 130
tCK – 50
7tCK – 150
tCK – 50
tCK – 40
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
EXTERNAL DATA MEMORY WRITE CYCLE
tWLWH
tAVLL
tLLAX
tLLWL
tAVWL
tQVWX
tQVWH
tWHQX
tWHLH
WR Pulsewidth
Address Valid after ALE Low
Address Hold after ALE Low
ALE Low to RD or WR Low
Address Valid to RD or WR Low
Data Valid to WR Transition
Data Setup before WR
Data and Address Hold after WR
RD or WR High to ALE High
300
123
MCLK
ALE (O)
tWHLH
PSEN (O)
tLLWL
tWLWH
WR (O)
tAVWL
tAVLL
tLLAX
tQVWX
A0–A7
PORT 2 (O)
tWHQX
tQVWH
DATA
A16–A23
A8–A15
Figure 72. External Data Memory Write Cycle
REV. 0
–69–
3tCK + 50
6tCK – 100
ADuC831
Parameter
Min
12 MHz
Typ Max
Variable Clock
Typ
Max
Min
Unit
Figure
µs
ns
ns
ns
ns
73
73
73
73
73
UART TIMING (Shift Register Mode)
tXLXL
tQVXH
tDVXH
tXHDX
tXHQX
Serial Port Clock Cycle Time
Output Data Setup to Clock
Input Data Setup to Clock
Input Data Hold after Clock
Output Data Hold after Clock
1.0
12tCK
700
300
0
50
10tCK – 133
2tCK + 133
0
2tCK – 117
ALE (O)
tXLXL
TxD
(OUTPUT CLOCK)
6
1
0
7
SET RI
OR
SET TI
tQVXH
tXHQX
RxD
(OUTPUT DATA)
BIT 6
MSB
BIT 1
tDVXH
RxD
(INPUT DATA)
MSB
LSB
tXHDX
BIT 1
BIT 6
LSB
Figure 73. UART Timing in Shift Register Mode
–70–
REV. 0
ADuC831
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
Figure
µs
µs
µs
µs
µs
µs
µs
µs
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
ns
ns
ns
74
74
74
2
I C COMPATIBLE INTERFACE TIMING
SCLOCK Low Pulsewidth
tL
tH
SCLOCK High Pulsewidth
Start Condition Hold Time
tSHD
Data Setup Time
tDSU
Data Hold Time
tDHD
tRSU
Setup Time for Repeated Start
Stop Condition Setup Time
tPSU
Bus Free Time Between a STOP
tBUF
Condition and a START Condition
Rise Time of Both SCLOCK and SDATA
tR
Fall Time of Both SCLOCK and SDATA
tF
tSUP*
Pulsewidth of Spike Suppressed
4.7
4.0
0.6
100
0.9
0.6
0.6
1.3
300
300
50
*Input filtering on both the SCLOCK and SDATA inputs suppresses noise spikes less than 50 ns.
tBUF
tSUP
SDATA (I/O)
MSB
tDSU
tPSU
LSB
MSB
tDSU
2-7
8
tL
tR
tRSU
9
tSUP
STOP
START
CONDITION CONDITION
1
S(R)
REPEATED
START
Figure 74. I 2C Compatible Interface Timing
REV. 0
tF
tDHD
tH
1
PS
ACK
tDHD
tSHD
SCLK (I)
tR
–71–
tF
ADuC831
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Figure
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CPHA = 1)
tSL
tSH
tDAV
tDSU
tDHD
tDF
tDR
tSR
tSF
SCLOCK Low Pulsewidth
SCLOCK High Pulsewidth
Data Output Valid after SCLOCK Edge
Data Input Setup Time before SCLOCK Edge
Data Input Hold Time after SCLOCK Edge
Data Output Fall Time
Data Output Rise Time
SCLOCK Rise Time
SCLOCK Fall Time
SCLOCK
(CPOL = 0)
tSH
330
330
50
100
100
10
10
10
10
25
25
25
25
tSL
tSR
SCLOCK
(CPOL = 1)
tDAV
tDF
tSF
tDR
MOSI
BITS 6–1
MSB
MISO
MSB IN
tDSU
BITS 6–1
LSB
LSB IN
tDHD
Figure 75. SPI Master Mode Timing (CPHA = 1)
–72–
REV. 0
ADuC831
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Figure
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CPHA = 0)
tSL
tSH
tDAV
tDOSU
tDSU
tDHD
tDF
tDR
tSR
tSF
SCLOCK Low Pulsewidth
SCLOCK High Pulsewidth
Data Output Valid after SCLOCK Edge
Data Output Setup before SCLOCK Edge
Data Input Setup Time before SCLOCK Edge
Data Input Hold Time after SCLOCK Edge
Data Output Fall Time
Data Output Rise Time
SCLOCK Rise Time
SCLOCK Fall Time
SCLOCK
(CPOL = 0)
tSH
330
330
50
150
100
100
10
10
10
10
25
25
25
25
tSL
tSF
tSR
SCLOCK
(CPOL = 1)
tDAV
tDOSU
tDF
tDR
MOSI
MSB
MISO
MSB IN
tDSU
BITS 6–1
BITS 6–1
LSB
LSB IN
tDHD
Figure 76. SPI Master Mode Timing (CPHA = 0)
REV. 0
–73–
ADuC831
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Figure
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CPHA = 1)
tSS
tSL
tSH
tDAV
tDSU
tDHD
tDF
tDR
tSR
tSF
tSFS
SS to SCLOCK Edge
SCLOCK Low Pulsewidth
SCLOCK High Pulsewidth
Data Output Valid after SCLOCK Edge
Data Input Setup Time before SCLOCK Edge
Data Input Hold Time after SCLOCK Edge
Data Output Fall Time
Data Output Rise Time
SCLOCK Rise Time
SCLOCK Fall Time
SS High after SCLOCK Edge
0
330
330
50
100
100
10
10
10
10
25
25
25
25
0
SS
tSFS
tSS
SCLOCK
(CPOL = 0)
tSH
tSL
tSR
tSF
SCLOCK
(CPOL = 1)
tDAV
tDF
MISO
MOSI
BITS 6–1
MSB
BITS 6–1
MSB IN
tDSU
tDR
LSB
LSB IN
tDHD
Figure 77. SPI Slave Mode Timing (CPHA = 1)
–74–
REV. 0
ADuC831
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Figure
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
78
78
78
78
78
78
78
78
78
78
78
78
SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CPHA = 0)
tSS
tSL
tSH
tDAV
tDSU
tDHD
tDF
tDR
tSR
tSF
tDOSS
tSFS
SS to SCLOCK Edge
SCLOCK Low Pulsewidth
SCLOCK High Pulsewidth
Data Output Valid after SCLOCK Edge
Data Input Setup Time before SCLOCK Edge
Data Input Hold Time after SCLOCK Edge
Data Output Fall Time
Data Output Rise Time
SCLOCK Rise Time
SCLOCK Fall Time
Data Output Valid after SS Edge
SS High after SCLOCK Edge
0
330
330
50
100
100
10
10
10
10
25
25
25
25
20
0
SS
tSFS
tSS
SCLOCK
(CPOL = 0)
tSH
tSL
tSF
tSR
SCLOCK
(CPOL = 1)
tDAV
tDOSS
tDF
MISO
MOSI
MSB
MSB IN
tDSU
tDR
BITS 6–1
BITS 6–1
LSB
LSB IN
tDHD
Figure 78. SPI Slave Mode Timing (CPHA = 0)
REV. 0
–75–
ADuC831
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
52-Lead Plastic Quad Flatpack [MQFP]
(S-52)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
14.15
13.90 SQ
13.65
2.45
MAX
39
27
40
SEATING
PLANE
C02986–0–11/02(0)
1.03
0.88
0.73
26
7.80
REF
10.20
10.00 SQ
9.80
TOP VIEW
(PINS DOWN)
VIEW A
PIN 1
52
14
1
0.23
0.11
13
0.65 BSC
0.38
0.22
2.10
2.00
1.95
7
0
0.10 MIN
COPLANARITY
VIEW A
ROTATED 90 CCW
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-112-AC-1
56-Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP]
8 8 mm Body
(CP-56)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
0.60 MAX
0.60 MAX
43
7.75
BSC SQ
TOP
VIEW
0.25
REF
12 MAX
6.25
6.10
5.95
BOTTOM
VIEW
0.50
0.40
0.30
1.00
0.90
0.80
PIN 1
INDICATOR
56 1
42
PIN 1
INDICATOR
0.30
0.23
0.18
29
28
15 14
PRINTED IN U.S.A.
8.00
BSC SQ
6.50
REF
0.70 MAX
0.65 NOM
0.10 MAX
0.50 BSC
SEATING
PLANE
COPLANARITY
0.08
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-220-VLLD-2
–76–
REV. 0