Application Note

VISHAY SFERNICE
www.vishay.com
Inductive Products
Application Note
Versatile Planar Transformer - PLAC 100 SOFT
by Sebastien Marchio
This document outlines a method to design switching mode power supplies with PLAC 100 SOFT.
1. START PLAC 100 SOFT
2. LANGUAGE CHOICE
To start PLAC100 SOFT connect the USB flash drive on the
computer. PLAC100 SOFT must open automatically.
If nothing happen when you connect the USB flash drive,
double-click on “.exe”.
2 languages are usable: French and English
Choose your language:
3. GENERAL PRESENTATION OF LEAF
Choice of
supply
structure
Input data
PCB layout
of selected
solutions
Solutions
summary
Output data of selected
solution
Language
4. CHOICE OF SWITCHING MODE POWER SUPPLY STRUCTURE
Click on leaf to select power supply structure:
Revision: 16-Sep-13
Document Number: 59057
1
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
APPLICATION NOTE
Primary
winding
current and
voltage
Application Note
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Versatile Planar Transformer - PLAC 100 SOFT
5. INPUT DATA
5.1 Flyback Converter
5.2 Forward Converter
• Ve (V): Primary network minimum input voltage. 
1  Ve 100 V
• Ve (V): Primary network minimum input voltage. 
1  Ve 100 V
• Ve max. (V): Primary network maximum input voltage. 
Ve  Ve max. 100 V
• Ve max. (V): Primary network maximum input voltage. 
Ve  Ve max. 100 V
VP
Ve
NP
+
+
VP
IS
NS
Ve
VS
• VS (V): Voltage needed by the load. 
1  VS 100 V
NP
+
+
+
+
L
NS
VS
• VS (V): Voltage needed by the load. 
1  VS 100 V
VP
Ve
NP
IS
VP
IS
NS
Ve
VS
+
NP
+
IS
L
NS
VS
• F (kHz): Working frequency. 
50 kHz  F 400 kHz
• F (kHz): Working frequency. 
50 kHz  F 400 kHz
• Pmax. (W): Maximum power possible for the load.
• Pmax. (W): Maximum power possible for the load.
• VP (V): Loss voltage involved by the diode. 
0.001 V  VP 100 V
• VP (V): Loss voltage involved by the diode and choke. 
0.001 V  VP 100 V
VP
Ve
NP
+
+
VP
IS
NS
Ve
VS
• K definition:
+
NP
+
IS
L
NS
VS
5.3 Push-Pull Converter
Primary current
APPLICATION NOTE
• Ve (V): Primary network minimum input voltage. 
1  Ve 100 V
• Ve max. (V): Primary network maximum input voltage. 
Ve  Ve max. 100 V
Imag
VP
K x Imag
NP
T
+
+
+
+
NS
IS
L
VS
Ve
t (s)
• Imag (A): Magnetisation current involved by primary
transformer inductance
Note
• The PLAC 100 SOFT only confirm the viability of solution at
maximum power. The designer have to adapt the surrounding
electronic to avoid problems of energy accumulated with
minimum output power conditions.
Revision: 16-Sep-13
2
Document Number: 59057
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application Note
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Vishay Sfernice
Versatile Planar Transformer - PLAC 100 SOFT
5.5 Half Bridge Converter
• VS (V): Voltage needed by the load. 
1  VS 100 V
• Ve (V): Primary network minimum input voltage. 
1  Ve 100 V
VP
NP
+
+
+
+
• Ve max. (V): Primary network maximum input voltage. 
Ve  Ve max. 100 V
IS
L
NS
VS
VP
Ve
+
• F (kHz): Working frequency. 
50 kHz  F 400 kHz
• Pmax. (W): Maximum power possible for the load.
• VP (V): Loss voltage involved by the diode and choke. 
0.001 V  VP 100 V
VP
NP
+
+
+
+
Ve
NP
L
VS
• VS (V): Voltage needed by the load. 
1  VS 100 V
VP
IS
+
L
NS
IS
+
NS
+
Ve
VS
NP
+
NS
+
IS
L
VS
Ve
• F (kHz): Working frequency. 
50 kHz  F 400 kHz
5.4 Full Bridge Converter
• Ve (V): Primary network minimum input voltage. 
1  Ve 100 V
• Ve max. (V): Primary network maximum input voltage. 
Ve  Ve max. 100 V
+
IS
+
NS
+
NP
• VP (V): Loss voltage involved by the diode and choke. 
0.001 V  VP 100 V
VP
VP
Ve
• Pmax. (W): Maximum power possible for the load.
+
Ve
L
VS
NP
+
NS
+
IS
L
VS
• VS (V): Voltage needed by the load. 
1  VS 100 V
VP
+
APPLICATION NOTE
Ve
NP
+
NS
+
IS
L
VS
• F (kHz): Working frequency. 
50 kHz  F 400 kHz
• Pmax. (W): Maximum power possible for the load.
• VP (V): Loss voltage involved by the diode and choke. 
0.001 V  VP 100 V
VP
+
Ve
Revision: 16-Sep-13
NP
+
NS
+
IS
L
VS
3
Document Number: 59057
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application Note
www.vishay.com
Vishay Sfernice
Versatile Planar Transformer - PLAC 100 SOFT
6. OUTPUT DATA
• PCUp (W): Primary copper loss
• PCUs (W): Secondary copper loss
• Pf (W): Core loss
• PTOT (W): Power loss PTOT = Pf + PCUp + PCUs
• T °C: Increasing temperature involved by power loss
• n: Transformer efficiency
• Ve max. possible (V): Ve max. allow by the solution selected:
Green color, Ve max. possible is upper than Ve max. input data
6.1 Flyback Converter
Primary current
• Amax.: Duty-cycle
Amax. T
T
t (s)
Red color, Ve max. possible is lower than Ve max. input data
• T (s): Period T = 1/F
• NP: Primary winding turn number
• NS: Secondary winding turn number
VP
IS
6.2 Forward Converter
Ve
+
+
NS
• Amax.: Duty-cycle
VS
Ns
m = -------Np
Primary current
• m: Ratio
NP
• Al (nH): Inductance factor
• L (µH): Primary inductance
• Ic (A): Current
I
c
P max
= -------------------------------------------------0.98 x A max x V e
• 0.98: Hypothetical power efficiency used for the current
calculation
Amax. T
• Imag (A): Magnetisation current involved by primary
transformer inductance
T
t (s)
• T (s): Period T = 1/F
• NP: Primary winding turn number
• NS: Secondary winding turn number
• Imax. (A): Maximum current in primary winding
VP
Primary current
APPLICATION NOTE
Imax.
Imag
Ve
• m: Ratio
NP
+
+
IS
L
NS
VS
Ns
m = -------Np
• Al (nH): Inductance factor
• L (µH): Primary inductance
t (s)
P max
I c = -------------------------------------------------0.98 x A max x V
e
• Ip RMS (A): Primary winding root mean square current
• Ic (A): Current
•
•
•
•
• 0.98: Hypothetical power efficiency used for the current
calculation
• Imag (A): Magnetisation current involved by primary
transformer inductance
• Imax. (A): Maximum current in primary winding
Is RMS (A): Secondary winding root mean square current
Bmax. (T): Maximum magnetic flux density in the core
Rp (): Primary winding resistance at 100 °C
Rs (): Secondary winding resistance at 100 °C
Revision: 16-Sep-13
4
Document Number: 59057
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application Note
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Vishay Sfernice
Versatile Planar Transformer - PLAC 100 SOFT
• T (s): Period T = 1/F
Primary current
• NP: Primary winding turn number
• NS: Secondary winding turn number
Imax.
Imag
VP
NP
+
+
+
+
IS
L
NS
VS
Ve
T
t (s)
• Ip RMS (A): Primary winding root mean square current
• Is RMS (A): Secondary winding root mean square current
• Bmax. (T): Maximum magnetic flux density in the core
• Rp (): Primary winding resistance at 100 °C
• Rs (): Secondary winding resistance at 100 °C
• PCUp (W): Primary copper loss
• PCUs (W): Secondary copper loss
• Pf (W): Core loss
• PTOT (W): Power loss PTOT = Pf + PCUp + PCUs
• T °C: Increasing temperature involved by power loss
• n: Transformer efficiency
• Ve max. possible (V): Ve max. allow by the solution selected:
Green color, Ve max. possible is upper than Ve max. input data
• m: Ratio
Ns
m = -------N
p
• Al (nH): Inductance factor
• L (µH): Primary inductance
• Ic (A): Current
P max
I c = ------------------------------------------------------------0.98 x 2 x A max x V e
• 0.98: Hypothetical power efficiency used for the current
calculation
• Imag (A): Magnetisation current involved by primary
transformer inductance
Primary current
• Imax. (A): Maximum current in primary winding
Imax.
Imag
Red color, Ve max. possible is lower than Ve max. input data
Amax. T
t (s)
T
• Ip RMS (A): Primary winding root mean square current
6.3 Push-Pull Converter
• Is RMS (A): Secondary winding root mean square current
• Amax.: Duty-cycle
• Rp (): Primary winding resistance at 100 °C
Primary current
APPLICATION NOTE
• Bmax. (T): Maximum magnetic flux density in the core
• Rs (): Secondary winding resistance at 100 °C
• PCUp (W): Primary copper loss (for 1 winding)
• PCUs (W): Secondary copper loss (for 1 winding)
• Pf (W): Core loss
• PTOT (W): Power loss PTOT = Pf + 2PCUp + 2PCUs
T
Amax. T
• T °C: Increasing temperature involved by power loss
t (s)
• n: Transformer efficiency
• Ve max. possible (V): Ve max. allow by the solution selected:


Revision: 16-Sep-13
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Document Number: 59057
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application Note
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Vishay Sfernice
Versatile Planar Transformer - PLAC 100 SOFT
Primary current
Green color, Ve max. possible is upper than Ve max. input data
Red color, Ve max. possible is lower than Ve max. input data
Imax.
Imag
Amax. T
T
t (s)
6.4 Full Bridge Converter
• Amax.: Duty-cycle
• Ip RMS (A): Primary winding root mean square current
Primary current
• Is RMS (A): Secondary winding root mean square current
• Bmax. (T): Maximum magnetic flux density in the core
• Rp (): Primary winding resistance at 100 °C
• Rs (): Secondary winding resistance at 100 °C
• PCUp (W): Primary copper loss
• PCUs (W): Secondary copper loss (for 1 winding)
T
• Pf (W): Core loss
Amax. T
t (s)
• PTOT (W): Power loss PTOT = Pf + PCUp + 2PCUs
• T °C: Increasing temperature involved by power loss
• n: Transformer efficiency
• Ve max. possible (V): Ve max. allow by the solution selected:
Green color, Ve max. possible is upper than Ve max. input data
• T (s): Period T = 1/F
• NP: Primary winding turn number
• NS: Secondary winding turn number
VP
+
Ve
APPLICATION NOTE
• m: Ratio
NP
IS
+
NS
+
Red color, Ve max. possible is lower than Ve max. input data
L
VS
N
s
m = -------N
p
• Al (nH): Inductance factor
• L (µH): Primary inductance
• Ic (A): Current
P max
I c = ------------------------------------------------------------0.98 x 2 x A max x V e
• 0.98: Hypothetical power efficiency used for the current
calculation
• Imag (A): Magnetisation current involved by primary
transformer inductance
• Imax. (A): Maximum current in primary winding
Revision: 16-Sep-13
6
Document Number: 59057
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application Note
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Vishay Sfernice
Versatile Planar Transformer - PLAC 100 SOFT
• Ip RMS (A): Primary winding root mean square current
6.5 Half Bridge Converter
• Amax.: Duty-cycle
• Is RMS (A): Secondary winding root mean square current
• Bmax. (T): Maximum magnetic flux density in the core
Primary current
• Rp (): Primary winding resistance at 100 °C
• Rs (): Secondary winding resistance at 100 °C
• PCUp (W): Primary copper loss
• PCUs (W): Secondary copper loss (for 1 winding)
• Pf (W): Core loss
• PTOT (W): Power loss PTOT = Pf + PCUp + 2PCUs
T
Amax. T
• T °C: Increasing temperature involved by power loss
t (s)
• n: Transformer efficiency
• Ve max. possible (V): Ve max. allow by the solution selected:
Green color, Ve max. possible is upper than Ve max. input data
• T (s): Period T = 1/F
• NP: Primary winding turn number
• NS: Secondary winding turn number
Red color, Ve max. possible is lower than Ve max. input data
VP
+
Ve
• m: Ratio
+
NS
+
NP
IS
L
VS
Ns
m = -------N
p
• Al (nH): Inductance factor
• L (µH): Primary inductance
• Ic (A): Current
P max
I c = -------------------------------------------------0.98 x A max x V e
• 0.98: Hypothetical power efficiency used for the current
calculation
• Imag (A): Magnetisation current involved by primary
transformer inductance
Primary current
APPLICATION NOTE
• Imax. (A): Maximum current in primary winding
Imax.
Imag
Amax. T
Revision: 16-Sep-13
T
t (s)
7
Document Number: 59057
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application Note
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Vishay Sfernice
Versatile Planar Transformer - PLAC 100 SOFT
6.6 General Information
• Layout color
Output with
parallel strap
Output without
parallel strap
Blue
Red/green
Series strap
Parallel strap
Yellow
Green and red color with parallel straps allow to identify in the same winding the points in phases.
• Identification of direction of coupling
APPLICATION NOTE
For each elementary winding the direction of coupling is identify by a spot. For transformer, the direction of coupling is deduced
with this spots:
VP
Ve
Revision: 16-Sep-13
NP
+
+
IS
L
NS
8
VS
Document Number: 59057
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application Note
www.vishay.com
Vishay Sfernice
Versatile Planar Transformer - PLAC 100 SOFT
7. CHOKE INDUCTOR
An output choke inductor is used as a filter with this switched mode power supplies structure:
• Forward if you want forward converter
• Push-pull if you want push-pull converter
• Full Bridge if you want full bridge converter
• Half Bridge if you want half bridge converter
7.1 Choice of Transformer Solution
Click on solution which meet your needs.
7.2 Input Data
Output current signal
• Wave %
Write the maximum wave % acceptable for your application:
IS
• All the other data needed for the inductor calculation are
automatically taken from the selected transformer
solution.
Variation IS
• Click on “Choke Inductance” to start choke inductance
calculation.
t (s)
APPLICATION NOTE
Wave % =
Variation I S
---------------------------------- x 100
IS
Revision: 16-Sep-13
9
Document Number: 59057
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
Application Note
www.vishay.com
Vishay Sfernice
Versatile Planar Transformer - PLAC 100 SOFT
7.3 Output Data
Report of
supply
input data
Supply
structure
Chokes
solutions
Output
choke data
• N: Winding turn number
8. PRINT SOLUTION
• L (µH): Inductance value
To print or to save a selected solution:
• Î (A): Maxiumum current
• Click on “Preview”, a new window appear.
Output current signal
APPLICATION NOTE
Report of
transformer
output data
Î
• Click on “Print”, a new window appear.
Variation I
Print
• Choose “Landscape”.
t (s)
• B (T): Maximum magnetic flux density in the core
• Choose your printer to print or “Pdf Creator” to save the
selected solution.
• PCU (W): Copper loss
• Pf (W): Core loss
• PTOT (W): Power loss PTOT = Pf + PCU
• T °C: Increasing temperature involved by power loss
• n: Choke efficiency
Revision: 16-Sep-13
10
Document Number: 59057
For technical questions, contact: [email protected]
THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN AND THIS DOCUMENT
ARE SUBJECT TO SPECIFIC DISCLAIMERS, SET FORTH AT www.vishay.com/doc?91000
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