DC Characterization of Semiconductor Power Devices

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DC Characterization
Power Devices
of Semiconductor
Product Note 4142B-1
-
Practical Applications Using the
HP4142B Modular DC Source/Monitor
Table of Contents
1
1. Introduction ..................................................................................................
2
2. Application Examples ...................................................................................
2
2.1 Automatic Extraction of Parameters.. ......................................................
2
2.1.1. Automatic Measurements with a Module Selector.. ........................
2.1.2 Enhancing Automatic Measurements by External Relay Control .... 4
6
2.2 Extending the Measurement Range .........................................................
6
2.2.1. 2000 V Measurement .....................................................................
8
2.2.2. lOA/20V Measurement.. ................................................................
10
2.2.3. 20A/ 1OV Measurement ..................................................................
2.2.4. High Power Measurement (250 mA x 100 V, 125 mA x 200 V) ...... .12
Appendix
Subprograms
used in 2.1.1 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 14
1
1. Introduction
The HP 4142B Modular DC
Source Monitor is a high speed,
highly accurate, computercontrolled dc parametric measurement instrument for characterizing semiconductor devices.
This product note uses an HP
4142B to show practical measurement examples that characterize semiconductor power devices.
Model
number
HP 4 I420A
Source Monitor
Unit
HP414215
Source Monitor
Unit
/
Acronym
/
1-V range
HPSMU
4OpV-2OOV.
MPSMU
4OpV-
1. The HP 4142B plug-in
High Current
HCU
Unit
HP41423A
modules
for measurements
I OOV, 20fA-
4OpV-IOV,
2 mV-
HP41425A
Analog Feedback
Unit
You can mix and match different plug-in
modules for unique application requmments
Example configuration
devices on a wafer.
I A
I OOmA
HP 4 l422A
HP 4 I424A
Table
20fA-
-
of
20j1A-IOA
I OOOV,
2 pA-
I OmA
,
2
2. Application
2.1 Automatic
Parameters
Examples
Extraction
of
2.1.1. Automatic
Measurements
with a Module Selector
When you extract the dc parameters of a power device, you
need to change the configuration
for almost every parameter since
each parameter requires a unique
configuration of the instruments
and measurement circuit.
However, if the configuration
can be changed automatically,
the dc parameters can also be
extracted automatically.
The HP 16087A Module Selector lets you change the configuration programmatically,
thus
freeing you from cumbersome
configuration changes. This section shows a versatile example
for automatically extracting the
dc parameters of a MOSFET.
The setups needed to extract
each parameter are shown in
Figure 1. The circuits in Figure
2 are functionally the same as
in Figure 1, but electronically
different. The setup in Figure
2 uses the module selector
to automatically change the
configuration.
An example of automatically
extracting parameters by using
the module selector is shown in
Figure 3. The program listing
of this example is shown in
Figure 4.
BVdss.
Parameter
ldss
circut
Figure 1. Parameters
measurement
circuits
MODULE
f,Du
for MOSFET
and
SELECTOR
,HC:+-
~
Figure 2. You can easily change the
connection
of measurement
modules
with the module se!ector
l***
Parameter
Jds(on)
?ds(on)
i/th
Jth (by
JfS
lgss
Bvdss
ldss
AFU)
Measurement
=
5.02
2.51
4.98
3.512
.913
4.17E-11
493.5
.023216
CMOS) **a*
(V)
(ohm)
(VI
(V)
(S)
(A)
(V)
(A)
(Id=2A,
(Id=2A,
(Vd=lBV)
(Vd=lBV,
(Vg=20V)
(Id=lBmA)
(Vd=320V)
Vg=lSV)
Vg=lSJ)
Id=lmA)
[ HCU
[ HCU
r HCU
1 MPSMU
t HCU
[ MPSHU
[ HVU
[ HVU
FIgwe 3. Simple
for auto extraction
1
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
measurement
results
of parameters.
3
Let’s examine the benefits of
using an HP 4142B to measure
each parameter. For the ON
state resistance measurement of
a power MOSFET, a source of
high current and a monitor for
high resolution voltage are necessary. The HP 41422A High Current Source/Monitor
Unit (HCU)
can force a maximum current of
1OA and can make high resolution measurements with a
minimum voltage of 4OpV.
Therefore, the HCU can make
precision measurements of the
ON state resistance, which is an
important parameter of power
MOSFETs.
There are several ways to extract the threshold voltage (Vth)
of a MOSFET. In this example,
two methods are used. The first
method measures the J%l-Vg
characteristics, then draws a
regression line and extracts as
threshold voltage the X-axis
value at the cross point of the
regression line and the X-axis.
The second method is much
faster. An HP 41425A Analog
Feedback Unit (AFU) and two
HP 41421B Source/Monitor
Units (SMUs) are connected in a
feedback loop. The AFU monitors the output voltage of one
SMU, which is connected to the
gate of the MOSFET, and monitors the current of the other
SMU, which is connected to the
drain. When the drain current
reaches a user-specified value,
the voltage value of the gate
(Vth) is extracted. Vth is usually
measured by a combination of a
High Power SMU (HPSMU) and
a Medium Power SMU
(MPSMU).
To measure the leakage current
of a high power device, high
voltage output and low current
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
OPTION
%ASE 1
COM /Meas/
@Hp4142,INTEGER
Hcu,Hvu,Smu,Hpsmu
COM /Disp/
Vth,Vth
- afu,Yfs,Igss,Bvdss,Idss,Vdson,Rds(
!
ASSIGN @Hp4142 TO 723
Hpsmu=2
Smu=3
Hcu=5
Hvu=7
!
!
slot
slot
2
3
!
slot
7
! slot
5
!
Hcu connect
Vds-on
VthSmu connect
1gss
Vth
afu
Hvu-connect
Idss
Bvdss
Disp
res
mos
END -
50-90 Initialization.
110-130 Connect HCU and measure Vds (on), Rds (on), Vth, yfs.
140-160 Connect SMU and measure Vth with AFU.
170-190 Connect HVU and measure Idss and BVdss.
Figure
measurements are necessary.
The HVU not only forces a
maximum voltage of lOOOV, but
measures current with 2pA
resolution.
For breakdown voltage measurements, the HVU has the quasipulse measurement mode’ for
precision measurements by
minimizing the duration of the
breakdown condition.
4. Measurement
program
1 Quasi-pulse
measurement
mode
The measurement
sequence
of this mode
follows:
i) Force current
specified
by the user
as current
compliance.
ii) Monitor
the voltage
and calculate
the
voltage
slew rate.
iii) When the Device
Under
Test (DUT)
is in the breakdown
condition,
the
current
starts flowing
rapidly
and the
voltage
slew rate becomes
flat. The
unit detects
this point, waits a userspecified
delay time, and measures
the output
voltage.
iv) After
the measurement,
the output
voltage
is rapidly
returned
to the
start voltage.
4
This example shows how to
programmatically
measure the
Icbo parameter of a power
bipolar transistor by using an
external relay. The example uses
the Voltage Source (VS) of a
Voltage SourceNoltage Meter
Unit (VSNMU) to control the
external relay.
Before the measurement, make a
measurement module as shown
2.1.2. Enhancing
Automatic
Measurements
by External Relay Control
You can open or short the output of the SMU by using the following methods:
OPEN Make the output current
0 A in current force mode.
SHORT Make the output voltage
0 V in voltage force mode.
For example, use these methods
to open the base when you
measure the BVceo of a bipolar
transistor or to short the gate
(grounded) when you measure
the BVdss of a MOSFET,
without ever having to remove the
SMU from the base or the gate.
When you measure certain parameters of a bipolar transistor or
a MOSFET, the emitter of the
bipolar transistor or the source
of the MOSFET are usually connected to the ground unit
(GNDU) and not to the SMU.
Conversely, the connection between the GNDU and the device
needs to be open when measuring other parameters, such as
Icbo of a bipolar transistor.
Opening and shorting the SMU
make the configurations
trouble-free.
$
in Figure 5 by fixing the relay
to the universal module (P/N
16088-60010). The default condition for the external relay is closed
By forcing a specified voltage to
the relay from VS, the external
relay is opened, and the connection between the GNDU and the
emitter is opened. Figure 6 shows
the measurement circuit, Figure
7 shows the measurement results,
7
HVU
Figure
lcbo
=
1.7128E-7
6. Measurement
circuit
(A)
VS
0
~ i
User
1
Caps
Idle
GNDU
Figure
5. Measurement
1
module
Figure
7. Measurement
result
5
and Figure 8 shows the program.
An external relay used with a
module selector (as shown in
Figure 9) is an easy way to
make even more versatile and
automatic measurements. For
instance, the connection to the
GNDU and the transistor emitter
can be opened to extract the
Icbo parameter of a transistor.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
OPTION
ASSIGN
Hpsmu=2
Hvu=7
vsl=18
vc=400
BASE 1
@Hp4142
TO
723
!
vc
=
4oov
! IC camp
= 1omA
Iccomp=.Ol
! relay
disconnect
V-off=12
!
"CN";H~~,H~~~U,VS~
OUTPUT
@Hp4142;
OUTPUT
@Hp4142;"FMT";5
OUTPUT
@Hp4142;"DV";Vsl,O,V
off
OUTPUT
@Hp4142;"DV0~;Hpsmu,0~0,1ccomp
OUTPUT
@Hp4142;"DV~~;Hvu,O,Vc,ICCOrnp
OUTPUT
@Hp4142;"MN";1,H~~
OUTPUT
@Hp4142;"XE"
ENTER
@Hp4142
USING
"#,3A,12D,X";A$,Icbo
OUTPUT
@Hp4142;"CL"
PRINT
"Icbo
= ";Icbo;"(A)"
END
voltage
20-90 Initialization.
110 Set the output switches of measurement modules to ON.
120 Specify format of the measurement data.
130 Open the relay OPEN by forcing 12 V to the relay from VS.
140 Ground the base.
160-200 Perform the measurement and display the results.
-Frgure 8. Measurement
program
Figure 9. Auto extraction
of parameters
external relay and module selector
with
6
2.2. Extending the
Measurement Range
Since the HP 4142B can
programmatically
connect an
HPSMU, HCU, or HVU to a
device pin by using the module
selector, you can make very
wide-ranged measurements, as
shown in the white area of
Figure 10. In addition, you can
use two HPSMUs, HCUs, or
HVUs to extend the measurement range into the range indicated by the diagonal lines in
Figure 10.
In this section, the measurement
examples for devices that work
in the extended voltage/current
area of Figure 10 are shown.
I
^^
m
Fss$
Standard Conflguratlon
MP 41420A. 414ZlB,4i422A.
Expandable
(Depend on the configuration
3
za,
*l : &her,
"s,"g
41423N
of plug-in
units)
cnly 2 HVUs
5
0
IOOm i
10m
1
20f
Lb
4ou
10
100 200
Voltage
1K
ZK
N)
Figure 10. Current
by the HP 4142B.
and voltage
range
covered
2.2.1. 2000V Measurement
One HVU can make breakdown
tests of up to 1OOOV. You can
increase the maximum voltage to
2000 V by using two HVUs in
differential mode. The extended
range is shown by diagonal lines
in Figure 11. This is very useful
for breakdown voltage measurements or current leakage measurements of 8OOl9OOV power
transistors and SSRs (Solid State
relays), both of which are used
for switching power lines.
This example shows how to
measure breakdown voltage of
an 800 V power transistor. The
measurement result, measurement circuit, and measurement
program are shown in Figures
12-14.
One HVU is connected to the
collector and the other is connected to the emitter. First,
- 1OOOV (BVl) is applied to the
emitter. Since the HVU is unipolar, you need to change the
polarity of the HVU to negative
t
1
Standard conflguratlon
(HP 41420A. 414218. 41422A. 414238)
ya:
Expandable
(Depend on the confIguratIon
* (iOV.2ON
* (ZOV. 1OA
i 1
/(14V.
1
~
of plug-In
units)
I
i6A)
t .(20V.l4A)
I
* (4OV. 700mA)
. (BOV, 350mA)
* (iOOV, 250mA)
Voltage
ii1 : &tier,
using crly
2 HVUs
N)
Figure 11. Expanding
range with two HVUs
in advance. Second, by using the
break down command, a quasipulse is applied by the HVU
connected to the collector. Then
the current
in series.
and voltage
the voltage at the collector (BV2)
is measured. By subtracting BVl
from BV2, you can get the actual breakdown voltage.
a
2.2.2. lOAl20V Measurement
One HCU can output or measure
up to 10AllOV. You can extend
this range to lOAl2OV by using
two HCUs. The extended range
is shown by diagonal lines in
Figure 15. The extended measurement range makes it possible
to evaluate devices that drive dc
motors for cars.
This example shows how to
measure Id-Vg characteristics by
sweeping Vd from OV to 20V.
The measurement circuit, measurement result, and measurement program are shown in
Figures 16-18.
One HVU is connected to the
drain and the other is connected
to the source, and an SMU is
connected to gate. The measurement mode is set to dual pulse
sweep measurement mode. The
HCU is designed to output only
pulse, so to perform a OV to 20V
sweep measurement, the sweep
measurement is made two times:
OV to 1OV and IOV to 20V.
In the first measurement, the
HCU connected to the source
forces OV while the HCU connected to the drain forces sweep
outputs varying from OV to 1OV.
The Id parameter is measured in
every step.
In the second measurement, each
voltage value that was applied to
the gate in the first measurement
‘i
HCU
A
HCU
A
GNDU
Figure
16. Measurement
circuit
minus ten volts is applied to the
gate. The HCU connected to the
drain forces sweep outputs varying from OV to 1OV. This is
equivalent to sweeping from 1OV
to 20V to the device. By sweeping Vd from OV to 2OV, these
two measurements give the IdVd measurement as shown in
Figure 17.
i
Standard configuration
(HP 414ZOA. 414218. 41422A. 41423A)
y/A
Expandable
(Depend on the conflguratlon
* uov, 2ON
(ZOV. ION
of plug-l?
units)
? (4OV. 7OOmAi
.
10m
ZOf
10
100 200
Voltage
(6OOV. 20mA)
r
L (IOOOV. 12mAi
: r(iZOOV, lOmA)
.
/
1K
:\ (2OOOV. 6mA)
i
ZK
I
N)
Figure 15. Expanding
the current and
measurement
range with two HCUs in series.
41
10
2.2.3. 20AllOV Measurement
The previous example shows a
lOAl2OV measurement by two
HCUs in series. By using two
HCUs in parallel, you can extend
the measurement range up to
20A/lOV. The measurement
range extended by this configuration is shown by diagonal lines
in Figure 19.
This example shows how to
measure Ic-Vc characteristics of
the power bipolar transistor. The
Ic parameter can easily exceed
10A. The measurement circuit,
measurement result, and measurement program are show in
Figures 20-22.
The HCUs are connected in
parallel between the collector
and emitter as shown in Figure
20. The measurement mode is
set to 2 channel pulsed sweep
mode to synchronize the HCUs.
The two HCUs are current
sources that sweep current
values from OA to 10A. Current
from the two HCUs flow into
the bipolar transistor, which is
equivalent to a sweep from OA
to 20A. By measuring the voltage at the top of either HCU,
you can get Ic-Vc characteristics
with 20A.
s$$
Expandable
(Depend on the configuration
20. Measurement
circuit
of plug-In
units)
4
9 (ZOOV. 125mN
* (4OOV. 50mN
(6OOV. 20mA)
1;
10m
i
ZOf
T
1,
4ou
,
10
I
100 200
Voltale
1K
2K
(jli
Figure 19. Expanding
the current and
measurement
range with two HCUs in
parallel.
lc-vc
-4
6
[email protected]
(xEE1
vc (VI
GNDU
Figure
Standard conflguratlon
(HP 41420A. 414218. 414228, 41423A)
(4OV. 700mA)
. (BOV, 350mA)
’ (IOOV. 250mA)
2
SMU
1
Fieure
21. Measurement
result
12
2.2.4. High Power Measurement
(250mA x lOOV, 125mA x 200V)
By connecting two HPSMUs in
series or in parallel, you can
make very high power measurements. This is effective for
measuring the channel-on breakdown voltage of EL (Electra Luminescence) and PDP (Plasma
Display Panel). The measurement range extended by this
configuration is shown by diagonal lines in Figure 23.
This example shows how to
measure Id-Vd characteristics in
the high power measurement
range by connecting two HCUs
in parallel. The measurement circuit, measurement results, and
measurement program are shown
in Figure 24-26.
The white area inside the broken
lines in Figure 25 shows the
measurement range that can be
covered with one HCU. Using
two HPSMUs lets you extend
the measurement range into the
area indicated by diagonal lines.
0
HPSMU x 1
;///:
riPSMli x 2
IMOb’. ‘OOmkl
(1OOV. 250mA)
1
1
100
0
////,?
,,,,,,,,,y;{V
125mA)
Figure 23. Expanding the current and
measurement
range with two HPSMIJs
pXalld.
r
II0I!!!!
V
GNDU
1
HPSMU
V
1
HPSMU
Figure
24. Measurement
circuit
Id-Vd
01
““““““‘A”
B
1
I0
20
Vd
Figure
25. Measurement
result
36
(VI
”
40
(xE0)
~
in