DATASHEET

ISL8502
®
Data Sheet
June 29, 2010
2A Synchronous Buck Regulator with
Integrated MOSFETs
FN6389.2
Features
• Up to 2A Continuous Output Current
The ISL8502 is a synchronous buck controller with internal
MOSFETs packaged in a small 4mmx4mm QFN package.
The ISL8502 can support a continuous load of 2A and has a
very wide input voltage range. With the switching MOSFETs
integrated into the IC, the complete regulator footprint can
be very small and provide a much more efficient solution
than a linear regulator.
• Integrated MOSFETs for Small Regulator Footprint
• Adjustable Switching Frequency, 500kHz to 1.2MHz
• Tight Output Voltage Regulation, ±1% Over-Temperature
• Wide Input Voltage Range, 5V ±10% or 5.5V to 14V
• Wide Output Voltage Range, from 0.6V
The ISL8502 is capable of stand alone operation or it can be
used in a master slave combination for multiple outputs that
are derived from the same input rail. Multiple slave channels
(up to six) can be synchronized. This method minimizes the
EMI and beat frequencies effect with multi-channel
operation.
• Simple Single-Loop Voltage-Mode PWM Control Design
The switching PWM controller drives two internal N-Channel
MOSFETs in a synchronous-rectified buck converter
topology. The synchronous buck converter uses
voltage-mode control with fast transient response. The
switching regulator provides a maximum static regulation
tolerance of ±1% over line, load, and temperature ranges.
The output is user-adjustable by means of external resistors
down to 0.6V.
• Undervoltage Detection
The output is monitored for undervoltage events. The
switching regulator also has overcurrent protection. Thermal
shutdown is integrated. The ISL8502 features a bi-directional
Enable pin that allows the part to pull the enable pin low
during fault detection.
Applications
• Input Voltage Feed-Forward for Constant Modulator Gain
• Fast PWM Converter Transient Response
• Lossless rDS(ON) High Side and Low Side Overcurrent
Protection
• Integrated Thermal Shutdown Protection
• Power-Good Indication
• Adjustable Soft-Start
• Start-Up with Pre-Bias Output
• Pb-free (RoHS Compliant)
• Point of Load Applications
• Graphics Cards - GPU and Memory Supplies
• ASIC Power Supplies
Pinout
• Embedded Processor and I/O supplies
ISL8502
(24 LD QFN)
TOP VIEW
VCC
PVCC
BOOT
VIN
VIN
VIN
• DSP Supplies
24
23
22
21
20
19
Ordering Information
PART
NUMBER
(Note)
PART
MARKING
TEMP.
RANGE
(°C)
PACKAGE
(Pb-free)
PKG.
DWG. #
PGOOD
1
18 VIN
SGND
2
17 PHASE
ISL8502IRZ*
EN
3
16 PHASE
SYNCH
4
M/S
5
14 PHASE
FS
6
13 PGND
*Add “-T” suffix for tape and reel. Please refer to TB347 for details on
reel specifications.
NOTE: These Intersil Pb-free plastic packaged products employ
special Pb-free material sets, molding compounds/die attach
materials, and 100% matte tin plate plus anneal (e3 termination finish,
which is RoHS compliant and compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free
soldering operations). Intersil Pb-free products are MSL classified at
Pb-free peak reflow temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free
requirements of IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
FB
SS
10
11
12
PGND
9
PGND
8
15 PHASE
PGND
7
COMP
GND
25
1
85 02IRZ
-40 to +85
24 Ld 4x4 QFN L24.4x4D
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright © Intersil Americas Inc. 2007, 2008, 2010. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
Block Diagram
VCC
PVCC
SS
PGOOD
VIN (x4)
VIN
OC
MONITOR
PVCC
2
SERIES
REGULATOR
30μA
POR
MONITOR
BIAS
SGND
PVCC
BOOT
EN
FAULT MONITORING
FS
ISL8502
VOLTAGE
MONITOR
SYNCH
M/S
GATE
DRIVE
AND
ADAPTIVE
SHOOT THRU
PROTECTION
PHASE (x4)
CLOCK
AND
OSCILLATOR
GENERATOR
OC
MONITOR
0.6V
REFERENCE
FB
COMP
PGND (x4)
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Typical Application Schematics
POWER GOOD
PGOOD
ENABLE
VIN
+
EN
VIN
5.5V TO 14V
SYNCH
BOOT
M/S
VCC
PVCC
ISL8502
VOUT
PHASE
SS
+
PGND
FS
FB
COMP
SGND
FIGURE 1. STAND ALONE REGULATOR: VIN 5.5V TO 14V
VIN
4.5V TO 5.5V
POWER GOOD
PGOOD
ENABLE
VIN
EN
+
PVCC
BOOT
VCC
SS
ISL8502
VOUT
PHASE
+
SYNCH
M/S
PGND
FS
FB
SGND
COMP
FIGURE 2. STAND ALONE REGULATOR: VIN 4.5V TO 5.5V
3
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
ISL8502 With Multiple Slaved Channels
VIN
MASTER
M/S
SS
PVCC
FS
SYNCH
RT
VIN
VOUT1
PHASE
EN
+
GND
ISL8502
ENABLE
M/S
VIN
FS
5k
RT
VOUT2
SYNCH
PHASE
EN
+
GND
ISL8502
SLAVE
M/S
VIN
FS
5k
RT
VOUTN
SYNCH
PHASE
EN
+
GND
ISL8502
SLAVE
4
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Thermal Information
VIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GND - 0.3V to +16.5V
VCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GND - 0.3V to +6.0V
Absolute Boot Voltage, VBOOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +22.0V
Upper Driver Supply Voltage, VBOOT - VPHASE . . . . . . . . . . . +6.0V
All other Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GND - 0.3V to VCC + 0.3V
Thermal Resistance
θJA (°C/W) θJC (°C/W)
QFN Package (Notes 1, 2) . . . . . . . . .
39
2.5
Maximum Junction Temperature (Plastic Package) . . . . . . +150°C
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . -65°C to +150°C
Pb-free Reflow Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see link below
http://www.intersil.com/pbfree/Pb-FreeReflow.asp
Recommended Operating Conditions
Supply Voltage on VIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5V to 14V
Ambient Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40°C to +85°C
Junction Temperature Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40°C to +125°C
CAUTION: Do not operate at or near the maximum ratings listed for extended periods of time. Exposure to such conditions may adversely impact product reliability and
result in failures not covered by warranty.
NOTES:
1. θJA is measured in free air with the component mounted on a high effective thermal conductivity test board with “direct attach” features. See
Tech Brief TB379.
2. For θJC, the “case temp” location is the center of the exposed metal pad on the package underside.
3. Minimum VIN can operate below 5.5V as long as VCC is greater than 4.5V.
4. Maximum VIN can be higher than 14V voltage stress across the upper and lower do not exceed 15.5V in all conditions.
5. Circuit requires 150ns minimum on time to detect overcurrent condition.
6. Limits established by characterization and are not production tested.
7. Parameters with MIN and/or MAX limits are 100% tested at +25°C, unless otherwise specified. Temperature limits established by characterization
and are not production tested.
Electrical Specifications
Refer to Block and Simplified Power System Diagrams and Typical Application Schematics. Operating
Conditions Unless Otherwise Noted: VIN = 12V, or VCC = 5V ±10%, TA = -40°C to +85°C. Typical are at
TA = +25°C.
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
(Note 7)
TYP
MAX
(Note 7) UNITS
VIN SUPPLY
Input Voltage Range
VIN
VIN tied to VCC
Input Operating Supply Current
IQ
5.5
(Note 3)
14
(Note 4)
V
4.5
5.5
V
7
mA
1.25
2
mA
5.0
5.5
V
VFB = 1.0V
IQ_SBY
EN tied to GND, VIN = 14V
VCC Voltage
VPVCC
VIN > 5.6V
4.5
Maximum Output Current
IPVCC
VIN = 12V
50
Input Standby Supply Current
SERIES REGULATOR
VCC Current Limit
VIN = 12V, VCC shorted to PGND
mA
300
mA
POWER-ON RESET
Rising VCC POR Threshold
4.2
4.4
4.49
V
Falling VCC POR Threshold
3.85
4.0
4.10
V
ENABLE
Rising Enable Threshold Voltage
VEN_Rising
2.7
V
Falling Enable Threshold Voltage
VEN_Fall
2.3
V
Enable Sinking Current
IEN
500
µA
OSCILLATOR
5
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Electrical Specifications
Refer to Block and Simplified Power System Diagrams and Typical Application Schematics. Operating
Conditions Unless Otherwise Noted: VIN = 12V, or VCC = 5V ±10%, TA = -40°C to +85°C. Typical are at
TA = +25°C. (Continued)
PARAMETER
MIN
(Note 7)
TYP
RT = 96kΩ
400
500
600
kHz
RT = 40kΩ
960
1200
1440
kHz
SYMBOL
PWM Frequency
fOSC
TEST CONDITIONS
MAX
(Note 7) UNITS
FS pin tied to VCC
800
kHz
Ramp Amplitude
ΔVOSC
VIN = 14V
1.0
V
Ramp Amplitude
ΔVOSC
VIN = 5V
0.470
V
Modulator Gain
VVIN/ΔVOSC
8
-
By Design
Maximum Duty Cycle
DMAX
fOSC = 500kHz
88
%
Maximum Duty Cycle
DMAX
fOSC = 1.2MHz
76
%
REFERENCE VOLTAGE
Reference Voltage
VREF
0.600
System Accuracy
-1.0
V
+1.0
%
±80
±200
nA
20
30
40
µA
0.8
1.0
1.2
V
FB Pin Bias Current
SOFT-START
Soft-Start Current
ISS
Enable Soft-Start Threshold
Enable Soft-Start Threshold Hysteresis
12
Enable Soft-Start Voltage High
2.8
3.2
mV
3.8
V
ERROR AMPLIFIER
DC Gain
Gain-Bandwidth Product
GBWP
Maximum Output Voltage
3.9
Slew Rate
SR
88
dB
15
MHz
4.4
V
5
V/µs
INTERNAL MOSFETS
Upper MOSFET rDS(ON)
rDS_Upper
VCC = 5V
180
mΩ
Lower MOSFET rDS(ON)
rDS_Lower
VCC = 5V
90
mΩ
VFB/VREF
Rising Edge Hysteresis 1%
107
111
115
%
Falling Edge Hysteresis 1%
86
90
93
%
PGOOD
PGOOD Threshold
PGOOD Rising Delay
tPGOOD_DELAY
PGOOD Leakage Current
fOSC = 500kHz
250
VPGOOD = 5.5V
PGOOD Low Voltage
VPGOOD
PGOOD Sinking Current
IPGOOD
ms
5
0.10
µA
V
0.5
mA
PROTECTION
Positive Current Limit
IPOC_peak
6
IOC from VIN to PHASE (Notes 5, 6)
(TA = 0°C to +85°C)
2.1
3.5
4.5
A
IOC from VIN to PHASE (Notes 5, 6)
(TA = -40°C to +0°C)
2.0
3.4
4.0
A
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Electrical Specifications
Refer to Block and Simplified Power System Diagrams and Typical Application Schematics. Operating
Conditions Unless Otherwise Noted: VIN = 12V, or VCC = 5V ±10%, TA = -40°C to +85°C. Typical are at
TA = +25°C. (Continued)
PARAMETER
MIN
(Note 7)
TYP
IOC from PHASE to PGND (Notes 5, 6)
(TA = 0°C to +85°C)
2.2
3.0
3.5
A
IOC from PHASE to PGND (Notes 5, 6)
(TA = -40°C to +85°C)
1.9
2.8
3.7
A
76
80
84
%
SYMBOL
Negative Current Limit
INOC_peak
TEST CONDITIONS
VFB/VREF
Undervoltage Level
MAX
(Note 7) UNITS
Thermal Shutdown Setpoint
TSD
150
°C
Thermal Recovery Setpoint
TSR
130
°C
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 2.5V, IO = 2A, fs = 500kHz, L = 4.7µH, CIN = 20µF, COUT = 100µF + 22µF,
TA = +25° C, unless otherwise noted.
100
100
90
90
80
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
Typical Performance Curves
VOUT = 2.5V
70
VOUT = 1.8V
VOUT = 3.3V
60
50
VOUT = 5.0V
70
VOUT = 3.3V
VOUT = 2.5V
60
VOUT = 1.8V
50
40
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
40
0.0
2.5
0.5
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
FIGURE 3. EFFICIENCY vs LOAD (VIN = 5V)
FIGURE 4. EFFICIENCY vs LOAD (VIN = 12V)
0.6026
1.206
14VIN
1.205
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
0.6025
0.6024
0.6023
14VIN
0.6022
0.6021
9VIN
0.6020
0.6019
9VIN
1.203
1.202
5VIN
1.201
5VIN
0
1.204
1
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
2
FIGURE 5. VOUT REGULATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 0.6V, 500kHz)
7
1.200
0
1
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
2
FIGURE 6. VOUT REGULATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 1.2V, 500kHz)
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Typical Performance Curves
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 2.5V, IO = 2A, fs = 500kHz, L = 4.7µH, CIN = 20µF, COUT = 100µF + 22µF,
TA = +25° C, unless otherwise noted. (Continued)
1.520
1.815
1.815
5VIN
1.814
5VIN
1.516
1.514
9VIN
14VIN
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
1.518
1.512
1.814
1.813
1.813
14VIN
1.812
9VIN
1.812
1.811
1.811
1.510
0
1
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
1.810
2
FIGURE 7. VOUT REGULATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 1.5V, 500kHz)
0
1
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
2
FIGURE 8. VOUT REGULATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 1.8V, 500kHz)
3.355
2.515
3.354
3.353
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
2.513
14VIN
2.511
2.509
5VIN
9VIN
3.352
5VIN
3.351
14VIN
3.350
3.349
3.348
3.347
2.507
9VIN
3.346
2.505
0
1
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
3.345
2
FIGURE 9. VOUT REGULATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 2.5V, 500kHz)
0
1
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
2
FIGURE 10. VOUT REGULATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 3.3V, 500kHz)
5.030
2.0
1.8
1.6
POWER DISSIPATION (W)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
5.028
7VIN
5.026
5.024
5.022
14VIN
1.2
14VIN
1.0
0.8
0.6
5VIN
0.4
9VIN
0.2
9VIN
5.020
0
1.4
1
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
2
FIGURE 11. VOUT REGULATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 5V, 500kHz)
8
0.0
0
1
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
2
FIGURE 12. POWER DISSIPATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 0.6V,
500kHz)
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Typical Performance Curves
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 2.5V, IO = 2A, fs = 500kHz, L = 4.7µH, CIN = 20µF, COUT = 100µF + 22µF,
TA = +25° C, unless otherwise noted. (Continued)
2.5
2.0
1.8
2.0
1.4
1.2
1.0
14VIN
0.8
0.6
5VIN
POWER DISSIPATION (W)
POWER DISSIPATION (W)
1.6
0.4
14VIN
0.5
5VIN
9VIN
0.0
0.0
0
1
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
2
2.0
2.0
POWER DISSIPATION (W)
2.5
1.5
14VIN
1.0
5VIN
0
1
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
1.5
14VIN
1.0
0.5
5VIN
0.0
0
2
1
2
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
FIGURE 15. POWER DISSIPATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 1.8V,
500kHz)
FIGURE 16. POWER DISSIPATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 2.5V,
500kHz)
2.5
2.0
2.0
POWER DISSIPATION (W)
2.5
14VIN
1.5
2
9VIN
9VIN
0.0
1
FIGURE 14. POWER DISSIPATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 1.5V,
500kHz)
2.5
0.5
0
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
FIGURE 13. POWER DISSIPATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 1.2V,
500kHz)
POWER DISSIPATION (W)
1.0
9VIN
0.2
POWER DISSIPATION (W)
1.5
1.0
0.5
14VIN
1.5
1.0
0.5
7VIN
5VIN
9VIN
0.0
9VIN
0.0
0
1
2
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
FIGURE 17. POWER DISSIPATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 3.3V,
500kHz)
9
0
1
2
OUTPUT LOAD (A)
FIGURE 18. POWER DISSIPATION vs LOAD (VOUT = 5V,
500kHz)
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Typical Performance Curves
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 2.5V, IO = 2A, fs = 500kHz, L = 4.7µH, CIN = 20µF, COUT = 100µF + 22µF,
TA = +25° C, unless otherwise noted. (Continued)
5.5
5.2
5.4
NO LOAD
5.1
5.3
5.2
VCC (V)
VCC (V)
5.0
4.9
4.8
5.1
5.0
4.9
100mA LOAD
4.8
4.7
4.7
4.6
4.5
4.6
4.5
0
50
100
150
I VCC (mA)
200
250
300
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
VIN (V)
11
12
13
14 15
FIGURE 20. VCC REGULATION vs VIN
FIGURE 19. VCC LOAD REGULATION
PHASE1
5V/DIV
PHASE1
0.5µs
5V
5V/DIV
PHASE2
5V/DIV
VOUT1 RIPPLE
20mV/DIV
VOUT2 RIPPLE
20mV/DIV
VOUT1 RIPPLE
20mV/DIV
IL1
0.5A/DIV
SYNCH1
2V/DIV
FIGURE 21. MASTER TO SLAVE OPERATION
FIGURE 22. MASTER OPERATION AT NO LOAD
PHASE1
10V/DIV
PHASE1
5V/DIV
VOUT1 RIPPLE
20mV/DIV
VOUT1 RIPPLE
20mV/DIV
IL1
1A/DIV
IL1
1A/DIV
SYNCH1
5V/DIV
FIGURE 23. MASTER OPERATION WITH FULL LOAD
10
SYNCH1
5V/DIV
FIGURE 24. MASTER OPERATION WITH NEGATIVE LOAD
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Typical Performance Curves
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 2.5V, IO = 2A, fs = 500kHz, L = 4.7µH, CIN = 20µF, COUT = 100µF + 22µF,
TA = +25° C, unless otherwise noted. (Continued)
EN1
5V/DIV
EN1
5V/DIV
VOUT1
1V/DIV
VOUT1
0.5V/DIV
2V PRE-BIASED
IL1
1A/DIV
IL1
2A/DIV
SS1
2V/DIV
FIGURE 25. SOFT-START AT NO LOAD
SS1
2V/DIV
FIGURE 26. START-UP WITH PRE-BIASED
PHASE1
10V/DIV
EN1
5V/DIV
VOUT1
1V/DIV
VOUT1
1V/DIV
IL1
1A/DIV
IL1
1A/DIV
SS1
2V/DIV
FIGURE 27. SOFT-START AT FULL LOAD
PGOOD1
5V/DIV
FIGURE 28. POSITIVE OUTPUT SHORT CIRCUIT
PHASE1
10V/DIV
VOUT1
2V/DIV
PHASE1
10V/DIV
VOUT1
2V/DIV
IL1
2A/DIV
IL1
2A/DIV
SS1
2V/DIV
PGOOD1
5V/DIV
FIGURE 29. POSITIVE OUTPUT SHORT CIRCUIT (HICCUP
MODE)
11
FIGURE 30. NEGATIVE OUTPUT SHORT CIRCUIT
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Typical Performance Curves
PHASE1
10V/DIV
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 2.5V, IO = 2A, fs = 500kHz, L = 4.7µH, CIN = 20µF, COUT = 100µF + 22µF,
TA = +25° C, unless otherwise noted. (Continued)
VOUT1
1V/DIV
PHASE1
5V/DIV
IL1
1A/DIV
VOUT1 RIPPLE
50mV/DIV
IL1
2A/DIV
IOUT1
2A/DIV
PGOOD1
5V/DIV
FIGURE 31. RECOVER FROM POSITIVE SHORT CIRCUIT
FIGURE 32. LOAD TRANSIENT
Functional Pin Descriptions
PGOOD (Pin 1)
PGOOD is an open drain output that will pull to low if the
output goes out of regulation or a fault is detected. PGOOD
is equipped with a fixed delay upon output power-up. The
delay is approximately 250ms at switching frequency
500kHz and 108ms at 1.2MHz.
As a master or a stand alone device, tie this pin directly to
the VCC pin. Do not short M/S pin to GND.
FS (Pin 6)
SGND (Pin 2)
This pin provides oscillator switching frequency adjustment.
By placing a resistor (RT) from this pin to GND, the switching
frequency can be programmed as desired between 500kHz
and 1.2MHz as shown in Equation 1.
The SGND terminal of the ISL8502 provides the return path
for the control and monitor portions of the IC.
48000
R T [ kΩ ] = -----------------------------f OSC [ kHz ]
EN (Pin 3)
The Enable pin is a bi-directional pin. If the voltage on this pin
exceeds the enable threshold voltage, the part is enabled. If a
fault is detected, the EN pin will be pulled low via internal
circuitry for a duration of 4 soft-start periods. For automatic
start-up, use 10kΩ to 100kΩ pull-up resistor connecting to
VCC.
SYNCH (Pin 4)
This is a bi-directional pin that is used to synchronize slave
devices to the Master device. As a Master device, this pin
outputs the clock signal to which the slave devices
synchronize. As a slave device, this pin is an input to receive
the clock signal from the master device.
If configured as a slave device, the ISL8502 will be disabled
if there is no clock signal from the master device on the
SYNCH pin.
Leave this pin unconnected if the IC is used in stand alone
operation.
M/S (Pin 5)
As a slave device, tie a 5kΩ resistor between this pin and
ground.
12
(EQ. 1)
Tying the FS pin to the VCC pin will force the switching
frequency to 800kHz.
Using resistors with values below 40kΩ (1.2MHz) or with
values higher than 97kΩ (500kHz) may damage the
ISL8502.
COMP (Pin 7) and FB (Pin 8)
The switching regulator employs a single voltage control
loop. FB is the negative input to the voltage loop error
amplifier. The output voltage is set by an external resistor
divider connected to FB. With a properly selected divider, the
output voltage can be set to any voltage between the power
rail (reduced by converter losses) and the 0.6V reference.
Loop compensation is achieved by connecting an AC
network across COMP and FB.
The FB pin is also monitored for undervoltage events.
SS (Pin 9)
Connect a capacitor from this pin to ground. This capacitor,
along with an internal 30µA current source, sets the soft-start
interval of the converter, tSS as shown in Equation 2.
C SS [ μF ] = 50 ⋅ t SS [ S ]
(EQ. 2)
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
PGND (Pins 10-13)
These pins are used as the ground connection of the power
train.
PHASE (Pins 14-17)
These pins are the PHASE node connections to the inductor.
These pins are connected to the source of the control
MOSFET and the drain of the synchronous MOSFET.
VIN (Pins 18-21)
Connect the input rail to these pins. These pins are the input
to the regulator as well as the source for the internal linear
regulator that supplies the bias for the IC.
It is recommended that the DC voltage applied to the VIN
pins does not exceed 14V. This recommendation allows for
transient spikes and voltage ringing to occur while not
exceeding Absolute Maximum Ratings.
BOOT (Pin 22)
This pin provides ground referenced bias voltage to the
upper MOSFET driver. A bootstrap circuit is used to create a
voltage suitable to drive the internal N-channel MOSFET.
The boot diode is included within the ISL8502.
PVCC (Pin 23)
This pin is the output of the internal linear regulator that
supplies the bias and gate voltage for the IC. A minimum
4.7µF decoupling capacitor is recommended.
VCC (Pin 24)
This pin supplies the bias voltage for the IC. This pin should
be tied to the PVCC pin through an RC low pass filter. A 10Ω
resistor and 0.1µF capacitor is recommended.
Functional Description
Initialization
The ISL8502 automatically initializes upon receipt of input
power. The Power-On Reset (POR) function continually
monitors the voltage on the VCC pin. If the voltage on the
EN pin exceeds its rising threshold, then the POR function
initiates soft-start operation after the bias voltage has
exceeded the POR threshold.
If the input voltage is 5V ±10%, then tie the VIN pins and the
VCC pin to the input rail. The ISL8502 will use the 5V rail as
the bias. A decoupling capacitor should be placed as close
as possible to the VCC pin.
Multi-Channel (Master/Slave) Operation
The ISL8502 can be configured to function in a
multi-channel system. The “ISL8502 With Multiple Slaved
Channels” on page 4 shows a typical configuration for the
multi-channel system.
In the multi-channel system, each ISL8502 IC regulates a
separate rail while sharing the same input rail. By configuring
the devices in a master/slave configuration, the clocks of
each IC can be synchronized.
There can only be one master IC in a multi-channel system.
To configure an IC as the master, the M/S pin must be
shorted to the VCC pin. The SYNCH pins of all the ISL8502
controller ICs in the multi-channel system must be tied
together. The frequency set resistor value (RT) used on the
master device must be used on every slave device.
Each slave device must have a 5kΩ resistor connecting it
from M/S pin to ground.
The master device and all the slave devices can have their EN
pins tied to an enable ‘bus’. Since the EN pin is bi-directional,
this allows for options on how each IC is tied to the enable ‘bus’.
If the EN pin of any ISL8502 is tied directly to the enable bus,
then that device will be capable of disabling all the other
devices that have their EN pins tied directly to the enable bus. If
the EN pin of an ISL8502 is tied to the enable bus through a
diode (anode tied to ISL8502 EN pin, cathode tied to enable
bus) then this part will not disable other devices on the enable
bus if it disables itself for any reason.
If the Master device is disabled via the EN pin, it will continue
to send the clock signal from the SYNCH pin. This allows
slave devices to continue operating.
Fault Protection
The ISL8502 monitors the output of the regulator for
overcurrent and undervoltage events. The ISL8502 also
provides protection from excessive junction temperatures.
Stand Alone Operation
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
The ISL8502 can be configured to function as a stand alone
single channel voltage mode synchronous buck PWM
voltage regulator. The “Typical Application Schematics” on
page 3 show the two configurations for stand alone
operation.
The overcurrent function protects the switching converter from
a shorted output by monitoring the current flowing through
both the upper and lower MOSFETs.
The internal series linear regulator requires at least 5.5V to
create the proper bias for the IC. If the input voltage is
between 5.5V and 15V, simply connect the VIN pins to the
input rail and the series linear regulator will create the bias
for the IC. The VCC pin should be tied to a capacitor for
decoupling.
13
Upon detection of any overcurrent condition, the upper
MOSFET will be immediately turned off and will not be
turned on again until the next switching cycle. Upon
detection of the initial overcurrent condition, the Overcurrent
Fault Counter is set to 1 and the Overcurrent Condition Flag
is set from LOW to HIGH. If, on the subsequent cycle,
another overcurrent condition is detected, the OC Fault
Counter will be incremented. If there are eight sequential OC
fault detections, the regulator will be shut down under an
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Overcurrent Fault Condition and the EN pin will be pulled
LOW. An Overcurrent Fault Condition will result with the
regulator attempting to restart in a hiccup mode with the
delay between restarts being 4 soft-start periods. At the end
of the fourth soft-start wait period, the fault counters are
reset, the EN pin is released, and soft-start is attempted
again. If the overcurrent condition goes away prior to the OC
Fault Counter reaching a count of four, the Overcurrent
Condition Flag will set back to LOW.
If the Overcurrent Condition Flag is HIGH and the
Overcurrent Fault Counter is less than four and an
undervoltage event is detected, the regulator will be shut
down immediately.
UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
If the voltage detected on the FB pin falls 18% below the
internal reference voltage and the overcurrent condition flag is
LOW, then the regulator will be shutdown immediately under an
Undervoltage Fault Condition and the EN pin will be pulled
LOW. An Undervoltage Fault Condition will result with the
regulator attempting to restart in a hiccup mode with the delay
between restarts being 4 soft-start periods. At the end of the
fourth soft-start wait period, the fault counters are reset, the EN
pin is released, and soft-start is attempted again.
THERMAL PROTECTION
If the ISL8502 IC junction temperature reaches a nominal
temperature of +150°C, the regulator will be disabled. The
ISL8502 will not re-enable the regulator until the junction
temperature drops below +130°C.
SHOOT-THROUGH PROTECTION
A shoot-through condition occurs when both the upper and
lower MOSFETs are turned on simultaneously, effectively
shorting the input voltage to ground. To protect from a
shoot-through condition, the ISL8502 incorporates specialized
circuitry, which insures that the complementary MOSFETs are
not ON simultaneously.
Application Guidelines
output voltage of the regulator. The value for the feedback
resistor is typically between 1kΩ and 10kΩ.
R 1 × 0.6V
R 4 = ---------------------------------V OUT – 0.6V
(EQ. 4)
If the output voltage desired is 0.6V, then R4 is left unpopulated.
Output Capacitor Selection
An output capacitor is required to filter the inductor current and
supply the load transient current. The filtering requirements are
a function of the switching frequency and the ripple current. The
load transient requirements are a function of the slew rate
(di/dt) and the magnitude of the transient load current. These
requirements are generally met with a mix of capacitors and
careful layout.
High frequency capacitors initially supply the transient and slow
the current load rate seen by the bulk capacitors. The bulk filter
capacitor values are generally determined by the ESR
(Effective Series Resistance) and voltage rating requirements
rather than actual capacitance requirements.
High frequency decoupling capacitors should be placed as
close to the power pins of the load as physically possible. Be
careful not to add inductance in the circuit board wiring that
could cancel the usefulness of these low inductance
components. Consult with the manufacturer of the load on
specific decoupling requirements.
The shape of the output voltage waveform during a load
transient that represents the worst case loading conditions will
ultimately determine the number of output capacitors and their
type. When this load transient is applied to the converter, most
of the energy required by the load is initially delivered from the
output capacitors. This is due to the finite amount of time
required for the inductor current to slew up to the level of the
output current required by the load. This phenomenon results in
a temporary dip in the output voltage. At the very edge of the
transient, the Equivalent Series Inductance (ESL) of each
capacitor induces a spike that adds on top of the existing
voltage drop due to the Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR).
Operating Frequency
The ISL8502 can operate at switching frequencies from
500kHz to 1.2MHz. A resistor tied from the FS pin to ground
is used to program the switching frequency Equation 3.
VOUT
DVHUMP
DVESR
48000
R T [ kΩ ] = -----------------------------f OSC [ kHz ]
(EQ. 3)
DVSAG
DVESL
Output Voltage Selection
The output voltage of the regulator can be programmed via
an external resistor divider that is used to scale the output
voltage relative to the internal reference voltage and feed it
back to the inverting input of the error amplifier. Refer to
Figure 34.
The output voltage programming resistor, R4, will depend on
the value chosen for the feedback resistor and the desired
14
IOUT
ITRAN
FIGURE 33. TYPICAL TRANSIENT RESPONSE
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
After the initial spike, attributable to the ESR and ESL of the
capacitors, the output voltage experiences sag. This sag is a
direct consequence of the amount of capacitance on the output.
During the removal of the same output load, the energy stored
in the inductor is dumped into the output capacitors. This
energy dumping creates a temporary hump in the output
voltage. This hump, as with the sag, can be attributed to the
total amount of capacitance on the output. Figure 33 shows a
typical response to a load transient.
The amplitudes of the different types of voltage excursions
can be approximated using Equation 5.
dI tran
ΔV ESL = ESL • --------------dt
ΔV ESR = ESR • I tran
2
L out • I tran
ΔV SAG = -------------------------------------------------C out • ( V in – V out )
2
L out • I tran
ΔV HUMP = -------------------------------C out • V out
(EQ. 5)
where: Itran = Output Load Current Transient and Cout = Total
Output Capacitance
In a typical converter design, the ESR of the output capacitor
bank dominates the transient response. The ESR and the
ESL are typically the major contributing factors in
determining the output capacitance. The number of output
capacitors can be determined by using Equation 6, which
relates the ESR and ESL of the capacitors to the transient
load step and the voltage limit (DVo):
ESL • dI tran
--------------------------------+ ESR • I tran
dt
Number of Capacitors = ----------------------------------------------------------------------ΔV o
(EQ. 6)
The ESL of the capacitors, which is an important parameter
in the previous equations, is not usually listed in databooks.
Practically, it can be approximated using Equation 7 if an
Impedance vs Frequency curve is given for a specific
capacitor:
(EQ. 7)
where: fres is the frequency where the lowest impedance is
achieved (resonant frequency).
The ESL of the capacitors becomes a concern when
designing circuits that supply power to loads with high rates
of change in the current.
15
The output inductor is selected to meet the output voltage
ripple requirements and minimize the converter’s response
time to the load transient. The inductor value determines the
converter’s ripple current and the ripple voltage is a function
of the ripple current. The ripple voltage and current are
approximated by using Equation 8:
ΔI =
VIN - VOUT
Fs x L
x
VOUT
VIN
ΔVOUT = ΔI x ESR
(EQ. 8)
Increasing the value of inductance reduces the ripple current
and voltage. However, the large inductance values reduce
the converter’s response time to a load transient.
One of the parameters limiting the converter’s response to
a load transient is the time required to change the inductor
current. Given a sufficiently fast control loop design, the
ISL8502 will provide either 0% or 100% duty cycle in
response to a load transient. The response time is the time
required to slew the inductor current from an initial current
value to the transient current level. During this interval the
difference between the inductor current and the transient
current level must be supplied by the output capacitor.
Minimizing the response time can minimize the output
capacitance required.
The response time to a transient is different for the
application of load and the removal of load. Equation 9 gives
the approximate response time interval for application and
removal of a transient load:
tRISE =
If DVSAG and/or DVHUMP are found to be too large for the
output voltage limits, then the amount of capacitance may
need to be increased. In this situation, a trade-off between
output inductance and output capacitance may be
necessary.
1
ESL = ---------------------------------------2
C ( 2 • π • f res )
Output Inductor Selection
L x ITRAN
VIN - VOUT
tFALL =
L x ITRAN
VOUT
(EQ. 9)
where: ITRAN is the transient load current step, tRISE is the
response time to the application of load, and tFALL is the
response time to the removal of load. The worst case
response time can be either at the application or removal of
load. Be sure to check both of these equations at the
minimum and maximum output levels for the worst case
response time.
Input Capacitor Selection
Use a mix of input bypass capacitors to control the voltage
overshoot across the MOSFETs. Use small ceramic
capacitors for high frequency decoupling and bulk capacitors
to supply the current needed each time the upper MOSFET
turns on. Place the small ceramic capacitors physically close
to the MOSFETs and between the drain of the upper
MOSFET and the source of the lower MOSFET.
The important parameters for the bulk input capacitance are
the voltage rating and the RMS current rating. For reliable
operation, select bulk capacitors with voltage and current
ratings above the maximum input voltage and largest RMS
current required by the circuit. Their voltage rating should be
at least 1.25x greater than the maximum input voltage, while
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
a voltage rating of 1.5x is a conservative guideline. For most
cases, the RMS current rating requirement for the input
capacitor of a buck regulator is approximately 1/2 the DC
load current.
The maximum RMS current through the input capacitors
may be closely approximated using Equation 10:
2
V OUT ⎛
V OUT
2 ⎛
1 ⎛ V IN – V OUT V OUT⎞ ⎞
-------------- × ⎜ I OUT
× 1 – --------------⎞ + ------ × ⎜ ----------------------------- × --------------⎟ ⎟
⎝
⎠
V IN
V
×
V
L
f
12
MAX
⎝
⎝
IN
IN ⎠ ⎠
OSC
(EQ. 10)
For a through-hole design, several electrolytic capacitors
may be needed. For surface mount designs, solid tantalum
capacitors can be used, but caution must be exercised with
regard to the capacitor surge current rating. These
capacitors must be capable of handling the surge-current at
power-up. Some capacitor series available from reputable
manufacturers are surge current tested.
PWM
COMPARATOR
The modulator transfer function is the small-signal transfer
function of VOUT/VE/A . This function is dominated by a DC
Gain and the output filter (LO and CO), with a double pole
break frequency at FLC and a zero at FESR . The DC Gain of
the modulator is simply the input voltage (VIN) divided by the
peak-to-peak oscillator voltage DVOSC . The ISL8502
incorporates a feed forward loop that accounts for changes
in the input voltage. This maintains a constant modulator
gain.
LO
-
ΔVOSC
DRIVER
+
PHASE
VOUT
CO
ESR
(PARASITIC)
ZFB
VE/A
ZIN
-
+
REFERENCE
ERROR
AMP
DETAILED COMPENSATION COMPONENTS
ZFB
C1
C2
VOUT
ZIN
C3
R2
R3
R1
COMP
Feedback Compensation
Figure 34 highlights the voltage-mode control loop for a
synchronous-rectified buck converter. The output voltage
(VOUT) is regulated to the Reference voltage level. The error
amplifier output (VE/A) is compared with the oscillator (OSC)
triangular wave to provide a pulse-width modulated (PWM)
wave with an amplitude of VIN at the PHASE node. The
PWM wave is smoothed by the output filter (LO and CO).
VIN
DRIVER
OSC
FB
+
R4
ISL8502
REFERENCE
R ⎞
⎛
V OUT = 0.6 × ⎜ 1 + ------1-⎟
R 4⎠
⎝
FIGURE 34. VOLTAGE-MODE BUCK CONVERTER
COMPENSATION DESIGN AND OUTPUT
VOLTAGE SELECTION
Modulator Break Frequency Equations
1
f LC = ------------------------------------------2π x L O x C O
1
f ESR = -------------------------------------------2π x ESR x C O
(EQ. 11)
The compensation network consists of the error amplifier
(internal to the ISL8502) and the impedance networks ZIN
and ZFB. The goal of the compensation network is to provide
a closed loop transfer function with the highest 0dB crossing
frequency (f0dB) and adequate phase margin. Phase margin
is the difference between the closed loop phase at f0dB and
180°. Equation 12 relates the compensation network’s poles,
zeros and gain to the components (R1 , R2 , R3 , C1 , C2 and
C3) in Figure 34. Use these guidelines for locating the poles
and zeros of the compensation network:
1. Pick Gain (R2/R1) for desired converter bandwidth.
2. Place 1st Zero Below Filter’s Double Pole (~75% FLC).
3. Place 2nd Zero at Filter’s Double Pole.
4. Place 1st Pole at the ESR Zero.
5. Place 2nd Pole at Half the Switching Frequency.
6. Check Gain against Error Amplifier’s Open-Loop Gain.
7. Estimate Phase Margin - Repeat if Necessary.
16
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
100
fZ1 fZ2
fP1
fP2
80
OPEN LOOP
ERROR AMP GAIN
GAIN (dB)
60
40
20
20LOG
(R2/R1)
20LOG
(VIN/ΔVOSC)
0
-40
-60
COMPENSATION
GAIN
CLOSED LOOP
GAIN
MODULATOR
GAIN
-20
fLC
10
100
1k
fESR
10k
100k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
1M
10M
FIGURE 35. ASYMPTOTIC BODE PLOT OF CONVERTER GAIN
Compensation Break Frequency Equations
1
f Z1 = -----------------------------------2π x R 2 x C 1
1
f P1 = --------------------------------------------------------⎛ C 1 x C 2⎞
2π x R 2 x ⎜ ----------------------⎟
⎝ C1 + C2 ⎠
1
f Z2 = ------------------------------------------------------2π x ( R 1 + R 3 ) x C 3
1
f P2 = -----------------------------------2π x R 3 x C 3
(EQ. 12)
Figure 35 shows an asymptotic plot of the DC/DC
converter’s gain vs frequency. The actual Modulator Gain
has a high gain peak due to the high Q factor of the output
filter and is not shown in Figure 35. Using the guidelines
provided should give a Compensation Gain similar to the
curve plotted. The open loop error amplifier gain bounds the
compensation gain. Check the compensation gain at FP2
with the capabilities of the error amplifier. The Closed Loop
Gain is constructed on the graph of Figure 35 by adding the
Modulator Gain (in dB) to the Compensation Gain (in dB).
This is equivalent to multiplying the modulator transfer
function to the compensation transfer function and plotting
the gain.
The compensation gain uses external impedance networks
ZFB and ZIN to provide a stable, high bandwidth (BW) overall
loop. A stable control loop has a gain crossing with
-20dB/decade slope and a phase margin greater than +45°.
Include worst case component variations when determining
phase margin. A more detailed explanation of voltage mode
control of a buck regulator can be found in Tech Brief TB417,
entitled “Designing Stable Compensation Networks for
Single Phase Voltage Mode Buck Regulators.”
Layout Considerations
Layout is very important in high frequency switching
converter design. With power devices switching efficiently
between 500kHz and 1.2MHz, the resulting current
transitions from one device to another cause voltage spikes
across the interconnecting impedances and parasitic circuit
elements. These voltage spikes can degrade efficiency,
radiate noise into the circuit, and lead to device overvoltage
stress. Careful component layout and printed circuit board
design minimizes these voltage spikes.
17
As an example, consider the turn-off transition of the control
MOSFET. Prior to turn-off, the MOSFET is carrying the full
load current. During turn-off, current stops flowing in the
MOSFET and is picked up by the lower MOSFET. Any
parasitic inductance in the switched current path generates a
large voltage spike during the switching interval. Careful
component selection, tight layout of the critical components,
and short, wide traces minimizes the magnitude of voltage
spikes.
There are two sets of critical components in the ISL8502
switching converter. The switching components are the most
critical because they switch large amounts of energy, and
therefore tend to generate large amounts of noise. Next, are
the small signal components, which connect to sensitive
nodes or supply critical bypass current and signal coupling.
A multi-layer printed circuit board is recommended. Figure 36
shows the connections of the critical components in the
converter. Note that capacitors CIN and COUT could each
represent numerous physical capacitors. Dedicate one solid
layer (usually a middle layer of the PC board) for a ground
plane and make all critical component ground connections
with vias to this layer. Dedicate another solid layer as a
power plane and break this plane into smaller islands of
common voltage levels. Keep the metal runs from the
PHASE terminals to the output inductor short. The power
plane should support the input power and output power
nodes. Use copper filled polygons on the top and bottom
circuit layers for the phase nodes. Use the remaining printed
circuit layers for small signal wiring. The wiring traces from
the GATE pins to the MOSFET gates should be kept short
and wide enough to easily handle the 1A of drive current.
In order to dissipate heat generated by the internal VTT
LDO, the ground pad, pin 29, should be connected to the
internal ground plane through at least five vias. This allows
the heat to move away from the IC and also ties the pad to
the ground plane through a low impedance path.
The switching components should be placed close to the
ISL8502 first. Minimize the length of the connections
between the input capacitors, CIN, and the power switches
by placing them nearby. Position both the ceramic and bulk
input capacitors as close to the upper MOSFET drain as
possible. Position the output inductor and output capacitors
between the upper and lower MOSFETs and the load. Make
the PGND and the output capacitors as short as possible.
The critical small signal components include any bypass
capacitors, feedback components, and compensation
components. Place the PWM converter compensation
components close to the FB and COMP pins. The feedback
resistors should be located as close as possible to the FB
pin with vias tied straight to the ground plane as required.
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
VIN
PVCC
5V
VIN
CIN
CBP1
ISL8502
L1
RBP
CBP2
VOUT1
PGND
LOAD
VCC
PHASE
COUT1
COMP
C2
C1
R2
R1
FB
R4
C3
R3
GND PAD
KEY
ISLAND ON POWER PLANE LAYER
ISLAND ON CIRCUIT AND/OR POWER PLANE LAYER
VIA CONNECTION TO GROUND PLANE
FIGURE 36. PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD POWER PLANES AND
ISLANDS
All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems.
Intersil Corporation’s quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without
notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
18
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
ISL8502
Package Outline Drawing
L24.4x4D
24 LEAD QUAD FLAT NO-LEAD PLASTIC PACKAGE
Rev 2, 10/06
4X 2.5
4.00
A
20X 0.50
B
PIN 1
INDEX AREA
PIN #1 CORNER
(C 0 . 25)
24
19
1
4.00
18
2 . 50 ± 0 . 15
13
0.15
(4X)
12
7
0.10 M C A B
0 . 07
24X 0 . 23 +- 0
. 05 4
24X 0 . 4 ± 0 . 1
TOP VIEW
BOTTOM VIEW
SEE DETAIL "X"
0.10 C
C
0 . 90 ± 0 . 1
BASE PLANE
( 3 . 8 TYP )
SEATING PLANE
0.08 C
SIDE VIEW
(
2 . 50 )
( 20X 0 . 5 )
C
0 . 2 REF
5
( 24X 0 . 25 )
0 . 00 MIN.
0 . 05 MAX.
( 24X 0 . 6 )
DETAIL "X"
TYPICAL RECOMMENDED LAND PATTERN
NOTES:
1. Dimensions are in millimeters.
Dimensions in ( ) for Reference Only.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing conform to AMSE Y14.5m-1994.
3. Unless otherwise specified, tolerance : Decimal ± 0.05
4. Dimension b applies to the metallized terminal and is measured
between 0.15mm and 0.30mm from the terminal tip.
5. Tiebar shown (if present) is a non-functional feature.
6. The configuration of the pin #1 identifier is optional, but must be
located within the zone indicated. The pin #1 indentifier may be
either a mold or mark feature.
19
FN6389.2
June 29, 2010
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