Freescale Semiconductor Application Note AN2254 Rev. 1, 11/2004 Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores By Imran Ahmed In a Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) environment, each user is assigned a unique complex scrambling sequence to encode its information-bearing signal. The receiver has the scrambling code of the user, unscrambles the received signal, and recovers the original data [1]. This application note presents a method for complex pseudo-random sequence (PN code) generation and complex scrambling of an I/Q code multiplexed signal on a StarCore® SC140 digital signal processor (DSP). The PN codes in this application note are generated for a WCDMA Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems (UMTS) uplink (signal from handset to base station) according to the third-generation partnership project (3GPP) specifications. This application note provides practical information to help users understand PN code generation and complex scrambling, which are required in the WCDMA standards. Typically, these operations are performed on Architecture-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), but here we explore the use of the Freescale StarCore™-based DSPs to accomplish the same task. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2002, 2004. All rights reserved. CONTENTS 1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4 5 Pseudo-Random Sequences ....................................2 Randomness Properties ........................................... 2 Generating Pseudo-Random Sequences ..................2 Scrambling Codes for WCDMA .............................2 Generating Long Complex Scrambling Codes ....... 3 Scrambling an I-Q/Code Multiplexed Sign ......... al 6 Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores ............................................. 6 Allocating Memory Space ...................................... 6 Binary PN Code and Complex Scrambling Sequences................................................................ 7 Forming the Complex Scrambling Sequences ........9 Complex Scrambling of an IQ/Code Multiplexed Signal ................................................ 13 Results ...................................................................16 References .............................................................19 Pseudo-Random Sequences 1 Pseudo-Random Sequences Pseudo-random sequences or PN codes are sequences of 1s and 0s generated by an algorithm so that the resulting numbers look statistically independent and uniformly distributed. A random signal differs from a pseudo-random signal in that a random signal cannot be predicted. A pseudo-random signal is not random at all; it is a deterministic, periodic signal that is known to both the transmitter and the receiver. Even though the signal is deterministic, it appears to have the statistical properties of sampled white noise. To an unauthorized listener, it appears to be a truly random signal. 1.1 Randomness Properties CDMA systems achieve their multiple access capability using large sets of sequences with three basic properties that are applied to a periodic binary sequence as a test for the appearance of randomness [2]: • Balance Property. In each period of the sequence, the number of binary 1s must differ from the number of binary 0s by at most one digit. In other words, the sequences are balanced so that each element of the sequence alphabet occurs with equal frequency. • Run Property. A run is defined as a sequence of the same binary digit. The appearance of a different binary digit marks the start of a new run. The length of the run is the number of digits in the run. For the randomness run property, in each period, about one-half the runs of each binary digit should be of length 1, about one-fourth of length 2, one-eighth of length 3, and so on. • Correlation Property. Random sequences are often described in terms of their correlation properties. A scrambling sequence in a CDMA system must have small off-peak autocorrelation values to allow for rapid sequence acquisition at the receiver and to minimize self interference due to multipath acquisitions. Furthermore, the cross correlations are small enough among such sequences at all delays to minimize multiple-access interference. 1.2 Generating Pseudo-Random Sequences Pseudo-random binary codes are typically generated using a system of linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs). The LFSR generators produce a sequence that depends on the number of stages, the feedback tap connections, and the initial conditions. The output sequences can be classified as either maximal length (m-sequence) or nonmaximal length. The m-sequences have the property that for an n-stage LFSR the sequence repetition period in clock pulses, p, is as shown in Equation 1. Equation 1 P = 2n–1 Thus, if the sequence length is less than the maximum period of (2n–1), the sequence is classified as a nonmaximal length sequence. In fact, all the m-sequences are generated by primitive polynomials of degree n over Galois Field 2 (GF(2)). 2 Scrambling Codes for WCDMA In a CDMA scheme, all users transmit on the same frequency and are differentiated by their unique scrambling codes. The receiver correlates the received signal with a synchronously generated replica of the scrambling code to recover the original information-bearing signal. The third-generation partnership project (3GPP) specifications define how these uplink complex scrambling codes are generated. Part of the process in the transmitter, in addition Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 2 Freescale Semiconductor Scrambling Codes for WCDMA to spreading, is the scrambling operation. Because scrambling is used on top of spreading as shown Figure 1, it does not change the bandwidth of the signal, but only makes the signals from different users separable from each other [3]. Symbol Rate Chip Rate Chip Rate Data Channelization Code Scrambling Code Figure 1. Relation Between Spreading and Scrambling With I-Q/code multiplexing, also called dual-channel quaternary phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation, the power levels of the dedicated physical data channel (DPDCH) and the dedicated physical control channel (DPCCH) typically differ. This is especially true as data rates increase and can lead in extreme cases to binary phase shift keying (BPSK) type transmission when the branches are independently transmitted. This situation is avoided by using a scrambling operation after the spreading with channelization codes. The transmission of two parallel channels, DPDCH and DPCCH, leads to multicode transmission, which increases the peak-to-average power ratio [3]. The spreading modulation solution shown in Figure 2 keeps the transmitter power amplifier efficiency the same as for normal balanced QPSK transmission in general. CD CSCRAMB I DPDCH IQ Multiplex I+jQ Q DPCCH To QPSK Modulation CC Figure 2. I-Q/Code Multiplexing With Complex Scrambling. 2.1 Generating Long Complex Scrambling Codes All uplink physical channels are subjected to scrambling with a complex-valued scrambling code. In WCDMA uplink transmissions, the scrambling code can either be short or long. There are 224 long uplink scrambling codes, and these codes are assigned by higher layers. The long codes are essentially Gold codes. Large sets of Gold codes have low cross-correlation properties so that as many users as possible can use the channel with minimum mutual interference. According to 3GPP specifications, Gold codes are generated with a system of 25-stage linear feedback shift registers, as shown in Figure 3 [4]. Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 Freescale Semiconductor 3 Scrambling Codes for WCDMA MSB LSB C1,n C2,n Figure 3. Uplink Long Scrambling Code Generator These 25-degree generator polynomials are truncated to the 10 ms frame length that results in 38400 chips at the rate of 3.84 Mcps. The long scrambling sequences, c1,n and c2,n, are constructed from a position-wise modulo 2 sum of 38400 chip segments of the two binary m-sequences. The two binary m-sequences are constructed using the following primitive polynomial over GF(2), as show in Figure 3. Furthermore, sequence c2,n is a 16,777,232 chip delayed version of sequence c1,n. Equation 2 X25 + X3 + 1 Equation 3 X25 + X3 + X2 + X + 1 Let x, and y be the two m-sequences that are constructed from primitive polynomials of Equation 2 and Equation 3, respectively. The resulting sequences constitute segments of a set of Gold sequences. Now, let n23 ... n0 be the 24-bit binary representation of the scrambling sequence number n with n0 as the least significant bit. The x sequence depends on the chosen scrambling sequence number n and is denoted as xn in the sequel. Furthermore, let xn(i) and y(i) denote the i:th symbol of the sequences xn and y, respectively. The m-sequences xn and y are constructed as follows: 1. Initial conditions: Equation 4 xn(0) = n0, xn(1) = n1, ..., xn(22) = n22, xn(23) = n23, xn(24) = 1 Equation 5 y(0) = y(1) = ... = y(23) = y(24) = 1 2. Recursive definition of subsequent symbols: Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 4 Freescale Semiconductor Scrambling Codes for WCDMA Equation 6 xn(i+25) = xn(i+3) + xn(i) modulo 2, i=0, ..., 225-27 . Equation 7 y(i+25) = y(i+3) + y(i+2) + y(i+1) + y(i) modulo 2, i=0, ..., 225-27 3. Binary Gold sequence zn: Equation 8 zn(i) = xn(i) + y(i) modulo 2, i=0, ..., 225-2 4. Real-valued Gold sequence: Equation 9 +1 if zn(i) = 0 for i = 0, 1, 2, ..., 225-2. Zn(i) = -1 if zn(i) = 1 a. The real-valued long scrambling sequences c1,n and c2,n are defined as follows: Equation 10 c1,n(i) = Zn(i), i=0, ..., 225-2 Equation 11 c2,n(i) = Zn(i+16777232) modulo (225–1), i=0, ..., 2 25–2 b. The complex-valued long scrambling sequence Cn, is defined as follows, where i = 0, 1, ..., 225-2 and denotes rounding to the nearest lower integer: Equation 12 i Cn(i) = c1,n(i) ( 1 + j( -1 ) c2,n( 2 * FLOOR(i/2) ) ) A more intuitive way of forming the complex-valued scrambling code from two real-valued codes, c1,n and c2,n, with the decimation principle is: Equation 13 Cscrambling = c1,n( w0 + jc2,n (2k) w1 ), k = 0, 1, 2, ... with sequences w0 and w1 given as chip rate sequences: Equation 14 w0 = {1 1}, w1 = {1 -1} The decimation factor for the second sequence is 2. Ultimately this way of creating the scrambling sequence reduces the zero crossings in the constellation and further reduces the amplitude violations in the modulation process. In conclusion, Equation 13 and Equation 14 give the same complex scrambling code as is achieved through Equation 12. Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 Freescale Semiconductor 5 Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores 2.2 Scrambling an I-Q/Code Multiplexed Signal Figure 2 shows that before the data signal is QPSK modulated, the I-Q/code multiplexed data signal is multiplied with the complex scrambling code. In this step, the two complex signals are multiplied together as shown in the following equations, where DI = the real part of the incoming data: Equation 15 ( DIi + jDQi ) x ( SIi + jSQi ) Where: • DI = real part of the incoming data • DQ = complex part of the incoming data • SI = real part of the scrambling code • SQ = complex part of the scrambling code • I = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 38399 Equation 15 implies the final result, as follows: Equation 16 (( DIi*SIi ) – ( DQi*SQi )) + j(( DIi*SQ i ) + ( DQi*SIi )) 3 Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores This section describes how the algorithms in Section 2, Scrambling Codes for WCDMA, are implemented on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 DSP cores. For ease of implementation, the algorithms slightly differ from the theory presented in Section 2. The first part of the program generates the PN code, and the second part performs the actual scrambling of the incoming signal. First, the memory space required for these calculations is specified. 3.1 Allocating Memory Space The assembly code assumes that required memory space has been allocated before the assembly routine is called. This memory space is 16-bit aligned. Table 1 lists the exact amount of space required for different global variables. Table 1. Memory Allocation Global Variable Name Description Number of Bytes REG1 Holds the starting phase value for PN code generation. As shown in Equation 3, the PN code generated depends on the initial value of the 25-stage LFSR. The most significant bit of the upper 25-stage LFSR is always one (1), and the initial value for this register is passed to the assembly code. The lower 25-stage LFSR does not require initialization because all of its 25 bits are always configured to a value of one (1) at the start of a new sequence. 4 Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 6 Freescale Semiconductor Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores Table 1. Memory Allocation Global Variable Name Description Number of Bytes CODE_IQ Points to the interleaved complex scrambling code. This scrambling code is stored as a real-valued code scaled down by a factor of 2 (+1 as +0.5 or -1 as -0.5). Since the code length for a frame is 38400 chip segments, each sample is stored as a 16 bit sample, and each chip segment contains an I and Q part, a buffer of 38400*2*2 bytes is assigned. 38400 × 2 × 2 INPUT_IQ Points to the buffer in the memory where the interleaved input data to be scrambled is stored. This assembly code assumes that the data samples are 16-bits wide and are held in the memory buffer as I/Q interleaved samples. 38400 × 2 × 2 Points to the memory buffer where the interleaved scrambled data is stored for one frame. 38400 × 2 × 2 OUTPUT_IQ 3.2 Binary PN Code and Complex Scrambling Sequences For optimal implementation of the algorithm to generate the complex binary PN code, 16 stacked-bit samples are generated in one iteration rather than generating the PN code one bit at a time. Since a PN code is essentially a system of LFSRs, the last 16 bits are processed in one operation to give 16 samples of PN code. Example 1 shows the pseudo code for this implementation. Example 1. Pseudo Code for 16-Bit Vector Processing X= Upper LFSR Y= Lower LFSR for (i = 0; i < 2400; i++) X0 X3 = = (X >> 0) (X >> 3) ;//(38400/16) = 2400 { ;//X0 holds the lower 16 bits of X non-shifted, reqd for c1 & X25 feedback ;//X3 holds the lower 16 bits of X shifted by 3,reqd for X25 feedback poly. X4 = X7 = X25 = (X >> 4) (X >> 7) (X3 ^ X0) ;//X4 holds the lower 16 bits of X shifted by 4, reqd for c2 ;//X7 holds the lower 16 bits of X shifted by 7, reqd for c2 ;//feedback polynomial, accodring to eqn. 6, most significant 16 bits ;//for next iteration, 9 from previous iteration, as old 16 shifted out X = (X >> 16) ;//lower 16 bits shifted out X = (X | (X25 << 9)) ;//most sig. 9 bits from prev iteration & 16 sig bits from this iteration ;//X is ready for next X18 = (X >> 2) ;//X18 holds the lower 16 bits of X shifted by 18, reqd for c2 Y0 Y1 = (Y >> 0) = (Y >> 1) ;//Y0 holds the lower 16 bits of Y non-shifted, reqd for c1 & Y25 feedback ;//Y1 holds the lower 16 bits of Y shifted by 1, reqd for Y25 feedback Y2 = (Y >> 2) ;//Y2 holds the lower 16 bits of Y shifted by 2, reqd for Y25 feedback Y3 = (Y >> 3) ;//Y3 holds the lower 16 bits of Y shifted by 3, reqd for Y25 feedback poly. poly. poly. Y4 = (Y >> 4) ;//Y4 holds the lower 16 bits of Y shifted by 4, reqd for c2 Y6 = (Y >> 6) ;//Y5 holds the lower 16 bits of Y shifted by 6, reqd for c2 Y25 = (Y3 ^ Y2 ^ Y1 ^ Y0) ;//feedback polynomial, accodring to eqn. 7, most significant 16 bits ;//for next iteration, 9 from previous iteration, as old 16 shifted out Y = (Y >> 16) ;//lower 16 bits shifted out Y = (Y | (Y25 << 9)) ;//most sig. 9 bits from prev iteration & 16 sig bits from this iteration ;//Y is ready for next Y17 = (Y >> 1) ;//X17 holds the lower 16 bits of Y shifted by 17, reqd for c2 Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 Freescale Semiconductor 7 Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores c1 = (X0 ^ Y0) ;//16-stacked bit c1 according to figure 3 configuration c2 = (X4 ^ X7 ^ X18 ^ Y4 ^ Y6 ^ Y17) ;//16-stacked bit c2 according to figure 3 configuration } Now, the formation of the complex scrambling codes begins. In this part of the code, the C/Assembly calling function enters the assembly code, and the data variables and pointers are put into the appropriate registers for the assembly function to use. The pn_generation subroutine includes the pn_generation_param.asm parameter file, which defines the local constants used by this subroutine: • REG2_INIT holds the value 0x01FFFFFF for initializing the lower 25-stage LFSR, as shown in Figure 3. • MASK16 holds the value 0x000000FFFF for masking the lower 16-bits of a data register. • NUM_ITER specifies the number of times the main loop in the function iterates. It is initialized to 2400. Data registers D6 and D7 are the two 25-stage LFSRs. Since the LFSRs are only 25-stage, only the lower 25 bits of the data registers are used for this purpose. The most significant 15-bits are set to zero (data registers are 40 bits wide). The first three instructions initialize the lower LFSR and the upper LFSR as shown in Figure 3 according to the initialization value that is stored in global variable REG1 for the upper LFSR (see Example 2). The last instruction loads address register R0 to point to the memory buffers to store the interleaved scrambling code samples I and Q. Example 2. Setting Data and Address Registers move.l move.l move.l move.l will be #REG1,r0 #REG2_INIT,d7 (r0),d6 #CODE_IQ,r0 stored ;//R0 ;//D7 ;//D6 ;//R0 points is the is the points to initial value of upper LFSR lower LFSR upper LFSR to where IQ scrambling code The program can be divided into two main parts: 1. Generating the binary PN code. 2. Forming the complex scrambling sequence. 3.2.1 Generating the Binary PN Code Generating the binary PN codes as stacked bits is accomplished following the algorithm shown in Example 1. The mainloop in the program generates the PN codes. The mainloop produces 16-bit stacked c1 and c2 PN code samples, as shown in Figure 3. As the routine starts, it executes instructions to set up the address and data registers before the code jumps into mainloop. The code sets up mainloop and the loop counter for the loop to perform 2400 iterations, as described in Example 3 (which shows a complete assembly code listing for generating the PN codes and the function for forming complex scrambling sequences, pn_generation.asm). Following is a step-by-step description of one iteration of the StarCore DSP code to demonstrate how it executes: 1. To determine c1and c2 for the PN code, we must determine the polynomials that are required. The c1 part of the PN code is a modulo 2 sum of the least significant bits of the X and Y registers. a. The first 16-bit c1 sample is determined in instruction set ‘b’ of Example 3. b. Inside the mainloop, it is calculated in instruction set ‘j’ and stored into the memory buffer in instruction set ‘d’. 2. Determining c2 requires a modulo 2 sum of several shifted polynomials: — 4-bit shifted D6 (X4-instruction set ‘c’ and ‘k’) Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 8 Freescale Semiconductor Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores — 7-bit shifted D6 (X7-instruction set ‘d’) — 18-bit shifted D6 (X18-instruction set ‘h’) — 4-bit shifted D7 (Y4-instruction set ‘d’) — 6-bit shifted D7 (Y6-instruction set ‘e’) — 17-bit shifted D7 (Y17-instruction set ‘i’) The first 16-bit sample for c2 is determined in instruction set ‘j’ of code listing 3 and then stored in the memory buffer in the very next instruction set ‘k’. 3. Since the algorithm determines 16-bit samples and then shifts out the lower 16 bits from data registers D6 and D7, the determination of the feedback polynomials, X25 and Y25, is required: a. The feedback polynomial X25 is a modulo 2 sum of the non-shifted lower 16 bits of D6 (X0 instruction set ‘a’ and ‘h’) and a 3-bit shifted version of D6 (X3 instruction set ‘b’ and ‘i’). b. The first feedback X25 polynomial is determined in instruction set ‘c’ and then in instruction set ‘k’ in mainloop and is stored in register D1 in the same instruction set ‘k.’ c. The feedback polynomial Y25 is a modulo 2 sum of the non-shifted lower 16 bits of D7 (Y0 instruction set ‘a’ and ‘i’), 1-bit shifted D7 (Y1 instruction set ‘a’ and ‘i’), 2-bit shifted D7 (Y2 instruction set ‘b’ and ‘j’), and a 3-bit shifted D7 (Y3 instruction set ‘c’ and ‘k’). d. The first feedback Y25 polynomial is determined in instruction set ‘d’ and stored in register D9 in the same cycle. 4. After the feedback polynomials (X25 and Y25) have been determined and the original registers (D6 and D7) are shifted by 16 bits, we put the significant 16 bits of the 25-stage LFSRs into place. This occurs in cycles ‘e,’ ‘f,’ ‘g,’ and ‘h:’ a. In instruction set ‘e,’ the lower 16 bits of the feedback polynomials (X25 and Y25) are extracted and stored in D1 and D9. b. In instruction set ‘f,’ the lower 16 bits of D1 and D9 are shifted to the left by 9, so that they become the higher 16 bits of a 25-stage LFSR. c. In instruction set ‘g,’ D6, which by now has shifted out its lower 16 bits and has only 9 bits located in its least significant part, gets the higher 16 bits from D1. d. Similarly, in instruction set ‘h,’ D7 gets its higher 16 bits from D9 for its 25-stage LFSR without affecting its lower 9 bits. These are the overall steps performed to generate the binary PN code in mainloop. The mainloop iterates 2400 times, producing 16-bit samples of c1 and c2 in each iteration. As a result, 38400 chip segments are produced. 3.3 Forming the Complex Scrambling Sequences Once the binary PN code is generated, the next step is the formation of complex scrambling sequences from the binary PN code. Complex scrambling code is formed according to Equation 12 or Equation 13 and Equation 14. According to these equations, every other sample of c2 binary PN code is selected before the formation of complex scrambling code. After a 16-bit binary scrambling sequence is formed, it is mapped into a real-valued code according to Equation 9 on page 5, one bit at a time. This occurs in the mappingloop section of the program. This part of the code takes the 16-bit c1 and c2 samples and forms complex scrambling codes, 16 bits at a time. According to Equation 12, the real part of the scrambling sequence is c1 itself, and no change is required for calculating the real part of the scrambling sequence. The complex part of the scrambling sequence is a multiplicative result of the real valued code of c1,c2 and +1 or -1, depending on whether it is an even or odd Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 Freescale Semiconductor 9 Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores sample. Moreover, before the multiplication to calculate the complex part of the scrambling sequence, the c2 used is a decimated version of the original c2 by 2. Decimation of c2 by a factor of 2 is accomplished by ANDing c2 with 0x5555, shifting the result to the left by one bit and then ORing the shifted result with itself. The next step is the multiplication of c1 and decimated c2 using an exclusive-or (EOR) operation. The final step is the multiplication by +1 or -1, depending on whether it is an even or odd sample. This step is also performed using an EOR operation with 0xAAAA. Thus, for each 16-bit sample of PN code, 16 chip segments of complex scrambling code are formed. Finally, the complex scrambling code is mapped into real values and stored into the memory buffer as interleaved IQ samples. To prevent overflow, a scaled-down version of the real-valued code (+1 or –1 to +0.5 or –0.5) is stored in memory. The mappingloop program iterates 15 times for one iteration of the mainloop program because one iteration of the code is performed while mappingloop is being set up. Example 3. Generating PN Codes ;******************************************************************************* ;* File: pn_generation.asm ;* Function: binary pn code generation for WCDMA ;* Author: Imran Ahmed ;* Version/Date: 1.0 Oct 10 2001 ;* ;* Target Processor: Star*Core 140 ;* ;* Description: ;* Module Details: ;* Registers Used: ;* d0,d1,d2,d3,d4,d5,d6,d7,d8,d9,d10,d11,d12,d13,d14,d15 ;* r0 ;* entry : jsr ;******************************************************************************* ;* ;* Revision History: Date Change Details Initials ;* -----------------------;* ;******************************************************************************* ;----------------------------pn_generation_param.asm---------------------------;******************************************************************************* ; ;MASK16 EQU $000000FFFF ;REG2_INIT EQU $0001FFFFFF ;NUM_ITER EQU #2400 ;MASKONE EQU $0000000001 ;MASK_DECM2 EQU $0000005555 ;MASK_PN1 EQU $000000AAAA ; ;******************************************************************************* ;------------------------------WCDMA PN GENERATION-----------------------------;******************************************************************************* section .data local include ’pn_generation_param.asm’ endsec section .text local global main_pn_generation main_pn_generation type func Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 10 Freescale Semiconductor Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores [ push d6 push d7 ] [ push r6 push r7 ] move.l #REG1,r0 move.l #REG2_INIT,d7 move.l (r0),d6 move.l #CODE_IQ,r0 [ move.f #0.5,d13 move.f #-0.5,d14 ;//R0 ;//D7 ;//D6 ;//R0 points is the is the points to initial value of upper LFSR lower LFSR upper LFSR to where IQ scrambling code will be stored ;//1 scaled down by a factor of 2 to 0.5 to avoid overflow ;//-1 scaled down by a factor of 2 to -0.5 to avoid ;//overflow ;//used to keep track for decimation of c2 code clr d4 ] dosetup0 mainloop doen0 #NUM_ITER ;-------------------------generation of binary PN codes (c1 & c2) starts here-----------------a [ move.w #9,d15 ;used for offset purposes in shifting registers tfr d6,d0 ;//c1 = x0 tfr d7,d9 ;//y25 = y0 lsr d7 ;//y1 tfr d6,d1 ;//x25 = x0 ] b [ eor d7,d9 ;//y25 = yo^y1 eor d9,d0 ;//c2 = x0^y0 lsr d7 ;//y2 lsrr #3,d6 ;//x3 = x >> 3 ] c [ lsr d7 ;//y3 eor d7,d9 ;//y25 = y0^y1^y2 eor d6,d1 ;//x25 = x0^x3 lsr d6 ;//x4 ] ;---------------------------mainloop main kernel-------------------------------------falign: loopstart0 mainloop d [ eor d7,d9 lsr d7 lsrr #3,d6 tfr d6,d8 move.w #9,d15 ] ;//y25 = y0^y1^y2^y3 ;//y4 ;//x7 ;//c2 = x4 ;//used as offset in shifting [ eor d7,d8 lsrr #2,d7 and #MASK16,d1,d1 and #MASK16,d9,d9 ] ;//c2 = x4^y4 ;//y6 ;//get lower 16 bits of x25, zero high bits ;//get lower 16 bits of y25, zero high bits e f [ eor d6,d8 lsll d15,d1 lsll d15,d9 lsrr #9,d6 ;//c2 = y4^x4^x7 ;//x25 =<<9 ;//y25 =<<9 ;//x >> 16 Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 Freescale Semiconductor 11 Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores ] g [ or d1,d6 lsrr #10,d7 eor d7,d8 ] ;//x |= x25 ;//y >> 16, was at y6 ;//c2 = y4^x4^x7 ^y6 [ tfr d6,d1 tfr d6,d0 or d9,d7 lsrr #2,d6 ] ;//x25 = x0 ;//c1 = x0 ;//y |= y25 ;//x18 [ eor lsr tfr lsr ] d6,d8 d6 d7,d9 d7 ;//c2 = y4^x4^y6^x7^x18 ;//x3 ;//y25 = y0 ;//y17 = y16 >> 1 (y1) [ eor eor eor lsr ] d7,d8 d7,d9 d9,d0 d7 ;//c2 = y4^x4^y6^x7^x18^y17 ;//y25 = y0^y1 ;//c2 = x0^y0 ;//y2 [ eor lsr eor lsr ] d6,d1 d6 d7,d9 d7 ;//x25 = x0^x3 ;//x4 ;//y25 = y0^y1^y2 ;//y3 h i j k ;--------------------mapping into real values sarts here------------------------[ and #MASK_DECM2,d8.l ;//decimation of every other sample of c2 dosetup1 mappingloop ;//setup mappingloop ] asl d8,d4 ;//left shift decimated version of c2 or d4,d8 ;//or with itself, repeats one sample twice [ eor d12,d8 ;//Q part of scrambling = c1(i)*c2(i) -- eqn. 12 doen1 #15 ;//set mappingloop counter to 15 and #MASKONE,d12,d2 ;//extract c1’s least sig. bit asr d12,d12 ;//shift out the c1 bit already checked ] [ eor #MASK_PN1,d8.l ;//Q part of scrambling [c1(i)*c2(i)] * +1 and -1 respecively tsteq d2 tfr d13,d10 ;//-- eqn. 12 ;//test c1’s bit for 0 or 1 ;//I part of scram. code, assume c1==0, map into real value 1, and #MASKONE,d8,d3 ] [ asr d8,d8 tfrf d14,d10 ;//i.e. put 0.5 ;//extracts c2’s least sig. bit ;//extracts c2’s least sig. bit ;//I part of scram. code, if c1==1, map into real value - 1, tsteq d3 tfr d13,d11 ;//i.e. put -0.5 ;//test c2’s bit for 0 or 1 ;//assume c2==0, map into real value 1, i.e. put 0.5 Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 12 Freescale Semiconductor Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores ] loopstart1 mappingloop [ tfrf d14,d11 and #MASKONE,d12,d2 asr d12,d12 ] [ moves.2f d10:d11,(r0)+ ;//if c2==1, map into real value -1, i.e. put 0.5 ;//extract c1’s least sig. bit ;//shift out the c1 bit already checked ;//move I and Q scrambling code into memory buffer, increment tsteq d2 tfr d13,d10 ;//buffer ;//test c1’s bit for 0 or 1 ;//I part of scram. code, assume c1==0, map into real value 1, and #MASKONE,d8,d3 asr d8,d8 ] [ tfrf d14,d10 ;//i.e. put 0.5 ;//extracts c2’s least sig. bit ;//extracts c2’s least sig. bit ;//I part of scram. code, if c1==1, map into real value - 1, tsteq d3 tfr d13,d11 ] loopend1 tfrf d14,d11 moves.2f d10:d11,(r0)+ ;//i.e. put -0.5 ;//test c2’s bit for 0 or 1 ;//assume c2==0, map into real value 1, i.e. put 0.5 ;//if c2==1, map into real value -1, i.e. put 0.5 ;//move I and Q scrambling code into memory buffer, increment ;//buffer loopend0 [ pop r6 pop r7 ] [ pop d6 pop d7 ] rts endsec 3.4 Complex Scrambling of an IQ/Code Multiplexed Signal This section describes in detail how complex scrambling code is formed on the SC140 DSP core, and also describes the process of actual complex scrambling of an I/Q code multiplexed signal. With its four ALUs, the SC140 core can compute complex numbers and perform several different operations very efficiently. Imposing one constraint on the incoming complex signal is required to ensure that all entries of the incoming I-Q/code multiplexed signal are less than one to help prevent overflow. After complex scrambling, the final output signal is scaled down by a factor of 2 and stored in memory. After the complex signal has been formed, it is time for scrambling the received data. This function carries out the complex scrambling operation according to Equation 16. The received I-Q/code multiplexed signal is multiplied by the complex scrambling code, and the Output_IQ is stored in memory. Following is the flow of the assembly code in Example 4 for generating the complex scrambling sequence from previously-generated binary PN code and scrambling the received data: 1. START mainloop #38400. 2. Read the I and Q, complex scrambling code from memory, 1-word sample at a time. Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 Freescale Semiconductor 13 Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores 3. Read the I and Q, input signal data from memory, 1-word sample at a time. 4. Perform the scrambling of the input data signal, according to Equation 16. 5. Store the I-Q/code interleaved complex scrambled signal into memory. 6. END mainloop. Example 4. Complex Scrambling of an I-Q/code Multiplexed Signal ;******************************************************************************* ;* ;* File: cmplx_scrambling.asm ;* Function: formation of complex scrambling code and scrambling of ;* received I-Q/code multiplexed signal for WCDMA ;* Author: Imran Ahmed ;* Version/Date: 1.0 Oct 10 2001 ;* ;* Target Processor: Star*Core 140 ;* ;* Description: ;* Module Details: ;* Registers Used: ;* d0,d1,d2,d3,d4,d5,d6,d7,d8,d9,d10,d11,d15 ;* r0,r2,r4 ;* entry : jsr ;******************************************************************************* ;* ;* Revision History: Date Change Details Initials ;* -----------------------;* ;******************************************************************************* ;--------------------------cmplx_scrambling_param.asm--------------------------;******************************************************************************* ; ;NUM_ITEREQU19199 ;//(38400-2)/2 ;INV_SQRT2 EQU #0.70710678;//1/sqrt(2) ; ;******************************************************************************* ;---------------------------WCDMA COMPLEX SCRAMBLING---------------------------;******************************************************************************* section .data local include ’cmplx_scrambling_param.asm’ endsec section .text local global main_cmplx_scrambling main_cmplx_scrambling type func [ push d6 push d7 ] [ push r6 push r7 ] Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 14 Freescale Semiconductor Software Implementation on the StarCore SC140/SC1400 Cores move.l move.l move.l move.f #INPUT_IQ,r0 #CODE_IQ,r4 #OUTPUT_IQ,r2 #INV_SQRT2,d15 ;//R0 -> received input signal ;//R4 -> complex scrambling signal ;//R2 -> IQ complex scrambled signal to be stored ;//(1/sqrt(2)), required for scrambling to keep the dosetup1 mainloop [ move.4f (r0)+,d0:d1:d2:d3 move.4f (r4)+,d4:d5:d6:d7 ;//energy of the srambled signal constant doen1 #NUM_ITER ;//move 2 input IQ samples from memory to data ;//registers ;//move 2 scrambling IQ code samples from memory to ;//data registers ] [ mpy mpy mpy mpy ] [ mac mac mac mac ] d0,d4,d8 d0,d5,d9 d2,d6,d10 d2,d7,d11 ;//(DI*SI) ;//(DI*SQ) ;//(DI*SI) ;//(DI*SQ) part part part part from from from from eqn. eqn. eqn. eqn. 16, 16, 16, 16, 1st 1st 2nd 2nd sample sample sample sample -d1,d5,d8 d1,d4,d9 -d3,d7,d10 d3,d6,d11 ;//(-(DQ*SQ)) part from eqn. 16, 1st sample ;//(DQ*SI) part from eqn. 16, 1st sample ;//(-(DQ*SQ)) part from eqn. 16, 2nd sample ;//(DQ*SI) part from eqn. 16, 2nd sample ;-------------------code and scaling to preserve the energy of the constellation---------------------[ ;-------------------code and scaling to preserve the energy of the constellation-------mpy d15,d8,d8 ;//(1/sqrt(2)) x (scrambled output I), 1st sample mpy d15,d9,d9 ;//(1/sqrt(2)) x (scrambled output Q), 1st sample mpy d15,d10,d10 ;//(1/sqrt(2)) x (scrambled output I), 2nd sample mpy d15,d11,d11 ;//(1/sqrt(2)) x (scrambled output Q), 2nd sample ] [ asl d8,d8 ;//output I scaling factor change from 4 to 2, 1st ;//sample asl d9,d9 ;//output Q scaling factor change from 4 to 2, 1st ;//sample asl d10,d10 ;//output I scaling factor change from 4 to 2, 2nd ;//sample asl d11,d11 ;//output Q scaling factor change from 4 to 2, 2nd sample ] ;----------------------------end of code to preserve energy of constellation------------------[ move.4f (r0)+,d0:d1:d2:d3 move.4f (r4)+,d4:d5:d6:d7 ;//move 2 input IQ samples from memory to data ;//registers ;//move 2 scrambling IQ code samples from memory to ;//data registers ] falign loopstart1 mainloop [ moves.4f d8:d9:d10:d11,(r2)+ ;//move 2 complex scrambled IQ samples into memory ;//buffer Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 Freescale Semiconductor 15 Results mpy d0,d4,d8 mpy d0,d5,d9 mpy d2,d6,d10 mpy d2,d7,d11 ] [ mac -d1,d5,d8 mac d1,d4,d9 mac -d3,d7,d10 mac d3,d6,d11 move.4f (r0)+,d0:d1:d2:d3 move.4f (r4)+,d4:d5:d6:d7 ;//(DI*SI) ;//(DI*SQ) ;//(DI*SI) ;//(DI*SQ) part part part part from from from from eqn. eqn. eqn. eqn. 16, 16, 16, 16, 1st 1st 2nd 2nd sample sample sample sample ;//(-(DQ*SQ)) part from eqn. 16, 1st sample ;//(DQ*SI) part from eqn. 16, 1st sample ;//(-(DQ*SQ)) part from eqn. 16, 2nd sample ;//(DQ*SI) part from eqn. 16, 2nd sample ;//move 2 input IQ samples from memory to data ;//registers ;//move 2 scrambling IQ code samples from memory to ;//data registers ] ;-------------------code and scaling to preserve the energy of the constellation--------------[ mpy d15,d8,d8 ;//(1/sqrt(2)) x (scrambled output I), 1st sample mpy d15,d9,d9 ;//(1/sqrt(2)) x (scrambled output Q), 1st sample mpy d15,d10,d10 ;//(1/sqrt(2)) x (scrambled output I), 2nd sample mpy d15,d11,d11 ;//(1/sqrt(2)) x (scrambled output Q), 2nd sample ] [ asl d8,d8 ;//output I scaling factor change from 4 to 2, 1st ;//sample asl d9,d9 ;//output Q scaling factor change from 4 to 2, 1st ;//sample asl d10,d10 ;//output I scaling factor change from 4 to 2, 2nd ;//sample asl d11,d11 ;//output Q scaling factor change from 4 to 2, 2nd sample ] ;----------------------------end of code to preserve energy of constellation------------------loopend1 moves.4f d8:d9:d10:d11,(r2)+ ;//move 2 complex scrambled IQ samples into memory ;//buffer [ pop pop ] [ pop pop ] rts r6 r7 d6 d7 endsec 4 Results The plots in Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the corresponding Matlab and StarCore DSP results for the complex scrambled signal. As these figures indicate, the StarCore DSP and the Matlab results agree. Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 16 Freescale Semiconductor Results Real part of Scrambled Signal 2 Green − DSP output Blue −− Matlab output 1.5 value of chip in constellation 1 0.5 0 −0.5 −1 −1.5 −2 1.915 1.916 1.917 1.918 1.919 1.92 1.921 chip segment number 1.922 1.923 1.924 1.925 4 x 10 Figure 4. Real Part of the Complex Scrambled Signal (Chips 19150–19250) Imaginary part of Scrambled Signal 2 Green − DSP output Blue −− Matlab output 1.5 value of chip in constellation 1 0.5 0 −0.5 −1 −1.5 −2 1.915 1.916 1.917 1.918 1.919 1.92 1.921 chip segment number 1.922 1.923 1.924 1.925 4 x 10 Figure 5. Imaginary Part of Complex Scrambled Signal (Chips 19150–19250) In Figure 4 and Figure 5, the x-axis represents the number of the chip, and the y-axis represents the magnitude of each of the chips. The StarCore DSP output is scaled up by a factor of 2 to account for the scaling factors used by the DSP in an implementation of complex scrambling code. The complex scrambled signal obtained from the DSP implementation matches the Matlab result. Figure 6 shows the signal constellation for the I-Q/code multiplexed Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 Freescale Semiconductor 17 Results signal before complex scrambling, and Figure 7 shows the signal constellation after the complex scrambling operations. The I-Q/code multiplexed signal with complex scrambling results in a rotated QPSK constellation. Figure 7 shows the resulting constellation achieved by both the Matlab and the StarCore DSP implementations. 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 −0.5 −1 −1.5 −2 −2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Figure 6. QPSK Constellation Before Complex Scrambling 2 X (Blue) − DSP output 1.5 O (Green) − Matlab output 1 0.5 0 −0.5 −1 −1.5 −2 −2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Figure 7. QPSK Constellation Map after Complex Scrambling Table 2 shows the assembly code results for PN code generation and formation of the pn_generation complex scrambling sequence function for one frame. The second row of the table shows the results for scrambling of an IQ/code multiplexed signal in the cmplx_scrambling function for one frame. Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 18 Freescale Semiconductor References Table 2. Assembly Code Results Function pn_generation cmplx_scrambling 1 Code Size (Bytes) Cycles per Frame MIPS 330 153618 15.36 124 38411 3.84 NOTES: 1. If scaling to preserve the energy of the constellation before and after complex scrambling is included, it requires 7.6 MIPS with a code size of 180 bytes. 5 References [1] R. Prasad, “An Overview of CDMA Evolution Toward Wideband CDMA,” IEEE Communications Surveys, vol. 1, no. 1, Fourth Quarter 1998. [2] B. Sklar, DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS Fundamentals and Applications. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1988. [3] H Holma and A. Toskala, WCDMA for UMTS-Radio Access For Third Generation Mobile Communications. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2001. [4] 3GPP, “TS 25.213 V3.40 (2000-12): Spreading and Modulation (FDD),” Release 1999. Scrambling Code Generation for WCDMA on the StarCore™ SC140/SC1400 Cores, Rev. 1 Freescale Semiconductor 19 How to Reach Us: Home Page: www.freescale.com E-mail: support@freescale.com USA/Europe or Locations not listed: Freescale Semiconductor Technical Information Center, CH370 1300 N. Alma School Road Chandler, Arizona 85224 +1-800-521-6274 or +1-480-768-2130 support@freescale.com Europe, Middle East, and Africa: Freescale Halbleiter Deutschland GMBH Technical Information Center Schatzbogen 7 81829 München, Germany +44 1296 380 456 (English) +46 8 52200080 (English) +49 89 92103 559 (German) +33 1 69 35 48 48 (French) support@freescale.com Japan: Freescale Semiconductor Japan Ltd. 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