Application Notes

Freescale Semiconductor
Application Note
AN4289
Rev. 2.0, 3/2011
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices
1
Overview
Basic functionality for Freescale’s family of LIN
alternator regulators is provided along with a
detailed description for practical applications.
Parameters are available by fuse providing product
alignment with your application profile.
2
Introduction
The LIN alternator regulator family of devices is
specially designed to work in adverse
environments. It supplies a current through a high
side MOSFET to the excitation coil of the alternator
and provides an internal freewheeling diode. It’s
main functionality is to keep the battery at its
nominal value, whatever the vehicle demand. The
protection and diagnosis may be programmed
using OTP (non-volatile Memory).
Additionally, these devices have a fail-safe mode
for continuous battery charging in the event LIN is
disconnected.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2011. All rights reserved.
Contents
1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.1 Protection and Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2 Operational Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3 Fuse Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4 LIN Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1 Message Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2 Bit Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5 Operational Mode Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6 Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.1 Die Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.2 Die Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.3 Assembly Recommendations . . . . . . . . 13
Introduction
2.1
Protection and Diagnostics
These devices incorporate the following protections and diagnostics, some of which are
programmable and can be reported using LIN (version 1.3) to the Engine Control Unit (ECU). For
more information please refer the device’s data sheet. (www.freescale.com)
• Thermal protection
• Thermal compensation
• Over-current detection (LIN and EXC)
• Over-voltage
• Resistive short-circuit detection (excitation to ground)
• High phase level missing
• LIN protocol errors (checksum, slave not responding, sync break error, parity)
• LIN bus time-out
2.2
Operational Modes
The LIN alternator regulator family has four operating modes: Standby mode (car parking),
Pre-excitation mode (with LIN and no phase activity), Default mode (without LIN communication
and with phases) and Normal mode.
These devices change its current consumption and capabilities depending on the operational
mode. Detailed information for each of the modes can be found in the device’s data sheet.
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
2
Freescale Semiconductor
Fuse Options
3
Fuse Options
Table 1. Version Determined Electrical Parameters
Self-Start
Self-start
Threshold
(RPM)
Phase
sensitivity
(V)
Active/
3000 / 4000 0.45/0.9/1.3
Not Active
5/1.8
3.1
Default
regulation
voltage (V)
13.5 to 15
(100 mV
steps)
Fstart
(RPM)
Fstop
(RPM)
800/1050/ 500/650/
1300/1550/1 850/1000
800/2050/23
00/2500
LRC
LRC
disable
Rates
(RPM)
0/3/
6.4/
12.3
2400/
3000/
4000/
never
Crest
Regulation
BUS
inactivity
Active /
Not Active
1.3/3
Thermal
Fault
Threshold
135/145/
150/160
thermal
Special LIN
compensation
Feature
threshold (°C)
135/145/
150/160
Active/
Not active
Alternator
Pole-Pair
Slave
Address
6/8
A/B
Self-Start Option (Active / Not Active)
NOTE
If the LIN communication recovers during self-start operation, the LIN
immediately takes the priority and new parameters coming from the
Master (ID #29) will be considered.
Self-start option allows the product to start the regulation whereas there is no LIN communication
between the master and the slave (LIN wire disconnection or ECU not functional). In that case
the product takes internal default parameters programed at Freescale production line as new
reference and apply them as soon as the phase frequency reaches the self-start threshold.
3.2
Self-start Threshold (3000 / 4000 RPM)
Two selectable values are available in the product indicating at which rotation speed the device
will start the regulation. Those values are the same whatever the number of poles of the
alternator. This is present only when the self-start option has been activated by the fuse.
The signal used for speed measurement are coming from stator windings (Phase1 and Phase2).
For more information, please refer to the application diagram in the device data sheet.
3.3
Phase Sensitivity (0.45 V / 0.9 V / 1.35 V / 1.8 V)
Phase sensitivity is linked to the phase signal voltage level coming from the stator windings.
Phase signals are naturally out of phase by 120°. The device measures, in real time, the delta
voltage between Phase 1 and Phase 2.
As soon as the voltage level difference between Phase 1 and Phase 2 reaches the desired phase
sensitivity level AND if phase frequency is high enough (fstart), the product will start regulation.
3.4
Default Regulation Voltage (From 13.5 V to 15 V with 100m V
Steps)
The default regulation voltage is used only if the LIN communication between the master and
slave (LIN wire disconnection or ECU not functional) is lost during operation. In that case, the
target regulation voltage becomes the one programmed in the default regulation voltage (in
normal operation). The target regulation voltage is the one present in LIN MID#29 coming from
the master.
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
Freescale Semiconductor
3
Fuse Options
3.5
Fstart (800, 1050, 1300, 1550, 1800, 2050, 2300, 2500 RPM)
Engine speed is reflected on the phase signals. The phase frequency depends on both engine
speed and the number of poles in the alternator. The regulator uses this information to start the
regulation voltage.
This Fstart value is used only if LIN communication is valid otherwise the self-start speed
threshold is considered.
3.6
Fstop (500, 650, 850, 1000 RPM)
This parameter indicates to the regulator at which alternator rotation speed it must stop the
battery regulation function. This value corresponds usual to vehicle stops.
3.7
LRC Rate (0, 3, 6.4, 12.3s)
Load Response Control (LRC) function is very useful when there is a high vehicle load demand
combined with a low engine speed. The LRC function controls the rotor current increase at the
specified rate up to the LRC disable frequency. This function is only active for duty cycle
increases: if there is a load unballasting, the excitation duty cycle is instantly reduced to the duty
cycle corresponding to the new battery charge state. The alternator responds to loads
commutation in the vehicle, slowly increasing the current in the rotor (EXC duty cycle). The LRC
is mainly present at idle speed to avoid stalling the car.
3.8
LRC Disable (2400, 3000, 4000, Never RPM)
This specifies the rotation speed the LRC function is disabled. Above this rotation speed the
changes in the duty cycle will be instantly done.
3.9
BUS inactivity (1.3, 3 s)
The regulator is checking continuously the activity on the BUS. If there is no LIN activity during
the specified period, the regulator takes the following actions:
• If there is phase activity coming from stator, the regulator loads the internal default
parameter and acts accordingly
• If there is no phase activity, the regulator goes back in Standby mode.
3.10
Default LIN Readout (T°, Current)
The regulator, under the MID#11 LIN command from master, can send back to the ECU junction
temperature (Tj) OR rotor current (not both). The choice must be specified through this option
and programmed at Freescale.
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
4
Freescale Semiconductor
Fuse Options
MID #11
Byte 1
7
6
5
4
3
EXC Duty Cycle
2
1
0
F_EL
F_MEC
F_HT
2
1
0
Byte 2
7
6
5
LIN Bus
Time-Out
Com
Error
4
3
Measured Current OR Temperature
Figure 1. Temperature or Current Data Location in MID#11
3.11
Thermal Fault Threshold (135, 145, 150, 160 °C)
This option is important for the ECU and indicates if the system reaches a certain level of
temperature. In that case, the ECU can takes appropriate actions and decide, for example, to
reduce current in the rotor and by consequence, duty cycle on the EXCitation pin. The global
system temperature should decrease slowly.
The information is available in the MID#11 (see below).This thermal fault threshold is
independent of the thermal shutdown specified, which stays active at the same level
(185 °C +/- 10 °C).
MID #11
Byte 1
7
6
5
4
3
EXC Duty Cycle
2
1
0
F_EL
F_MEC
F_HT
2
1
0
Byte 2
7
6
LIN Bus
Time-Out
Com
Error
5
4
3
Measured Current OR Temperature
Figure 2. Flag High Temperature Data Location in MID#11
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
Freescale Semiconductor
5
Fuse Options
3.12
Thermal Compensation Threshold (135, 145, 150, and 160 °C)
The thermal compensation feature reduces the target regulation voltage when the system
temperature increases. This compensation is activated according to threshold programmed in
the circuit.
• Four main slew rates have been defined for this function which are: -50, -100, -200 and
-400 mV/°C
• Thermal compensation starts when the temperature threshold is reached
• Four regulation target categories are defined: 10.6 - 12.1 V, 12.2 - 13.7 V, 13.8 - 15.3 V,
and 15.4 - 16 V.
• Final slope choice for the thermal compensation is chosen according to the temperature
threshold and the target regulation voltage.
Thermal compensation on the regulation voltage is clamped at 10.6V. The thermal flag is sent
back by the regulator as soon as the thermal compensation is active.
.
Slew Rate
(mV/°C)
Regulation
Voltage (V)
Temperature threshold
(degree Celsius)
135°C
145°C
150°C
160°C
10.6 V
to 12.1 V
-50
-50
-50
-100
12.2 V
to 13.7 V
-100
-100
-100
-200
13.8 V
to 15.3 V
-100
-200
-200
-400
15.4 V
to 16.0 V
-200
-200
-200
-400
Figure 3. Thermal Compensation Curves
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
6
Freescale Semiconductor
Fuse Options
3.13
Special LIN feature (Active / Not Active)
This function, when activated by fuse, allows the master (ECU) to command the regulator to not
charge the rotor (no current) whatever the conditions are in the vehicle (load, speed, battery
charge level). Sending a 10.6 V target regulation voltage in MID#29, enables this feature. If
another target regulation voltage is asked by the ECU, the product will regulate the battery at the
required voltage then, if a new 10.6 V command is sent, the EXC will be switched off.
It is important to note that if this command is programmed not active, the 10.6 V command
(EXC=0) is available only one-time after a cranking and if the ECU did not change the target
regulation from 10.6 V to other ones (up to 16 V). Once the product started a regulation cycle,
the 10.6 V command is then no more available and 10.6 V becomes a target regulation voltage
like others.
MID #29
Byte 1
7
6
X
X
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
0
Target Regulation Voltage
Byte 2
5
4
3
Ramp Cutoff
2
Ramp Rate
Byte 3
7
6
5
4
X
X
X
X
3
2
1
0
Current Limitation
Byte 4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Figure 4. Target Regulation Voltage Data Location in MID#29
3.14
Alternator Pole Pair (6, 7, 8, 9 Poles)
Depending on the machine type, and to adapt the frequency conversion on the phase signal
compared to real RPM, the alternator pole pair number must be programmed.
3.15
Crest Regulation (Active, Not Active)
Crest regulation fuse not active: in the case of a load dump, EXC is stopped when the internal
filter reaches the load dump detection threshold (~21 V typ.). The delay is given by the internal
filter (~1.0 ms).
Crest regulation fuse active: in the case of a load dump, EXC is stopped immediately when the
internal ADC reaches 21 V typical. The delay is given by the ADC conversion (~16 µs).
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
Freescale Semiconductor
7
LIN Protocol
4
LIN Protocol
The version of LIN protocol used in our product is REV 1.3 (available on demand on the Web)
4.1
Message Frame
Figure 5. LIN standard Message Frame
Three identifier field are recognized by the product which are MID#29, MID #11, MID #12.
MID#29 is a writing command (4 bytes) then MID#11 and MID#12 are read commands (2 bytes).
the data in the MID are fixed and must be respected and are organized in the following way.
MID #29
Byte 1
7
6
X
X
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
0
Target Regulation Voltage
Byte 2
7
6
5
4
3
Ramp Cutoff
2
Ramp Rate
Byte 3
7
6
5
4
X
X
X
X
3
2
1
0
Current Limitation
Byte 4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Figure 6. LIN MID#29 Writing Command
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
8
Freescale Semiconductor
LIN Protocol
MID #11
Byte 1
7
6
5
4
3
EXC Duty Cycle
2
1
0
F_EL
F_MEC
F_HT
2
1
0
Byte 2
7
6
LIN Bus
Time-Out
Com
Error
5
4
3
Measured Current OR Temperature
Figure 7. LIN MID#11 Reading Command
MID #12
Byte 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
Alternator Class
1
0
Manufacturer ID
Byte 2
7
0
6
5
0
0
4
0
3
Slave not
responding
2
Checksum
1
0
ID Parity
Fault
Sync
Break
Fault
Figure 8. LIN MID#12 Reading Command
4.2
Bit Rate
The maximum bit rate is 20 kbit/s. the minimum bit rate is 1.0 kbits/s.
Bit Rate
Slow
M edium
Fast
2400 bit/sec
9600 bit/sec
19200 bit/sec
Figure 9. LIN Bit Rate Recommendation
For more details regarding LIN protocol, please refer to the LIN Specification Package, Revision
1.3 (www.lin-subbus.de/). The physical layer parameter of the LIN, designed in the product, is
also in line with the LIN Specification Package, Revision 1.3. Conformance reports are available
upon request from the C&S group GmbH (http://www.cs-group.de/) which is an accredited
testhouse by the LIN administration.
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
Freescale Semiconductor
9
Operational Mode Examples
5
Operational Mode Examples
Cranking
LIN activity start
(at Key ON)
No LIN
activity
MID#29
MID#11
MID#12
MID#29
MID#11
LIN
Phase
Voltage
V P-H (High phase voltage)
No Rotation
100% DC
DCSTARTUP (13.5%)
LRC
EXC
0% DC
Vreg target (From MID #29)
VB+A
~12V
Stdby
mode
Pre-Excitation
mode
Normal mode
Figure 10. Standard Operation at Vehicle Cranking
1. Standby mode: no activity on phase (no alternator rotation) and no LIN communication
enabled (car parking).
2. As soon as the ignition key is ON, LIN commands are sent by the master to the regulator.
As a consequence, state machine is switching from Standby mode to Pre-excitation
Operational mode by sending 13.5% duty cycle on EXC (Rotor).
3. Finally, the cranking appears leading a battery voltage drop down to few volts. Phase
voltage appears when alternator rotation and EXC duty cycle is at 100% during 100 ms
max, to increase phase voltage level and reach high phase voltage (~8.0 V). The product
starts the regulation of the battery with LRC if programmed.
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
10
Freescale Semiconductor
Operational Mode Examples
C ra n k i n g
L IN
N o L I N a c t iv it y
S e l f s ta r t T h r e s h o l d
(3 0 0 0 o r 4 0 0 0 R P M )
N o R o t a t io n
P hase
F re q u e n c y
40% D C
(e x a m p l e )
0% D C
EXC
0% D C
V re g t a rg e t
(p ro g ra m m e d b y d e f a u l t )
V B +A
~ 12V
S td b y m o d e
S e l f-s ta r t
P h a s e a c ti v e
b u t n o L IN co m
D e fa u l t m o d e
Figure 11. Self-start Operation (No LIN Communication)
1. Standby mode: no activity on phase (no alternator rotation) and no LIN communication
enabled (car parking)
2. During cranking, the device detects phase signal, and the device is activated, but don’t
see any activity on LIN pin. It is taking as reference all default parameter programmed
and is waiting phase frequency for witch it must start the regulation.
3. As soon as the self-start threshold speed is reached (3000 or 4000 RPM), the device
starts the battery regulation.
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
Freescale Semiconductor
11
Packaging
6
6.1
Packaging
Die Dimensions
5050μm
1
BUS
6080 μm
SGND
2
PH2
PH1
3
ORIGIN (0,0)
Y Axis
4
B+A
5
EXC
6
PGND
7
SCALE = Approximately 20:1
X Axis
Figure 12. Die floor plan
Table 2. Pad Coordinates
Pad
Function
Die Coordinate
(Origin at center of Die)
X/µm
Y/µm
1
PH2
2166
2158
2
PH1
2098
1217
-1989
834
3
4
BUS
SIGNAL GROUND
(1)
-1989
0
5
B+A
1179
-840
6
EXC
1179
-1987
-367
-2631
7
(1)
POWER GROUND
Notes:
1. Signal Ground, POWER ground, and die backside must be connected all together and must be bonded
on the same pad on package lead frame to avoid any resistance path between grounds
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
12
Freescale Semiconductor
Packaging
6.2
Die Characteristics
The die is designed to be fitted into a customer designed package however, as so many wiring
configurations exist, not all may be possible from the same die design. Due to thermal
considerations, soldering is the preferred die attach method, but under some circumstances,
conductive epoxy may be acceptable.
Table 3. Physical Die Characteristics
Mechanical Data
Lenght
Bonding Pad Size
Die Size (lenght x Width)
Die Back Metal Composition
Die Back Metal Thickness, Typical
Die Top Metal Thickness, Typical
Die Top Metal Composition
Die Thickness
6.3
0.66
6.08
99.5 Al
Width
0.5
5.05
Cr/CrAg/Ag
2.1
2.0
0.5Cu
0.36
Units
mm
mm
µm
µm
%
mm
Assembly Recommendations
Values below are for information only and are based on Freescale experiments. A complete
characterization/validation by the customer is needed to fully qualify the assembly process.
Freescale will not be responsible of the customer’s assembly process.
Table 4. Mechanical Data
Mechanical Data
Wire Bonding
Description
Aluminum, 8 Mils Diameter
Assembly Process Type
Wedgebond Process
Maximum End Force to apply
320 Gr(2)
Minimum End Force to apply
180 Gr(3)
Notes:
2. To avoid any mechanical damage to the part, the end force pressure must be controlled ensuring the
assembly process and should not exceed this value.
3. Lower value could degrade wire shear performance.
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
Freescale Semiconductor
13
Packaging
6.3.1
Ground Connections
Signal Ground, Power Ground, and Die Backside must be connected all together and must be bonded on the same pad on the
package lead frame to avoid any resistance path between grounds
Figure 13. Ground Connections
LIN Alternator Regulator Devices, Rev. 2.0
14
Freescale Semiconductor
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AN4289
Rev. 2.0
5/2011
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