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1
HMP8154, HMP8156A
August 20, 2009
FN4343.5
NTSC/PAL Encoders
Features
The HMP8154 and HMP8156A NTSC and PAL encoders
are designed for use in systems requiring the generation of
high-quality NTSC and PAL video from digital image data.
• (M) NTSC and (B, D, G, H, I, M, N, CN) PAL Operation
• ITU-R BT.601 and Square Pixel Operation
YCbCr or RGB digital video data drive the P0-P23 inputs.
Overlay inputs are processed and the data is 2x upsampled.
The Y data is optionally lowpass filtered to 6MHz and drives
the Y analog output. Cb and Cr are each lowpass filtered to
1.3MHz, quadrature modulated, and summed. The result
drives the C analog output. The digital Y and C data are also
added together and drive the two composite analog outputs.
• Digital Input Formats
- 4:2:2 YCbCr
- 8-Bit or 16-Bit
- 4:4:4 RGB
- 16-Bit (5, 6, 5) or 24-Bit (8, 8, 8)
- Linear or Gamma-Corrected
- 8-Bit BT.656
The YCbCr data may also be converted to RGB data to drive
the DACs, allowing support for analog component RGB and
the European SCART connector.
• Overlay Mixing
- 7 Colors
- Internal, External, or Hard Mixing Control
The DACs can drive doubly-terminated (37.5Ω) lines, and
run at a 2x oversampling rate to simplify the analog output
filter requirements. Any unused DACs may be powered
down to reduce power consumption.
• Analog Output Formats
- Y/C + Two Composite
- RGB + Composite (SCART)
Ordering Information
PART NUMBER
PART
MARKING
TEMP.
RANGE
(°C)
PACKAGE
PKG. DWG.
#
HMP8154CN
HMP8154C
N
0 to 70
64 Ld PQFP Q64.14x14
HMP8156ACN
HMP8156A
CN
0 to 70
64 Ld PQFP Q64.14x14
HMP8156ACNZ
(See Note)
HMP8156A
CNZ
0 to 70
HMP8154EVAL1
HMP8156EVAL1
Daughter/Stand-Alone Card Evaluation Platform*
HMP8156EVAL2
Frame Grabber Evaluation Platform*
• Flexible Video Timing Control
- Timing Master or Slave
- Programmable Input Sync Timing
- Selectable Polarity on Each Control Signal
- Programmable Blank Output Timing
- Field Output
• Closed Caption Encoding for NTSC and PAL
• 2x Upscaling of SIF Video
• Three Line Vertical Flicker Filter
(HMP8154 only)
64 Ld PQFP Q64.14x14
(Pb-free)
• Four 2x Oversampling, 10-Bit DACs with Power Down
• I2C Interface
• Verilog Models Available
• Pb-Free Plus Anneal Available (RoHS Compliant)
*Described in the Applications Section
Applications
NOTE: Intersil Pb-free plus anneal products employ special Pb-free
material sets; molding compounds/die attach materials and 100%
matte tin plate termination finish, which are RoHS compliant and
compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering operations. Intersil
Pb-free products are MSL classified at Pb-free peak reflow
temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free requirements of
IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
• Multimedia PCs
1
• Video Conferencing
• Video Editing
• Related Products
- NTSC/PAL Encoders:
HMP8170-HMP8173
- HMP8190/91
- NTSC/PAL Decoders:
HMP8112A, HMP8115, HMP8116, HMP8130/31
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 1998, 2002, 2005, 2009. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
Functional Block Diagram
P0 - P23
OPTIONAL
GAMMA
CORRECTION
Y/Cb/Cr
4:4:4
(2:2:2 SIF)
OVERLAY
PROCESSING
COLOR
SPACE
CONVERSION
2
FLICKER
FILTER
(HMP8154
ONLY)
2X
UPSCALING
(SIF MODE)
CLOSED
CAPTIONING
PROCESSING
4:2:2 TO
4:4:4 SAMPLE
CONVERSION
INTERNAL
1.225V
REFERENCE
FS
ADJUST
(OPTIONAL)
SA
LP FILTER
Y
SCL
HOST
INTERFACE
2X
UPSAMPLE
4:4:4
TO
8:8:8
SDA
RESET
∑
DAC
Y/G
DAC
NTSC/
PAL 1
DAC
NTSC/
PAL 2/
R
DAC
C/B
LP FILTER
Cb/Cr
∑
HSYNC
VSYNC
BLANK
CHROMA
MODULATION
VIDEO
TIMING
CONTROL
CLK
CLK2
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
FIELD
HMP8154, HMP8156A
VREF
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Functional Operation
The HMP8154 and HMP8156A are fully integrated digital
encoders. Either accepts digital video input data and
generates four analog video output signals. The input data
format is selectable and includes YCbCr, RGB, and overlay
data. The outputs are configurable to be either two
composite video signals and Y/C (S-Video) or one
composite and component RGB video.
The HMP8154/HMP8156A accepts pixel data in one of
several formats and transforms it into 4:4:4 sampled
luminance and chrominance (YCbCr) data. If enabled, the
encoder also mixes overlay data with the input data. The
encoder then interpolates the YCbCr data to twice the pixel
rate and low pass filters it to match the bandwidth of the
video output format. If enabled, the encoder also adds
Closed Captioning information to the Y data. At the same
time, the encoder modulates the chrominance data with a
digitally synthesized subcarrier. Finally, the encoder outputs
luminance, chrominance, and their sum as analog signals
using 10-bit D/A converters.
The HMP8154/HMP8156A provides operating modes to
support all versions of the NTSC and PAL standards and
accepts full and SIF size input data with rectangular (ITU-R
BT.601) and square pixel aspect ratios. It operates from a
single clock at twice the pixel clock rate determined by the
operating mode.
The HMP8154/HMP8156A’s video timing control is flexible. It
may operate as the master generating the system’s video
timing control signals or it may accept external timing
controls. The polarity of the timing controls and the number
of active pixels and lines are programmable.
The HMP8154 provides optional vertical flicker reduction.
When enabled, the encoder passes the pixel data after
overlay processing through a three line flicker filter.
larger than the analog output limit. The composite signal will
be clipped but the S-video outputs (Y and C) will not be.
The color difference signals are time multiplexed into one
8-bit bus beginning with a Cb sample. The Y and CbCr
busses may be input in parallel (16-bit mode) or may be time
multiplexed and input as a single bus (8-bit mode). The
single bus may also contain SAV and EAV video timing
reference codes (BT.656 mode).
RGB Data
The HMP8154/HMP8156A accepts 4:4:4 sampled RGB
component video input data. The color signals may be
(8,8,8) for 24-bit mode or (5,6,5) for 16-bit mode. In 24-bit
mode, they are scaled 0 to 255, black to white. In 16-bit
mode, the encoder left shifts the input so that it has the same
scale as 24-bit input. The RGB data may be linear or gamma
corrected; if enabled, the encoder will gamma correct the
input data.
Overlay Data
The HMP8154/HMP8156A accepts 5 bits of pixel overlay
input data and combines it with the input pixel data. The data
specifies an overlay color and the fractions of the new and
original colors to be summed.
Blue Screen Generation
In blue screen mode, the HMP8154/HMP8156A ignores the
pixel input data and generates a solid, blue screen. The
overlay inputs may be used to place information over the
blue screen.
Input Processing
Color Space Conversion
Pixel Data Input Formats
For linear RGB input formats, the encoder applies gammacorrection using a selectable gamma value of 1/2.2 or 1/2.8.
The gamma-corrected RGB data from either the correction
function in linear mode or the input port otherwise is
converted to 4:4:4 sampled YCbCr data.
The HMP8154 accepts pixel data via the P0-P23 input pins.
The definition of each pixel input pin is determined by the
input format selected in the input format register. The
definition for each mode is shown in Table 1.
For the YCbCr input formats, the encoder converts the 4:2:2
sampled data to 4:4:4 sampled data. The conversion is done
by 2x upsampling the Cb and Cr data. The upsampling
function uses linear interpolation.
YCbCr Pixel Data
Overlay Processing
The HMP8154/HMP8156A accepts 4:2:2 sampled YCbCr
input data. The luminance and color difference signals are
each 8 bits, scaled 0 to 255. The nominal range for Y is 16
(black) to 235 (white). Y values less than 16 are clamped to
16; values greater than 235 are processed normally. The
nominal range for Cb and Cr is 16 to 240 with 128
representing zero. Cb and Cr values outside their nominal
range are processed normally. Note that when converted to
the analog outputs, some combinations of YCbCr outside their
nominal ranges would generate a composite video signal
The HMP8154/HMP8156A accepts overlay data via the
OL0-OL2, M0, and M1 pins. Overlay mixing is done using
the 4:4:4 YCbCr pixel data from the color space converter.
The YCbCr data following overlay processing is used as
input data by the video processing functions.
3
The OL0-OL2 inputs select the color to be mixed with the
pixel data. Overlay colors 1-7 are standard color bar colors.
Overlay color 0 is special and disables mixing on a pixel-bypixel basis. The overlay color palette is shown in Table 2.
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
TABLE 1. PIXEL DATA INPUT FORMATS
PIN
NAME
16-BIT
4:2:2
YCBCR
P0
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
Cb0, Cr0
Cb1, Cr1
Cb2, Cr2
Cb3, Cr3
Cb4, Cr4
Cb5, Cr5
Cb6, Cr6
Cb7, Cr7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
P13
P14
P15
Y0
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
8-BIT
4:2:2
YCBCR
BLUE
SCREEN
BT.656
Ignored
Ignored
YCbCr Data,
SAV and EAV
Sequences
Y0, Cb0, Cr0
Y1, Cb1, Cr1
Y2, Cb2, Cr2
Y3, Cb3, Cr3
Y4, Cb4, Cr4
Y5, Cb5, Cr5
Y6, Cb6, Cr6
Y7, Cb7, Cr7
16-BIT
RGB
(5, 6, 5)
24-BIT
RGB
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
G0
G1
G2
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
G3
G4
G5
R0
R1
R2
R3
R4
G0
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
G7
R0
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
OL0
OL1
OL2
M0
M1
-
P16
P17
P18
P19
P20
P21
P22
P23
TABLE 2. OVERLAY COLOR PALETTE
OL2-OL0
COLOR
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
Pixel Data
75% Blue
75% Red
75% Magenta
75% Green
75% Cyan
75% Yellow
100% White
Note that overlay capability is not available when the 24-bit
RGB input format is used.
The encoder provides 4 methods for mixing the overlay data
with the pixel data: disabled, external mixing, internal mixing
and no mixing. The method used is selected in the input
format control register.
Overlay Mixing: Disabled
When overlay mixing is disabled, the OL0-OL2, M0, and M1
inputs are ignored and the pixel data is not changed.
Overlay Mixing: External
When external overlay mixing is selected, mixing of overlay
data and pixel data is controlled by the M1 and M0 inputs.
M1 and M0 indicate the mixing level between the pixel inputs
and the overlay inputs, on a pixel-by-pixel basis. M1 and M0
are ignored if OL2-OL0 = 000. Otherwise, they select the
percentage of each color to sum as shown in Table 3.
4
TABLE 3. OVERLAY MIXING FACTORS
M1, M0
% OVERLAY
COLOR
% PIXEL
COLOR
00
01
10
11
0
12.5
87.5
100
100
87.5
12.5
0
In external mixing mode, there is no minimum number of
pixels an overlay color or pixel color must be selected. The
mixing level may also vary at any rate.
Overlay Mixing: Internal
Mixing of overlay and pixel data may also be controlled
internally, and the M1 and M0 input pins are ignored. A
transition from pixel data to overlays, from overlays to pixel
data, or between different overlay colors triggers the mixing
function. An overlay color must be selected for a minimum of
three pixels for proper overlay operation in this mode. Internal
overlay mixing should not be used with the BT.656 input format.
When going from pixel to overlay data, mixing starts one
pixel before the selection of the overlay color (OL2-OL1 !=
000). The first pixel output before the overlay uses 12.5%
overlay color plus 87.5% pixel color. The next output is
aligned with the selection of the overlay color and uses
87.5% overlay color plus 12.5% pixel color. Additional
outputs use 100% overlay color.
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
When going from overlay to pixel data, mixing starts one pixel
before the selection of the pixel color (OL2-OL0 = 000). The last
pixel output of the overlay uses 87.5% overlay color plus 12.5%
pixel color. The next output uses 12.5% overlay color plus
87.5% pixel color. Additional outputs use 100% pixel color.
When going from one overlay color to another, mixing starts
one pixel before the selection of the new overlay color, and
uses 12.5% new overlay color plus 87.5% old overlay color.
The next output is aligned with the selection of the new overlay
color and uses 87.5% new overlay color plus 12.5% old overlay
color. Additional outputs use 100% new overlay color.
Overlay Mixing: No Mixing
With no overlay mixing selected, whenever the OL0-OL2
inputs are non-zero, the overlay color is displayed. The M0
and M1 inputs are ignored, and no internal mixing is done.
Essentially, this is a hard switch between overlay and pixel
data. In this mode, there is no minimum number of pixels an
overlay color or pixel color must be selected.
2X Upscaling Processing
Following overlay processing, 2X upscaling may optionally
be applied to the pixel data. In this mode, the
HMP8154/HMP8156A accepts NTSC (PAL) SIF resolution
video at 59.94 (50) frames per second and generates
standard interlaced video with 262.5 (312.5) lines per field at
59.94 (50) fields per second. This mode of operation allows
SIF video to be upscaled to full resolution and recorded on a
VCR or displayed on a TV. SIP upscaling may be used to
simplify PC to TV applications.
The input pixel data rate is reduced by half when 2X
upscaling is enabled. The color space conversion generates,
and the overlay mixer uses, 2:2:2 YCbCr data instead of
4:4:4 data. For rectangular pixel NTSC and PAL video, the
input rate is 6.75MHz during the active portion of each line
instead of 13.5MHz. Example SIF input resolutions and
resulting output resolutions are shown in Table 4.
TABLE 4. TYPICAL RESOLUTIONS FOR 2X UPSCALING
INPUT ACTIVE
RESOLUTION
OUTPUT ACTIVE
RESOLUTION
352 x 240
352 x 288
320 x 240
384 x 288
704 x 480
704 x 576
640 x 480
768 x 576
The HMP8154/HMP8156A performs horizontal 2X upscaling
by linear interpolation. The vertical scaling is done by line
duplication. For typical line duplication, the same frame of
SIF pixel input data is used for both the odd and even fields.
Note that a frame of SIF size input has about the same
number of lines as a field of full size input.
After 2X upscaling, the input is 4:4:4 YCbCr data ready for
video processing. Flicker filtering is not available when 2X
upscaling is enabled.
5
Flicker Filter Processing
Following overlay processing, vertical flicker filtering may
optionally be applied to the pixel data by the HMP8154. The
HMP8156A does not provide flicker filter capability. In flicker
filter mode, the HMP8154 accepts non-interlaced NTSC
(PAL) full resolution video with 525 (625) lines per frame at
59.94 (50) frames per second. It generates standard
interlaced video with 262.5 (312.5) lines per field at 59.94
(50) fields per second.
Each frame of non-interlaced video is vertically low pass
filtered and used to generate either an odd or even field of
video. This mode of operation reduces flickering caused by
image details that are less than two pixels high.
Since an entire frame of input is used to generate one field of
output, the input pixel data rate is doubled when the flicker
filter is enabled. The encoder must receive two lines of data
during each line time. For rectangular pixel NTSC and PAL
video, the input rate is 27.0MHz during the active portion of
each line instead of 13.5MHz. Because of the high input data
rate, 8-bit YCbCr and BT.656 input formats and 2X upscaling
of SIF input may not be used when the flicker filter is enabled.
The HMP8154 uses internal line stores and a 3 tap FIR filter
to reduce flickering. The filter coefficients are 0.25, 0.5, and
0.25. At the start and end of each field, the coefficients are
modified to compensate for the insufficient number of lines
available for processing.
When filtering is enabled, there is an additional two line time
delay through the encoder. After flicker filtering, the input is
4:4:4 YCbCr data ready for video processing. 2X upscaling
is not available when the flicker filter is enabled.
Pixel Input and Control Signal Timing
The pixel input timing and the video control signal
input/output timing of the HMP8154/HMP8156A depend on
the part’s operating mode. The periods when the encoder
samples its inputs and generates its outputs are summarized
in Table 5.
Figures 1-12 show the timing of CLK, CLK2, BLANK, and the
pixel and overlay input data with respect to each other.
BLANK may be an input or an output; the figures show both.
When it is an input, BLANK must arrive coincident with the
pixel and overlay input data; all are sampled at the same time.
When BLANK is an output, its timing with respect to the pixel
and overlay inputs depends on the blank timing select bit in the
timing_I/O_1 register. If the bit is cleared, the
HMP8154/HMP8156A deasserts BLANK one CLK cycle before
it samples the pixel and overlay inputs. As shown in the timing
figures, the encoder samples the inputs 1-7 CLK2 periods after
negating BLANK, depending on the operating mode.
If the bit is set, the encoder deasserts BLANK during the
same CLK cycle in which it samples the input data. In effect,
the input data must arrive one CLK cycle earlier than when
the bit is cleared. This mode is not shown in the figures.
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
INPUT FORMAT
MODE
(NOTE 1)
TABLE 5. PIXEL INPUT AND CONTROL SIGNAL I/O TIMING
8-Bit YCbCr
Norm
2X
INPUT PORT SAMPLING
PIXEL DATA
Every rising edge
of CLK2
OVERLAY DATA
Same edge that
latches Y
Same edge that
Rising edge of
CLK2 when CLK is latches Y data
low.
FF
16-Bit YCbCr,
16-Bit RGB,
or
24-Bit RGB
BT.656
VIDEO TIMING CONTROL (NOTE 2)
INPUT SAMPLE
Every rising edge
of CLK2
OUTPUT ON
Any rising edge of
CLK2
Rising edge of
Rising edge of
CLK2 when CLK is CLK2 when CLK is
high.
low.
CLK FREQUENCY
INPUT
Ignored
OUTPUT
One-half
CLK2
One-half CLK2
Not Available
Rising edge of CLK2 when CLK is low
Rising edge of
CLK2 when CLK is
high.
One-half CLK2
2X
2nd rising edge of CLK2 when CLK is low
Either rising CLK2
edge when CLK is
high
One-fourth CLK2
FF
Every rising edge
of CLK2
Same edge that
latches Y
Every rising edge
of CLK2
Any rising edge of
CLK2
Ignored
One-half
CLK2
Norm
Every rising edge
of CLK2
Same edge that
latches Y
Not Allowed
Any rising edge of
CLK2
Ignored
One-half
CLK2
Norm
2X
Not Available
FF
Not Available
NOTES:
1. Encoder operating modes:
Norm = Full size input, Flicker filter disabled.
2X = SIF size input, Flicker filter disabled.
FF = Full size input, Flicker filter enabled.
(2X upscaling and flicker filtering are mutually exclusive.)
2. Video timing control signals include HSYNC, VSYNC, BLANK and FIELD. The sync and blanking I/O directions are independent; FIELD is always
an output.
Normal 8-Bit YCbCr Format
8-Bit YCbCr Format with 2X Upscaling
When 8-bit YCbCr format is selected and 2X upscaling or
flicker filtering is not enabled, the data is latched on each
rising edge of CLK2. The pixel data must be [Cb Y Cr Y’ Cb Y
Cr Y’ . . . ], with the first active data each scan line being Cb
data. Overlay data is latched when the Y input data is latched.
The pixel and overlay input timing is shown in Figure 1.
When 8-bit YCbCr format is selected and 2X upscaling is
enabled, the data is latched on the rising edge of CLK2 while
CLK is low. The pixel data must be [Cb Y Cr Y’ Cb Y Cr
Y’. . . ], with the first active data each scan line being Cb
data. Overlay data is latched on the rising edge of CLK2 that
latches Y pixel input data. The pixel and overlay input timing
is shown in Figure 2.
As inputs, BLANK, HSYNC, and VSYNC are latched on
each rising edge of CLK2. As outputs, BLANK, HSYNC, and
VSYNC are output following the rising edge of CLK2. If the
CLK pin is configured as an input, it is ignored. If configured
as an output, it is one-half the CLK2 frequency.
6
As inputs, BLANK, HSYNC, and VSYNC are latched on the
rising edge of CLK2 while CLK is low. As outputs, HSYNC,
VSYNC, and BLANK are output following the rising edge of
CLK2 while CLK is high. In this mode of operation, CLK is
one-half the CLK2 frequency.
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
CLK2
Cb 0
P8-P15
OL0-OL2,
M1, M0
Y0
Cr 0
PIXEL 0
Y1
PIXEL 1
Cb 2
Y2
PIXEL 2
YN
PIXEL N
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 1. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - NORMAL 8-BIT YCBCR
CLK2
CLK
P8-P15
Cb 0
OL0-OL2,
M1, M0
Y0
Cr 0
PIXEL 0
Y1
PIXEL 1
Cb 2
Y2
PIXEL 2
YN
PIXEL N
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 2. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - 8-BIT YCBCR WITH 2X UPSCALING
Normal 16-Bit YCbCr, 16-Bit RGB, 24-Bit RGB
Formats
When 16-bit YCbCr, 16-bit RGB data, or 24-bit RGB format
is selected without 2X upscaling or flicker filtering, the pixel
data is latched on the rising edge of CLK2 while CLK is low.
Overlay data is also latched on the rising edge of CLK2 while
CLK is low. The pixel and overlay input timing is shown in
Figures 3 - 5.
As inputs, BLANK, HSYNC, and VSYNC are latched on the
rising edge of CLK2 while CLK is low. As outputs, HSYNC,
VSYNC, and BLANK are output following the rising edge of
CLK2 while CLK is high. In these modes of operation, CLK is
one-half the CLK2 frequency.
7
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
CLK2
CLK
P8-P15
Y0
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
Y5
YN
P0-P7
Cb 0
Cr 0
Cb 2
Cr 2
Cb 4
Cr 4
Cr N-1
PIXEL 0
PIXEL 1
PIXEL 2
PIXEL 3
PIXEL 4
PIXEL 5
PIXEL N
OL0-OL2,
M1, M0
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 3. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - NORMAL 16-BIT YCBCR
CLK2
CLK
P0-P15
OL0-OL2,
M1, M0
RGB 0
RGB 1
RGB 2
RGB 3
RGB 4
RGB 5
RGB N
PIXEL 0
PIXEL 1
PIXEL 2
PIXEL 3
PIXEL 4
PIXEL 5
PIXEL N
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 4. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - NORMAL 16-BIT RGB
CLK2
CLK
RGB 0
P0-P24
RGB 1
RGB 2
RGB 3
RGB 4
RGB 5
RGB N
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 5. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - NORMAL 24-BIT RGB
8
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
16-Bit YCbCr, 16-Bit RGB, 24-Bit RGB Formats
with 2X Upscaling
As inputs, BLANK, HSYNC, and VSYNC are latched on the
rising edge of CLK2 while CLK is low. As outputs, HSYNC,
VSYNC, and BLANK are output following the rising edge of
CLK2 while CLK is high. CLK is one-fourth the CLK2
frequency.
When 16-bit YCbCr, 16-bit RGB data, or 24-bit RGB format
is selected and 2X upscaling is enabled, data is latched on
the rising edge of CLK2 while CLK is low. Overlay data is
latched on the rising edge of CLK2 while CLK is low. The
pixel and overlay input timing is shown in Figures 6-8.
CLK2
CLK
P8-P15
Y0
Y1
YN
Cb 0
Cr 0
Cr N-1
PIXEL 0
PIXEL 1
P0-P7
OL0-OL2,
M1, M0
PIXEL N
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 6. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - 16-BIT YCBCR WITH 2X UPSAMPLING
CLK2
CLK
P0-P15
OL0-OL2,
M1, M0
RGB 0
RGB 1
RGB N
PIXEL 0
PIXEL 1
PIXEL N
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 7. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - 16-BIT RGB WITH 2X UPSAMPLING
CLK2
CLK
P0-P24
RGB 0
RGB 1
RGB N
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 8. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - 24-BIT RGB WITH 2X UPSAMPLING
9
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
16-Bit YCbCr, 16-Bit RGB, 24-Bit RGB Formats
with Flicker Filtering
When the 16-bit YCbCr, 16-bit RGB, or 24-bit RGB data
format is selected and flicker filtering is enabled, pixel and
overlay data is latched on every rising edge of CLK2. The
pixel and overlay input timing is shown in Figures 9-11.
As inputs, BLANK, HSYNC, and VSYNC are latched on
each rising edge of CLK2. As outputs, BLANK, HSYNC, and
VSYNC are output following the rising edge of CLK2. If the
CLK pin is configured as an input, it is ignored. If configured
as an output, it is one-half the CLK2 frequency.
CLK2
P8-P15
Y0
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
Y5
YN
P0-P7
Cb 0
Cr 0
Cb 2
Cr 2
Cb 4
Cr 4
Cr N-1
PIXEL 0
PIXEL 1
PIXEL 2
PIXEL 3
PIXEL 4
PIXEL 5
PIXEL N
OL0-OL2,
M1, M0
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 9. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - 16-BIT YCBCR WITH FLICKER FILTERING
CLK2
P0-P15
OL0-OL2,
M1, M0
RGB 0
RGB 1
RGB 2
RGB 3
RGB 4
RGB 5
RGB N
PIXEL 0
PIXEL 1
PIXEL 2
PIXEL 3
PIXEL 4
PIXEL 5
PIXEL N
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 10. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - 16-BIT RGB WITH FLICKER FILTERING
CLK2
RGB 0
P0-P23
RGB 1
RGB 2
RGB 3
RGB 4
RGB 5
RGB N
BLANK
(INPUT)
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 11. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - 24-BIT RGB WITH FLICKER FILTERING
10
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
CLK2
P8-P15
Cb 2
Y2
Cr 2
OL0-OL2,
M1, M0
Y3
PIXEL 0
Cb 4
Y4
PIXEL 1
"FF"
"00"
PIXEL N-2
"00"
"XY"
"10"
PIXEL N-1
"80"
"10"
PIXEL N
BLANK
(OUTPUT)
FIGURE 12. PIXEL AND OVERLAY INPUT TIMING - BT.656
8-Bit BT.656 Format
When BT.656 format is selected, data is latched on each
rising edge of CLK2. Overlay data is latched when the Y
input data is latched. However, the overlay data must arrive
three pixels after its corresponding Y data. The pixel and
overlay input timing is shown in Figure 12.
As inputs, the BLANK, HSYNC, and VSYNC pins are
ignored since all timing is derived from the EAV and SAV
sequences within the data stream. As outputs, BLANK,
HSYNC and VSYNC are output following the rising edge of
CLK2. If the CLK pin is configured as an input, it is ignored. If
configured as an output, it is one-half the CLK2 frequency.
Square pixel operation, overlay processing with internal
mixing, flicker filtering, and SIF mode 2X upsampling are not
supported for the BT.656 input format. Also, the HSYNC,
VSYNC, and BLANK signals must be configured as outputs.
Video Timing Control
Regardless of the input mode, the output video timing of the
HMP8154/HMP8156A is at 50 or 59.94 fields per second
(interlaced). For normal and 2X upscaling modes, the pixel
input timing is at 50 or 59.94 fields per second; with the
flicker filter enabled, the input timing rate is twice as fast.
The output video and pixel input timing is controlled by the
BLANK, HSYNC, VSYNC, FIELD, and CLK2 pins.
HSYNC, VSYNC, and Field Timing
The leading edge of HSYNC indicates the beginning of a
horizontal sync interval. If HSYNC is an output, it is asserted
for about 4.7μs. If HSYNC is an input, it must be active for at
least two CLK2 periods. The width of the horizontal
composite sync tip is determined from the video standard
and does not depend on the width of HSYNC.
The leading edge of VSYNC indicates the beginning of a
vertical sync interval. If VSYNC is an output, it is asserted for
3 scan lines in (M, NSM) NTSC and (M, N) PAL modes or
2.5 scan lines in (B, D, G, H, I, CN) PAL modes. If VSYNC is
an input, it must be asserted for at least two CLK2 periods.
When HSYNC and VSYNC are configured as outputs, their
leading edges will occur simultaneously at the start of an odd
11
field. At the start of an even field, the leading edge of
VSYNC occurs in the middle of the line.
When HSYNC and VSYNC are configured as inputs, the
HMP8154/HMP8156A provides a programmable HSYNC
window for determining FIELD. The window is specified with
respect to the leading or trailing edge of VSYNC. The edge
is selected in the field control register. When HSYNC is
found inside the window, then the encoder sets FIELD to the
value specified in the field control register.
The HMP8154/HMP8156A provides programmable timing
for the VSYNC input. At the active edge of VSYNC, the
encoder resets its vertical half-line counter to the value
specified by the field control register. This allows the input
and output syncs to be offset, although the data must still be
aligned.
The FIELD signal is always an output and changes state
near each leading edge of VSYNC. The delay between the
syncs and FIELD depends on the encoder’s operating mode
as summarized in Table 6. In modes in which the encoder
uses CLK to gate its inputs and outputs, the FIELD signal
may be delayed 0-12 additional CLK2 periods.
Figure 13 illustrates the HSYNC, VSYNC, and FIELD
general timing for (M, NSM) NTSC and (M, N) PAL. Figure
14 illustrates the general timing for (B, D, G, H, I, CN) PAL. In
the figures, all the signals are shown active low (their reset
state), and FIELD is low during odd fields.
TABLE 6. FIELD OUTPUT TIMING
OPERATING MODE
SYNC I/O
BLANK I/O
DIRECTION DIRECTION
CLK2
DELAY
COMMENTS
Input
Input
148
FIELD lags VSYNC
switching from odd to even.
FIELD lags the earlier of
VSYNC and HSYNC when
syncs are aligned when
switching from even to odd.
Input
Output
138
FIELD lags VSYNC.
Output
Don’t Care
32
FIELD leads VSYNC.
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
pixel and overlay inputs when generating closed captioning
data on a specific line, even if BLANK is negated.
HSYNC
There must be an even number of active and total pixels per
line. In the 8-bit YCbCr modes, the number of active and
total pixels per line must be a multiple of four. Note that if
BLANK is an output, half-line blanking on the output video
cannot be done.
VSYNC
FIELD
FIGURE 13A. BEGINNING AN ODD FIELD
HSYNC
The HMP8154/HMP8156A never adds a 7.5 IRE blanking
setup during the active line time on scan lines 1-21 and 263284 for (M, NSM) NTSC, scan lines 523-18 and 260-281 for
(M) PAL, and scan lines 623-22 and 311-335 for (N) PAL,
allowing the generation of video test signals, timecode, and
other information by controlling the pixel inputs appropriately.
Normal Mode Blanking
VSYNC
FIELD
FIGURE 13B. BEGINNING AN EVEN FIELD
FIGURE 13. HSYNC, VSYNC, AND FIELD TIMING FOR
(M, NSM) NTSC AND (M, N) PAL
The relative timing of BLANK, HSYNC, and the output video
depends on the blanking and sync I/O directions. The typical
timing relation is shown in Figure 15. The delays which vary
with operating mode are indicated. The width of the
composite sync tip and the location and duration of the color
burst are fixed based on the video format.
.
COMPOSITE
VIDEO OUT
HSYNC
VSYNC
HSYNC
FIELD
BLANK
FIGURE 14A. BEGINNING AN ODD FIELD
DATA PIPE
DELAY
START H BLANK
SYNC DELAY
HSYNC
FIGURE 15. HSYNC, BLANK, AND OUTPUT VIDEO TIMING,
NORMAL MODE
VSYNC
When BLANK is an output, the encoder asserts it during the
inactive portions of active scan lines (horizontal blanking)
and for all of each inactive scan line (vertical blanking). The
inactive scan lines blanked each field are determined by the
start_v_blank and end_v_blank registers. The inactive
portion of active scan lines is determined by the
start_h_blank and end_h_blank registers.
FIELD
FIGURE 14B. BEGINNING AN EVEN FIELD
FIGURE 14. HSYNC, VSYNC, AND FIELD TIMING FOR
(B, D, G, H, I, CN) PAL
BLANK Timing
The encoder uses the HSYNC, VSYNC, FIELD signals to
generate a standard composite video waveform with no
active video (black burst). The signal includes only sync tips,
color burst, and optionally, a 7.5 IRE blanking setup. Based
on the BLANK signal, the encoder adds the pixel and overlay
input data to the video waveform.
The encoder ignores the pixel and overlay input data when
BLANK is asserted. Instead of the input data, the encoder
generates the blanking level. The encoder also ignores the
12
The zero count for horizontal blanking is 32 CLK2 cycles
before the 50% point of the composite sync. From this zero
point, the HMP8154/HMP8156A counts every other CLK2
cycle. When the count reaches the value in the
start_h_blank register, the encoder negates BLANK. When
the count reaches the value in the end_h_blank register,
BLANK is asserted. There may be an additional 0-7 CLK2
delays in modes which use CLK.
The data pipeline delay through the HMP8154/HMP8156A is
26 CLK2 cycles. In operating modes which use CLK to gate the
inputs into the encoder, the delay may be an additional 0-7
CLK2 cycles. The delay from BLANK to the start or end of
active video is an additional one-half CLK cycle when the blank
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
timing select bit is cleared. The active video may also appear to
end early or start late since the HMP8154/HMP8156A controls
the blanking edge rates.
The delay from the active edge of HSYNC to the 50% point
of the composite sync is 4-39 CLK2 cycles depending on the
HMP8154/HMP8156A operating mode. The delay is shortest
when the encoder is the timing master; it is longest when in
slave mode.
unblanked intervals are the same number of pixels but the
blanked intervals are not. The count values for BLANK
transitions are shown in Figure 17.
HSYNC
BLANK
0
Flicker Filter Blanking
When the flicker filter is enabled, BLANK occurs twice per line.
However, HSYNC does not change and still matches the
horizontal syncs of the composite output. The default timing of
BLANK with respect to HSYNC is shown in Figure 16.
TOTAL
END_H_BLANK / 2 +
TOTAL -- ACTIVE
START_H_BLANK
END_H_BLANK
END_H_BLANK / 2
HSYNC
FIGURE 17. FLICKER FILTER BLANK OUTPUT TIMING
COUNTS. TOTAL DEPENDS ON FORMAT.
ACTIVE = START_H_BLANK -- END_H_BLANK
BLANK
CLK2 Input Timing
PIXEL
DATA
LINE #
0†
1
2†
3
FIELD
FIGURE 16A. BEGINNING AN EVEN FIELD
Note that the color subcarrier is derived from the CLK2 input.
Any jitter on CLK2 will be transferred to the color subcarrier,
resulting in color changes. Just 400ps of jitter on CLK2 causes
up to a 1 degree color subcarrier phase shift. Thus, CLK2
should be derived from a stable clock source, such as a crystal.
The use of a PLL to generate CLK2 is not recommended.
HSYNC
BLANK
PIXEL
DATA
LINE #
The CLK2 input clocks all of the HMP8154/HMP8156A,
including its video timing counters. For proper operation, all
of the HMP8154/HMP8156A inputs must be synchronous
with CLK2. The frequency of CLK2 depends on the device’s
operating mode and the total number of pixels per line. The
standard clock frequencies are shown in Table 7.
0
1†
2
3†
Video Processing
Upsampling
FIELD
FIGURE 16B. BEGINNING AN ODD FIELD
FIGURE 16. HSYNC AND BLANK TIMING WITH THE FLICKER
FILTER ENABLED. VSYNC ALIGNS WITH EITHER
EDGE OF FIELD. † UNBLANKED PERIOD WHICH
DETERMINES ACTIVE VIDEO IN OUTPUT.
Only the first unblanked period during each line time
determines when the active video will be output. Because of
the half line offset between the H and V syncs, pixel data
input begins (blanking ends) in the middle of the line time for
odd fields. However, it is still the unblanked period
immediately after HSYNC which generates the active region
of the output video. During even fields, the unblanking
pulses for the even numbered lines determine the output
timing; during odd fields, it’s the odd numbered lines.
When it is an output and the flicker filter is enabled, BLANK
generation is similar to that found in normal mode. The main
difference is that the encoder counts every CLK2 instead of
every other CLK2. The start and end times for each line’s
second unblanked interval are shifted slightly. The
13
Video processing begins with the 4:4:4 sampled YCbCr data
from the input processor. After overlay mixing and optional
2X upscaling or flicker filtering, the HMP8154/HMP8156A
upsamples the 4:4:4 data to generate 8:8:8 data. The
encoder uses linear interpolation for the upsampling.
Horizontal Filtering
Unless disabled, the HMP8154/HMP8156A lowpass filters
the Y data to 6.0MHz. Lowpass filtering Y removes any
aliasing artifacts due to the upsampling process, and
simplifies the analog output filters. The Y 6.0MHz lowpass
filter response is shown in Figure 18. At this point, the
HMP8154/HMP8156A also scales the Y data to generate the
proper output levels for the various video standards
The HMP8154/HMP8156A lowpass filters the Cb and Cr
data to 1.3MHz prior to modulation. The lowpass filtering
removes any aliasing artifacts due to the upsampling
process (simplifying the analog output filters) and also
properly bandwidth-limits Cb and Cr prior to modulation.
The chrominance filtering is not optional like luminance
filtering. The Cb and Cr 1.3MHz lowpass filter response is
shown in Figure 19.
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
TABLE 7. TYPICAL VIDEO TIMING PARAMETERS
PIXELS PER LINE
VIDEO STANDARD
TOTAL
HBLANK REGISTER VALUES
ACTIVE
VBLANK REGISTER VALUES
START
END
START
END
CLK2
(MHz)
842 (0x34a)
853 (0x355)
842 (0x34a)
853 (0x355)
853 (0x355)
122 (0x7a)
133 (0x85)
122 (0x7a)
133 (0x85)
133 (0x85)
259 (0x103)
310 (0x136)
259 (0x103)
309 (0x135)
310 (0x136)
19 (0x13)
22 (0x16)
19 (0x13)
21 (0x15)
22 (0x16)
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
758 (0x2f6)
923 (0x39b)
758 (0x2f6)
923 (0x39b)
923 (0x39b)
118 (0x76)
155 (0x9b)
118 (0x76)
155 (0x9b)
155 (0x9b)
259 (0x103)
310 (0x136)
259 (0x103)
309 (0x135)
310 (0x136)
19 (0x13)
22 (0x16)
19 (0x13)
21 (0x15)
22 (0x16)
24.54
29.5
24.54
29.5
29.5
834 (0x342)
845 (0x34d)
842 (0x34a)
853 (0x355)
853 (0x355)
130 (0x82)
141 (0x8d)
122 (0x7a)
133 (0x85)
133 (0x85)
259 (0x103)
310 (0x136)
259 (0x103)
309 (0x135)
310 (0x136)
19 (0x13)
22 (0x16)
19 (0x13)
21 (0x15)
22 (0x16)
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
27.0
758 (0x2f6)
923 (0x39b)
758 (0x2f6)
923 (0x39by)
923 (0x39b)
118 (0x76)
155 (0x9b)
118 (0x76)
155 (0x9b)
155 (0x9b)
259 (0x103)
310 (0x136)
259 (0x103)
309 (0x135)
310 (0x136)
19 (0x13)
22 (0x16)
19 (0x13)
21 (0x15)
22 (0x16)
24.54
29.5
24.54
29.5
29.5
FULL INPUT RESOLUTION, RECTANGULAR PIXELS
720
720
720
720
720
858
864
858
864
864
(M, NSM) NTSC
(B, D, G, H, I) PAL
(M) PAL
(N) PAL
(CN) PAL
FULL INPUT RESOLUTION, SQUARE PIXELS
(M, NSM) NTSC
(B, D, G, H, I) PAL
(M) PAL
(N) PAL
(CN) PAL
640
768
640
768
768
780
944
780
944
944
SIF INPUT RESOLUTION, RECTANGULAR PIXELS
352
352
352
352
352
429
432
429
432
432
(M, NSM) NTSC
(B, D, G, H, I) PAL
(M) PAL
(N) PAL
(CN) PAL
SIF INPUT RESOLUTION, SQUARE PIXELS
320
384
320
384
384
390
472
390
472
472
(M, NSM) NTSC
(B, D, G, H, I) PAL
(M) PAL
(N) PAL
(CN) PAL
.
0
-10
PAL SQUARE PIXEL
CLK2 = 29.50MHz
-20
NTSC OR PAL
RECTANGULAR PIXEL
CLK2 = 27.00MHz
-30
-0.5
ATTENUATION (dB)
ATTENUATION (dB)
0
NTSC SQUARE PIXEL
CLK2 = 24.54MHz
-40
-50
PAL SQUARE PIXEL
CLK2 = 29.50MHz
-1.0
NTSC OR PAL
RECTANGULAR PIXEL
CLK2 = 27.00MHz
-1.5
-2.0
NTSC SQUARE PIXEL
CLK2 = 24.54MHz
-2.5
-3.0
-60
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0
1
FREQUENCY (MHz)
FIGURE 18A. FULL SPECTRUM
2
3
4
FREQUENCY (MHz)
5
6
7
FIGURE 18B. PASS BAND
FIGURE 18. Y LOWPASS FILTER RESPONSE
.
14
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
0
-10
ATTENUATION (dB)
Resetting the SCH phase every four fields (NTSC) or eight
fields (PAL) avoids the accumulation of SCH phase error at
the expense of requiring any NTSC/PAL decoder after the
encoder be able to handle very minor “jumps” (up to 2o) in
the SCH phase at the beginning of each four-field or eightfield sequence. Most NTSC/PAL decoders are able to
handle this due to video editing requirements.
PAL SQUARE PIXEL
CLK2 = 29.50MHz
NTSC OR PAL
RECTANGULAR PIXEL
CLK2 = 27.00MHz
-20
NTSC SQUARE PIXEL
CLK2 = 24.54MHz
-30
Composite Video Limiting
-40
-50
-60
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
FREQUENCY (MHz)
FIGURE 19A. FULL SPECTRUM
Closed Captioning
0
-0.5
PAL SQUARE PIXEL
CLK2 = 29.50MHz
-1.0
ATTENUATION (dB)
The HMP8154/HMP8156A adds the luminance and modulated
chrominance together with the sync, color burst, and optional
blanking pedestal to form the composite video data. If enabled
in the video processing register, the encoder limits the active
video so that it is always greater than one-eighth of full scale.
This corresponds to approximately one-half the sync height.
This allows the generation of “safe” video in the event
nonstandard YCbCr values are input to the device.
-1.5
-2.0
NTSC OR PAL
RECTANGULAR PIXEL
CLK2 = 27.00MHz
-2.5
-3.0
The HMP8154/HMP8156A has two 16-bit registers containing
the captioning information. Each 16-bit register is organized as
two cascaded 8-bit registers. One 16-bit register (caption 21) is
read out serially during line 18, 21 or 22; the other 16-bit
register (caption 284) is read out serially during line 281, 284 or
335. The data registers are shifted out LSB first.
NTSC SQUARE PIXEL
CLK2 = 24.54MHz
-3.5
-4.0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
If enabled in the auxiliary data control register, the
HMP8154/HMP8156A generates closed captioning data on
specified scan lines. The captioning data stream includes clock
run-in and start bits followed by the captioning data. During
closed captioning encoding, the pixel and overlay inputs are
ignored on the scan lines containing captioning information.
1.2
1.4
1.6
FREQUENCY (MHz)
FIGURE 19B. PASS BAND
FIGURE 19. Cb AND Cr LOWPASS FILTER RESPONSE
Chrominance Modulation
The HMP8154/HMP8156A uses a numerically controlled
oscillator (NCO) clocked by CLK2 and a sine look up ROM to
generate the color subcarrier. The subcarrier from the ROM is
pre-scaled to generate the proper levels for the various video
standards. Prescaling outside the CbCr data path minimizes
color processing artifacts. The HMP8154/HMP8156A
modulates the filtered 8:8:8 chrominance data with the
synthesized subcarrier.
The bytes may be written in any order but both must be
written within one frame time for proper operation. If the
registers are not updated, the encoder resends the
previously loaded values.
The HMP8154/HMP8156A provides a write status bit for
each captioning line. The encoder clears the write status bit
to ‘0’ when captioning is enabled and both bytes of the
captioning data register have been written. The encoder sets
the write status bit to ‘1’ after it outputs the data, indicating
the registers are ready to receive new data.
Captioning information may be enabled for either line, both
lines, or no lines. The captioning modes are summarized in
Table 8.
Subcarrier Phase
Controlled Edges
The SCH phase is 0 degrees after reset but then changes
monotonically over time due to residue in the NCO. In an
ideal system, zero SCH phase would be maintained forever.
In reality, this is impossible to achieve due to pixel clock
frequency tolerances.
The NTSC and PAL video standards specify edge rates and
rise and fall times for portions of the video waveform. The
HMP8154/HMP8156A automatically implements controlled
edge rates and rise and fall times on these edges:
If enabled, the HMP8154/HMP8156A resets the NCO
periodically to avoid an accumulation of SCH phase error.
The reset occurs at the beginning of each field to burst
phase sequence. The sequence repeats every 4 fields for
NTSC or 8 fields for PAL.
15
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Analog horizontal sync (rising and falling edges)
Analog vertical sync interval (rising and falling edges)
Color burst envelope
Blanking of analog active video
Overlay with internal mixing
Closed captioning information
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
TABLE 8. CLOSED CAPTIONING MODES
CAPTIONING REGISTER
CLOSED
CAPTIONING
ENABLE BITS
OUTPUT LINE(S)
WRITE STATUS BIT
284A
284B
21A
21B
284
21
00
None
Ignored
Ignored
Always 1
Always 1
01
21 (NTSC)
18 (M PAL)
22 (Other PAL)
Ignored
Caption Data
Always 1
0 = Loaded
1 = Output
10
284 (NTSC)
281 (M PAL)
335 (Other PAL)
Caption Data
Ignored
0 = Loaded
1 = Output
Always 1
11
21, 284 (NTSC)
18, 281 (M PAL)
22, 335 (Other PAL)
Caption Data
Caption Data
0 = Loaded
1 = Output
0 = Loaded
1 = Output
Analog Outputs
The HMP8154/HMP8156A converts the video data into
analog signals using four 10-bit DACs running at the CLK2
rate. The DACs output a current proportional to the digital
data. The full scale output current is determined by the
reference voltage VREF and an external resistor RSET. The
full scale output current is given by:
IFULLSCALE (mA) = 3.9 * VREF (V)/RSET (kΩ)
(EQ 1.)
VREF must be chosen such that it is within the part’s
operating range; RSET must be chosen such that the
maximum output current is not exceeded.
If the VREF pin is not connected, the HMP8154/HMP8156A
provides an internal reference voltage. Otherwise, the
applied voltage overdrives the internal reference. If an
external reference is used, it must decoupled from any
power supply noise. An example external reference circuit is
shown in the Applications section.
The HMP8154/HMP8156A generates 1VP-P nominal video
signals across 37.5Ω loads corresponding to doubly
terminated 75Ω lines. The encoder may also drive larger
loads. The full scale output current and load must be chosen
such that the maximum output voltage is not exceeded.
data into 8:8:8 RGB data. The transform matrix uses
different coefficients to generate NTSC or PAL video levels.
The analog RGB outputs have a range of 0.3-1.0V with an
optional blanking pedestal. Composite sync information (0.00.3V) may be optionally added to the green output. Closed
captioning data is not included on the RGB outputs. The
HMP8154/HMP8156A also generates composite video
when in RGB output mode. All four outputs are time aligned.
The HMP8154/HMP8156A provides selectable pin outs for
the RGB outputs. When the SCART compatibility bit is
cleared, the analog composite video is output onto the
NTSC/PAL 1 pin. Red information is output onto the
NTSC/PAL 2 pin, blue information is output onto the C pin,
and green information is output onto the Y pin.
When the bit is set, the analog composite video is output
onto the Y pin. Red information is output onto the C pin, blue
video is output on the NTSC/PAL 2 pin, and the green signal
is output on the NTSC/PAL 1 pin. The output pin
assignments are summarized in Table 9.
TABLE 9. OUTPUT PIN ASSIGNMENTS
OUTPUT MODE
(SCART SELECT BIT)
Output DAC Filtering
Since the DACs run at 2X the pixel sample rate, the sin(x)/x
rolloff of the outputs is greatly reduced, and there are fewer
high frequency artifacts in the output spectrum. This allows
using simple analog output filters. The analog output filter
should be flat to Fs/4 and have good rejection at 3Fs/4.
Example filters are shown in the Applications section.
PIN NAME
PIN
#
COMP. WITH
Y/C
(X)
COMP. W/
RGB
(0)
COMP. W/
RGB
(1)
Y
3
Luma
Green
Composite
C
7
Chroma
Blue
Red
NTSC/PAL 1
11
Composite
Composite
Green
NTSC/PAL 2
15
Composite
Red
Blue
Composite + Y/C Output Mode
The HMP8154/HMP8156A provides three output modes:
S-video, RGB, and power down. When S-video outputs are
selected, the encoder outputs the luminance, modulated
chrominance, and two copies of the composite video signals.
All four outputs are time aligned.
Composite + RGB Output Mode
Power Down Modes
To reduce power dissipation, any of the four output DACs
may be turned off. Each DAC has an independent enable bit.
Each output may be disabled in the host control register.
When the power down mode is enabled, all of the DACs and
internal voltage reference are powered down (forcing their
outputs to zero) and the data pipeline registers are disabled.
When analog RGB video is selected, the
HMP8154/HMP8156A transforms the filtered 8:8:8 YCbCr
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HMP8154, HMP8156A
The HMP8154/HMP8156A’s operating modes are
determined by the contents of its internal registers which are
accessed via the I2C interface. All internal registers may be
written or read by the host processor at any time. However,
some of the bits and words are read only or reserved and
data written to these bits is ignored.
The host processor may still read from and write to the
internal control registers.
Host Interfaces
Reset
The HMP8154/HMP8156A resets to its default operating
mode on power up, when the reset pin is asserted for at
least four CLK cycles, or when the software reset bit of the
host control register is set. During the reset cycle, the
encoder returns its internal registers to their reset state and
deactivates the I2C interface.
I2C Interface
Table 10 lists the HMP8154/HMP8156A’s internal registers.
Their bit descriptions are listed in Tables 11-30.
TABLE 10. CONTROL REGISTER NAMES
The HMP8154/HMP8156A provides a standard I2C interface
and supports fast-mode (up to 400 Kbps) transfers. The
device acts as a slave for receiving and transmitting data
only. It will not respond to general calls or initiate a transfer.
The encoder’s slave address is either 0100 000xB when the
SA input pin is low or 0100 001xB when it is high. (The ‘x’ bit
in the address is the I2C read flag.)
The I2C interface consists of the SDA and SCL pins. When
the interface is not active, SCL and SDA must be pulled high
using external 4-6kΩ pull-up resistors. The I2C clock and
data timing is shown in Figures 20 and 21.
During I2C write cycles, the first data byte after the slave
address specifies the sub address, and is written into the
address register. Only the seven LSBs of the subaddress
are used; the MSB is ignored. Any remaining data bytes in
the I2C write cycle are written to the control registers,
beginning with the register specified by the address register.
The 7-bit address register is incremented after each data
byte in the I2C write cycle. Data written to reserved bits
within registers or reserved registers is ignored.
During I2C read cycles, data from the control register
specified by the address register is output. The address
register is incremented after each data byte in the I2C read
cycle. Reserved bits within registers return a value of “0”.
Reserved registers return a value of 00H .
SUB ADDRESS
(HEX)
CONTROL REGISTER
RESET
CONDITION
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07-0E
0F
10
11
12
13
14-1F
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28-2F
30-7F
Product ID
Output Format
Input Format
Video Processing
Timing I/O 1
Timing I/O 2
Aux Data Enable
Reserved
Host Control
Closed Caption_21A
Closed Caption_21B
Closed Caption_284A
Closed Caption_284B
Reserved
Start H_Blank Low
Start H_Blank High
End H_Blank
Start V_Blank Low
Start V_Blank High
End V_Blank
Field Control 1
Field Control 2
Reserved
Test and Unused
54H
00H
06H
A0H
00H
00H
00H
0CH
80H
80H
80H
80H
4AH
03H
7AH
03H
01H
13H
80H
00H
-
SDA
SCL
1-7
S
START
CONDITION
ADDRESS
8
R/W
9
ACK
1-7
8
DATA
9
P
ACK
STOP
CONDITION
FIGURE 20. I2C SERIAL TIMING FLOW
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HMP8154, HMP8156A
DATA WRITE
S
CHIP ADDR
A
SUB ADDR
A
0x40 OR
0x42
CHIP ADDR
A
REGISTER
POINTED
TO BY
SUBADDR
DATA READ
S
DATA
A
0x40 OR
0x42
SUB ADDR
A
S
CHIP ADDR
0x41 OR
0x43
DATA
A
S = START CYCLE
P = STOP CYCLE
A = ACKNOWLEDGE
NA = NO ACKNOWLEDGE
P
OPTIONAL FRAME
MAY BE REPEATED
n TIMES
A
DATA
REGISTER
POINTED
TO BY
SUBADDR
FROM MASTER
A
DATA
NA
P
FROM ENCODER
OPTIONAL FRAME
MAY BE REPEATED
n TIMES
FIGURE 21. REGISTER WRITE PROGRAMMING FLOW
TABLE 11. PRODUCT ID REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 00H
BIT
NUMBER
7-0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
Product ID
This 8-bit register specifies the last two digits of the product number. It is a read-only register.
Data written to it is ignored.
RESET
STATE
54H
TABLE 12. OUTPUT FORMAT REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 01H
BIT
NUMBER
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
RESET
STATE
7-5
Video Timing
Standard
000 = (M) NTSC
001 = (M) NTSC with a 0 IRE setup; also called (NSM) NTSC
010 = (B, D, G, H, I) PAL
011 = (M) PAL
100 = (N) PAL
101 = combination (N) PAL; also called (CN) PAL
110 = reserved
111 = reserved
000B
4-3
Output Format
00 = Composite + Y/C
01 = reserved
10 = Composite + RGB (no sync on green)
11 = Composite + RGB (with sync on green)
00B
2-0
Reserved
000B
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HMP8154, HMP8156A
TABLE 13. INPUT FORMAT REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 02H
BIT
NUMBER
7-5
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
000B
Input Format
000 = 16-bit 4:2:2 YCbCr
001 = 8-bit 4:2:2 YCbCr
010 = 8-bit BT.656
011 = 16-bit linear RGB
100 = 16-bit gamma-corrected RGB
101 = 24-bit linear RGB
110 = 24-bit gamma-corrected RGB
111 = Blue screen
4
Gamma
Select
These bits are ignored except during linear RGB input modes.
0 = 1 / 2.2
1 = 1 / 2.8
3
Reserved
2-1
0
RESET
STATE
0B
0B
Overlay Mixing
Mode
These bits must be set to “11” in 24-bit RGB input modes. Internal mixing should not be
selected in BT.656 input mode.
00 = No mixing
01 = Internal mixing
10 = External mixing
11 = Disable overlays
11B
Input Resolution
This bit must be set to “0” during BT.656 input mode and when the flicker filter is enabled.
0 = Full resolution (2X upscaling disabled)
1 = SIF resolution (2X upscaling enabled)
0B
TABLE 14. VIDEO PROCESSING REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 03H
BIT
NUMBER
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
RESET
STATE
7
Luminance
Processing
0 = None
1 = Y Lowpass filtering enabled
1B
6
Composite Video
Limiting
0 = None
1 = Lower limit of composite active video is about half the sync height
0B
5
SCH Phase
Mode
0 = Never reset SCH phase
1 = Reset SCH phase every 4 (NTSC) or 8 (PAL) fields
1B
4
RGB Pedestal
Enable
0 = Don’t add blanking pedestal to RGB output
1 = add blanking pedestal to RGB output
0B
3
RGB pin Assignment
select
0 = use HMP8156 assignments
1 = SCART connector compatible
0B
2
First Active
Line Select
This bit is ignored unless flicker filtering is enabled. This bit is ignored on the HMP8156.
0 = First line of active video in odd fields is on an odd line number
1 = First line of active video in odd fields is on an even line number
0B
1-0
Flicker Filter
Processing
These bits must be “00” during 8-bit YCbCr and BT.656 input modes, and SIF input resolution
mode. These bits are always “00” on the HMP8156A.
00 = No flicker filtering
01 = reserved
10 = reserved
11 = 3-line flicker filtering enabled
00B
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HMP8154, HMP8156A
TABLE 15. TIMING I/O REGISTER #1
SUB ADDRESS = 04H
BIT
NUMBER
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
RESET
STATE
7
BLANK
Timing Select
6
Reserved
5
BLANK Output
Control
0 = BLANK is an input
1 = BLANK is an output
0B
4
BLANK
Polarity
0 = Active low (low during blanking)
1 = Active high (high during blanking)
0B
3
HSYNC and
VSYNC Output
Control
0 = HSYNC and VSYNC are inputs
1 = HSYNC and VSYNC are outputs
0B
2
HSYNC
Polarity
0 = Active low (low during horizontal sync)
1 = Active high (high during horizontal sync)
0B
1
VSYNC
Polarity
0 = Active low (low during vertical sync)
1 = Active high (high during vertical sync)
0B
0
FIELD
Polarity
0 = Active low (low during odd fields)
1 = Active high (high during odd fields)
0B
This bit is ignored unless BLANK is configured to be an output.
0 = Data for the first active pixel of the scan line must arrive the CLK cycle after the encoder
negates BLANK.
1 = Data for the first active pixel of the scan line must arrive immediately after the encoder
negates BLANK.
0B
0B
TABLE 16. TIMING I/O REGISTER #2
SUB ADDRESS = 05H
BIT
NUMBER
7-5
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
Reserved
RESET
STATE
000B
4
CLK Output Control
0 = CLK is an input
1 = CLK is an output
0B
3
Aspect Ratio Mode
This bit must be set to “0” during BT.656 input mode.
0 = Rectangular (BT.601) pixels
1 = Square pixels
0B
2-0
Reserved
00B
TABLE 17. AUXILIARY DATA ENABLE REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 06H
BIT
NUMBER
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
7-6
Closed Captioning
Enable
5-0
Reserved
00 = Closed caption disabled
01 = Closed caption enabled for odd fields: line 21 for NTSC, line 18 for (M) PAL, or line 22 for
(B, D, G, H, I, N, CN) PAL
10 = Closed caption enabled for even fields: line 284 for NTSC, line 281 for (M) PAL, or line
335 for (B, D, G, H, I, N, CN) PAL
11 = Closed caption enabled for both odd and even fields
RESET
STATE
00B
000000B
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HMP8154, HMP8156A
TABLE 18. HOST CONTROL REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 0FH
BIT
NUMBER
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
RESET
STATE
7
Software Reset
Setting this bit to “1” initiates a software reset. It is automatically reset to a “0” after the reset
sequence is complete.
0B
6
Power Down Enable
0 = Normal operation
1 = Power down mode
0B
5
NTSC/PAL 2
Output Mode
0 = Enabled
1 = Disabled
0B
4
Closed Caption
Line 21
Write Status
0 = Caption_21A and Caption_21B data registers contain unused data
1 = Data has been output, host processor may now write to the registers
1B
3
Closed Caption
Line 284
Write Status
0 = Caption_284A and Caption_284B data registers contain unused data
1 = Data has been output, host processor may now write to the registers
1B
2
NTSC/PAL 1
Output Mode
0 = Enabled
1 = Disabled
0B
1
Y/G
Output Mode
0 = Enabled
1 = Disabled
0B
0
C/B
Output Mode
0 = Enabled
1 = Disabled
0B
TABLE 19. CLOSED CAPTION_21A DATA REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 10H
BIT
NUMBER
7-0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
This register is cascaded with the closed caption_21B data register and they are read out
serially as 16 bits during line 18, 21, or 22 if line 21 captioning is enabled. Bit D0 of the 21A
data register is shifted out first.
Line 21 Caption
Data
(First Byte)
RESET
STATE
80H
TABLE 20. CLOSED CAPTION_21B DATA REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 11H
BIT
NUMBER
7-0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
This register is cascaded with the closed caption_21A data register and they are read out
serially as 16 bits during line 18, 21, or 22 if line 21 captioning is enabled. Bit D0 of the 21A
data register is shifted out first.
Line 21 Caption
Data
(Second Byte)
RESET
STATE
80H
TABLE 21. CLOSED CAPTION_284A DATA REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 12H
BIT
NUMBER
7-0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
This register is cascaded with the closed caption_284B data register and they are read out
serially as 16 bits during line 281, 284, or 335 if line 284 captioning is enabled. Bit D0 of the
284A data register is shifted out first.
Line 284 Caption
Data
(First Byte)
21
RESET
STATE
80H
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
TABLE 22. CLOSED CAPTION_284B DATA REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 13H
BIT
NUMBER
7-0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
This register is cascaded with the closed caption_284A data register and they are read out
serially as 16 bits during line 281, 284, or 335 if line 284 captioning is enabled. Bit D0 of the
284A data register is shifted out first.
Line 284 Caption
Data
(Second Byte)
RESET
STATE
80H
TABLE 23. START H_BLANK LOW REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 20H
BIT
NUMBER
7-0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
This 8-bit register is cascaded with Start H_Blank High Register to form a 10-bit
start_horizontal_blank register. It specifies the horizontal count (in 1X clock cycles) at which to
start ignoring pixel data each scan line. The leading edge of HSYNC is count 020H. This
register is ignored unless BLANK is configured as an output.
Assert BLANK
Output Signal
(Horizontal)
RESET
STATE
4AH
TABLE 24. START H_BLANK HIGH REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 21H
BIT
NUMBER
FUNCTION
7-2
Reserved
1-0
Assert BLANK
Output Signal
(Horizontal)
DESCRIPTION
RESET
STATE
000000B
This 2-bit register is cascaded with Start H_Blank Low Register to form a 10-bit
start_horizontal_blank register. It specifies the horizontal count (in 1x clock cycles) at which to
start ignoring pixel data each scan line. The leading edge of HSYNC is count 020H. This
register is ignored unless BLANK is configured as an output.
11B
TABLE 25. END H_BLANK REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 22H
BIT
NUMBER
7-0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
This 8-bit register specifies the horizontal count (in 1X clock cycles) at which to start inputting
pixel data each scan line. The leading edge of HSYNC is count 000H. This register is ignored
unless BLANK is configured as an output.
Negate BLANK
Output Signal
(Horizontal)
RESET
STATE
7AH
TABLE 26. START V_BLANK LOW REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 23H
BIT
NUMBER
7-0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
This 8-bit register is cascaded with Start V_Blank High Register to form a 9-bit
start_vertical_blank register. During normal operation, it specifies the line number (n) to start
ignoring pixel input data (and what line number to start blanking the output video) each odd
field; for even fields, it occurs on line (n + 262) or (n + 313).
During SIF input mode, the register value (n) specifies the line number to start ignoring pixel
input data each noninterlaced input frame. The output video will be blanked starting on line
number (n) each odd field; for even fields, it occurs on line (n + 262) or (n + 313).
The leading edge of VSYNC at the start of an odd field is count 000H (note that this does not
follow standard NTSC or PAL line numbering). This register is ignored unless BLANK is
configured as an output.
Assert BLANK
Output Signal
(Vertical)
22
RESET
STATE
03H
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
TABLE 27. START V_BLANK HIGH REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 24H
BIT
NUMBER
7-1
0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
Reserved
RESET
STATE
0000000B
This 1-bit register is cascaded with Start V_Blank Low Register to form a 9-bit
start_vertical_blank register. This register is ignored unless BLANK is configured as an output.
Assert BLANK
Output Signal
(Vertical)
1B
TABLE 28. END V_BLANK REGISTER
SUB ADDRESS = 25H
BIT
NUMBER
7-0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
During normal operation, this 8-bit register specifies the line number (n) to start inputting pixel
input data (and what line number to start generating active output video) each odd field; for
even fields, it occurs on line (n + 262) or (n + 313).
During SIF input mode, the register value (n) specifies the line number to start inputting pixel
input data each noninterlaced input frame. The output video will be active starting on line
number (n) each odd field; for even fields, it occurs on line (n + 262) or (n + 313).
The leading edge of VSYNC at the start of an odd field is count 000H (note that this does not
follow standard NTSC or PAL line numbering). This register is ignored unless BLANK is
configured as an output.
Negate BLANK
Output Signal
(Vertical)
RESET
STATE
13H
TABLE 29. FIELD CONTROL REGISTER 1
SUB ADDRESS = 26H
BIT
NUMBER
7-0
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
Field Detect
Window Size Low
This 8-bit register is cascaded with Field Detect Window Size High to form a 9-bit Field Detect
Window Size value. The value specifies the number of 1X clock cycles in the detection window
before and after the selected edge of VSYNC. It may range from 0 to 511. If the leading edge
of HSYNC occurs within the window, it is the start of an odd or even field, as specified by the
FIELD Detect Select bit. This register is ignored unless HSYNC and VSYNC are configured
as inputs.
RESET
STATE
80H
TABLE 30. FIELD CONTROL REGISTER 2
SUB ADDRESS = 27H
BIT
NUMBER
7-4
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
RESET
STATE
Half Line Count
Reset Value
These bits specify the value to load to the vertical half line counter when the selected edge of
VSYNC. The value is ignored when HSYNC and VSYNC are configured as outputs.
00000B
2
VSYNC Edge
Select
This bit specifies whether the encoder uses the leading or trailing edge of VSYNC to determine
the field and to reset the half line counter. It is ignored unless HSYNC and VSYNC are
configured as inputs.
0 = leading edge
1 = trailing edge
0B
1
FIELD Detect
Select
This bit specifies whether an odd or even field is starting when the leading edge of HSYNC
occurs within the FIELD Detect Window. It is ignored unless HSYNC and VSYNC are
configured as inputs.
0 = odd field
1 = even field
0B
0
Field Detect
Window Size High
This bit is cascaded with Field Detect Window Size Low to form a 9-bit Field Detect Window Size
value. This bit is ignored unless HSYNC and VSYNC are configured as inputs.
0B
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August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Pinout
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
COMP 1
COMP 2
FS_ADJUST
VREF
GND
GND
P0
VAA
GND
P1
P2
HMP8154/HMP8156A
(PQFP)
TOP VIEW
64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49
VAA
VAA
Y/G
GND
VAA
GND
C/B
GND
VAA
GND
NTSC/PAL1
GND
VAA
GND
NTSC/PAL2
GND
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
P13
GND
CLK2
VAA
CLK
P14
P15
VSYNC
HSYNC
FIELD
BLANK
GND
SCL
SA
SDA
RESV
P23
P22
VAA
RESET
GND
P21
M1/P20
M0/P19
OL2/P18
OL1/P17
OL0/P16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Pin Descriptions
PIN
NAME
PIN
NUMBER
INPUT/
OUTPUT
P0-P15
58, 55-43,
38, 37
I
P16-P23
32-27, 23,
22
I
Overlay or pixel inputs. See Table 1. Any overlay or pixel inputs not used should be
connected to GND.
RESV
21
I
This pin is reserved and should be connected to VCC or GND.
FIELD
34
O
FIELD output. The field output indicates that the encoder is outputting the odd or even video
field. The polarity of FIELD is programmable.
I/O
Horizontal sync input/output. As an input, this pin must be asserted during the horizontal
sync intervals. If it occurs early, the line time will be shortened. If it occurs late, the line time
will be lengthened by holding the outputs at the front porch level. As an output, it is
asserted during the horizontal sync intervals. The polarity of HSYNC is programmable. If
not driven, the circuit for this pin should include a 4-12kΩ pull up resistor connected to
VAA.
I/O
Vertical sync input/output. As an input, this pin must be asserted during the vertical sync
intervals. If it occurs early, the field time will be shortened. If it occurs late, the field time
will be lengthened by holding the outputs at the blanking level. As an output, it is asserted
during the vertical sync intervals. The polarity of VSYNC is programmable. If not driven,
the circuit for this pin should include a 4-12kΩ pull up resistor connected to VAA.
I/O
Composite blanking input/output. As an input, this pin must be asserted during the
horizontal and vertical blanking intervals. As an output, it is asserted during the horizontal
and vertical blanking intervals. The polarity of BLANK is programmable. If not driven, the
circuit for this pin should include a 4-12kΩ pull up resistor connected to VAA.
HSYNC
VSYNC
BLANK
35
36
33
24
DESCRIPTION
Pixel input pins. See Table 1. Any pixel inputs not used should be connected to GND.
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Pin Descriptions
(Continued)
PIN
NAME
PIN
NUMBER
INPUT/
OUTPUT
CLK
39
I/O
CLK2
41
I
2X pixel clock input. This clock must be a continuous, free-running clock.
SCL
18
I
I2C interface clock input. The circuit for this pin should include a 4-6kΩ pull
up resistor connected to VAA.
SA
19
I
I2C interface address select input.
SDA
20
I/O
I2C interface data input/output. The circuit for this pin should include a 4-6kΩ pull-up resistor
connected to VAA.
RESET
25
I
Reset control input. A logical zero for a minimum of four CLK cycles resets the device.
RESET must be a logical one for normal operation.
Y
(G)
3
O
Luminance analog current output. This output contains luminance video, sync, blanking,
and closed captioning information. In analog RGB output mode, green or composite
analog video is generated. It is capable of driving a 37.5Ω load. If not used, it should be
connected to GND.
C
(B)
7
O
Chrominance analog current output. This output contains chrominance video, and blanking
information. In analog RGB output mode, blue or red analog video is generated. It is capable
of driving a 37.5Ω load. If not used, it should be connected to GND.
NTSC/PAL 1
11
O
Composite video analog current output. This output contains composite video, sync,
blanking, and closed captioning information. In analog RGB output mode, composite or
green analog video is generated. It is capable of driving a 37.5Ω load. If not used, it should
be connected to GND.
NTSC/PAL 2
(R)
15
O
Composite video analog current output. This output contains composite video, sync,
blanking, and closed captioning information. In analog RGB output mode, red or blue analog
video is generated. It is capable of driving a 37.5Ω load. If not used, it should be connected
to GND.
VREF
61
I/O
Voltage reference. An optional external 1.235V reference may be used to drive this pin. If left
floating, the internal voltage reference is used.
FS_ADJUST
62
Full scale adjust control. A resistor (RSET) connected between this pin and GND sets the
full-scale output current of each of the DACs.
COMP 1
64
Compensation pin. A 0.1μF ceramic chip capacitor should be connected between this pin
and VAA, as close to the device as possible.
COMP 2
63
Compensation pin. Connection to this pin is optional. A 0.1μF ceramic chip capacitor may be
connected between this pin and VAA. If used, the capacitor should be placed as close to the
device as possible.
DESCRIPTION
1X pixel clock input/output. As an input, this clock must be free-running and synchronous
to the clock signal on the CLK2 pin. As an output, this pin may drive a maximum of one LS
TTL load. CLK is generated by dividing CLK2 by two or four, depending on the mode. If not
driven, the circuit for this pin should include a 4-12kΩ pull up resistor connected to VAA.
VAA
+5V power. A 0.1μF ceramic capacitor, in parallel with a 0.01μF chip capacitor, should be
used between each group of VAA pins and GND. These should be as close to the device as
possible.
GND
Ground
25
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Thermal Information
VAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+6V
All Signal Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.5V to +6V
Thermal Resistance (Typical, Note 3)
Operating Conditions
Temperature Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0oC to 70oC
θJA oC/W
PQFP Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
Maximum Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150oC
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . -65oC to 150oC
Vapor Phase Soldering, 1 Minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220oC
(PQFP - Lead Tips Only)
CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in the “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation section of this specification is not implied.
NOTE:
3. θJA is measured with the component mounted on an evaluation PC board in free air.
Electrical Specifications
VAA = +5V ±5%, RSET = 133Ω, VREF Unconnected, TA = 25oC, Unless Otherwise Specified
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITION
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
-
-
0.8
V
DC PARAMETERS, DIGITAL INPUTS EXCEPT CLK2, SDA, SCL
Input Logic Low Voltage, VIL
2.0
-
-
V
Input Logic Low Current, IIL
VIN = 0V
-
-
-10
μA
Input Logic High Current, IIH
VIN = VAA
-
-
10
μA
-
8
-
pF
-
-
0.3 x VAA
V
Input Logic High Voltage, VIH
Input Capacitance, CIN
DC PARAMETERS, CLK2 INPUT
Input Logic Low Voltage, VIL
0.7 x VAA
-
-
V
Input Logic Low Current, IIL
VIN = 0V
-
-
-10
μA
Input Logic High Current, IIH
VIN = VAA
-
-
10
μA
-
8
-
pF
Input Logic Low Voltage, VIL
-
-
0.3 x VAA
V
Input Logic High Voltage, VIH
0.7 x VAA
-
-
V
-
-10
μA
Input Logic High Voltage, VIH
Input Capacitance, CIN
DC PARAMETERS, SDA AND SCL INPUTS
Input Logic Low Current, IIL
VIN = 0V
-
Input Logic High Current, IIH
VIN = VAA
-
-
10
μA
-
8
-
pF
Input Capacitance, CIN
DC PARAMETERS, DIGITAL OUTPUTS (Except SDA)
Output Logic Low Voltage, VOL
IOL = 2mA
-
-
0.4
V
Output Logic High Voltage, VOH
IOH = -2mA
2.4
-
-
V
-
8
-
pF
-
-
0.4
V
10
10
10
Bits
Integral Nonlinearity, INL
-
±0.5
±2.0
LSB
Differential Nonlinearity, DNL
-
±0.2
±1.0
LSB
Output Current
-
-
34.8
mA
Output Capacitance, COUT
DC PARAMETERS, SDA OUTPUTS
Output Logic Low Voltage, VOL
IOL = 3mA
DC PARAMETERS, ANALOG OUTPUTS
DAC Resolution
Output Impedance
Output Capacitance
IOUT = 0mA
-
2M
-
Ω
IOUT = 34mA
-
300K
-
Ω
IOUT = 0mA, CLK = 13.5MHz
-
25
-
pF
0
-
1.4
V
-
-
±10
%
Output Compliance Range
Video Level Error
(Note 4)
Internal Voltage Reference
VREF unconnected, RSET = 133Ω
26
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Electrical Specifications
VAA = +5V ±5%, RSET = 133Ω, VREF Unconnected, TA = 25oC, Unless Otherwise Specified (Continued)
PARAMETER
External Voltage Reference
TEST CONDITION
VREF = 1.230V (Figure 37), RSET = 140Ω
DAC to DAC Matching
VREF Output Voltage
Pin not driven, using internal reference
VREF Output Current
VREF Input Voltage
Pin connected to external reference shown in
Figure 37.
VREF Input Current
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
-
-
±10
%
-
-
5
%
1.13
1.195
1.32
V
-50
-
50
μA
1.112
1.230
1.358
V
-500
-
500
μA
AC PARAMETERS, ANALOG OUTPUTS
Differential Gain Error
-
1
-
%
Differential Phase Error
Using analog output filter shown in Figure 38A.
-
1
-
Degree
SNR (Weighted)
-
70
-
dB
Hue Accuracy
-
2
-
Degree
Color Saturation Accuracy
-
2
-
%
Luminance Nonlinearity
-
1
-
%
Residual Subcarrier
-
-60
-
dB
-
±1.5
-
Degree
SCH Phase
SCH Phase Reset enabled
Analog Output Skew, TASK
-
-
3
ns
Analog Output Delay, TAD
-
-
12
ns
DAC-DAC Crosstalk
-
-60
-
dB
-
35
-
pV-s
Setup Time, TS
8
-
-
ns
Hold Time, TH
0
-
-
ns
Glitch Energy
Using analog output filter shown in Figure 38A.
Includes clock and data feedthrough
AC PARAMETERS, DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS EXCEPT SCL AND SDA
CLK2 Frequency
-
-
30.0
MHz
CLK2 High Time, CLK2H
13.6
-
20.3
ns
CLK2 Low Time, CLK2L
13.6
-
20.3
ns
CLK2 to Output Delay, TD
2
-
12
ns
RESET* Pulse Width Low, TRES
4
-
-
CLK
Cycles
-
64
-
dB
Power Supply Range, VAA
4.75
5.0
5.25
V
Normal Supply Current, IAA
-
-
260
mA
-
-
750
μA
-
1100
1300
mW
AC PARAMETERS, SCL AND SDA (I2C INTERFACE)
All AC parameters meet the fast-mode I2C Bus Interface specification.
POWER SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS
DAC PSRR at DC
Note 6
Power-Down Supply Current, IAA
Note 5
Power Dissipation
NOTES:
4. Output level is dependent on the voltage on VREF, the value of RSET, and the load.
5. If using an external voltage reference, it is not powered down. The internal voltage reference is always powered down.
6. The supply voltage rejection is the relative variation of the full-scale output driving a 37.5Ω load for a ±0.5% supply variation:
PSRR = 20 x log (ΔVAA /ΔVOUT).
27
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Typical Performance Curves
0.0
-5.0
-10.0
-15.0
-20.0
-25.0
-30.0
-35.0
-40.0
-45.0
-50.0
-55.0
-60.0
-65.0
-70.0
-75.0
-80.0
-85.0
-90.0
-95.0
-100.0
APL = 44.3%
FIELD = 1 LINE = 47
AMPLITUDE (0dB = 714mVP-P)
BANDWIDTH 10kHz TO FULL
Wfm ---> PEDESTAL
NOISE LEVEL = -79.9dB RMS
1.0
AVERAGE
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
(MHz)
FIGURE 22. NOISE SPECTRUM (NTSC)
SYSTEM LINE L 47 F1
ANGLE (DEG) 0.0
GAIN x1.000
0.000dB
525 LINE NTSC
BURST FROM SOURCE
SETUP 7.5%
FIGURE 23. NTSC COLOR BAR VECTOR SCOPE
FIGURE 24. NTSC FCC COLOR BAR
28
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Typical Performance Curves
105.0
104.5
104.0
103.5
103.0
102.5
102.0
101.5
101.0
100.5
100.0
99.5
99.0
98.5
98.0
97.5
97.0
96.5
96.0
95.5
95.0
FIELD = 1 LINE = 47
LUMINANCE NON LINEARITY (%)
(Continued)
wfm ---> 5 STEP
PEAK-TO-PEAK = 2.1
LINE FREQUENCY ERROR
0.00 (%)
100.0
99.1
99.1
99.8
97.9
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
(%)
0.2
0.4
LINE FREQUENCY 15.734 (kHz)
FIELD FREQUENCY 59.94 (Hz)
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
AVERAGE OFF
AVERAGE
FIGURE 25. LUMINANCE NON LINEARITY (NTSC)
LINE
JITTER (LINE 20 TO 250)
FIGURE 26. LINE FREQUENCY (NTSC)
525 LINE NTSC
MEAN SCH
0.8 DEGREES
2nsP-P
AVERAGE
FIGURE 27. H SYNC JITTER IN A FRAME (NTSC)
FIGURE 28. SCH PHASE MEASUREMENT (NTSC)
APL = 40.0%
SYSTEM LINE L 72
ANGLE (DEG) 0.0
GAIN x1.000
0.000dB
625 LINE PAL
BURST FROM SOURCE
DISPLAY +V AND -V
AVERAGE
FIGURE 29. NOISE SPECTRUM (PAL)
29
FIGURE 30. PAL COLOR BAR VECTOR SCOPE
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Typical Performance Curves
(Continued)
LINE = 72
Wfm ---> COLOR BAR
FIGURE 31. COLORBAR (PAL)
105.0
104.5
104.0
103.5
103.0
102.5
102.0
101.5
101.0
100.5
100.0
99.5
99.0
98.5
98.0
97.5
97.0
96.5
96.0
95.5
95.0
LINE = 72
LUMINANCE NON LINEARITY (%)
wfm ---> 5 STEP
PEAK-TO-PEAK = 1.4
LINE FREQUENCY ERROR
0.00 (%)
100.0
97.9
99.1
99.1
99.8
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
(%)
0.2
0.4
LINE FREQUENCY 15.625 (kHz)
FIELD FREQUENCY 50.00 (Hz)
AVERAGE OFF
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
AVERAGE
FIGURE 32. LUMINANCE NON LINEARITY (PAL)
30
FIGURE 33. LINE FREQUENCY (PAL)
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Typical Performance Curves
(Continued)
FIGURE 34. H SYNC JITTER IN A FRAME (PAL)
Application Information
Vertical Blanking Information Encoding
VBI data such as teletext may be encoded on any line by
driving the pixel inputs with appropriate data. For YCbCr
input modes, Cb and Cr should equal 128 to disable the
color information. For RGB input modes, R, G, and B should
always have the same value to disable the color information.
Vertical blanking must be negated on the first scan line
containing VBI information. If there are unused scan lines
between the VBI data and active video, BLANK must remain
on and the pixel inputs should be set to the black level.
Video Insertion Test Signalsy
Video test signals may be generated by driving the pixel
inputs with appropriate data. Most of the video test signals
require using YCbCr pixel data.
Vertical blanking must be negated on the first scan line
containing video test signals. If there are unused scan lines
between test signal data and active video, BLANK must
remain off and the pixel inputs should be set to the black level.
PCB Considerations
A PCB board with a minimum of 4 layers is recommended, with
layers 1 and 4 (top and bottom) for signals and layers 2 and 3
for power and ground. The PCB layout should implement the
lowest possible noise on the power and ground planes by
providing excellent decoupling. PCB trace lengths between
groups of VAA and GND pins should be as short as possible.
Component Placement
The optimum layout places the HMP8154/HMP8156A at the
edge of the PCB and as close as possible to the video output
connector. External components should be positioned as
close as possible to the appropriate pin, ideally such that
traces can be connected point to point. Chip capacitors are
recommended where possible, with radial lead ceramic
capacitors the second-best choice.
31
FIGURE 35. SCH PHASE MEASUREMENT (PAL)
Traces containing digital signals should not be routed over,
under, or adjacent to the analog output traces to minimize
crosstalk. If this is not possible, coupling can be minimized
by routing the digital signals at a 90 degree angle to the analog signals. The analog output traces should also not cross
over or under the VCC power plane to maximize high-frequency power supply rejection.
Power and Ground Planes
A common ground plane for all devices, including the
HMP8154/HMP8156A, is recommended. However, placing the
encoder on an electrically connected GND peninsula reduces
noise levels. All GND pins on the HMP8154/HMP8156A must
be connected to the ground plane. Typical power and ground
planes are shown in Figure 36.
The small connection between the ground areas should be
made wide enough so that most of the encoders digital inputs
can be routed over or under it. It is especially important that the
CLK and CLK2 signals cross through the connection.
The HMP8154/HMP8156A should have its own power plane
that is isolated from the common power plane of the board,
with a gap between the two power planes of at least 1/8 inch.
All VAA pins of the HMP8154/HMP8156A must be connected
to this isolated power plane.
The HMP8154/HMP8156A power plane should be connected
to the board’s normal VCC power plane at a single point though
a low-resistance ferrite bead, such as a Ferroxcube 56590653B, Fair-Rite 2743001111, or TDK BF45-4001. The ferrite bead
provides resistance to switching currents, improving the
performance of HMP8154/HMP8156A. A single, large
capacitor should also be used between the
HMP8154/HMP8156A power plane and the ground plane to
control low-frequency power supply ripple.
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
FERRITE
BEAD
BULK AREA
CAPACITOR
VCC
8154/8156A
LP
FILTERS
ANALOG
CONN.
VAA
PCB
FIGURE 36A. VCC AND VAA PLANES
GND
8154/8156A
LP
FILTERS
ANALOG
CONN.
PCB
FIGURE 36B. COMMON GROUND PLANE
FIGURE 36. EXAMPLE POWER AND GROUND PLANES
For proper operation, power supply decoupling is required. It
should be done using a 0.1μF ceramic capacitor in parallel
with a 0.01μF chip capacitor for each group of VAA pins to
ground. These capacitors should be located as close to the
VAA and GND pins as possible, using short, wide traces.
If a separate linear regulator is used to provide power to the
HMP8154/HMP8156A power plane, the power-up sequence
should be designed to ensure latchup will not occur. A separate
linear regulator is recommended if the power supply noise on
32
the VAA pins exceeds 200mV. About 10% of the noise (that is
less than 1MHz) on the VAA pins will couple onto the analog
outputs.
External Reference Voltage
If an external reference voltage is used, its circuitry should
receive power from the same plane as the HMP8154/
HMP8156A. The external VREF must also be stable and well
decoupled from the power plane. An example VREF circuit
using a band gap reference diode is shown in Figure 37.
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Analog Output Filters
VAA
The various video standards specify the frequency response
of the video signal. The HMP8154/HMP8156A uses 2X
oversampling DACs to simplify the reconstruction filter
required. Example post filters are shown in Figure 38. The
analog output filters should be as close as possible to the
HMP8154/HMP8156A.
6.8K
1.235V
ICL8069
+
4.7μF
0.01μF
FIGURE 37. EXTERNAL REFERENCE VOLTAGE CIRCUIT
1.0μH
1.0μH
2.2μH
75
82pF
330pF
330pF
39pF
RL
75
FIGURE 38A. HIGH QUALITY FILTER
2.7μH
75
560pF
560pF
RL
75
FIGURE 38B. LOW COST FILTER
FIGURE 38. EXAMPLE POST-FILTER CIRCUITS
Evaluation Kits
The HMP8154EVAL1 is a small (index card size) printed
circuit board containing the encoder, voltage references and
bypassing, analog output filters, and input/output
connectors. The board allows the encoder’s operation and
performance to be observed and measured.
The HMP8154EVAL1 board has a 50 pin, two row receptacle
which allows connection into an existing system. The
connector provides access to all of the encoder’s digital
inputs and outputs.
S-video, and component RGB signals. The analog signals
are converted/decoded to the digital domain and input to
the encoder. The board also provides a 3 megabyte video
RAM for image capture and display and a BT.656
connector and interface.
For simpler operation, the HMP8154EVAL1 may also be
driven by external power supplies, a BT.656 signal
generator, and a PC parallel port. The evaluation kit includes
application software to program the part using its I2C bus
connected to the printer port. The board includes the
standard 25 pin BT.656 connector and interface.
The HMP8156EVAL2 is the Intersil designed mother board
for the HMP8154EVAL1. The mother board is a standard
size PC add in card with an ISA bus interface and
application software. The HMP8156EVAL2 kit is a complete
system which allows demonstrating all of both encoders’
operating modes. It has analog video inputs for composite,
33
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
HMP8154, HMP8156A
Metric Plastic Quad Flatpack Packages (MQFP)
D
Q64.14x14 (JEDEC MS-022BE ISSUE B)
64 LEAD METRIC PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK PACKAGE
D1
-D-
INCHES
SYMBOL
-A-
-B-
E E1
e
PIN 1
SEATING
A PLANE
-H-
0.076
0.003
12o-16o
-C-
0.40
0.016 MIN
0.20
M
0.008
C A-B S
0o MIN
D S
b
A2 A1
0o-7o
L
b1
MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
NOTES
A
-
0.124
-
3.15
-
A1
0.004
0.010
0.10
0.25
-
A2
0.100
0.108
2.55
2.75
-
b
0.012
0.018
0.30
0.45
6
b1
0.012
0.016
0.30
0.40
-
D
0.672
0.682
17.08
17.32
3
D1
0.546
0.556
13.88
14.12
4, 5
E
0.673
0.681
17.10
17.30
3
E1
0.547
0.555
13.90
14.10
4, 5
L
0.029
0.040
0.73
1.03
-
N
64
64
7
e
0.032 BSC
0.80 BSC
Rev. 1 4/99
NOTES:
1. Controlling dimension: MILLIMETER. Converted inch
dimensions are not necessarily exact.
2. All dimensions and tolerances per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
3. Dimensions D and E to be determined at seating plane -C- .
4. Dimensions D1 and E1 to be determined at datum plane
-H- .
6. Dimension b does not include dambar protrusion. Allowable
dambar protrusion shall be 0.08mm (0.003 inch) total.
BASE METAL
WITH PLATING
MAX
5. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion.
Allowable protrusion is 0.25mm (0.010 inch) per side.
0.13/0.17
0.005/0.007
12o-16o
MIN
7. “N” is the number of terminal positions.
0.13/0.23
0.005/0.009
All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems.
Intersil Corporation’s quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without
notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
34
FN4343.5
August 20, 2009
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