A4923 Datasheet

A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
Discontinued Product
These parts are no longer in production The device should not be
purchased for new design applications. Samples are no longer available.
Date of status change: January 20, 2016
NOTE: For detailed information on purchasing options, contact your
local Allegro field applications engineer or sales representative.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, revisions to the anticipated product life cycle plan
for a product to accommodate changes in production capabilities, alternative product availabilities, or market demand. The
information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC assumes no responsibility for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
Description
Features and Benefits
•Sinusoidal Drive Current
•Hall Element Inputs
•PWM Current Limiting
•Dead-time Protection
•FGO (Tach) Output
•Internal UVLO
•Thermal Shutdown Circuitry
Designed to control three-phase brushless DC motors, the
A4923 is capable of high-current gate drive for an all N-channel
power MOSFET 3-phase bridge.
Sinusoidal current control is employed via output PWM, to
minimize vibration, noise, and torque ripple.
Internal circuit protection includes thermal shutdown with
hysteresis, over-current, and dead-time protection. Special
power up sequencing is not required.
The A4923 is supplied in a 32 terminal 5×5×0.9mm QFN
package (suffix ET) with exposed pad for enhanced thermal
dissipation. This small footprint package is lead (Pb) free with
100% matte tin leadframe plating, and it is also available with
optional sidewall plating.
Packages: 32-Pin QFN (suffix ET)
Not to scale
VBB
VREG7.2
VREG3.3
VBB
HA+
Hall
VCP
CP2
HA-
CP1
HB+
Hall
HBHC+
Hall
GHA
SA
GLA
Phase A
GHB
SB
GLB
Phase B
GHC
SC
GLC
Phase C
HC-
A4923
FGO
STARTn
External
Control
LSS
BRAKE
Rsense
BLDC Motor
DIR
TEST1
TEST2
GND
Typical Application Diagram
A4923-DS
A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
Selection Guide
Part Number
Package
Packing
Sidewall Plating
A4923GETTR-T
5 mm X 5 mm, 0.90 mm nominal height QFN
1500 pieces per reel
No
A4923GETTR-R*
5 mm X 5 mm, 0.90 mm nominal height QFN
1500 pieces per reel
Yes
*Contact factory for availability
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Characteristic
Symbol
Notes
Rating
Unit
Supply Voltage
VBB
36
V
Logic Input Voltage Range
VIN
–0.3 to 6
V
Logic Outputs
VO
6
V
Junction Temperature
TJ
150
°C
Operating Ambient Temperature
Range
TA
–40 to 105
°C
Storage Temperature Range
Tstg
–55 to 150
°C
Range G
Thermal Characteristics may require derating at maximum conditions, see application information
Characteristic
Package Thermal Resistance A4923GET
Symbol
RθJA
Value
Unit
On 2-sided PCB, 1 in2 copper
Test Conditions*
50
ºC/W
On 4-layer PCB
32
ºC/W
*Additional thermal information available on the Allegro website.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
2
A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
25 STARTn
26 DIR
27 BRAKE
28 TEST1
29 FGO
30 TEST2
31 HA-
32 HB-
Pin-out Diagrams
HC- 1
HA+ 2
HB+ 3
HC+ 4
24
No Connect
23
22
No Connect
No Connect
21
LSS
VREG3.3 5
20
GLA
GND 6
VREG7.2 7
19
GLB
18
GLC
CP1 8
17
SC
GHC 16
GHB 14
SB 15
SA 13
VBB 11
GHA 12
9
CP2
VCP 10
PAD
ET Package
Terminal List Table
Name
Function
Number
Name
Function
Number
HC-
Analog hall input C
1
SC
High-side source connection C
17
HA+
Analog hall input A
2
GLC
Low-side gate drive C
18
HB+
Analog hall input B
3
GLB
Low-side gate drive B
19
HC+
Analog hall input C
4
GLA
Low-side gate drive A
20
3.3V regulator capacitor terminal
5
LSS
Low-side sense resistor connection
21
VREG3.3
Ground
6
–
No connect
22
VREG7.2
GND
7.2V regulator capacitor terminal
7
–
No connect
23
CP1
Charge pump capacitor terminal
8
–
No connect
24
CP2
Charge pump capacitor terminal
9
STARTn
Digital start input
25
VCP
Charge pump reservoir cap terminal
10
DIR
Digital direction input
26
VBB
Supply voltage
11
BRAKE
Digital brake input
27
GHA
High-side gate drive A
12
TEST1
ATE terminal, can be left open or
connected to GND
28
High-side source connection A
13
FGO
Digital motor-speed output
29
High-side gate drive B
14
TEST2
ATE terminal, can be left open or
connected to GND
30
High-side source connection B
15
HA-
Analog hall input A
31
High-side gate drive C
16
HB-
Analog hall input B
32
SA
GHB
SB
GHC
PAD
-
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
3
A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Valid at TA = 25°C, unless otherwise specified
Characteristic
Symbol
Test Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
10
–
32
V
Supply and Reference
VBB Voltage Range
VBB Supply Current
VREG3.3 Voltage
VREG7.2 Voltage
VBB
IBB
VREG3.3
I = 0 to -5 mA
VREG7.2
Gate Drive Supply, I = 0 to -24 mA
–
18
22
mA
2.9
3.3
3.5
V
6.8
7.2
7.6
V
–30
–
–
mA
VIL
0
–
0.8
V
Logic Input High Level
VIH
2.0
–
5.5
V
Logic Input Hysteresis
VHYS
–
350
–
kHz
RIN
Pull-up to internal 3.3V
34
47
60
kΩ
Logic Input Current
IIN(1)
VIN = 5 V
–
36
–
µA
IIN(0)
VIN = 0 V
–
–70
–
µA
VREG7.2 Current Limit
ILIMREG7.2
Logic Inputs
Logic Input Low Level
STARTn, DIR, BRAKE
Logic Outputs
FGO
Output Saturation Voltage
VSAT
I = -7 mA
–
0.14
0.21
V
Output Leakage
IFGO
V = 3.3 V
–
–
1
µA
Hall Input Current
IHALL
VIN = 0.2 V to 3.4 V
–1
0
1
µA
Common Mode Input Range
VCMR
0.2
–
3.4
V
AC Input Voltage Range
VHALL
50
–
–
mVp-p
Hall Digital Filter Time
tHALL
–
1.6
–
µs
Halls
Gate Drive
PWM Carrier Frequency
fPWM
Current Limit Input Threshold
VLSS
Threshold on LSS terminal
Gate Drive Output Voltage
VGS
IGATE = -2 mA
6.0
6.9
–
V
Gate Drive Source Current
IGSRC
VGX = 4 V
-21
-30
-39
mA
Gate Drive Sink Current
IGSNK
VGX = 4 V
50
70
90
mA
Gate Pulldown, Passive
RPULLDOWN
–
300
–
kΩ
Dead Time
tDEAD
1460
–
1880
µs
Fixed Off-time
tOFF
21.0
–
27.5
µs
tBLANK
720
–
880
µs
LSS Digital Filter Time
19
20
21
kHz
216
240
256
mV
Protection
Thermal Shutdown Temperature
TJTSD
–
130
–
°C
Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis
DTJTSD
–
10
–
°C
VBB UVLO Threshold
VUVLO
–
7.0
7.85
V
VBB UVLO Hysteresis
VUVLOHYST
0.5
0.75
1.0
V
Rising VBB
NOTES:
1. Typical Data is for design information only.
2. Negative current is defined as coming out of (sourcing) the specified device terminal.
3. Specifications over operating temperature range are assured by design and characterization.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
4
A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
VReg7.2
VReg3.3
VBB
VBB
HA+
Reg
7.2 V
HA-
Reg
3.3 V
HB+
HB-
Hall
Time
Filter
VCP
Trap
Decode
&
Direction
Detection
HALL A, B, C
VBB
Monitor
Charge
Pump
CP2
CP1
Reg 7.2 V
Driver
Control
&
Mode
Selection
HC+
Sine Drive
PWM
Generation
HC-
GHA
SA
GLA
GHB
Dead
Time
Gate
Driver
SB
GLB
FGO
GHC
20 kHz PWM
SC
STARTn
GLC
Parallel
Control
Register
BRAKE
OVERCURRENT
Time
Filter
1.2 V
5X
DIR
+
2.5 MHz OSC
TEST1
TEST2
LSS
40 MHz PLL
GND
Functional Block Diagram
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
5
A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
Functional Description
STARTn
The STARTn terminal is the active-low start/stop logic input.
(low = start, high = all gate drive outputs off). Internally pulled
up to VREG3.3.
the enabled low-side driver, turns on the corresponding high side
driver, and the motor current recirculates through the high-side
drivers.
ITRIP = 240 mV / RSENSE
BRAKE
Hall Inputs
The BRAKE terminal is the active-high logic input to turn on all
low-side MOSFETs. The STARTn terminal must be active (low)
to enable brake. Internally pulled up to VREG3.3
Unique circuitry incorporates hysteresis which toggles polarity
with the hall input slope direction. This allows the hall comparators to operate with very small offsets and results in highly
symmetrical comparator outputs. A digital filter on the hall inputs
minimizes sensitivity to noise.
DIR
The DIR terminal is the logic input to control the motor’s direction. A logic high = FWD and a logic low = REV. Internally
pulled up to VREG3.3.
Table 1:
STARTn
BRAKEn
Fault
Function
H
X
L
All gate outputs low
L
L
L
Run
L
H
L
Brake
X
X
H
All gate outputs low
FGO
The FGO terminal is an open-drain logic output which toggles
state each hall transition.
TEST1, TEST2
The TEST1 and TEST2 terminals are for ATE testing and can be
left open or tied to GND.
Current Limit
Over-current is controlled by an internal fixed off-time PWM
control circuit. At the trip point, the sense comparator turns off
VPOS
A 0.1 μF capacitor is required between this terminal and GND to
stabilize the internal 3.3 V regulator
VREG
A 0.1 μF capacitor is required between this terminal and GND to
stabilize the low-side gate supply.
Charge Pump
Terminals CP1, CP2, and VCP generate a voltage above VBB
that is used for the high-side gate supply. A 0.1 μF capacitor is
required between the CP1 and CP2 terminals, and between VCP
and VBB.
Fault
A fault occurs when VBB, the charge pump, or HBIAS falls
below the respective UVLO threshold, the device temperature
rises above TJ, or the hall inputs indicate an invalid state (111 or
000). The outputs are disabled in the event of a fault. Faults are
not latched, and the device resumes operation once the fault is
cleared.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
6
A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
Sine Mode
When the motor is stopped, a Hall Timeout error exists since the
hall-transition timer has timed out. When a start signal is applied
via the STARTn terminal, the motor is enabled in trapezoidal
mode. When two consecutive hall transitions do not overflow the
hall-transition timer, the Hall Timeout error is cleared and the
drive switches to sinusoidal mode.
The sine modulation profile is stored in a digital look-up table.
The sine modulation value is updated from the profile 192 times
per electrical revolution. At each hall transition, which occurs
every 60° or every 32 steps, the profile index is forced to the
appropriate step. It is then advanced the successive 32 steps with
a timer set internally using the previous hall transition period.
The motor outputs are generated as follows (phase advance is not
shown to simplify this diagram):
Forward
60º
Motor
Position
from Hall
Inputs
60º
60º
60º
60º
60º
Reverse
60º
60º
60º
60º
60º
60º
HA
HB
HC
Trapezoidal
Drive (startup) Motor Terminal
Voltage
Sine Drive Internal Sine
Modulation
Signal
SA
SB
SC
SA
SB
SC
Figure 1: Motor Outputs
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
7
A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
The internal sine modulation signal is converted to a PWM signal
to drive the motor terminals. A 20 kHz carrier is modulated with
the current sine profile value and used to generate the gate drive
signals. Thus, the motor terminal voltage is a 20 kHz PWM signal with a duty cycle dependent upon the sine modulation signal.
The high- and low-side gate drivers on a given motor terminal are
enabled inverted of the other, with a dead-time added to ensure
both drivers will never be enabled at the same time. For increased
efficiency, torque ripple, and audible noise, the sine profile is
advanced 7.5º of one electrical revolution, relative to the hall
transitions.
One Electrical Revolution
64 Steps
64 Steps
64 Steps
6 Bits of
Resolution
Sine Drive Modulation Signal
Sx + VCP
High-side Gate Drive
Sx
VREG7.2
Low-side Gate Drive
0
VBB
Motor Terminal Voltage
0
Figure 2: Sine Modulation Signal
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
8
A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
Package ET, 32-Pin QFN
with Exposed Thermal Pad
0.30
5.00 ±0.05
32
1
2
0.50
32
1.00
1
2
A
5.00 ±0.05
3.40
5.00
1
33X
D
SEATING
PLANE
0.08 C
3.40
C
5.00
C
+0.05
0.25 -0.07
0.90 ±0.10
0.50 BSC
0.40 ±0.10
3.40
B
2
1
PCB Layout Reference View
For the sidewall plating PCB footprint, see:
http://www.allegromicro.com/en/Design-Center/Packaging.aspx
For Reference Only; not for tooling use
(reference JEDEC MO-220VHHD-5)
Dimensions in millimeters
Exact case and lead configuration at supplier discretion within limits shown
A Terminal #1 mark area
B Exposed thermal pad (reference only, terminal #1
identifier appearance at supplier discretion)
32
3.40
C Reference land pattern layout (reference
IPC7351 QFN50P500X500X100-33V6M);
All pads a minimum of 0.20 mm from all adjacent pads; adjust as
necessary to meet application process requirements and PCB layout
tolerances; when mounting on a multilayer PCB, thermal vias at the
exposed thermal pad land can improve thermal dissipation (reference
EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD51-5)
D Coplanarity includes exposed thermal pad and terminals
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
9
A4923
3-Phase Sinusoidal Motor Controller
Copyright ©2012-2014, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC reserves the right to make, from time to time, such departures from the detail specifications as may be required to
permit improvements in the performance, reliability, or manufacturability of its products. Before placing an order, the user is cautioned to verify that
the information being relied upon is current.
Allegro’s products are not to be used in any devices or systems, including but not limited to life support devices or systems, in which a failure of
Allegro’s product can reasonably be expected to cause bodily harm.
The information included herein is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, Allegro MicroSystems, LLC assumes no responsibility for its
use; nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
115 Northeast Cutoff
Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0036 U.S.A.
1.508.853.5000; www.allegromicro.com
10
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