APP_SM3320A_E

SM3320A
Optical Sensor IC
Application Note
1. Overview
Here we will introduce how to configure the optical receiver component of a system that exposed printed matter such as paper
money to multiple and sequential wavelengths, and detects reflected and transmitted light, using the SM3320.
2. Features
The SM3320 is an optical sensor IC with the following built-in components. The sensor module can be configured with few
external parts.
・ Photodiode (hereafter, “PD”) with smooth wavelength sensitivity characteristic
・ Charge storage type IV converter with built-in storage time controller
・ Variable gain postamplifier
・ Analog output multiplexer
Postamplifier
Preamplifier
Multiplexer
OUT
Charge Storage type
Variable Gain
VDD
GND
OE
SE
DATA
CLK
A1
Serial Interface
A0
REF
Reference
Voltage
Source
A2
Photodiode
Figure 1. SM3320 Function Block
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SM3320A
3. Image Sensing
3.1. System Overview
Photo Detector (reflective)
LED
Paper Money
Photo Detector (transmissive)
Paper Feeding System
Figure 2. Image Sensing Basics
As is illustrated in Figure 2, the SM3320 is an IC designed to work with image sensing systems comprised of a paper
feeding system with both an optical source and an optical sensor for authenticating paper money and like products. The
high-impedance PD and preamplifier being on the same chip, it can obtain a clear image while picking up minimal noise.
Additionally, with its built-in serial interface and output multiplexer, it can be configured as a multi-spot sensor using few
external components.
3.2. Detection Method
The SM3320 can detect a wide range of wavelengths. On the other hand, it cannot discern different wavelength colors.
Therefore, the detection system is one that irradiates the target to light from a monochromatic optical source, and captures
the reflected and transmitted light. By altering the wavelength of irradiated light, it can obtain image data from each
respective color.
Photodiode
Spectral response
PD分光感度特性
0.6
Photo受光感度[A/W]
sensitivity [A/W]
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
300
400
500
600
700
800
波長[nm]
Wavelength
[nm]
900
1000
1100
1200
Figure 3. Spectral Characteristics
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SM3320A
One need only use a single optical source and sensor pair. Figure 4 demonstrates an example of transmitted light detection,
but as shown in Figure 5, reflected light can be detected when place on the same side as the LED. Further, as illustrated in
Figure 6, there is also a method of irradiating with an edge light system using a light guide plate.
light3
light2
light1
light3
light2
light1
light3
light2
light1
light3
light2
light1
LED
Paper Money
SM3320
To A/D Converter
Figure 4. Discrete Irradiation (Transmitted Light Detection)
SM3320
LED
SM3320
LED
SM3320
LED
SM3320
LED
To A/D Converter
light3
light2
light1
light3
light2
light1
light3
light2
light1
light3
light2
light1
Paper Money
Figure 5. Discrete Irradiation (Reflected Light Detection)
light3
light3
LED Edge Light Type Light Guide Plate
light2
light2 LED
light1
light1
Paper Money
SM3320
To A/D Converter
Figure 6. Edge Light System
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SM3320A
3.3. Optical Receiver Module Construction
Here is the control process when using multiple sensors. The VDD or VSS connect to the A0, A1, and A2 pins of the
SM3320, and give each IC an individual address. Connected IC addresses must be completely discrete addresses. Up to
eight IC’s can be connected to a single module.
The CPU provides the same signal to the OE, SE, DATA, and CLK pins. The OUT pin shares the same connection and
connects to the AD Converter (ADC).
When the SM3320 receives instructions from the CPU, the address data and configuration data are sent together, and only
the IC with a corresponding address executes the indicated function.
REF
A0
A1
A2
OUT
REF
A0
A1
A2
OUT
REF
A0
A1
A2
OUT
REF
A0
A1
A2
OUT
Address "0"
Address "1"
Address "2"
Address "3"
DATA
OE
CLK
SE
DATA
OE
CLK
SE
DATA
OE
CLK
SE
Address "6"
Address "7"
REF
A0
A1
A2
OUT
REF
A0
A1
A2
OUT
REF
A0
A1
A2
OUT
DATA
OE
CLK
SE
Address "5"
REF
A0
A1
A2
OUT
DATA
OE
CLK
SE
DATA
OE
CLK
SE
DATA
OE
CLK
SE
DATA
OE
CLK
SE
Address "4"
ADC
CPU
Figure 7. Illustration of Optical Receiver Module Hard Wiring
3.4. Control Mechanism
The SM3320 performs controls using a serial interface. The serial interface performs the following actions.
① Preamplifier transimpedance, postamplifier gain settings (resistor input)
② Selected transimpedance, gain data readout (data readout)
③ Analog signal output for specified IC (OUT pin)
Serial data is comprised of the R/W bit, address data, configuration data (preamplifier transimpedance and postamplifier
gain). Only the IC that corresponds to the address data executes the indicated function.
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SM3320A
3.5. Serial Data Configuration
3.5.1. Transimpedance Postamplifier Gain Settings
16-bit configuration. MSB-first input. This configuration is used when the OE bit is set to “L” or “OPEN”.
Table 1
MSB
LSB
Address
Data
don’t
care
0:W Address
R/W
A2
A1
A0
NC
NC
NC
Preamplifier Transimpedance
Feedback Capacitance
CS1
CS0
NC
Postamplifier Gain
Conversion Time
TS1
TS0
GS3
GS2
GS1
GS0
Feedback Capacitance: Storage Capacity for preamplifier charge
If the MSB’s R/W bit is set to “0,” transimpedance and postamplifier gain are written to the IC corresponding to the address.
Transimpedance and postamplifier gain are explained further in Section 5.
3.5.2. Transimpedance Gain Reading
Table 2
MSB
LSB
Address
Data
don’t
care
1:R Address
R/W
A2
A1
A0
NC
NC
NC
Preamplifier Transimpedance
Feedback Capacitance
CS1
CS0
NC
Postamplifier Gain
Conversion Time
TS1
TS0
GS3
GS2
GS1
GS0
If the MSB’s R/W is set to “1,” the transimpedance and postamplifier gain set the IC corresponging to the address can be
read out.
3.5.3. Analog Signal Output
8-bit configuration. MSB-first input. This configuration is used when the OE pin is set to “H”.
Table 3
Address
1:R
Address
O:W
R/W A2
A1
don’t
care
A0
NC
NC
NC
NC
If the OE pin is set to “OPEN,” the analog signal is the firm output for the SM3320’s OUT pin. Since this uses a single IC
independently, please do not set the OE pin to “OPEN” when using multiple SM3320’s with a wired-OR.
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SM3320A
4. Image Signal Readout
4.1. Readout Sequence
14us+17us+Conversion Time (MAX)*2, approx. 91us(MIN)
gain
setting
SIF
irradiation
amplifier
output
output
command
Wavelength1 exposure
Wavelength1
measurement
gain
setting
output
command
gain
setting
Wavelength2 exposure
Wavelength3 exposure
Wavelength2
measurement
IC
ouput
approx. 14us+
output
command
Wavelength3
measurement
IC
ouput
IC
ouput
60, 120, 240, 480us+
approx. 17us+
OE
SE
DATA
CLK
CLK 10MHz
IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 IC5 IC6 IC7 IC8 60us(code00) 120us(code01)
setting setting setting setting setting setting setting setting
CLK 10MHz
240us(code10) 480us(code11)
each IC output
command
OUT
8out
7out
6out
5out
4out
3out
2out
1out
Figure 8. Readout Sequence
The readout sequence of the image signal is as follows.
① Transimpedance postamplifier gain setting matches the irradiated wavelength. (This must be determined in advance.)
② Irradiation time requires at least twice the maximum value of conversion time. There is no upper limit.
③ Analog signal command: after waiting for a settling time of at least 2us for the SM3320 output to stabilize, the AD
converter will read the output analog signal.
④ Light irradiation OFF, followed by transition to the no.1 transimpedance gain for the next wavelength.
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SM3320A
4.2. Transimpedance Gain Settings
This function can be set whether or not light irradiation is present. If programming consecutive settings, leave 100ns clear
between settings.
OE
"L" or "OPEN"
1740nsMIN
100nsMIN
SE
40nsMIN
DATA
W
A2 A1 A0
don't care
CS1 CS0 TS1 TS0 GS3 GS2 GS1 GS0
140nsMIN
40nsMIN
100nsMIN(fck10MHzMAX)
100nsMIN
CLK
OUT
OE:"L"
OUT
OE:
OPEN
"Hi-Z"
"Enable"
Figure 9. Transimpedance Gain Settings
4.3. Transimpedance Postamplifier Gain Reading
The transimpedance gain data readout can also be set regardless of the presence of light irradiation.
OE
"L" or "OPEN"
SE
1740nsMIN
SM3320 DATA output mode
100nsMIN
40nsMIN
DATA
R
A2 A1 A0
40nsMIN
don't care
CS1 CS0 TS1 TS0 GS3 GS2 GS1 GS0
100nsMIN
100nsMIN
CLK
OUT
OE:"L"
"Hi-Z"
OUT
OE:"OPEN"
"Enable"
Figure 10. Transimpedance Postamplifier Gain Reading
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SM3320A
4.4. Light Measurement (Charge Storage)
Until the initial IC readout from irradiation, a time of at least twice the conversion time must be allowed. Conversion time
differs according to the value of transimpedance configuration bits TS1 and TS0. Conversion time is impacted by
fluctuation in the SM3320’s built-in CR oscillator. [00]=20us(typ), 30us(max); [01]=40us(typ), 60us(max); [10]=80us(typ),
120us(max); [11]=160us(typ), 240us(max).
Irradiation
Continue irradiation until the readout ends.
2 times the conversion time (MAX)
OE
Settling time 2us+
SE
DATA
A2 A1 A0
don't care
A2 A1 A0
don't care
A2
CLK
OUT
Figure 11. Light Measurement (Charge Storage)
4.5. Analog Signal Output
In analog signal output, 8-bit data that includes an address is delivered. Synchronizing with falling of SE signal, a signal is
output by the OUT pin. When a new address is sent, that IC’s OUT pin changes to High-Z, and the signal of the IC
matching the new address is output. If the OE pin changes to “L,” all IC OUT pins change to High-Z.
Irradiation
2000nsMIN
40nsMIN
OE
40nsMIN
SE
DATA
900nsMI
A2 A1 A0
don't care
A2 A1 A0
don't care
100nsMIN
100nsMIN
CLK
Settling Time 2us
OUT
1st IC Signal
2nd IC Signal
Disable Time 0.1us
Figure 12. Analog Signal Output
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SM3320A
5. Transimpedance Postamplifier Gain Setting Procedure
5.1. Transimpedance
The SM3320 preamplifier is the charge storage type IV converter shown in Figure13. The SW in the figure is controlled
internally in the SM3320, requiring no external support. One of four is chosen by TS1 or TS0. When the SW is closed,
amplifier output is 0V. If the SW opening time is set to “t,” amplifier output ⊿V becomes ⊿V=ip*t/C. Amplifier output
is in proportion to photocurrent (ip) as well as charge time (t), and in inverse proportion to capacity (C). Proportional output
voltage is obtained from photocurrent, so it can be treated as if it were impedance. Therefore, Zt=t/C is referred to as
transimpedance.
SW
C
ip
∆V=
-
∆V
+
AGND
ip*t
C
Transimpedance Zt
t
Zt=
C
-Bias
Figure 13. Charge Storage Type IV Converter
This storage time (TYP) take 10um from conversion time (TYP). Transimpedance is impacted by capacity and conversion
time, but this configuration successfully negates that impact. The CR oscillator’s oscillation capacity and storage capacity
utilize the same structure. When unit capacity expands, oscillation frequency decreases, extending storage time. Conversely,
when unit capacity shrinks, oscillation frequency increases, and storage time shortens. Because oscillation capacity and
storage time are proportional, transimpedance can negate capacity variation.
SM3320 has a sample and hold circuit built-in, and can therefore maintain the previously stored signal even during charge
storage time, so it can always receive a signal regardless of internal timing. Because internal timing cannot be taken
concurrent to irradiation, it is necessary to allow twice the conversion time (MAX) for the required measurement time in
order to obtain an irradiation signal for the full storage time. Continue irradiation until the analog signal readout ends.
Table 4. Transimpedance
TS1
TS0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Conversion
Time
Typ
20us
40us
80us
160us
Max
30us
60us
120us
240us
Charge
Time
Typ
10us
30us
70us
150us
Required
Measurement
Time
Min
60us
120us
240us
480us
Irradiation
Time
Min
60us+trd
120us+trd
240us+trd
480us+trd
Transimpedance
CS[00]
0.5MΩ
1.5MΩ
3.5MΩ
7.5MΩ
CS[01]
1.0MΩ
3.0MΩ
7.0MΩ
15.0MΩ
CS[10]
2.0MΩ
6.0MΩ
14.0MΩ
30.0MΩ
CS[11]
4.0MΩ
12.0MΩ
28.0MΩ
60.0MΩ
trd:Analog Signal Readout Time
Time relationships are as follows.
Conversion Time (Typ)=Charge Time+10us
Conversion Time (Max)= Conversion Time (Typ)×1.5
Required Measurement Time=Conversion Time (Max)×2
Irradiation Time=Required Measurement Time+Analog Signal Readout Time
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SM3320A
5.2. Postamplifier Gain
It is possible to configure the postamplifier gain with 4-bit data, making it possible to make adjustments in even finer
increments than with transimpedance.
GS[3:0]
GS3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Configured Data
GS2
GS1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
GS0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Table 5. Postamplifier Gain
Gain
(times)
GS3
1.00
1
1.08
1
1.17
1
GS[3:0]
1.27
1
1.38
1
1.50
1
1.63
1
1.78
1
Configured Data
GS2
GS1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
GS0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Gain
(times)
1.94
2.13
2.33
2.57
2.85
3.17
3.55
4.00
5.3. Basic Thinking for settings
Transimpedance has a wide selection range (0.5MΩ to 60MΩ), making increments approximate. Further, selection of TS1
or TS0 assigns limitations to irradiation time.
On the other hand, with postamplifier gain, each step moves in an approximate geometric series of 1.09.
Therefore, transimpedance is recommended for larger changes in sensitivity such as wavelength and observation method
(transmissive, reflective), while post-amplifier gain is recommended for making minute adjustments.
Exposure intensity can also be regulated.
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SM3320A
5.4. Configuration Procedure
Start
Creation of
Photocurrent
Estimations Table
If you have results with discrete PD, calculate the ratio of PD (discrete) and
SM3320 optical receiver surface area.
If no discrete PD results, calculate photocurrent thru experimentation.
Cf: 5.5. Photocurrent Estimation Method/5.6.2 Photocurrent Estimation
Full-Range
Postamplifier
Setting (target level)
Postamplifier Gain
Interim Selection
Full-Range
Preamplifier
Calculation
Determine based on electrical specifications of utilized ADC and SM3320.
Cf: 5.6.3. Full-Range Postamplifier Settings
Recommended: 3.0V (when VDD=5.0V, light current 3.5V, dark current 0.5V)
For interim selection, use median value, modify later.
Cf: 5.6.4 Postamplifier Gain Interim Selection
Recommended: 1.94times GS[3:0] 1000(8Hex)
Calculate from full-range postamplifier and postamplifier gain.
Cf: 5.6.5. Full-Range Preamplifier Calculation
Ex: 3.0V÷1.94=1.546V
Calculate transimpedance of each wavelength, select approximate value.
Transimpedance
Selection
Cf: 5.6.6. Transimpedance selection
Ex: 1.546V÷(SM3320 photocurrent)≈transimpedance
Select approximate value for full-range postamplifier target value.
Postamplifier Gain
Selection
NG
Cf: 5.6.7. Postamplifier Gain Selection
Output
Voltage
OK
NG
Total
Processing
Total Processing Time=Configuration Time + Measurement Time + Readout Time
Cf: 5.6.8. Confirming Total Processing Time/4.1.Readout Sequence
OK
End
Figure 14. Configuration Flow Chart
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SM3320A
5.5. Photocurrent Estimation Method
Determining the strength of a photocurrent requires experimentation, but if the system is already outfitted with a Si
photodiode discrete component, the photocurrent obtained when using the SM3320 in place of the photodiode can act as a
rough estimate.
Photodiodes are configured to give an approximate estimation of photo sensitivity per unit area, so it can be assumed that
when the same light is irradiated, the photocurrent per unit area will be almost the same. When optical receiver surface area
and photocurrent of discrete components are understood, an estimate can be made from the calculation of the SM3320
photocurrent. The SM3320 optical receiver surface area is 1mm2.
Table 6 shows an example estimation.
Light Type
infrared
red
green
blue
UV
Table 6. Photocurrent Calculations for Light Portion
Discrete PD
SM3320
Optical Receiver Photocurrent Optical Receiver Photocurrent
(uA)
(uA)
Area (mm2)
Area (mm2)
Transmitted
Reflected
Transmitted
Reflected
Transmitted
Reflected
Transmitted
Reflected
Transmitted
Reflected
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
0.8
2
0.6
2.6
0.4
2.4
0.2
1.2
0.02
0.8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0.2
0.5
0.15
0.65
0.1
0.6
0.05
0.3
0.005
0.2
5.6. Configurations
What we introduced here are example configurations when using the SM3320 with image sensing systems comprised of
discrete components.
5.6.1. Requirement Specifications
Measured Wavelength Count: 5 (IR, R, G, B, UV, Transmitted)
Sensor Count: 8
Paper Feed Rate: 200mm/s
Paper Feed Pitch: 0.5mm (Interval length of received light for 5 wavelength is 0.5mm, so unseen portion are created.)
Measurement Time per Line: 2.5ms
SIF Clock Frequency: 1MHz (setting: 18us/wavelength, signal output: 9us/wavelength)
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SM3320A
5.6.2. Photocurrent Estimation
Discrete component optical receiver surface area: 4mm2
Light Type
infrared
red
green
blue
UV
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Table 7. Photocurrent Estimation
Discrete PD
SM3320
Optical Receiver Photocurrent
Optical Receiver Photocurrent
(uA)
(uA)
Area (mm2)
Area (mm2)
4
0.8
1
0.2
4
0.6
1
0.15
4
0.4
1
0.1
4
0.2
1
0.05
4
0.02
1
0.005
5.6.3. Full-range Postamplifier Setting (Target Level)
Supply Voltage: 5V
The OUT pin’s output voltage is guaranteed at 0.7*VDD. Because standard voltage is 0.1*VDD, the output voltage
becomes 0.7*5-0.1*5=3V, so set the full-range to 3V.
5.6.4. Postamplifier Gain Interim Selection
Assuming 1.94 times the intermediate value GS[3:0] 1000(8Hex)
5.6.5. Full-range Preamplifier Calculation
3÷1.94≈1.546V
Full-range preamplifier 1.546V
5.6.6. Transimpedance Selection
Calculate the transimpedance of each wavelength individually, and select an approximate value. Using TS[1:0] for the same
items makes it easier to control, so it is best to be well-organized. Select TS[1:0][11] for UV, as longer exposures are
necessary.
Table 8. Transimpedance Selection
Target Value
Selected Value
Conversion Time
ZT
Light Current ZT
Preamplifier
(uA)
Calculated Value(MΩ) TS[1:0] Max(us) CS[1:0] (MΩ) Full-Range
0.2
7.73 [10]
120 [01]
7
1.4
0.15
10.30666667 [10]
120 [10]
14
2.1
0.1
15.46 [10]
120 [10]
14
1.4
0.05
30.92 [10]
120 [11]
28
1.4
0.005
309.2 [11]
240 [11]
60
0.3
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SM3320A
5.6.7. Postamplifier Gain Selection
Full-range postamplifier selects a gain that is close to the target value.
UV can be attained only with a full-range of 1.2V for maximum transimpedance and gain. If a higher voltage is required,
irradiated light power must be increased.
Light Type
infrared
red
green
blue
UV
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Table 9. Postamplifier Gain Selection
Preamplifier
Postamplifier
PD
Light Current ZT Full-Range Gain Full-Range
0.2
7
1.4 1.94
2.716
0.15 14
2.1 1.38
2.898
0.1 14
1.4 1.94
2.716
0.05 28
1.4 1.94
2.716
0.005 60
0.3
4
1.2
Required
Measurement
Time(us)
240
240
240
240
480
Configuration Code
CS TS GS
0110
1000
1010
0100
1010
1000
1110
1000
1111
1111
5.6.8. Confirming Total Processing Time
If using a 1MHz clock, transimpedance and gain must be set to 18us on a single IC. For asset of eight, 144us is required,
and similarly, 9*8=72us is required with analog output.
Light Type
infrared
red
green
blue
UV
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Table 10. Processing Time Check
Configuration Measurement Readout Total Processing
Full-Range
CS TS
GS
Time
Time
Time
Time
(us)
(V)
(us)
(us)
(us)
0110 1000
2.716
144
240
72
456
1010 0100
2.898
144
240
72
456
2520
1010 1000
2.716
144
240
72
456
1110 1000
2.716
144
240
72
456
1111 1111
1.2
144
480
72
696
Exceeded the 2.5ms target.
It is believed that a shorter conversion time can be used as a counter-measure by increasing the serial interface clock
frequency.
Set the IR conversion time (MAX) to 60us, and configure the ZT to a 6MΩ postamplifier gain at 2.33.
The results of these modifications are shown in Table 11. Processing time was also able to hit the 2.5ms target.
Light Type
infrared
red
green
blue
UV
CS TS
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
Transmitted
1001
1010
1010
1110
1111
GS
1010
0100
1000
1000
1111
Table 11. Reset Results
Configuration Measurement Readout Total Processing
Full-Range
Time
Time
Time
Time
(us)
(V)
(us)
(us)
(us)
2.796
144
120
72
336
2.898
144
240
72
456
2400
2.716
144
240
72
456
2.716
144
240
72
456
1.2
144
480
72
696
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SM3320A
6. Mounting
6.1. Foot Pattern
Figure 15. Foot Pattern
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SM3320A
Please pay your attention to the following points at time of using the products shown in this document.
1. The products shown in this document (hereinafter ”Products”) are designed and manufactured to the generally accepted standards
of reliability as expected for use in general electronic and electrical equipment, such as personal equipment, machine tools and
measurement equipment. The Products are not designed and manufactured to be used in any other special equipment requiring
extremely high level of reliability and safety, such as aerospace equipment, nuclear power control equipment, medical equipment,
transportation equipment, disaster prevention equipment, security equipment. The Products are not designed and manufactured
to be used for the apparatus that exerts harmful influence on the human lives due to the defects, failure or malfunction of the
Products.
If you wish to use the Products in that apparatus, please contact our sales section in advance.
In the event that the Products are used in such apparatus without our prior approval, we assume no responsibility whatsoever for
any damages resulting from the use of that apparatus.
2. NPC reserves the right to change the specifications of the Products in order to improve the characteristics or reliability thereof.
3. The information described in this document is presented only as a guide for using the Products. No responsibility is assumed by us
for any infringements of patents or other rights of the third parties which may result from its use. No license is granted by
implication or otherwise under any patents or other rights of the third parties. Then, we assume no responsibility whatsoever for
any damages resulting from that infringements.
4. The constant of each circuit shown in this document is described as an example, and it is not guaranteed about its value of the
mass production products.
5. In the case of that the Products in this document falls under the foreign exchange and foreign trade control law or other applicable
laws and regulations, approval of the export to be based on those laws and regulations are necessary. Customers are requested
appropriately take steps to obtain required permissions or approvals from appropriate government agencies.
SEIKO NPC CORPORATION
1-9-9, Hatchobori, Chuo-ku,
Tokyo 104-0032, Japan
Telephone: +81-3-5541-6501
Facsimile: +81-3-5541-6510
http://www.npc.co.jp/
Email:sales@npc.co.jp
ND12028-E-00 2012.09
SEIKO NPC CORPORATION - 16