ENPIRION EN23F0QI-E

EN23F0QI
15A Voltage Mode Synchronous Buck PWM
DC-DC Converter with Integrated Inductor
Description
Features
The EN23F0QI is a Power System on a Chip
(PowerSoC) DC-DC converter. It integrates MOSFET
switches, small-signal control circuits, compensation
and an integrated inductor in an advanced
12x13x3mm QFN module. It offers high efficiency,
excellent line and load regulation. The EN23F0QI
operates over a wide input voltage range and is
specifically designed to meet the precise voltage and
fast transient requirements of high-performance
products. The EN23F0QI features frequency
synchronization to an external clock, power OK
output voltage monitor, programmable soft-start along
with thermal and over current protection. The device’s
advanced circuit design, ultra high switching
frequency and proprietary integrated inductor
technology delivers high-quality, ultra compact, nonisolated DC-DC conversion.
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The Enpirion solution significantly helps in system
design and productivity by offering greatly simplified
board
design,
layout
and
manufacturing
requirements. In addition, overall system level
reliability is improved given the small number of
components required with the Enpirion solution.
All Enpirion products are RoHS compliant and leadfree manufacturing environment compatible.
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Integrated Inductor, MOSFETs, Controller
Total Solution Size Estimate 308mm2
Wide Input Voltage Range: 4.5V – 14V
2% VOUT Accuracy (Over Line/Load/Temperature)
Master/Slave Configuration for Parallel Operation
o Up to 4 Devices with 48A capability
Frequency Synchronization (External Clock)
Output Enable Pin and Power OK Signal
Programmable Soft-Start Time
Under Voltage Lockout Protection (UVLO)
Programmable Over Current Protection
Thermal Shutdown and Short Circuit Protection
RoHS compliant, MSL level 3, 260oC reflow
Applications
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Space Constrained Applications
Distributed Power Architectures
Output Voltage Ripple Sensitive Applications
Beat Frequency Sensitive Applications
Servers, Embedded Computing Systems,
LAN/SAN Adapter Cards, RAID Storage Systems,
Industrial Automation, Test and Measurement,
and Telecommunications
Efficiency vs. Output Current
100
90
EFFICIENCY (%)
80
70
60
50
40
30
VOUT = 3.3V
20
VOUT = 1.8V
10
VOUT = 1.2V
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12.0V
AVIN = 3.3V
Dual Supply
0
0
Figure 1. Simplified Applications Circuit
(Footprint Optimized)
1
2
3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
Figure 2. Highest Efficiency in Smallest Solution Size
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EN23F0QI
Ordering Information
Part Number
EN23F0QI
EN23F0QI-E
Package Markings
EN23F0QI
EN23F0QI
Temp Rating (°C)
-40 to +85
Package Description
92-pin (12mm x 13mm x 3mm) QFN T&R
QFN Evaluation Board
Packing and Marking Information: http://www.enpirion.com/resource-center-packing-and-marking-information.htm
Pin Assignments (Top View)
Figure 3: Pin Out Diagram (Top View)
NOTE A: NC pins are not to be electrically connected to each other or to any external signal, ground, or voltage.
However, they must be soldered to the PCB. Failure to follow this guideline may result in part malfunction or damage.
NOTE B: Shaded area highlights exposed metal below the package that is not to be mechanically or electrically
connected to the PCB. Refer to Figure 14 for details.
NOTE C: White ‘dot’ on top left is pin 1 indicator on top of the device package.
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
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EN23F0QI
Pin Description
I/O Legend:
PIN
P=Power
NAME
G=Ground
I/O
1-24,
36, 81
NC
NC
25-35
VOUT
O
37-39,
83-92
NC(SW)
NC
40-46
PGND
G
47-63
PVIN
P
64
AVINO
O
65
66
PG
BTMP
I/O
I/O
67
VDDB
O
68
BGND
G
69
S_IN
I
70
S_OUT
O
71
POK
O
72
ENABLE
I
73
AVIN
P
74
AGND
G
75
M/S
I
76
VFB
I/O
77
EAIN
O
78
SS
I/O
79
RCLX
I/O
80
FADJ
I/O
82
CGND
G
93
PGND
G
NC=No Connect
I=Input O=Output
I/O=Input/Output
FUNCTION
NO CONNECT – These pins may be internally connected. Do not connect them to each
other or to any other electrical signal. Failure to follow this guideline may result in device
damage.
Regulated converter output. Connect these pins to the load and place output capacitor
between these pins and PGND pins 40-42.
NO CONNECT – These pins are internally connected to the common switching node of the
internal MOSFETs. They are not to be electrically connected to any external signal, ground,
or voltage. Failure to follow this guideline may result in damage to the device.
Input/Output power ground. Connect these pins to the ground electrode of the input and
output filter capacitors. See VOUT and PVIN pin descriptions for more details.
Input power supply. Connect to input power supply. Decouple with input capacitor to PGND
pins 43-46.
Internal 3.3V linear regulator output. Connect this pin to AVIN (Pin 73) for applications
where operation from a single input voltage (PVIN) is required. If AVINO is being used,
place a 1µF, X5R/X7R, capacitor between AVINO and AGND as close as possible to
AVINO.
Place a 0.1µF, X7R, capacitor between this pin and BTMP.
See pin 65 description.
Internal regulated voltage used for the internal control circuitry. Place a 1µF, X7R, capacitor
between this pin and BGND.
See pin 67 description.
Digital Input. This pin accepts either an input clock to phase lock the internal switching
frequency or a S_OUT signal from another EN23F0QI. Leave this pin floating if not used.
Digital Output. PWM signal is output on this pin. Leave this pin floating if not used.
Power OK is an open drain transistor (pulled up to AVIN or similar voltage) used for power
system state indication. POK is logic high when VOUT is -10% of VOUT nominal. Leave
this pin floating if not used.
Input Enable. Applying a logic high to this pin enables the output and initiates a soft-start.
Applying a logic Low disables the output. Do not leave this pin floating.
3.3V Input power supply for the controller. Place a 0.1µF, X7R, capacitor between AVIN
and AGND.
Analog Ground. This is the ground return for the controller. Needs to be connected to a
quiet ground.
A logic level low configures the device as Master and a logic level high configures the
device as a Slave. Connect to ground in standalone mode.
External Feedback Input. The feedback loop is closed through this pin. A voltage divider at
VOUT is used to set the output voltage. The mid-point of the divider is connected to VFB. A
phase lead capacitor from this pin to VOUT is also required to stabilize the loop.
Optional Error Amplifier Input. Allows for customization of the control loop for performance
optimization. Leave this pin floating if unused.
Soft-Start node. The soft-start capacitor is connected between this pin and AGND. The
value of this capacitor determines the startup time. See Soft-Start Operation in the
Functional Description section for details.
Programmable over-current protection. Placement of a resistor on this pin will adjust the
over-current protection threshold. See Table 2 for the recommended RCLX Value to set
OCP at the nominal value specified in the Electrical Characteristics table. No current limit
protection when this pin is left floating.
Adding a resistor (RFS) to this pin will adjust the switching frequency of the EN23F0QI. See
Table 1 for suggested resistor values on RFS for various PVIN/VOUT combinations to
maximize efficiency. Do not leave this pin floating.
Connect to GND plane at all times.
Not a perimeter pin. Device thermal pad to be connected to the system GND plane for heatsinking purposes.
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
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EN23F0QI
Absolute Maximum Ratings
CAUTION: Absolute Maximum ratings are stress ratings only. Functional operation beyond the recommended operating
conditions is not implied. Stress beyond the absolute maximum ratings may impair device life. Exposure to absolute
maximum rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
MIN
MAX
UNITS
Voltages on : PVIN, VOUT
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
-0.5
15
V
Pin Voltages – AVINO, AVIN, ENABLE, POK, S_IN, S_OUT, M/S
2.5
6.0
V
Pin Voltages – VFB, SS, EAIN, RCLX, FADJ
-0.5
2.75
V
PVIN Slew Rate
0.3
3
V/ms
-65
150
°C
150
°C
Reflow Temp, 10 Sec, MSL3 JEDEC J-STD-020A
260
°C
ESD Rating (based on Human Body Model)
2000
V
ESD Rating (based on CDM)
500
V
Storage Temperature Range
TSTG
Maximum Operating Junction Temperature
TJ-ABS Max
Recommended Operating Conditions
SYMBOL
MIN
MAX
UNITS
Input Voltage Range
PARAMETER
PVIN
4.5
14.0
V
AVIN: Controller Supply Voltage
AVIN
2.5
5.5
V
Output Voltage Range (Note 1)
VOUT
0.75
3.3
V
Output Current
IOUT
15
A
Operating Ambient Temperature
TA
-40
+85
°C
Operating Junction Temperature
TJ
-40
+125
°C
Thermal Characteristics
SYMBOL
TYP
UNITS
Thermal Shutdown
PARAMETER
TSD
160
°C
Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis
TSDH
35
°C
Thermal Resistance: Junction to Ambient (0 LFM) (Note 2)
θJA
13
°C/W
Thermal Resistance: Junction to Case (0 LFM)
θJC
1
°C/W
Note 1: RCLX resistor value may need to be raised for VOUT > VIN – 2.5V to increase current limit threshold. Contact
techsupport@enpirion.com for details.
Note 2: Based on 2oz. external copper layers and proper thermal design in line with EIJ/JEDEC JESD51-7 standard for
high thermal conductivity boards.
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
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EN23F0QI
Electrical Characteristics
NOTE: VIN=12V, Minimum and Maximum values are over operating ambient temperature range unless otherwise noted.
Typical values are at TA = 25°C.
PARAMETER
MAX
UNITS
Operating Input Voltage
SYMBOL
PVIN
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
4.5
TYP
14.0
V
Controller Input Voltage
AVIN
2.5
5.5
V
PVIN Under Voltage
Lock-out
UVLOPVIN
Voltage above which UVLO is not
asserted
2
V
AVIN Under Voltage
Lock-out rising
AVINUVLOR
Voltage above which UVLO is not
asserted
2.3
V
AVIN Under Voltage
Lock-out falling
AVINOVLOF
Voltage below which UVLO is
asserted
2.1
V
IAVIN
14
mA
AVINO
3.3
V
AVIN Pin Input Current
Internal Linear Regulator
Output Voltage
Shut-Down Supply
Current
IPVINS
PVIN=12V, AVIN=3.3, ENABLE=0V
300
μA
IAVINS
PVIN=12V, AVIN=3.3, ENABLE=0V
50
μA
Feedback Pin Voltage
VFB
Feedback Pin Voltage
VFB
Feedback pin Input
Leakage Current
IFB
VOUT Rise Time
tRISE
Soft Start Capacitor
Range
CSS_RANGE
Continuous Output
Current
IOUT_CONT
Over Current Trip Level
IOCP
Feedback Node Voltage at:
VIN = 12V, ILOAD = 0, TA = 25°C
Feedback Node Voltage at:
4.5V ≤ VIN ≤ 14V
0A ≤ ILOAD ≤ 15A, TA = -40 to 85°C
VFB pin input leakage current
(Note 3)
0.594
0.60
0.606
V
0.588
0.60
0.612
V
5
nA
CSS = 47nF
(Note 3, Note 4 and Note 5)
1.96
3.64
ms
-5
2.8
47
0
Reference Table 3
nF
15
22.5
A
A
ENABLE Logic High
VENABLE_HIGH
4.5V ≤ VIN ≤ 14V;
1.8
AVIN
V
ENABLE Logic Low
VENABLE_LOW
4.5V ≤ VIN ≤ 14V;
0
0.6
V
ENABLE Lockout Time
TENLOCKOUT
ENABLE pin Input
Current
Switching Frequency
IENABLE
FSW
180kΩ Pull Down (Note 3)
RFADJ =3kΩ
External SYNC Clock
Frequency Lock Range
FPLL_LOCK
Range of SYNC clock frequency
S_IN Threshold – Low
VS_IN_LO
S_IN Clock Logic Low Level
S_IN Threshold – High
VS_IN_HI
S_IN Clock Logic High Level
S_OUT Threshold – Low
VS_OUT_LO
S_OUT Clock Logic Low Level
S_OUT Threshold –
High
VS_OUT_HI
S_OUT Clock Logic High Level
POKLT
Percentage of Nominal Output
Voltage for POK to be Low
POK Lower Threshold
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
8
ms
4
μA
1.0
MHz
0.8
1.8
1.8
90
1.6
MHz
0.8
V
2.5
V
0.8
V
2.5
V
%
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EN23F0QI
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
TEST CONDITIONS
POK Output low Voltage
VPOKL
With 4mA Current Sink into POK
POK Output Hi Voltage
VPOKH
PVIN range: 4.5V ≤ VIN ≤ 15V
POK pin VOH leakage
current
IPOKL
POK High (Note 3)
M/S Pin Logic Low
VT-LOW
Tie Pin to GND
M/S Pin Logic High
VT-HIGH
Pull up to AVIN Through an External
Resistor REXT
M/S Pin Input Current
IM/S
VIN = 5.0V, REXT = 24.9kΩ
MIN
TYP
1.8V
MAX
UNITS
0.4
V
AVIN
V
1
µA
0.8V
V
V
100
μA
Note 3: Parameter not production tested but is guaranteed by design.
Note 4: Rise time calculation begins when AVIN > VUVLO and ENABLE = HIGH.
Note 5: VOUT Rise Time Accuracy does not include soft-start capacitor tolerance.
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
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EN23F0QI
Typical Performance Curves
Efficiency vs. Output Current
100
90
90
80
80
70
70
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
Efficiency vs. Output Current
100
60
50
40
30
VOUT = 3.3V
20
VOUT = 1.8V
10
VOUT = 1.2V
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12.0V
AVIN = 3.3V
Dual Supply
60
50
40
30
VOUT = 3.3V
20
VOUT = 1.8V
VOUT = 1.2V
10
0
0
0
1
2
3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
0
1
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V
TJMAX = 125 C
θJA = 13 C/W
13x12x3mm QFN
No Air Flow
VOUT = 1.2V
VOUT = 1.8V
VOUT = 3.3V
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
15.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
CONDITIONS
VIN = 10V
TJMAX = 125 C
θJA = 13 C/W
13x12x3mm QFN
No Air Flow
VOUT = 1.2V
VOUT = 1.8V
Series1
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
Output Current De-rating
with Air Flow (200fpm)
Output Current De-rating
with Air Flow (400fpm)
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V
TJMAX = 125 C
θJA = 10.5 C/W
13x12x3mm QFN
Air Flow (200fpm)
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
3
5.0
5.0
15.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
2
Output Current De-rating
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
Output Current De-rating
15.0
10.0
CONDITIONS
VIN = 10.0V
AVIN = 3.3V
Dual Supply
VOUT = 1.2V
VOUT = 1.8V
VOUT = 3.3V
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
15.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V
TJMAX = 125 C
θJA = 9 C/W
13x12x3mm QFN
Air Flow (400fpm)
VOUT = 1.2V
VOUT = 1.8V
VOUT = 3.3V
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
Enpirion Confidential
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EN23F0QI
Output Current De-rating
with Heat Sink
15.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V
TJMAX = 125 C
θJA = 12 C/W
13x12x3mm QFN
No Air Flow
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
Heat Sink ‐ Wakefield
Thermal Solutions P/N 651‐B MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
Typical Performance Curves
VOUT = 1.2V
VOUT = 1.8V
VOUT = 3.3V
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V
TJMAX = 125 C
θJA = 8 C/W
13x12x3mm QFN
Air Flow (400fpm)
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
Heat Sink - Wakef ield
Thermal Solutions
P/N 651-B
VOUT = 1.2V
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V
TJMAX = 125 C
θJA = 9.5 C/W
13x12x3mm QFN
Air Flow (200fpm)
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
Heat Sink - Wakef ield
Thermal Solutions
P/N 651-B
VOUT = 1.8V
VOUT = 3.3V
1.005
1.004
VIN = 8V
1.003
VIN = 10V
1.002
VIN = 12V
1.001
1.000
0.999
0.998
0.997
VOUT = 1.8V
CONDITIONS
CONDITIONS
VOUT_NOM
VIN ==5.0V
1.0V
0.996
VOUT = 3.3V
0.995
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
Output Voltage vs. Output Current
Output Voltage vs. Output Current
1.205
1.805
1.204
VIN = 8V
1.203
VIN = 10V
1.202
VIN = 12V
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
VOUT = 1.2V
Output Voltage vs. Output Current
Output Current De-rating
with Heat Sink and Air Flow (400fpm)
15.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
15.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
Output Current De-rating
with Heat Sink and Air Flow (200fpm)
1.201
1.200
1.199
1.198
1.197
1.196
1.804
VIN = 8V
1.803
VIN = 10V
1.802
VIN = 12V
1.801
1.800
1.799
1.798
CONDITIONS
VOUT_NOM = 1.8V
Note: Air flow or heat sink may be required for
higher currents. See derating curves.
1.797
CONDITIONS
CONDITIONS
VOUT_NOM
VIN ==5.0V
1.2V
1.796
1.195
1.795
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
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EN23F0QI
Typical Performance Curves
Output Voltage vs. Output Current
Output Voltage vs. Temperature
1.204
2.504
VIN = 8V
2.503
VIN = 10V
2.502
VIN = 12V
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
2.505
2.501
2.500
2.499
2.498
CONDITIONS
VOUT_NOM = 2.5V
Note: Air flow or heat sink may be required for
higher currents. See derating curves.
2.497
2.496
CONDITIONS
VIN = 8V
VOUT_NOM = 1.2V
1.203
1.202
1.201
1.200
LOAD = 0A
1.199
LOAD = 4A
1.198
LOAD = 8A
1.197
LOAD = 12A
1.196
2.495
-40
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
Output Voltage vs. Temperature
1.204
CONDITIONS
VIN = 10V
VOUT_NOM = 1.2V
1.203
1.202
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
85
Output Voltage vs. Temperature
1.204
1.201
1.200
LOAD = 0A
1.199
LOAD = 4A
1.198
LOAD = 8A
1.197
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V
VOUT_NOM = 1.2V
1.203
1.202
1.201
1.200
LOAD = 0A
1.199
LOAD = 4A
1.198
LOAD = 8A
1.197
LOAD = 12A
1.196
LOAD = 12A
1.196
-40
-15
10
35
60
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
85
-40
Output Voltage vs. Temperature
1.202
1.201
1.200
LOAD = 0A
1.199
LOAD = 4A
1.198
LOAD = 8A
1.197
LOAD = 12A
1.196
-40
-15
10
35
60
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
85
INDIVIDUAL OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
CONDITIONS
VIN = 14V
VOUT_NOM = 1.2V
1.203
-15
10
35
60
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
85
Parallel Current Share Breakdown
1.204
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
-15
10
35
60
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ( C)
20
17.5
MASTER
15
SLAVE
12.5
IDEAL
10
7.5
CONDITIONS
EN23F0QI
VIN = 12V
VOUT = 1.2V
5
2.5
0
0
Enpirion Confidential
5
10
15
20
25
TOTAL OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
30
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EN23F0QI
Typical Performance Characteristics
Enable Startup/Shutdown Waveform (0A)
Enable Startup/Shutdown Waveform (5A)
ENABLE
ENABLE
VOUT
VOUT
POK
POK
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V, Load = 0A, Css = 47nF
CIN = 3x22µF(1206), COUT = 3x47µF(0805)+3x22µF(0805)
LOAD
LOAD
Enable Startup/Shutdown Waveform (10A)
Enable Startup/Shutdown Waveform (15A)
ENABLE
ENABLE
VOUT
VOUT
POK
POK
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V, Load = 10A, Css = 47nF
CIN = 3x22µF(1206), COUT = 3x47µF(0805)+3x22µF(0805)
LOAD
Power Up Waveform (0A)
PVIN
VOUT
VOUT
POK
POK
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V, Load = 0A, Css = 47nF,
CIN = 3x22µF(1206), COUT = 3x47µF(0805) + 3x22µF(0805)
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CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V, Load = 15A, Css = 47nF
CIN = 3x22µF(1206), COUT = 3x47µF(0805)+3x22µF(0805)
Power Up Waveform (5A)
PVIN
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V, Load = 5A, Css = 47nF
CIN = 3x22µF(1206), COUT = 3x47µF(0805)+3x22µF(0805)
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V, Load = 5A, Css = 47nF,
CIN = 3x22µF(1206), COUT = 3x47µF(0805) + 3x22µF(0805)
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 10
EN23F0QI
Typical Performance Characteristics
Power Up Waveform (15A)
Output Ripple at 20MHz Bandwidth
VOUT = 1V
(AC Coupled)
LOAD = 0A
VOUT = 1.8V
(AC Coupled)
PVIN
VOUT
VOUT = 3.3V
(AC Coupled)
POK
20mV / DIV
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V, Load = 15A, Css = 47nF,
CIN = 3x22µF(1206), COUT = 3x47µF(0805) + 3x22µF(0805)
Output Ripple at 20MHz Bandwidth
VOUT = 1V
(AC Coupled)
LOAD = 10A
VOUT = 1.8V
(AC Coupled)
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, CIN = 3x22µF (1206), COUT = 3x47µF + 100µF (1206)
Output Ripple at 500MHz Bandwidth
VOUT = 1V
(AC Coupled)
VOUT = 1.8V
(AC Coupled)
VOUT = 3.3V
(AC Coupled)
VOUT = 3.3V
(AC Coupled)
20mV / DIV
20mV / DIV
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, CIN = 3x22µF (1206), COUT = 3x47µF + 100µF (1206)
Output Ripple at 500MHz Bandwidth
VOUT = 1V
(AC Coupled)
LOAD = 0A
LOAD = 2A
VOUT = 1.8V
(AC Coupled)
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, CIN = 3x22µF (1206), COUT = 3x47µF + 100µF (1206)
Output Ripple at 500MHz Bandwidth
VOUT = 1V
(AC Coupled)
LOAD = 6A
VOUT = 1.8V
(AC Coupled)
VOUT = 3.3V
(AC Coupled)
VOUT = 3.3V
(AC Coupled)
20mV / DIV
20mV / DIV
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, CIN = 3x22µF (1206), COUT = 3x47µF + 100µF (1206)
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, CIN = 3x22µF (1206), COUT = 3x47µF + 100µF (1206)
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 11
EN23F0QI
Typical Performance Characteristics
Output Ripple at 500MHz Bandwidth
VOUT = 1V
(AC Coupled)
Load Transient from 0 to 5A (VOUT =1V)
LOAD = 10A
VOUT
(AC Coupled)
VOUT = 1.8V
(AC Coupled)
VOUT = 3.3V
(AC Coupled)
20mV / DIV
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, CIN = 3x22µF (1206), COUT = 3x47µF + 100µF (1206)
Load Transient from 0 to 10A (VOUT =1V)
VOUT
(AC Coupled)
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 1.0V
CIN = 3 x 22µF (1206)
COUT = 3 x 47µF (0805) + 3 x 22µF (0805)
Using Best Performance Configuration
Load Transient from 0 to 15A (VOUT =1V)
VOUT
(AC Coupled)
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 1.0V
CIN = 3 x 22µF (1206)
COUT = 3 x 47µF (0805) + 3 x 22µF (0805)
Using Best Performance Configuration
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 1.0V
CIN = 3 x 22µF (1206)
COUT = 3 x 47µF (0805) + 3 x 22µF (0805)
Using Best Performance Configuration
Load Transient from 0 to 5A (VOUT =3.3V)
Load Transient from 0 to 10A (VOUT =3.3V)
VOUT
(AC Coupled)
VOUT
(AC Coupled)
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V
CIN = 3 x 22µF (1206)
COUT = 3 x 47µF (0805) + 3 x 22µF (0805)
Using Best Performance Configuration
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
LOAD
Enpirion Confidential
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V
CIN = 3 x 22µF (1206)
COUT = 3 x 47µF (0805) + 3 x 22µF (0805)
Using Best Performance Configuration
www.enpirion.com, Page 12
EN23F0QI
Typical Performance Characteristics
Load Transient from 0 to 15A (VOUT =3.3V)
Load Transient from 0 to 5A (VOUT =3.3V)
VOUT
(AC Coupled)
VOUT
(AC Coupled)
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V
CIN = 3 x 22µF (1206)
COUT = 3 x 47µF (0805) + 3 x 22µF (0805)
Using Best Performance Configuration
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V
CIN = 3 x 22µF (1206)
COUT = 3 x 47µF (1206) + 100µF (1206)
Using Best Performance Configuration
Load Transient from 0 to 10A (VOUT =3.3V)
Load Transient from 0 to 15A (VOUT =3.3V)
VOUT
(AC Coupled)
VOUT
(AC Coupled)
LOAD
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V
CIN = 3 x 22µF (1206)
COUT = 3 x 47µF (1206) + 100µF (1206)
Using Best Performance Configuration
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
LOAD
Enpirion Confidential
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 3.3V
CIN = 3 x 22µF (1206)
COUT = 3 x 47µF (1206) + 100µF (1206)
Using Best Performance Configuration
www.enpirion.com, Page 13
EN23F0QI
Functional Block Diagram
M/S S_OUT S_IN
UVLO
Digital I/O
BTMP
PG
PVIN
Linear
Regulator
To PLL
AVINO
Thermal Limit
Current Limit
NC(SW)
Gate Drive
VOUT
BGND
(-)
PWM
Comp
(+)
PGND
PLL/Sawtooth
Generator
FADJ
VDDB
Compensation
Network
EAIN
Compensation
Network
(-)
Error
Amp
(+)
Power
Good
Logic
ENABLE
180k
SS
Soft Start
VFB
POK
300k
Voltage Reference Generator
Band Gap
Reference
AVIN
AGND
Figure 4: Functional Block Diagram
Functional Description
wide loop bandwidth within a small foot print.
Synchronous Buck Converter
The EN23F0QI is a highly integrated synchronous,
buck converter with integrated controller, power
MOSFET switches and integrated inductor. The
nominal input voltage (PVIN) range is 4.5V to 14V
and can support up to 15A of continuous output
current. The output voltage is programmed using
an external resistor divider network. The control
loop utilizes a Type IV Voltage-Mode compensation
network and maximizes on a low-noise PWM
topology. Much of the compensation circuitry is
internal to the device. However, a phase lead
capacitor is required along with the output voltage
feedback resistor divider to complete the Type IV
compensation network.. The high switching
frequency of the EN23F0QI enables the use of
small size input and output capacitors, as well as a
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Protection Features:
The power supply has the following protection
features:
• Programmable Over-Current Protection
• Thermal Shutdown with Hysteresis
• Under-Voltage Lockout Protection
Additional Features:
•
•
•
Switching Frequency Synchronization
Programmable Soft-Start
Power OK Output Monitoring
Power Up Sequence
The EN23F0QI is designed to be powered by either
a single input supply (PVIN) or two separate
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 14
EN23F0QI
supplies: one for PVIN and the other for AVIN.
schematic for a dual input supply application.
Single Input Supply Application (PVIN):
For dual input supply applications, the sequencing
of the two input supplies, PVIN and AVIN, is very
important. During power up, neither ENABLE nor
PVIN should be asserted before AVIN. There are
two common acceptable turn-on/off sequences for
the device. ENABLE can be tied to AVIN and come
up with it, and PVIN can be ramped up and down
as needed. Alternatively, PVIN can be brought high
after AVIN is asserted, and the device can be
turned on and off by toggling the ENABLE pin.
PVIN may be applied before AVIN if ENABLE is
toggled after both PVIN and AVIN is applied.
Enable Operation
Figure 5. Single Supply Applications Circuit
The EN23F0QI has an internal linear regulator that
converts PVIN to 3.3V. The output of the linear
regulator is provided on the AVINO pin once the
device is enabled. AVINO should be connected to
AVIN on the EN23F0QI. In this application, the
following external components are required: Place
a 1µF, X5R/X7R, capacitor between AVINO and
AGND as close as possible to AVINO. Place a
0.1µF, X5R/X7R, capacitor between AVIN and
AGND as close as possible to AVIN. In addition,
place a resistor (RVB) between VDDB and AVIN, as
shown in Figure 5. Enpirion recommends
RVB=4.75kΩ. In this application, ENABLE cannot be
asserted before PVIN. If no external enable signal
is used, tying ENABLE to AVIN meets this
requirement.
Pre-Bias Precaution
The EN23F0QI is not designed to be turned on into
a pre-biased output voltage. Be sure the output
capacitors are not charged or the output of the
EN23F0QI is not pre-biased when the EN23F0QI
is first enabled.
Frequency Synchronization
Dual Input Supply Application (PVIN and AVIN):
Figure 6: Dual Input Supply Application Circuit
In this application, place a 0.1µF, X7R, capacitor
between AVIN and AGND as close as possible to
AVIN. Refer to Figure 6 for a recommended
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
The ENABLE pin provides a means to enable
normal operation or to shut down the device. A
logic high will enable the converter into normal
operation. When the ENABLE pin is asserted (high)
the device will undergo a normal soft-start, allowing
the output voltage to rise monotonically into
regulation. A logic low will disable the converter and
the device will power down in a controlled manner.
The ENABLE signal has to be low for at least the
ENABLE Lockout Time (8ms) in order for the
device to be re-enabled.
The switching frequency of the EN23F0QI can be
phase-locked to an external clock source to move
unwanted beat frequencies out of band. The
internal switching clock of the EN23F0QI can be
phase locked to a clock signal applied to the S_IN
pin. An activity detector recognizes the presence of
an external clock signal and automatically phaselocks the internal oscillator to this external clock.
Phase-lock will occur as long as the input clock
frequency is in the range of 0.8MHz to 1.6MHz.
When no clock is present, the device reverts to the
free running frequency of the internal oscillator.
Adding a resistor (RFS) to the FADJ pin will adjust
the switching frequency. If a 3KΩ resistor is placed
on FADJ the nominal switching frequency of the
EN23F0QI is 1MHz. Figure 7 shows the typical RFS
resistor value versus switching frequency.
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 15
EN23F0QI
value.
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (MHz)
Rfs vs. SW Frequency
1.800
POK Operation
1.600
The POK signal is an open drain signal (requires a
pull up resistor to AVIN or similar voltage) from the
converter indicating the output voltage is within the
specified range. Typically, a 100kΩ or lower
resistance is used as the pull-up resistor. The POK
signal will be logic high (AVIN) when the output
voltage is above 90% of the programmed voltage
level. If the output voltage is below this point, the
POK signal will be a logic low. The POK signal can
be used to sequence down-stream converters by
tying to their enable pins.
1.400
1.200
1.000
CONDITIONS
VIN = 6V to 12V
VOUT = 0.8V to 3.3V
0.800
0.600
0
2
4
6
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
RFS RESISTOR VALUE (kΩ)
Over-Current Protection (OCP)
Figure 7. RFS versus Switching Frequency
The efficiency performance of the EN23F0QI for
various VOUTs can be optimized by adjusting the
switching frequency. Table 1 shows recommended
RFS values for various VOUTs in order to optimize
performance of the EN23F0QI.
PVIN
12V
VOUT
1.0V
1.2V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
RFS
3k
3.3k
4.87k
10k
15k
Table 1: Recommended RFS Values
Spread Spectrum Mode
The external clock frequency may be swept
between 0.8MHz and 1.6MHz at repetition
rates of up to 10 kHz in order to reduce EMI
frequency components.
Soft-Start Operation
Soft start is a means to ramp the output voltage
gradually upon start-up. The output voltage rise
time is controlled by the choice of soft-start
capacitor, which is placed between the SS pin (pin
78) and the AGND pin (pin 74).
Rise Time (ms): TR ≈ Css [nF] x 0.06
During start-up of the converter, the reference
voltage to the error amplifier is linearly increased to
its final level by an internal current source of
approximately 10µA. Typical soft-start rise time is
~2.8ms with SS capacitor value of 47nF. The rise
time is measured from when VIN > VUVLOR and
ENABLE pin voltage crosses its logic high
threshold to when VOUT reaches its programmed
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
The current limit function is achieved by sensing
the current flowing through a sense PFET. When
the sensed current exceeds the current limit, both
power FETs are turned off for the rest of the
switching cycle. If the over-current condition is
removed, the over-current protection circuit will reenable PWM operation. If the over-current condition
persists, the circuit will continue to protect the load.
The OCP trip point is nominally set as specified in
the Electrical Characteristics table. In the event the
OCP circuit trips consistently in normal operation,
the device enters a hiccup mode. While in hiccup
mode, the device is disabled for a short while and
restarted with a normal soft-start. The hiccup time
is approximately 32ms. This cycle can continue
indefinitely as long as the over current condition
persists.
The OCP trip point can be programmed to trip at a
lower level via the RCLX pin. The value of the
resistor connected between RCLX and ground will
determine the OCP trip point. Generally, the higher
the RCLX value, the higher the current limit
threshold. Note that if RCLX pin is left open the
output current will be unlimited and the device will
not have current limit protection. Reference Table 2
for a list of recommended resistor values on RCLX
that will set the OCP trip point at the typical value of
22.5A,
also
specified
in
the
Electrical
Characteristics table.
VOUT Range
0.6V < VOUT ≤ 0.9V
0.9V < VOUT ≤ 1.2V
1.2V < VOUT ≤ 2.0V
2.0V < VOUT ≤ 5.0V
RCLX Value
36.5k
38.4k
40.2k
45.3k
Table 2: Recommended RCLX Values vs. VOUT
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 16
EN23F0QI
Thermal shutdown circuit will disable device
operation when the junction temperature exceeds
approximately 150ºC. After a thermal shutdown
event, when the junction temperature drops by
approx 20ºC, the converter will re-start with a
normal soft-start.
Input Under-Voltage Lock-Out (UVLO)
Internal circuits ensure that the converter will not
start switching until the input voltage is above the
specified minimum voltage. Hysteresis, input deglitch and output leading edge blanking ensures
high noise immunity and prevents false UVLO
triggers.
Master / Slave (Parallel) Operation:
Up to four EN23F0QI devices may be connected in
a Master/Slave configuration to handle larger load
currents. The maximum output current for each
parallel device will need to be de-rated by 20
percent so that no devices will over current due to
current mis-match. The Master device’s switching
clock may be phase-locked to an external clock
source via the S_IN pin or left open and use its
default switching frequency. The device is placed in
Master mode by pulling the M/S pin low or in Slave
mode by pulling M/S pin high. Note that the M/S pin
is also pulled low for standalone mode. In Master
mode, the internal PWM signal is output on the
S_OUT pin. This PWM signal from the Master is
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
fed to the Slave device at its S_IN input. The Slave
device acts like an extension of the power FETs in
the Master. The inductor in the Slave prevents
crow-bar currents from Master to Slave due to
timing delays. Parallel operation in dual supply
mode is shown in Figure 9. Single supply mode
operation may also be implemented similarly. Note
that only critical components are shown. The red
text and red lines indicate the important parallel
operation connections and care should be taken in
layout to ensure low impedance between those
paths. The parallel current matching is illustrated in
Figure 8.
Parallel Current Share Breakdown
INDIVIDUAL OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
Thermal Overload Protection
20
17.5
MASTER
15
SLAVE
12.5
IDEAL
10
7.5
CONDITIONS
EN23F0QI
VIN = 12V
VOUT = 1.2V
5
2.5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
TOTAL OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
30
Figure 8. Parallel Current Matching
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 17
EN23F0QI
Figure 9. Parallel Operation Illustration
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 18
EN23F0QI
Application Information
Output Voltage Programming and Loop
Compensation
Recommended Input Capacitors
The EN23F0QI uses a Type IV Voltage Mode
compensation network. Type IV Voltage Mode
control is a proprietary Enpirion control scheme that
maximizes control loop bandwidth to deliver
excellent load transient responses and maintain
output regulation with pin point accuracy. For ease
of use, most of this network has been customized
and is integrated within the device package. The
EN23F0QI output voltage is programmed using a
simple resistor divider network (RA and RB). The
feedback voltage at VFB is nominally 0.6V. RA is
predetermined based on Table 5 and RB can be
calculated based on Figure 10. The values
recommended for COUT, CA, RCA and REA make up
the external compensation of the EN23F0QI. It will
vary with each PVIN and VOUT combination to
optimize on performance. The EN23F0QI solution
can be optimized for either smallest size or highest
performance. Please see Table 5 for a list of
recommended RA, CA, RCA, REA and COUT values for
each solution.
22µF, 16V, X5R,
10%, 1206
Murata
GRM31CR61C226ME15
22µF, 16V, X5R,
20%, 1206
Taiyo
Yuden
EMK316ABJ226ML-T
22µF, 25V, X5R,
10%, 1210
Murata
GRM32ER61E226KE15L
22µF, 25V, X5R,
20%, 1210
Taiyo
Yuden
TMK325BJ226MM-T
Description
MFG
P/N
Table 3: Recommended Input Capacitors
Output Capacitor Selection
As seen from Table 5, the EN23F0QI has been
optimized for use with three 47µF/1206 plus one
100µF/1206 for best performance. For smallest
solution size, various combinations of output
capacitance may be used. See Table 5 for details.
Low ESR ceramic capacitors are required with X5R
or X7R rated dielectric formulation. Y5V or
equivalent dielectric formulations must not be
used as these lose too much capacitance with
frequency, temperature and bias voltage. Table
4 contains a list of recommended output capacitors.
Output ripple voltage is determined by the
aggregate output capacitor impedance. Capacitor
impedance, denoted as Z, is comprised of
capacitive reactance, effective series resistance,
ESR, and effective series inductance, ESL
reactance.
Placing output capacitors in parallel reduces the
impedance and will hence result in lower ripple
voltage.
1
Figure 10: VOUT Resistor Divider & Compensation
Components. See Table 5 for details.
Z Total
=
1
1
1
+
+ ... +
Z1 Z 2
Zn
Input Capacitor Selection
Recommended Output Capacitors
The EN23F0QI requires three 22µF/1206 input
capacitor. Low-cost, low-ESR ceramic capacitors
should be used as input capacitors for this
converter. The dielectric must be X5R or X7R
rated. Y5V or equivalent dielectric formulations
must not be used as these lose too much
capacitance with frequency, temperature and
bias voltage. In some applications, lower value
capacitors are needed in parallel with the larger,
capacitors in order to provide high frequency
decoupling. Table 3 contains a list of recommended
input capacitors.
Description
47µF, 6.3V, X5R,
20%, 1206
47µF, 10V, X5R,
20%, 1206
22µF, 10V, X5R,
20%, 0805
22µF, 10V, X5R,
20%, 0805
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
100µF, 6.3V, X5R,
20%, 1206
MFG
P/N
Murata
GRM31CR60J476ME19L
Taiyo
Yuden
LMK316BJ476ML-T
Panasonic
ECJ-2FB1A226M
Taiyo
Yuden
LMK212BJ226MG-T
Murata
GRM31CR60J107ME39L
Taiyo
Yuden
JMK316BJ107ML-T
Table 4: Recommended Output Capacitors
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 19
EN23F0QI
PVIN
(V)
14V
12V
10V
8V
6.6V
5V
Best Performance
Smallest Solution Size
CIN = 3 x 22µF/1206
CIN = 3 x 22µF/1206
COUT = 3x47µF (1206) + 100µF(1206)
VOUT ≤ 1.8V, COUT = 22µF/0805 + 2x47µF/0805
3.3V > VOUT> 1.8V, COUT = 3x47µF/1206
RA = 200 kΩ
RCA REA
(kΩ) (kΩ)
19
0
22
0
22
0
24
0
14
56
14
56
16
0
19
0
19
0
22
0
12
56
12
56
14
0
14
0
16
0
19
0
10
56
10
56
10
0
13
0
15
0
15
0
6
56
6
56
10
0
10
0
13
0
13
0
4
56
4
56
10
0
VOUT
(V)
1.0V
1.2V
1.5V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
1.0V
1.2V
1.5V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
1.0V
1.2V
1.5V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
1.0V
1.2V
1.5V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
1.0V
1.2V
1.5V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
1.0V
CA
(pF)
15
12
12
10
18
12
18
15
15
12
22
15
18
18
18
15
27
22
22
22
18
18
39
27
27
27
22
22
47
39
33
1.2V
33
10
1.5V
27
1.8V
2.5V
Ripple
(mV)
25.6
24
26.4
28.4
31.6
37.3
21.6
22.7
25.2
25.8
30
30.8
18.8
20.4
22
23.6
26.5
28.9
17.2
18.7
20.1
20.9
23.6
22.8
13.8
15.2
16.4
19.6
20.4
21.1
12.4
Deviation
(mV)
23
35
42
45
78
114
31
38
39
41
84
116
37
41
42
46
90
122
17.2
18.7
20.1
20.9
23.6
22.8
13.8
15.2
16.4
19.6
20.4
21.1
12.4
0
13.4
13.4
13
0
14.3
14.3
27
13
0
15.4
15.4
68
1
56
15.5
15.5
PVIN
(V)
14V
12V
10V
8V
6.6V
5V
RA = 100 kΩ
RCA
REA
(kΩ) (kΩ)
36
Open
36
Open
36
Open
36
Open
27
Open
27
Open
27
Open
27
Open
27
Open
27
Open
27
Open
27
Open
20
Open
20
Open
20
Open
20
Open
20
Open
20
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
10
Open
VOUT
(V)
1.0V
1.2V
1.5V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
1.0V
1.2V
1.5V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
1.0V
1.2V
1.5V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
1.0V
1.2V
1.5V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
1.0V
1.2V
1.5V
1.8V
2.5V
3.3V
1.0V
CA
(pF)
12
12
12
12
15
10
22
22
18
18
22
15
56
47
39
33
33
22
200
200
150
82
68
39
200
200
200
150
100
56
200
Ripple
(mV)
15
18
22
25
32
46
15
18
21
24
30
43
15
17
20
22
29
41
14
16
19
20
27
36
13
15
17
19
24
32
12
Deviation
(mV)
78
93
104
130
162
200
84
97
118
130
172
213
85
100
120
140
177
230
83
90
107
138
178
239
99
105
118
138
183
250
123
1.2V
200
10
Open
13
132
1.5V
200
10
Open
16
145
1.8V
200
10
Open
17
156
2.5V
100
10
Open
20
216
3.3V
47
1
56
12.9
12.9
3.3V
100
10
Open
21
253
Table 5: RA, CA, RCA and REA Values for Various PVIN/VOUT Combinations: Best Performance vs. Smallest Solution
Size. Use the equations in Figure 10 to calculate RB.
Note 6: Output ripple is measured at no load and nominal deviation is for a 15A load transient step.
Note 7: For compensation values of output voltage in between the specified output voltages, choose compensation values
of the lower output voltage setting.
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 20
EN23F0QI
Thermal Considerations
Thermal considerations are important power supply
design facts that cannot be avoided in the real
world. Whenever there are power losses in a
system, the heat that is generated by the power
dissipation needs to be accounted for. The Enpirion
PowerSoC helps alleviate some of those concerns.
The Enpirion EN23F0QI DC-DC converter is
packaged in an 8x11x3mm 68-pin QFN package.
The QFN package is constructed with copper lead
frames that have exposed thermal pads. The
exposed thermal pad on the package should be
soldered directly on to a copper ground pad on the
printed circuit board (PCB) to act as a heat sink.
The recommended maximum junction temperature
for continuous operation is 125°C. Continuous
operation above 125°C may reduce long-term
reliability. The device has a thermal overload
protection circuit designed to turn off the device at
an approximate junction temperature value of
150°C.
The EN23F0QI is guaranteed to support the full 4A
output current up to 85°C ambient temperature.
The following example and calculations illustrate
the thermal performance of the EN23F0QI.
For VIN = 12V, VOUT = 1.2V at 15A, η ≈ 80%
η = POUT / PIN = 80% = 0.8
PIN = POUT / η
PIN ≈ 18W / 0.8 ≈ 22.5W
The power dissipation (PD) is the power loss in the
system and can be calculated by subtracting the
output power from the input power.
PD = PIN – POUT
≈ 22.5W – 18W ≈ 4.5W
With the power dissipation known, the temperature
rise in the device may be estimated based on the
theta JA value (θJA). The θJA parameter estimates
how much the temperature will rise in the device for
every watt of power dissipation. The EN23F0QI has
a θJA value of 13 ºC/W without airflow.
Determine the change in temperature (ΔT) based
on PD and θJA.
ΔT = PD x θJA
ΔT ≈ 4.5W x 13°C/W = 58.5°C ≈ 59°C
VIN = 12V
The junction temperature (TJ) of the device is
approximately the ambient temperature (TA) plus
the change in temperature. We assume the initial
ambient temperature to be 25°C.
VOUT = 1.2V
TJ = TA + ΔT
IOUT = 15A
TJ ≈ 25°C + 59°C ≈ 84°C
First calculate the output power.
The maximum operating junction temperature
(TJMAX) of the device is 125°C, so the device can
operate at a higher ambient temperature. The
maximum ambient temperature (TAMAX) allowed can
be calculated.
Example:
POUT = 1.2V x 15A = 18W
Next, determine the input power based on the
efficiency (η) shown in Figure 11.
Efficiency vs. Output Current
100
≈ 125°C – 59°C ≈ 66°C
The maximum ambient temperature the device can
reach is 66°C given the input and output conditions.
Note that the efficiency will be slightly lower at
higher temperatures and this calculation is an
estimate.
90
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
TAMAX = TJMAX – PD x θJA
70
60
50
40
30
VOUT = 3.3V
20
VOUT = 1.8V
10
VOUT = 1.2V
CONDITIONS
VIN = 12.0V
AVIN = 3.3V
Dual Supply
0
0
1
2
3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
Figure 11: Efficiency vs. Output Current
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 21
EN23F0QI
Engineering Schematic
Figure 12: Critical Components Engineering Schematic
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 22
EN23F0QI
Layout Recommendation
Figure 13: Top Layer of Engineering Board (Top View).
Recommendation 1: Input and output filter
capacitors should be placed on the same side of
the PCB, and as close to the EN23F0QI package
as possible. They should be connected to the
device with very short and wide traces. Do not use
thermal reliefs or spokes when connecting the
capacitor pads to the respective nodes. The +V and
GND traces between the capacitors and the
EN23F0QI should be as close to each other as
possible so that the gap between the two nodes is
minimized, even under the capacitors.
Recommendation 2: The PGND connections for
the input and output capacitors on layer 1 need to
have a slit between them in order to provide some
separation between input and output current loops.
Recommendation 3: The system ground plane
should be the first layer immediately below the
surface layer. This ground plane should be
continuous and un-interrupted below the converter
and the input/output capacitors.
Recommendation 4: The thermal pad underneath
the component must be connected to the system
ground plane through as many vias as possible.
The drill diameter of the vias should be 0.33mm,
and the vias must have at least 1 oz. copper plating
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
on the inside wall, making the finished hole size
around 0.20-0.26mm. Do not use thermal reliefs or
spokes to connect the vias to the ground plane.
This connection provides the path for heat
dissipation from the converter.
Recommendation 5: Multiple small vias (the same
size as the thermal vias discussed in
recommendation 4) should be used to connect
ground terminal of the input capacitor and output
capacitors to the system ground plane. It is
preferred to put these vias along the edge of the
GND copper closest to the +V copper. These vias
connect the input/output filter capacitors to the
GND plane, and help reduce parasitic inductances
in the input and output current loops. If vias cannot
be placed under the capacitors, then place them on
both sides of the slit in the top layer PGND copper.
Recommendation 6: AVIN is the power supply for
the small-signal control circuits. It should be
connected to the input voltage at a quiet point. In
Figure 13 this connection is made at the input
capacitor.
Recommendation 7: The layer 1 metal under the
device must not be more than shown in Figure 13.
Refer to the section regarding Exposed Metal on
Bottom of Package. As with any switch-mode
DC/DC converter, try not to run sensitive signal or
control lines underneath the converter package on
other layers.
Recommendation 8: The VOUT sense point should
be just after the last output filter capacitor. Keep the
sense trace short in order to avoid noise coupling
into the node. Contact Enpirion Technical Support
for any remote sensing applications.
Recommendation 9: Keep RA, CA, RB, and RCA
close to the VFB pin (Refer to Figure 13). The VFB
pin is a high-impedance, sensitive node. Keep the
trace to this pin as short as possible. Whenever
possible, connect RB directly to the AGND pins 52
and 53 instead of going through the GND plane.
Recommendation 10: Follow all the layout
recommendations as close as possible to optimize
performance. Enpirion provides schematic and
layout reviews for all customer designs. Contact
Enpirion Applications Engineering for detailed
support (techsupport@enpirion.com).
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 23
EN23F0QI
Design Considerations for Lead-Frame Based Modules
Exposed Metal on Bottom of Package
Lead-frames offer many advantages in thermal performance, in reduced electrical lead resistance, and in
overall foot print. However, they do require some special considerations.
In the assembly process lead frame construction requires that, for mechanical support, some of the lead-frame
cantilevers be exposed at the point where wire-bond or internal passives are attached. This results in several
small pads being exposed on the bottom of the package, as shown in Figure 14.
Only the thermal pad and the perimeter pads are to be mechanically or electrically connected to the PC board.
The PCB top layer under the EN23F0QI should be clear of any metal (copper pours, traces, or vias) except for
the thermal pad. The “shaded-out” area in Figure 14 represents the area that should be clear of any metal on
the top layer of the PCB. Any layer 1 metal under the shaded-out area runs the risk of undesirable shorted
connections even if it is covered by soldermask.
The solder stencil aperture should be smaller than the PCB ground pad. This will prevent excess solder from
causing bridging between adjacent pins or other exposed metal under the package. Please consult the
Enpirion Manufacturing Application Note for more details and recommendations.
Figure 14: Lead-Frame exposed metal (Bottom View)
Shaded area highlights exposed metal that is not to be mechanically or electrically connected to the PCB.
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 24
EN23F0QI
Recommended PCB Footprint
Figure 15: EN23F0QI PCB Footprint (Top View)
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 25
EN23F0QI
Package and Mechanical
Figure 16: EN23F0QI Package Dimensions (Bottom View)
Packing and Marking Information: http://www.enpirion.com/resource-center-packing-and-marking-information.htm
Contact Information
Enpirion, Inc.
Perryville III Corporate Park
53 Frontage Road - Suite 210
Hampton, NJ 08827 USA
Phone: 1.908.894.6000
Fax: 1.908.894.6090
Enpirion reserves the right to make changes in circuit design and/or specifications at any time without notice. Information furnished by Enpirion is
believed to be accurate and reliable. Enpirion assumes no responsibility for its use or for infringement of patents or other third party rights, which may
result from its use. Enpirion products are not authorized for use in nuclear control systems, as critical components in life support systems or equipment
used in hazardous environment without the express written authority from Enpirion
©Enpirion 2012 all rights reserved, E&OE
Enpirion Confidential
www.enpirion.com, Page 26