e-book Transformatoren Handbuch [Englisch]

Transformer Handbook
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19. INDEX
abb power technology distribution
transformers ................................................ 6
abb-group.................................................... 6
abbreviations and acronyms ................... 182
ability to withstand short circuit currents.. 149
accessories ............................................. 104
ageing ..................................................... 117
agricultural ester...................................... 162
alarm and trip signals from the
transformer .............................................. 122
allocation of responsibilities between
supplier and purchaser............................ 110
anomalous losses.................................... 144
arc suppression reactors ........................... 47
automatic voltage regulation ................... 104
basic physics of the transformer.............. 136
basic sl units............................................ 180
bibliography ............................................. 185
built in current transformers..................... 105
bushings .................................................... 92
bushings and joints.................................. 132
cable connections...................................... 95
capacitor damping reactors ....................... 45
capitalisation of auxiliary power
consumed in the cooling equipment .......... 71
capitalisation of load loss .......................... 69
capitalisation of no load loss ..................... 66
ce marking............................................... 170
cellulose materials............................118, 160
cenelec.................................................... 186
cenelec standards ................................... 193
choice of system voltage ......................... 136
combustible gas detector ........................ 107
commissioning......................................... 115
common rules for power installations
exceeding 1 kv ........................................ 201
common transformer features ..................... 8
comparison between ieee/ansi
standards and iec standards ................... 187
condenser bushings .................................. 93
conductor materials ................................. 159
connecting transformer terminals
to the networks ........................................ 113
contributors ............................................. 184
convertor station........................................ 28
convertor transformer ................................ 33
coolers................................................96, 133
copyright note.......................................2, 212
core materials.......................................... 159
cores ......................................................... 77
core-type ..................................................... 9
corrugated tanks........................................ 97
current limiting reactors ............................. 42
customer review of the management
systems ..................................................... 60
d-connection............................................ 157
declaration of conformity ......................... 171
declaration of conformity (doc) ................ 182
definition of power rating
(rated kilovoltamperes)............................ 187
degrees of protection against
solid objects ............................................ 172
degrees of protection against water ........ 172
dehydrating breathers ............................. 105
dielectric stress.......................................... 18
dielectric testing....................................... 188
differential protection ............................... 121
dimethyl silicone ...................................... 162
disposal after use .................................... 135
distribution of energy ................................... 7
Transformer Handbook Page 210
distribution transformer accessories ........ 109
doc........................................................... 171
documentation ......................................... 116
drives transformer...................................... 15
dry type...................................................... 14
dry-type transformers............................... 134
earth quake withstand ability ..................... 91
earthing.................................................... 115
earthing systems ..................................... 208
earthing transformers (neutral couplers).... 46
eddy current losses.................................. 143
effect of electromagnetic fields
on humans............................................... 180
efficiency.................................................. 141
electrical and magnetic quantities............ 180
electrical clearances in air ....................... 113
electromagnetic compatibility................... 177
electromagnetic disturbances
on transformers ....................................... 177
electromagnetic field in the vicinity
of transformers ........................................ 179
electromagnetic induction ............................ 8
emc.......................................................... 177
energizing ................................................ 115
environment............................................... 60
equipment................................................ 202
equivalent diagram .................................. 138
erection at site ......................................... 113
fans............................................................ 97
fault localisation advice,
dry type transformer................................. 127
fault localisation advices
oil immersed transformers ....................... 128
feedback .................................................. 184
flow indicator............................................ 107
fluids ........................................................ 161
forced oil, forced air heat exchangers........ 97
foreword....................................................... 2
frequency................................................. 121
frequency variation .................................. 179
function of transformer protective
equipment................................................ 131
fundamental requirements ....................... 201
furnace transformer ................................... 32
gas actuated relay ................................... 104
gas bubbles ............................................... 18
gaskets .................................................... 134
general electrotechnical formulas ............ 181
generator step up transformer ................... 18
handling, lifting......................................... 111
harmonics ................................................ 177
high current bushings ................................ 95
hse, health, safety and environment .......... 60
hvdc transformers ...................................... 28
identifying terminals ................................. 173
iec ............................................................ 185
iec standards ........................................... 190
ieee standards ......................................... 186
ieee standards ......................................... 196
incoterms ................................................. 110
indoor installations in electrical
power systems......................................... 204
industrial transformers ............................... 32
information required with enquiry
and order ................................................... 73
inrush currents ......................................... 144
inspection during operation...................... 125
inspection in de-energised condition ....... 125
installation........................................ 110, 202
installation and commissioning ................ 110
insulation ................................................. 201
insulation materials.................................. 160
insulation resistance................................ 114
interharmonics......................................... 178
internal overvoltages caused by high
frequency oscillations .............................. 168
introduction.................................................. 6
investigation of transformer disturbances 127
ip-classification ........................................ 171
landfill ...................................................... 135
large distribution transformers ................... 10
lca............................................................ 135
ldt .............................................................. 10
life cycle assessment (lca) ...................... 135
lifetime..................................................... 117
lightning impulse........................................ 17
limitation of temporary overvoltages........ 165
limitation of transient overvoltages .......... 167
line-feeder transformers ............................ 35
liquid conservator with
rubber diaphragm .................................... 133
litterature ................................................. 200
load loss .................................................... 64
load losses .............................................. 146
load rejection overvoltages...................... 166
local regulations ...................................... 135
loss capitalization and optimum
transformer design .................................... 62
low voltage bushings ................................. 92
magnetic leakage field............................... 18
maintenance............................................ 126
maintenance in de-energised condition... 126
maintenance in energised condition ........ 126
mathematical symbols for
alternating-current quantities
and network quantities ............................ 182
mathematical symbols for electrical
quantities (general).................................. 181
mathematical symbols for magnetic
quantities (general).................................. 182
measurements......................................... 131
mechanical checks .................................. 114
mechanical forces ..................................... 18
mechanical forces in the windings........... 152
medium distribution transformers .............. 11
mineral oil................................................ 161
miscellaneous.......................................... 170
monitoring ............................................... 122
monitoring and control systems............... 208
motor drive unit........................................ 133
multiples and sub-multiples of units......... 180
nema ....................................................... 173
network connection ................................. 113
network transformer .................................. 12
neutral earthing reactors ........................... 44
no load (magnetising) current
and no load losses .................................. 141
no load loss ............................................... 63
normal information..................................... 73
objective ...................................................... 2
off circuit tap changer .............................. 133
off circuit tap changers .............................. 99
off-circuit/on-load tap changer ................. 114
oil filtering unit ......................................... 133
oil level indicators .................................... 106
oil preservation systems.......................... 105
oil pumps ................................................... 98
oil-water coolers ........................................ 98
on line monitor systems........................... 108
on load tap changers............................... 100
on-load tap changer ................................ 133
operation ................................................. 117
operation, monitoring and maintenance .. 117
operational safety .................................... 202
ordering copies ........................................ 184
other fluids ............................................... 162
outdoor installations................................. 203
over voltage protection ............................ 122
over voltage protection devices ............... 106
overcurrent protection.............................. 121
overcurrents............................................. 178
overvoltages ............................................ 178
overvoltages and overvoltage limitation... 164
overvoltages caused by atmospheric
phenomena.............................................. 164
overvoltages due to earth-fault ................ 165
overvoltages due to ferroresonance ........ 166
overvoltages generated within
the power system .................................... 164
padmounted transformer ..................... 11, 12
padmounted transformer ........................... 13
painted surfaces ...................................... 134
parallel operation ............................... 76, 121
pcb-contaminated oil................................ 135
phase-shifting transformers ....................... 24
physical fundamentals ............................. 136
plywood ................................................... 160
polemounted transformer........................... 13
porcelain .................................................. 160
power rating limitations .............................. 18
power transformer and oil immersed
reactor accessories.................................. 107
power transformers.................................... 17
pressure relief devices............................. 106
protection against fire .............................. 203
protection, control
and auxiliary systems .............................. 208
protective equipment ............................... 114
pt 100 element......................................... 104
pttr ............................................................... 6
pulse .......................................................... 29
quality ........................................................ 60
radiators..................................................... 96
rating plate............................................... 175
receiving the transformer at site .............. 112
recording of disturbances ........................ 131
reference temperature for load losses ..... 188
resibloc ...................................................... 15
resin........................................................... 14
reuse........................................................ 135
routine tests ............................................. 163
safety criteria ........................................... 208
safety measures ...................................... 202
safety precautions ..................................... 60
sdt.............................................................. 12
sf6 connections.......................................... 96
shell-type ..................................................... 9
short circuit requirements and testing ...... 188
short-circuit impedance............................ 146
shunt reactors ............................................ 37
single phase transformer ................... 13, 173
small distribution transformers................... 12
smoothing reactors .................................... 57
solid insulation materials.......................... 160
solid synthetic insulation materials .......... 160
sources of sound generation ................... 155
spark gaps ............................................... 106
special information..................................... 74
special precautions for dry-type
transformers ............................................ 168
special tests............................................. 163
stationary transformers .............................. 35
step-down transformer............................... 20
storage..................................................... 112
sub sea transformer................................... 16
substation .................................................... 7
Page 211 Transformer Handbook
substation and unit substation ................... 10
sudden pressure relief devices................ 106
surface protection.................................... 134
sustainability development ........................ 60
synthetic ester ......................................... 162
synthetic hydrocarbon ............................. 162
system intertie transformer ........................ 20
tank ........................................................... 90
temperature rise and load capacity ......... 120
terminal designation ................................ 173
terminals.................................................... 92
testing of transformers............................. 163
thermometers .......................................... 104
three phase transformer .......................... 174
three-phase transformer connections...... 157
tightening torque...................................... 114
traction transformer ................................... 35
transfer of responsibility .......................... 110
transferred overvoltages in transformers. 169
transformer components ........................... 92
transformer design .................................... 77
transformer liquid and insulation ............. 132
transformer materials .............................. 159
transformer sound ................................... 153
transformer types and their application........ 7
transformer-relevant standards................ 185
transient overvoltages................................ 17
transmission of energy................................. 7
transport .................................................. 111
transport wheels/skids ............................. 107
tuning (filter) reactors................................. 45
type tests ................................................. 163
uncertainty in measurements................... 188
underground transformer ........................... 17
units and conversion tables ..................... 180
vacuum cast .............................................. 14
vacuum pressure encapsulated................. 15
vacuum pressure impregnated .................. 15
voltage ratio and voltage drop (or rise) .... 138
voltage regulation equipment..................... 99
voltage unbalance ................................... 178
wind turbine ............................................... 16
windings..................................................... 80
y-connection ............................................ 157
z-connection ............................................ 157
zinc coated surfaces ................................ 134
Note:
We reserve the right to make technical changes or modify the contents of this document without prior notice.
With regard to purchase orders, the agreed particulars shall prevail.
ABB does not accept any responsibility whatsoever for potential errors and or possible lack of information
in this document.
We reserve the rights in this document and in the subject matter and illustrations contained therein.
Any reproduction – in whole or in parts – is forbidden without ABB’s prior written consent.
Reference is also made to copyright notes contained in the text, e.g. to Copyright © IEC, Geneva,
Switzerland. www.iec.ch.
ABB 2004.
Transformer Handbook Page 212
1LAC000010 - 04
Business Unit Transformers
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