Chapter 11 Module products

Module products
1 Mini-spectrometers
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
Hamamatsu technologies
Structure
Characteristics
Operation mode
Evaluation software
New approaches
Applications
2 MPPC modules
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
Features
How to use
Characteristics
New approaches
Applications
3 APD modules
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
Features
Characteristics
How to use
New approaches
Applications
CHAPTER 11
6 Photosensor amplifiers,
Photodiode modules
6-1 Photosensor amplifiers
6-2 Photodiode modules
6-3 Applications
7 Optics modules
7-1 Features
7-2 Structure
7-3 New approaches
8 Balanced detectors
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
Features
Hamamatsu technologies
How to use
New approaches
Applications
9 PSD signal processing circuits, PSD modules
9-1 PSD signal processing circuits
9-2 PSD modules
9-3 Applications
4 Radiation detection modules
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
Features
Structure and characteristics
How to use
New approaches
Applications
10 Color sensor modules/evaluation circuit
10-1 Color sensor modules
10-2 Color sensor evaluation circuit
11 Image sensor application products
5 Distance sensors
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
Features
Structure
Characteristics
Applications
11-1
11-2
11-3
11-4
Features
Structure
How to use
New approaches
12 Special-purpose modules
12-1 Flame eyes
12-2 Sunlight sensors
12-3 Driver circuit for Si photodiode array
1
Module products
Hamamatsu provides a wide variety of module products that extract the maximum performance from a rich lineup of optosemiconductors. Custom products are also available by request. Please feel free to consult us.
Technologies used in module products
Opto-semiconductor technology
Packaging/mounting technology
· Wide lineup of opto-semiconductors
· Custom devices available
· Compact, highly functional, and low cost
Flip-chip bonding: directly joins flipped chip to the board using
bumps
Front-end IC: couples to compact first-stage analog signal
processing circuit suitable for photosensor
· COB (chip on board): directly mounts a chip on the board to
reduce mounting area, makes the module
slimmer, and reduces costs.
· Integration of photosensor and optical components and the like to
miniaturize and reduce costs
MEMS* technology
· High accuracy micromachining
· Contributes to the miniaturization of module components and
enhanced functionality
* Micro-electro-mechanical systems
Circuit technology
· Optimized for opto-semiconductors and applications
· Supports high sensitivity, low noise, high speed, and multichannel
Circuitry
Opto-semiconductors
Housing
Module product
configuration
example
Photodiode,
image sensor,
etc.
Amplifier
Photosensor
Signal processing
(analog/digital)
LED
LD
Driver
Light emitter
Interface
Optical components (filter, lens, etc.)
Optical technology
Software technology
· Optimal optical design achieves high-performance modules.
· Effective simulation
In-house optical simulation allows speedy, flexible optical design.
· Sample software for speedy evaluation
· Support for USB, RS-232C, and other interfaces
KACCC0730EA
2
Hamamatsu module products
Product
Mini-spectrometer
MPPC module
APD module
Description
These mini-spectrometers consist of a Hamamatsu image sensor, optical elements, and a driver
circuit (except for spectrometer heads), all assembled together in a compact case.
A full lineup of MPPC modules capable of measuring light over a wide range (10 orders of magnitude)
from the photon counting region to nW (nanowatt) region is available. MPPC modules contain an
amplifier, a high-voltage power supply circuit, and other components needed for MPPC operation.
MPPC modules operate just by connecting them to a power supply (±5 V, etc.).
These are high-speed, high-sensitivity photodetectors using an APD. An APD, a low-noise amplifier,
and a bias power supply are assembled together in a compact case. Simply connecting to a low
voltage DC power supply allows light measurements with an S/N level dozens of times higher than
PIN photodiodes.
Radiation detection module
These modules incorporate a scintillator and MPPC and are designed to detect gamma-rays.
Distance sensor
These modules are designed to measure distances to a reflective sheet attached to the target object.
The distance is measured by emitting pulsed light from a 660 nm semiconductor laser to irradiate the
reflective sheet and measuring the time-of-flight required for the laser light to return to the sensor.
Photosensor amplifier
These are current-to-voltage conversion amplifiers specifically designed to amplify photocurrent with
low noise.
Photodiode module
Photodiode modules are high-precision photodetectors integrating a Si or InGaAs photodiode and
current-to-voltage conversion amplifier. A dedicated controller is also provided (sold separately).
Optics module
Optics modules are custom products integrating a photosensor, optical components (lens, filter, etc.),
and a circuit (analog, digital).
Balanced detector
These are differential amplification type photoelectric conversion modules containing two
photodiodes. The difference between the incident light levels of two photodiodes is treated as a
displacement signal, converted into an electrical signal, and output.
PSD signal processing circuit
These circuit boards are used for evaluation of a PSD (position sensitive detector).
PSD module
These modules are high-precision position detectors integrating a PSD (or 4-segment Si photodiode)
and current-to-voltage conversion circuit. A dedicated controller is also provided (sold separately).
Color sensor module/
evaluation circuit
Color sensor modules contain an RGB color sensor. An evaluation circuit is also provided where a
color sensor can be mounted.
Infrared detector module
with preamp
These modules integrate an infrared detector and preamp. A variety of products is available for
different wavelength regions.
Multichannel detector head
These products house in a heat dissipating case a driver circuit supporting Hamamatsu's main image
sensors.
Image sensor driver circuit
Driver circuits for our main image sensors are available to easily evaluate and test Hamamatsu image
sensors.
Special-purpose module
These include “flame eyes” for flame detection, sunlight sensors for automotive air conditioners and
the like, and Si photodiode array driver circuit.
MPPC modules
Photosensor amplifiers and photodiode modules
3
1.
Mini-spectrometers
Mini-spectrometers are compact polychromators made
up of optical systems such as a grating, an image sensor,
and its driver circuit which are assembled together into
a compact case. Spectrum data is acquired by guiding
measurement light into a mini-spectrometer through an
optical fiber and transferring the sensor output to a PC via
the USB connection.
Other communication interfaces (Ethernet, serial interface,
etc.) can be provided through customization upon customer
request.
resolution, wide spectral range, high diffraction in the
ultraviolet region, etc.) can be mounted on its minispectrometers.
[Figure 1-2] SEM photo of grating
[Figure 1-1] Connecting a mini-spectrometer to a PC via USB
Image sensor technology
The detector serving as the core of the mini-spectrometer
is a Hamamatsu image sensor (back-thinned CCD image
sensor, CMOS linear image sensor, or InGaAs linear image
sensor) which holds a long and well-deserved reputation
among users in analysis and measurement fields.
In the future, Hamamatsu plans to incorporate new image
sensors suitable for mini-spectrometer applications as they
become available.
[Figure 1-3] Examples of image sensors used in mini-spectrometers
High-performance spectrophotometers are used in a broad
range of fields including chemical analysis. However, those
instruments are usually large and expensive. Moreover, the
measurement samples have to be brought into a laboratory
where the spectrophotometer is installed.
By merging the image sensor technology accumulated over
many years with MEMS technology such as nanoimprint
(e.g. for diffraction gratings), Hamamatsu succeeded in
developing mini-spectrometer products that offer compact
size and low cost.
These mini-spectrometers are useful in a wide range of
measurement fields including chemical analysis, color
measurement, environmental measurement, and process
control on production lines. Hamamatsu also provides
ultra-compact models specifically designed to be built into
mobile measuring devices.
1-1
Hamamatsu technologies
MEMS technology
Hamamatsu mini-spectrometers (TM/TG series) use a
transmission grating fabricated by a nanoimprint as a
wavelength dispersive element. Nanoimprint is a technique
suited for mass production, and a grating can be formed
directly onto the matrix, instead of replicating the grating. This
enables highly accurate light dispersion. Since Hamamatsu
develops its own grating, which is the core of spectroscopic
technology, grating with different specifications (high
4
1-2
Structure
Wavelength dispersive spectrometers are broadly grouped into
monochromator and polychromator types. Monochromators
use a grating as the wavelength dispersing element for
separating the incident light into a monochromatic spectrum.
Polychromators utilize the principle of monochromators and
are designed to allow simultaneous detection of multiple
spectra. Mini-spectrometers fall under the polychromator
type. In monochromators, an exit slit is usually formed on
the focal plane of a focus lens, while in polychromators an
array type detector (image sensor) is placed along the focal
plane of the focus mirror/lens. To make mini-spectrometers
compact, the polychromators use a collimating lens and
focus mirror/lens with a shorter focal distance compared to
monochromators.
Functions of components used in mini-spectrometers are
described below.
(b) TG series
Input slit
Focus lens
This is an aperture through which light to be measured is
guided inside. The input slit restricts the spatial spread of
the measurement light that enters the mini-spectrometer,
and the slit image of the incident light is focused on
the image sensor. The narrower the input slit, the more
the spectral resolution is improved, but the throughput
becomes lower. An optical fiber is connected to the minispectrometer input slit.
Transmission grating
Image sensor
Collimating lens
Input slit
KACCC0256EA
(c) RC series
Optical fiber
Collimating mirror/lens
Reflective grating
Image sensor
Input slit
Glass body
The light passing through the input slit spreads at a certain
angle. The collimating mirror/lens collimates this slit
transmitted light and guides it onto the grating. An aperture
(aperture mask) is used along with the collimating mirror/
lens to limit the NA (numerical aperture) of the light flux
entering the mini-spectrometer.
Collimating function
Focus function
KACCC0348EB
(d) MS series
Through-hole slit
Grating
Image sensor
The grating separates the incident light guided through the
collimating mirror/lens into each wavelength and lets the
light at each wavelength pass through or be reflected at a
different diffraction angle. There are two types of gratings
for mini-spectrometers: transmission type and reflection
type.
Incident
light
Bump
Glass wiring board
Diffracted
light
Lens
Reflective grating
made by nanoimprint
KACCC0501EA
[Figure 1-5] MS series C10988MA-01
Focus mirror/lens
The focus mirror/lens focuses the light from the grating
onto an image sensor in the order of wavelength.
Image sensor
The image sensor converts the spectrum of light focused
by the focus mirror/lens into electrical signals, and then
outputs them. Cooled mini-spectrometers incorporate a
thermoelectrically cooled image sensor to reduce image
sensor noise.
[Figure 1-4] Optical system layouts
(a) TM series
Input slit
Collimating mirror
Transmission grating
Focus mirror
The MS series mini-spectrometers are a combination of
image sensor technology and MEMS technology. They
are thumb-sized, ultra-compact (27.6 × 16.8 × 13 mm)
spectrometer heads specifically designed to be built into
mobile measuring devices. The adoption of a CMOS linear
image sensor with a built-in input slit and the fabrication
of reflective grating on a convex lens by nanoimprint for
the optical system have achieved less than one third the
volume of the previous RC series.
Image sensor
KACCC0287EA
5
[Table 1-1] Hamamatsu mini-spectrometers
Type no.
Spectral response range
(nm)
Type
200
C10082CA
TM-UV/VIS-CCD
High resolution
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
C10083CAH
200 to 800
TM-VIS/NIR-CCD
8
(320 to 900 nm)
High sensitivity
TM-VIS/NIR-CCD
1 typ.
(320 to 900 nm)
320 to 1000
8
Wide dynamic range
TM-VIS/NIR-MOS-II
8
Trigger-compatible
TG-UV-CCD
C9404CA
C11713CA
TG-SWNIR-CCD-II
TG-RAMAN-I
7
TG series
TG-cooled NIR-I
7
Low noise (cooled type)
TG-cooled NIR-II
1100 to 2200
Low noise (cooled type)
900 to 2550
Low noise (cooled type)
RC series
Spectrometer module
RC-SWNIR-MOS
640 to 1050
Spectrometer module
RC-VIS-MOS
Spectrometer head
MS-VIS-MOS
MS series
Spectrometer head
640 to 1050
640 to 1050
Spectrometer head
Micro-spectrometer
Spectrometer head
340 to 780
[Figure 1-6] Mini-spectrometer examples
8
8
14
340 to 750
MS-SWNIR-MOS
20
9
340 to 780
Spectrometer head
8
9
340 to 780
RC-SWNIR-MOS
C10988MA-01
6
0.3 typ.
900 to 1700
TG-cooled NIR-III
C11010MA
C12666MA
790 to 920
TG2-NIR
RC-VIS-MOS
C11708MA
0.3 typ.
Non-cooled type
C11007MA
C11009MA
500 to 600
High resolution
C11118GA
C11008MA
5
(550 to 900 nm)
500 to 1100
High sensitivity
TG-RAMAN-II
C11482GA
C9914GB
1 typ.
High resolution
High resolution
C11714CA
C9913GC
200 to 400
TG-UV-CCD
TG series
C9405CB
3
High sensitivity
C9404CAH
2400
6
Wide dynamic range
TM-VIS/NIR-MOS
C11697MB
2200
1 typ.
High resolution
C10083MD
2000
6
TM-UV/VIS-MOS
TM series
C10083CA
600
High sensitivity
C10082CAH
C10082MD
400
TM-UV/VIS-CCD
Spectral resolution
max.
(nm)
2600
20
15
1-3
(2) Changing the spectral resolution
Characteristics
The spectral resolution of mini-spectrometers varies
depending on the slit width and NA. In the C10082CA,
for example, the slit width is 70 µm and the NA is 0.22.
Figure 1-9 shows typical examples of spectral resolution
when the NA is changed to 0.11 and the slit width is
narrowed. This proves that the spectral resolution can be
improved down to about 1 nm by changing conditions.
However, narrowing the slit width and reducing the NA
will limit the light incident on the mini-spectrometer.
The light level reaching the image sensor will therefore
decrease.
For example, when comparing the C10082CA with the
C10082CAH, the slit width of the C10082CA is 70 µm
while that of the C10082CAH is 10 µm, which is 1/7 of
the C10082CA. This means that the light level passing
through the slit of the C10082CAH is 1/7 of the C10082CA.
Spectral resolution
(1) Definition of spectral resolution
The spectral resolution of mini-spectrometers is defined
based on the full width at half maximum (FWHM). FWHM
is the spectral width at 50% of the peak power value as shown
in Figure 1-7. Figure 1-8 shows examples of spectral resolution
measured with different types of mini-spectrometers.
50%
Relative light level
[Figure 1-7] Definition of full width at half maximum
50%
FWHM
Wavelength
KACCC0320EB
[Figure 1-8] Spectral resolution vs. wavelength (typical example)
(Typ. Ta=25 °C)
18
C11708MA
16
C11118GA
Spectral resolution (nm)
14
12
C10988MA-01
10
C11008MA
8
C11007MA
C10083MD
C10083CA
C11697MB
C9914GB
6
C9913GC
4
C10082CA
C11482GA
C9405CB
C10082MD
C9404CA
C10082CAH
2
0
200
C9404CAH
400
600
C10083CAH
C11714CA
C11713CA
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0139EJ
7
[Figure 1-9] Spectral resolution vs. wavelength
(typical example when slit width and NA
for C10082CA were changed)
[Figure 1-10] Finding the center wavelength of line
spectrum by approximation
(NA 0.11)
3.5
3.0
Light level
Spectral resolution (nm)
Slit width 70 μm
2.5
2.0
Slit width 25 μm
1.5
Slit width 10 μm
1.0
300
400
500
600
700
800
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0147EB
Data of each pixel
0
200
Center wavelength
of line spectrum
0.5
Wavelength
KACCC0335EB
(3) Spectral detection width assigned per pixel of image sensor
This section describes the spectral detection width that is
assigned per pixel of the image sensor mounted in a minispectrometer. The spectral detection width is different from
spectral resolution. The approximate spectral detection
width assigned per pixel is obtained by dividing the spectral
response range by the number of pixels of the image sensor.
•
Example: C10082CA
(spectral response range: 200 to 800 nm, 2048 pixels)
Spectral detection width assigned per pixel = (800 - 200)/2048 ≈ 0.3 nm ... (1)
The detection wavelength of any given pixel is calculated
from equation (2) using the wavelength conversion
factor that is written in the EEPROM in the minispectrometer. This allows obtaining the wavelength
assigned to any pixel.
Detection wavelength of any given pixel [nm] = a0 + a1pix + a2pix2 + a3pix3 + a4pix4 + a5pix5 ... (2)
a0 to a5: wavelength conversion factor
pix
: any pixel number of image sensor (1 to the last pixel)
Hamamatsu mini-spectrometers are designed so that
the spectral width assigned per pixel in the image sensor
is small relative to the spectral resolution. When a line
spectrum is measured with a mini-spectrometer, the
output is divided into multiple pixels as shown in Figure
1-10. The center wavelength of the line spectrum can be
found by approximating this measurement result with a
Gaussian curve.
8
Stray light
Stray light is generated as a result of extraneous light
entering the detector (image sensor), which should not
be measured. The following factors can generate stray
light.
· Fluctuating background light
· Imperfections in the grating
· Reflection from lens, detector window, and detector
photosensitive area
Definition of stray light
There are two methods to define stray light: one method
uses a long-pass filter and the other method uses reference
light in a narrow spectral range (light output from a
monochromator or line spectra emitted from a spectral line
lamp, etc.).
The long-pass filter method uses light obtained by making
white light pass through a long-pass filter for particular
wavelengths. In this case, the stray light is defined as the ratio
of transmittance in the “wavelength transmitting” region
to transmittance in the “wavelength blocking” region. The
stray light level (SL) is defined by equation (3). (See Figure
1-11 for the definitions of Tl and Th.)
SL = 10 × log (Tl/Th) ............ (3)
This definition allows measuring the effects of stray
light over a wide spectral range and so is used as an
evaluation method suitable for actual applications such
as fluorescence measurement. However, be aware that
the intensity profile of white light used as reference light
will affect the measurement value.
[Figure 1-11] Definitions of Tl and Th
[Figure 1-12] Examples of stray light measurement
using line spectra (G11482GA)
100
950 nm
1100 nm
1300 nm
1500 nm
10-1
1650 nm
10-2
Relative output
Transmittance
(Ta=25 °C)
10-3
10-4
10-5
10-6
900
Wavelength
1000
1100
1200
KACCC0255EA
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0275EA
In the other method using reference light in a narrow spectral
range, the stray light level (SL) is defined by equation (4).
Sensitivity
SL = 10 × log (IM/IR) ............ (4)
The output charge of an image sensor mounted in minispectrometers is expressed by equation (5).
IM: unnecessary light level that was output at wavelengths deviating
from the reference light spectrum
IR : reference light level
Q(λ) = k(λ) × P(λ) × Texp ............ (5)
This definition is not affected by the reference light because
the measurement conditions are simple.
In both definition methods, the stray light conditions will
differ depending on the wavelength to be detected. The stray
light should therefore be measured at multiple wavelengths.
Q(λ) : image sensor output charge [C]
k(λ) : conversion factor for converting the light level entering a mini-spectrometer
into image sensor output charge (equals the product of optical system efficiency,
diffraction efficiency of grading, and image sensor sensitivity)
P(λ) : incident light level [W] at each wavelength incident on mini-spectrometer
Texp: integration time [s]
[Figure 1-13] Spectral response
(Typ. Ta=25 °C)
100
C9404CA
C9405CB
C10083CA
C11697MB
10-1
C11714CA
C11713CA
Relative sensitivity*
C9404CAH
C9914GB
-2
10
C10082CA
C10083CAH
C11118GA
C11008MA
C10082CAH
C11482GA
10-3
C11007MA
C9913GC
C10083MD
10-4
C10082MD
-5
10
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
Wavelength (nm)
* A/D count when constant light level enters optical fiber
(fiber core diameter: 600 μm, assuming no attenuation in optical fiber)
KACCB0137EI
9
The output charge Q(λ) of an image sensor is converted
into a voltage by the charge-to-voltage converter circuit and
then converted into a digital value by the A/D converter.
This is finally derived from the mini-spectrometer as an
output value. The output value of a mini-spectrometer is
expressed by equation (6).
[Figure 1-14] Free-run operation
Clear
Integration
Charge integration
Charge readout
(A/D conversion)
Digital data
I(λ) = ε × Q(λ) = ε × k(λ) × P(λ) × Texp ............. (6)
Digital data is constantly updated with data obtained
in the last integration time.
I(λ): mini-spectrometer output value [counts]
ε : conversion factor for converting image sensor output charge into a minispectrometer output value (equals the product of the charge-to-voltage
converter circuit constant and the A/D converter resolution)
KACCC0378EA
Operation mode during external trigger input
Meanwhile, the sensitivity of a mini-spectrometer is expressed
by equation (7).
E(λ) = I(λ)/{P(λ) Texp} ............ (7)
Operation mode in the following mini-spectrometers can
be changed by external trigger input.
C9404CA, C9404CAH, C9405CB
E(λ): sensitivity of mini-spectrometer [counts/(W∙s)]
C10082CA, C10082CAH, C10082MD
When equation (6) is substituted into equation (7), we obtain
equation (8).
C10083CA, C10083CAH, C10083MD
C11713CA, C11714CA
E(λ) = ε × k(λ) ............ (8)
[Table 1-2] Wavelength dependence of parameters that
determine conversion factor
Parameter determining conversion factor
Wavelength dependence
Optical system efficiency
Yes
Diffraction efficiency of grating
Yes
Image sensor sensitivity
Yes
Charge-to-voltage converter circuit constant
No
A/D converter resolution
No
The external trigger function works with DLL, but does not
function on the supplied evaluation software. Therefore,
when using an external trigger function, the user software
must be configured to support that function.
Use the A10670 coaxial cable for external trigger (sold
separately) to connect the above mini-spectrometer to a
device that outputs digital signals at 0 V to 5 V levels.
[Figure 1-15] Mini-spectrometer connectors (C10082CA)
IS
UV/V trometer
Spec
1-4
Operation mode
Free-run operation (normal operation mode)
Power connector
Optical connector
When light enters an image sensor, an electrical charge
is generated in each pixel of the image sensor according
to the incident light level. This charge accumulates in
each pixel during the integration time and is cleared to
zero when read out. This means that the charge must be
read out before starting integration of newly generated
charges. In mini-spectrometers, this cycle of “charge
integration → charge readout (A/D conversion) → digital
data hold” repeats in a cycle. Digital data is constantly
updated with data obtained in the latest integration time.
When a data request is received from the PC, the minispectrometer sends the latest data at that point to the
PC. Figure 1-14 shows the free-run operation.
10
Trigger connector
USB connector
KACCC0377EB
Operation modes using external trigger input are described
below.
(1) Data hold by external trigger input
This operation mode differs from free-run operation in
that data to be held is controlled by trigger input. The minispectrometer internally holds digital data accumulated
during the integration time that begins just after the trigger
input edge (rising or falling edge can be specified). This
data being held is then reset when it is read out from the
PC. If the next trigger is input while the data is still being
held, then that data is updated to new digital data.
For example, when a mini-spectrometer is used to detect
light emitted from a DC mode light source with a shutter
installed, then data accumulated in a predetermined
integration time can be held by supplying the mini-
spectrometer with a trigger input for shutter open
operation. Measurements can be made under high
repeatability conditions by setting a shutter open period
that is sufficiently longer than the integration time.
[Figure 1-16] Data hold responding to external trigger input
External trigger input
(2) Synchronous data measurement at software trigger input
Data integration starts when a software trigger is applied
from the PC.
[Figure 1-19] Synchronous data measurement at software
trigger input
Asynchronous
Software trigger
Charge integration
Software trigger
Measurement cycle
Digital data
Reset when read
from the PC
KACCC0379EB
Charge integration
Charge readout
(A/D conversion)
Digital data
KACCC0505EB
(2) Data labeling during external trigger input
(3) Asynchronous data measurement at external trigger input
This operation mode attaches a label to digital data during
the gate period for external trigger input. A label is attached
to digital data during trigger input (high level or low level
can be specified). When the digital data is read out from the
PC, the label information can be obtained at the same time.
When acquiring data under different measurement conditions,
this mode is suitable for identifying which measurement
condition applies to the measurement data. For example,
suppose measurements are made under condition A and
condition B. Condition A uses no trigger input to make
measurements, so there is no labeling. In contrast, condition
B uses a trigger input, so a label is attached to the acquired
data. Labeling the acquired data in this way during trigger
input makes it possible to distinguish between acquired
data measurement conditions.
[Figure 1-17] Data labeling at external trigger input
External trigger input
Asynchronous
The first piece of digital data that is converted after an
external trigger edge (rising or falling edge can be specified)
is applied to the trigger connector is acquired.
[Figure 1-20] Asynchronous data measurement at external
trigger input
External trigger input
(for falling edge)
Measurement cycle
Charge integration
Charge readout
(A/D conversion)
Digital data
KACCC0568EB
(4) Synchronous data measurement at external trigger input
Data integration starts when an external trigger edge (rising
or falling edge can be specified) is applied to the trigger
connector, and then the digital data is acquired.
Asynchronous
[Figure 1-21] Synchronous data measurement at external
trigger input
Charge integration
Digital data
Labeling data
KACCC0380EB
External trigger input
(for falling edge)
Measurement cycle
Charge integration
Operation mode of trigger
(C11118GA, C11697MA, C11482GA)
Charge readout
(A/D conversion)
Digital data
In the C11118GA, C11697MA, and C11482GA, the following
trigger operation modes are available. You can switch between
these modes from the evaluation software supplied with the
mini-spectrometer.
KACCC0569EB
(5) Asynchronous data measurement at external trigger input level
(1) Asynchronous data measurement at software trigger input
Digital data is acquired when an external trigger (high
level or low level can be specified) is applied to the trigger
connector.
The first piece of digital data that is converted after a software
trigger is applied from the PC is acquired.
[Figure 1-22] Asynchronous data measurement at external
trigger input level
[Figure 1-18] Asynchronous data measurement at software
trigger input
Software trigger
External trigger input
(for high level)
Measurement cycle
Charge integration
Software trigger
Measurement cycle
Charge readout
(A/D conversion)
Charge integration
Charge readout
(A/D conversion)
Digital data
KACCC0504EC
Digital data
KACCC0503EC
11
[Figure 1-25] Display examples of evaluation software
(6) Synchronous data measurement at external trigger input level
Data integration starts when a trigger (high level or low
level can be specified) is applied to the trigger connector,
and then the digital data is acquired.
[Figure 1-23] Synchronous data measurement at external
trigger input level
External trigger input
(for low level)
Measurement cycle
Charge integration
Charge readout
(A/D conversion)
Digital data
KACCC0506EC
In any of the above modes (1 to 6), if the trigger input
cycle is shorter than the measurement cycle of the minispectrometer, the input trigger is ignored.
(7) External trigger signal output
The start timing of integration (pulse width: 10 µs) can be
output from the trigger connector (trigger output edge:
rising or falling edge can be specified).
[Figure 1-24] External trigger signal output
Measurement cycle
Charge integration
Charge readout
(A/D conversion)
The evaluation software has measurement modes including
Monitor, Measure, Dark, and Reference. Table 1-3 shows the
features of each mode. Data measured in Measure mode,
Dark mode*2, and Reference mode*2 can be saved in csv
format (loadable into Microsoft® Excel®).
Table 1-4 shows the arithmetic functions of the evaluation
software , and Table 1- 5 shows limitations on setting
parameters during measurement.
Note: Microsoft and Excel are either registered trademarks or trademarks
of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
Digital data
External trigger signal output
(for rising edge)
KACCC0507ED
1-5
Evaluation software
Most Hamamatsu mini-spectrometers come with an
evaluation software package.
Evaluation software functions
By installing the evaluation software into a PC, you can
perform the following basic operations.
· Load and save measured data
· Set measurement conditions
· Module information acquisition (wavelength conversion
factor*1, mini-spectrometer type, etc.)
· Display graphs
· Arithmetic functions
Pixel number to wavelength conversion/calculation in
comparison with reference data (transmittance, reflectance)/
dark subtraction/Gaussian approximation (peak position
and count, FWHM)
*1: A factor for converting the pixel numbers of the image sensor to
wavelengths. However, a factor for converting the count values
after A/D conversion into incident light levels is not available.
12
Evaluation software types
The following four types of evaluation software are available.
Each type can only be used for specific series of minispectrometers.
· For the TM/TG series (USB 1.1 interface)
· For the TM/TG series (USB 2.0 interface)
· For the RC series
· For the MS series
[Table 1-3] Measurement modes of evaluation software
Mode
Description
Features
Graphically displays “pixel no. vs. A/D output value” in real time
Graphically displays “wavelength vs. A/D output value” in real time
Measurement mode not intended
to save acquired data
Monitor mode
Graphically displays time-series data at a selected wavelength*3
Cannot save measurement data
Performs dark subtraction
Displays reference data
Cannot set the number of measurement scans. No limit on scan count.
Graphically displays “pixel no. vs. A/D output value” in real time
Graphically displays “wavelength vs. A/D output value” in real time
Graphically displays time-series data at a selected wavelength*3
Measure mode
Measurement mode intended to
save acquired data
Saves measurement data
Performs dark subtraction
Displays reference data
Sets the number of measurement scans
Dark mode*2
Reference mode*2
Graphically displays “pixel no. vs. A/D output value” in real time
Measurement mode for acquiring
dark data (used to perform dark
subtraction)
Saves measurement data
Measurement mode for acquiring
reference data
Graphically displays “wavelength vs. A/D output value” in real time
Graphically displays “wavelength vs. A/D output value” in real time
Graphically displays “pixel no. vs. A/D output value” in real time
Saves measurement data
Software trigger, asynchronous measurement
Software trigger, synchronous measurement
Measurement mode for acquiring
data by trigger signal
Trigger mode*3
External trigger, asynchronous edge
External trigger, asynchronous level
External trigger, synchronous edge
External trigger, synchronous level
Continuous
measurement
mode*3
Continuous data acquisition by
batch data transfer
Graphically displays “pixel no. vs. A/D output value” at completion of data transfer
Graphically displays “wavelength vs. A/D output value” at completion of data transfer
Saves measurement data
*2: The C11118GA, C11697MA, C11482GA, and C11351 do not have Dark or Reference mode. The Measure mode serves as the Dark and Reference modes.
*3: Only supported by the C11118GA, C11697MA, and C11482GA
[Table 1-4] Arithmetic functions of evaluation software
Function
Features
Dark subtraction
Displays measurement data after dark data subtraction
Reference data measurement/display
Measures reference data and displays it graphically
Gaussian fitting
Fits data in a specified range to Gaussian function
[Table 1-5] Limitations on setting parameters
Parameter
Limitation
4 µs to 100
Integration
time
ms*4
C11697MB
6 µs to 40 ms*4
C11118GA
5 ms to 1 s
C9914GB
5 ms to 10 s
C10082MD, C10083MD, C9913GC, C11007MA, C11008MA, C11351, C11351-10
6 µs to 10 s*4
C11482GA
10 ms to 10 s
C10082CA, C10082CAH, C10083CA, C10083CAH, C9404CA, C9404CAH, C9405CB, C11713CA,
C11714CA
Gain
High/Low
C10082MD, C10083MD, C11482GA, C9913GC, C9914GB, C11007MA, C11008MA, C11118GA
Scan count
The number of times continuous measurement can be peformed in continuous measurement mode depends on the
memory size and operation status of the PC (not limited during Monitor mode).
*4: Specified in 1 µs steps
13
[Figure 1-6] Software compatibility table
TM/TG series
Parameter
Compatible OS
Windows® 7 Professional (32-bit)
Windows® 7 Professional (64-bit)
RC series
Evaluation board
for MS series
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
USB 1.1
USB 2.0
Yes
Yes
Disclosure of DLL function specifications
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Connecting and driving multiple mini-spectrometers from a single PC
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Compatible development
environment
Visual Basic®
Visual
C++®
Interface
1-6
Mini-spectrometers come with DLLs. By using this DLL,
users can create Windows applications for controlling minispectrometers in a software development environment such
as Microsoft® Visual C++® and Microsoft Visual Basic®*1 *2.
Because Windows application software cannot directly
access a USB host controller, the necessary functions should
be called from the DLL to allow the software to access the
USB host controller via the device driver and USB driver
and to control the mini-spectrometer (see Figure 1-26). The
DLL provides functions for opening/closing USB ports,
setting measurement conditions, getting data and module
information, and so on.
*1: Operation has been verified using Microsoft Visual Studio® 2008
(SP1) Visual C++ and Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 (SP1) Visual
Basic on .NET Framework 2.0 and 3.0 (Microsoft Windows® 7).
New approaches
To improve the spectral resolution of mini-spectrometers,
Hamamatsu is developing new optical systems and finepitch grating. Moreover, we are planning to adopt a tandem
grating optical layout, which arranges fine-pitch gratings in
parallel. A technology that achieves spectral resolution less
than 0.1 nm is on the verge of being established owing to the
use of a new optical system. Examples of applications that
require a spectral resolution less than 0.1 nm are surface
enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence
tomography (OCT) for ophthalmology, and laser induced
breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).
1-7
Applications
*2: The C11351 MS series evaluation board comes with a DLL, but
because the board is for evaluation only, the specifications of
functions are not disclosed.
Note: Microsoft, Windows, Visual C++, Visual Basic, and Visual Studio
are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
[Figure 1-26] Software configuration example
Supplied CD-ROM
Sample software
can be constructed on the user side
Application
software
DLL
Function specifications disclosed*1
[Figure 1-27] Connection example
(measurement of liquid absorbance)
Device driver
USB driver
PC
USB connection
USB
cable
USB host controller
Mini-spectrometer
KACCC0658EA
UV-visible fiber light source
(deuterium lamp + halogen lamp)
L10290
Mini-spectrometer
Fiber
Quartz cell
(for holding liquid sample)
KACCC0288EF
14
[Figure 1-30] White LED and 3-color LED measurement
example (C11007MA)
Fluorescence measurement
35000
Figure 1-28 is an example of measuring fluorescence
from a 1000 ppm quinine solution (buffer solution: dilute
sulfuric acid).
White LED
25000
A/D count
[Figure 1-28] Fluorescence measurement example (C10083CA)
30000
3-color LED
20000
15000
10000
A/D count
5000
0
300
400
500
600
700
800
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0100EA
Transmittance measurement
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0145EA
[Figure 1-31] Transmittance (1 mm thick optical window)
measurement example (C11482GA)
(a) Measurement value
LED emission measurement
50000
Reference light
(1) Visible LED
40000
[Figure 1-29] Visible LED measurement example (C10082MD)
Orange LED
A/D count
40000
Red LED
30000
30000
20000
Transmitted light
A/D count
Blue LED
10000
20000
0
900
1000
1100
10000
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0276EA
0
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
(b) Calculation result
100
Wavelength (nm)
90
KACCB0126EA
(2) White LED and 3-color LED
Transmittance (%)
Figure 1-30 is an example of measuring emissions from
a white LED and 3-color LED. White LED light contains
wavelength components of various colors as well as blue,
and appears white because those colors are mixed together.
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0277EA
15
Line spectrum measurement
Film thickness measurement
[Figure 1-32] Measurement example of low-pressure
mercury lamp’s line spectra (C11714CA)
60000
50000
A/D count
40000
30000
Here we show an example that measures the film thickness
of 10 µm thick food wrap (polyvinylidene chloride). In film
thickness measurement utilizing white light interferometry, a
rippling interference spectrum is obtained due to reflections
between the front and back surfaces of the film. The film
thickness can then be determined by calculation from the
spectral peak count, wavelength range, refractive index of
film, and the angle of incident light.
[Figure 1-34] Film thickness measurement example (C11482GA)
20000
40000
10000
30000
850
800
900
950
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0280EA
Reflectance measurement
(a) Measurement value
A/D count
30000
20000
Reflected light
10000
700
800
900
1000
1100
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0278EA
(b) Calculation result
100
90
80
70
Reflectance (%)
0
100
200
300
400
500
KACCB0095EB
Reference light
60
50
40
30
20
10
700
800
900
1000
1100
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0279EA
16
0
Pixel no.
40000
0
600
20000
10000
[Figure 1-33] Measurement example of spectral reflectance
of reflecting mirror (C9405CB)
0
600
A/D count
0
750
2.
to accurately sense the MPPC temperature. The reverse
voltage applied to the MPPC is then adjusted according to
changes in the ambient temperature so that the gain is kept
constant with high accuracy and stability. In temperature
control circuit, the MPPC chip and a temperature sensor are
mounted on a thermoelectric cooler. Based on information
from the temperature sensor, the MPPC chip temperature
is precisely controlled and maintained at a constant level
so that the MPPC gain is kept constant even if the ambient
temperature changes.
MPPC modules
Hamamatsu provides a full lineup of MPPC modules capable
of measuring light over a wide range (10 orders of magnitude)
from the photon counting region to nW (nano watt) region.
MPPC modules contain an amplifier, a high-voltage power
supply circuit, and other components needed for MPPC
operation. MPPC modules operate just by connecting them
to a power supply (e.g., ±5 V).
Hamamatsu offers a wide lineup of MPPC modules including
cooled modules that give a low dark count and non-cooled
modules with a temperature compensation function for
stable measurement. Hamamatsu also provides starter kits
developed for making initial MPPC evaluations and a highaccuracy temperature-compensated high-voltage power
supply module designed to operate an MPPC.
•
Includes a signal readout circuit optimized for MPPC
•
Includes a low-noise high-voltage power supply
•
Compact and lightweight
[Figure 2-1] Block diagram (C11205 series)
Amplifier
2-1
Analog output
Features
MPPC
•
Wide lineup to meet various applications and incident
light levels (number of photons)
Our lineup includes analog output types for applications
handling relatively high levels of light where analog signals
are required, digital output types for photon counting, and
a starter kit for initial MPPC evaluation.
•
Power supply
for MPPC
C11204-01
Temperature
sensor
±5 V
KACCC0675EA
[Figure 2-2] Measurable light level range
(λ=450 nm)
Contains a high-precision temperature compensation
C11209-110
Non-cooled type/10 μm pitch
circuit or temperature control circuit
The MPPC is used in Geiger mode where the gain is very
high. Ambient temperature fluctuations cause the gain to
vary even if the same reverse voltage is applied. To keep the
MPPC gain constant, the MPPC modules use temperature
compensation circuit that adjusts the MPPC reverse voltage
as the ambient temperature changes or temperature control
circuit that regulates the MPPC element temperature using
a thermoelectric cooler.
In temperature compensation circuit, a high-precision
temperature sensor is installed near the MPPC element
Analog output
type
C11205 series
Non-cooled type/50 μm pitch
C12662 series
TE-cooled type/50 μm pitch
Digital output
type
C12661 series
TE-cooled type/50 μm pitch
C11202 series
TE-cooled type/single pixel
Starter
kit
C11208 series
USB interface
Number of incident photons (cps) 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1010 1011 1012
Incident light level (W) 10-18 10-17 10-16 10-15 10-14 10-13 10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6
KACCC0687EA
[Figure 2-3] Connection example (analog output type)
Cable with power connector
(supplied, one end unterminated)
Power supply (±5 V)
BNC cable
Oscilloscope
KACCC0686EB
17
2-2
How to use
[Figure 2-5] Photoelectric sensitivity vs. wavelength
(C11205 series)
(Typ. Ta=25 °C)
[Figure 2-4] Output waveforms
(a) Analog output type
Photoelectric conversion sensitivity (V/W)
1.2 × 109
To use the MPPC module, connect it to an external power
supply by using the power cable that came supplied with
the MPPC module. The signal is output from the coaxial
connector on the MPPC module. If using an analog output
type MPPC module, the output waveforms can be monitored
by connecting to an oscilloscope and the like. If using a
digital output type, the number of output pulses can be
counted by connecting to a frequency counter and the like.
1 × 109
8 × 108
6 × 108
4 × 108
C11205-150
2 × 108
0
300
C11205-350
400
500
600
700
800
900
Wavelength (nm)
KACCB0298EA
(2) Photon detection efficiency (digital output type)
On digital output types, photon detection efficiency is
defined as the number of photons detected by the MPPC
module divided by the number of incident photons and
is expressed as a percentage.
(b) Digital output type (TTL compatible)
[Figure 2-6] Photon detection efficiency vs. wavelength
(C12661 series)
(Typ. threshold 0.5 p.e.)
2-3
Characteristics
Sensitivity
Photon detection efficiency (%)
50
40
30
20
10
0
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Wavelength (nm)
(1) Photoelectric sensitivity (analog output type)
On analog output types, photoelectric sensitivity is defined
as the output voltage from the MPPC module divided by
the incident light level (unit: W) at a given wavelength, and
is expressed in volts per watt (V/W).
KACCB0302EA
Dynamic range
(1) Analog output type
Figure 2-7 shows typical dynamic ranges for analog
output types (non-cooled type). Comparing the C11205150 (photosensitive area: 1 mm sq.) with the C11205-350
(photosensitive area: 3 mm sq.) proves that the C11205-350
exhibits better linearity since it contains a larger number of
pixels [Figure 2-7 (a)].
When the incident light level is high, the heat generated in
the chip becomes too large to ignore. In this case, decreasing
the duty ratio of the incident light is recommended [Figure
2-7 (b)]. If using a thermoelectrically cooled type, the element
temperature will be maintained at a constant level, so the
heat generated in the chip can be ignored in most cases.
18
[Figure 2-7] Output voltage vs. incident light level
(a) C11205-150 (photosensitive area: 1 mm sq.),
C11205-350 (photosensitive area: 3 mm sq.)
[when pulsed light is input]
Number of detected photons (cps)
Output voltage (V)
Pulse condition
Repeat rate: 5 kHz
Pulse width: 2 μs
Duty ratio: 1%
1
0.1
0.01
10-11
10-10
10-9
10-8
107
Ideal value
C12661-150
C12661-350
106
105
104
103
102
101
101
Ideal value
C11205-150
C11205-350
0.001
10-12
(Typ. Ta=25 °C, λ=λp, threshold 0.5 p.e.)
108
(Typ. Ta=25 °C, λ=λp)
100
10
[Figure 2-8] Number of detected photons vs. number
of incident photons (C12661 series)
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
Number of incident photons (cps)
10-7
KACCB0303EA
Incident light level (W)
KACCB0300EA
2-4
New approaches
(b) C11205-150 (when pulsed light or DC light is input)
(Typ. Ta=25 °C, λ=λp)
100
Output voltage (V)
10
MPPC array modules
Pulse condition
Repeat rate: 5 kHz
Pulse width: 2 μs
Duty ratio: 1%
In accordance with the greatly improved characteristics of
the MPPC (low afterpulse, low dark count, etc.), Hamamatsu
will develop modules that include one-dimensional or
two-dimensional MPPC array for medical, analytical, and
industrial applications.
1
0.1
[Figure 2-9] MPPC array modules
0.01
Ideal value
Pulsed light
DC light
0.001
10-12
10-11
10-10
10-9
10-8
10-7
Incident light level (W)
KACCB0336EA
(2) Digital output type
Figure 2-8 shows dynamic ranges for digital output types.
Since the lower detection limit is determined by the dark
count, the C12661-150 (photosensitive area: 1 mm sq.) is
better at the lower limit than the C12661-350 (photosensitive
area: 3 mm sq.). The upper detection limit is determined
by the output pulse width, and the output pulse width is
determined by the pixel pitch. So the upper detection limits
on the C12661-150 and C12661-350 are nearly the same
because they have the same pixel pitch. When the number
of incident photons becomes larger, the output begins to
deviate from the ideal linearity due to overlapping of pulses,
and eventually no pulses will appear in the output.
Compact power supply modules
Running the MPPC requires a voltage around 70 V and since
the gain changes when the ambient temperature changes,
a temperature compensation function is necessary to deal
with temperature changes. Hamamatsu has developed a
high-voltage power supply module with such features. Since
the MPPC has excellent gain uniformity characteristics, it is
sometimes used in large quantities in PET and other similar
applications, and thus miniaturization of the power supply
module itself is being called for. To meet this demand,
Hamamatsu is working to make it even smaller by utilizing
lamination and wafer-level assembly technologies.
19
[Figure 2-10] Power supply module
Fluorescence measurement
The MPPC module can detect minute fluorescence emission
of reagents.
Reagent
MPPC module
Fluorescence
Sample
KACCC0664EA
2-5
Applications
Scintillation measurement
Flow cytometry
To detect the type, quantity, and nucleic acid (DNA, RNA),
etc. of cells, laser light is incident on a fast running solution
containing the cells. This enables the MPPC to capture the
minute fluorescence that is emitted.
MPPC modules arranged around 360° detect pair annihilation
gamma-rays to capture the target position such as cancer
tissue.
Cancer
position information
Pair annihilation
gamma-rays
Semiconductor laser
Subject
MPPC module
Fluorescence
MPPC module
Photodiode
KACCC0745EA
Scattered light
KACCC0668EA
Particle measurement
Laser is transmitted through a chamber containing gas or
liquid with particles. By detecting the scattered light from
the particles, the quantity and diameter distributions of
the particles can be attained.
MPPC module
Semiconductor
laser
KACCC0667EA
20
In temperature-compensation APD modules, a highprecision temperature sensor is installed in close proximity
to the APD to accurately monitor the APD temperature
so that the appropriate reverse voltage relative to the
temperature is applied to maintain the gain with high
stability. We also provide a digital temperature-compensation
APD module that uses an internal microcontroller to
perform even more accurate temperature compensation
for the APD. In digital temperature-compensation
APD modules, the gain is kept very stable over a wide
temperature range even at a high gain (250 times).
In thermoelectrically cooled APD modules, the APD chip
is mounted on a thermoelectric cooler that is kept at a
constant temperature by the internal temperature control
circuit so that a stable gain is achieved.
APD modules
3.
APD modules are high-sensitivity photodetectors that
integrate an APD (avalanche photodiode), a temperaturecompensation bias circuit (or temperature control circuit),
and a current-to-voltage converter. Operating an APD
module is easy since it works by simply supplying a DC
voltage from an external source. The current-to-voltage
converter uses high-speed, low-noise bipolar transistors
and op amps optimally configured for signal readout
from the APD. These APD modules also include a voltage
controller with low ripple noise to detect light with high
sensitivity. APD modules contain a short wavelength or
near infrared type Si APD.
A temperature-compensation type and a thermoelectrically
cooled type with stabilized gain are provided. Temperaturecompensation APD modules (standard type, high sensitivity
type, high-speed type) keep the APD gain nearly constant
using the high-precision temperature-compensation circuit.
Thermoelectrically cooled APD modules maintain a stable
gain by controlling the APD temperature at a constant level,
thereby allowing high-precision measurement.
•
Low noise
•
Compact and lightweight
[Figure 3-2] Block diagram (C12702 series)
High voltage generator
+200 V
+5 V
+5 V
BNC connector
Voltage controller
[Figure 3-1] Sensitivity vs. response speed
109
C12703-01
DC to 100 kHz
-1.5 × 108 V/W
Sensitivity (V/W)
108
High-speed I/V converter
C10508-01
DC to 10 MHz
2.5 × 105 to 1.25 × 107 V/W
C12703
DC to 10 MHz
1.5 × 106 V/W
107
106
Temperature
monitor
APD
C5658
50 kHz to 1 GHz
2.5 × 105 V/W
105
KACCC0013EB
C12702 series
4 types available for different
photosensitive areas and wavelengths
4 kHz to 100 MHz
-1 × 104 V/W
104
103
DC
10
100
1k
10 k
100 k
1M
3-2
10 M 100 M
1G
Characteristics
[Figure 3-3] Response to step light (C12703)
Response speed (Hz)
KAPDB0197EB
3-1
Stable operation against temperature fluctuations
Applying a high reverse voltage to an APD increases its
sensitivity higher than general Si photodiodes. However,
ambient temperature fluctuations cause the sensitivity
to change even if the same reverse voltage is applied.
There are two methods to maintain the APD sensitivity
constant: one is a temperature-compensation type that
adjusts the reverse voltage applied to the APD according to
the ambient temperature, and the other is a thermoelectric
cooled type that keeps the APD temperature itself constant.
100 mV
•
Features
250 ns
KACCC0128EA
21
[Figure 3-4] Frequency response (C12703 series)
3-4
(Typ. Ta=25 °C)
109
APD modules are used in a variety of low-light-level
measurement applications, such as medical, analytical,
and industrial applications, and there is a growing demand
for even better S/N and miniaturization. Hamamatsu will
strive to attain even higher S/N by reducing the noise in the
readout circuit. In addition, we will miniaturize the highvoltage power supply circuit, temperature-compensation
circuit, and temperature control circuit to make the module
smaller.
Photosensitivity (V/W)
C12703-01
108
107
106
C12703
105
DC
100 k
1M
New approaches
10 M
100 M
3-5
Applications
Frequency (Hz)
KACCB0030EC
Optical topography
[Figure 3-5] Temperature characteristics of gain (C12703 series)
To monitor changes in blood volume in the cerebral cortex,
near infrared rays are emitted above the scalp and the APD
module detects the scattered light to capture the changes
in the hemoglobin concentration in the blood.
(M=30)
30
Change in gain (%)
20
10
Semiconductor laser
0
APD module
Typ.
-10
Cerebral
cortex
-20
-30
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
KACCC0732EA
Ambient temperature (°C)
KACCB0020EB
Scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)
3-3
How to use
Connect the APD module to the DC power supply using the
dedicated cable that comes with the APD module (except the
C5658). Since the signals from the APD module are output via
a coaxial connector, just connect it to output to a measuring
device such as an oscilloscope to start making measurements.
The C5658 is supplied with a power connector (D-sub). Solder
this power connector to a cable (cable is not supplied). The
C5658 output is an SMA connector.
In ophthalmoscopy, the level of laser light applied to the
eyeball is limited due to safety reasons. The APD module
is used to detect the low-level reflected light from the
eyeball with superb resolution and contrast.
Scanner
PC
Beam splitter
Confocal
pin hole
[Figure 3-6] Connection example (C12703 series)
APD module
Semiconductor laser
KACCC0733EA
Cable with power connector
(supplied with APD module,
one end unterminated)
APD module
C12703 series
Power supply (±12 V)
BNC cable
Oscilloscope
KACCC0408EA
22
Distance measurement
4.
Laser light is incident on the subject, and the APD module
captures the reflected light. The distance to the subject is
then calculated using the TOF (time-of-flight) method.
APD module
Semiconductor laser
Radiation detection modules
These modules incorporate a scintillator and MPPC (multipixel photon counter) and are designed to detect gamma-rays
from 137Cs (cesium 137) and the like. The incident gammarays are converted into visible light using the scintillator, and
the MPPC detects extremely low-level light to measure lowenergy gamma-rays with high accuracy. The signal processing
circuit and A/D converter are housed in a compact case. And,
the module provides a USB interface. The product includes
sample software with functions for setting measurement
conditions, acquiring and saving data, drawing graphs, etc.
KACCC0735EA
4-1
Features
•
Includes an ultra-high sensitivity MPPC semiconductor
detector
•
Includes a CsI(Tl) scintillator
•
Gamma-ray energy discrimination
•
Easy integration in devices
•
Compact and lightweight
•
Built-in temperature compensation circuit
4-2
Structure and characteristics
The C12137 series radiation detection modules can
acquire energy spectra and therefore can perform energy
discrimination. It is known that when 137Cs disintegrates,
gamma-rays with energies near 662 keV and 32 keV are
emitted. Whether gamma-rays are from 137Cs can be
determined by acquiring the energy spectrum from the
low-energy gamma-rays at around 30 keV. As the gamma[Table 4-1] Hamamatsu radiation detection modules
Counting
Dimensions
Energy resolution
efficiency min. Energy range 137
Cs, 662 keV
Type no. Interface (W × D × H) Detector Scintillator 137
Cs, 0.01 µSV/h
(mm)
(mm)
(cpm)
(MeV)
(%)
CsI(Tl)
C12137
110 × 55 × 27
40
8
13 × 13 × 20
0.03 to 2
CsI(Tl)
C12137-01
71 × 55 × 60.5
400
8.5
38 × 38 × 25
USB 2.0
(Full speed)
CsI(Tl)
9
C12137-08
112 × 94 × 53.3
80 × 80 × 25
2000
0.06 to 2
CsI(Tl)
C12137-10
122 × 122 × 53.3
10
ϕ110 × 25
MPPC
CsI(Tl)
110 × 55 × 27
C12137-00D
40
8
13 × 13 × 20
0.03 to 2
CsI(Tl)
C12137-01D
71 × 55 × 60.5
400
8.5
38 × 38 × 25
RS-232C
CsI(Tl)
9
C12137-08D
112 × 94 × 55.6
80 × 80 × 25
2000
0.06 to 2
CsI(Tl)
10
C12137-10D
122 × 122 × 55.6
ϕ110 × 25
Measurement
Operating
range
Power
temperature
supply
(µSv/h)
(°C)
137Cs, 662 keV *1
0.01 to 100
0.001 to 10
-10 to +50
USB bus
power
0 to +40
*2
0 to +40
0.01 to 100
-10 to +50
0.001 to 10
0 to +40
+5 V
*2
0 to +40
*1: Measurement range of these products is defined by 137Cs. When detecting environmental radiation that mainly consists of low energy radiation, the maximum
measurement value will be approx. 1/3 to 1/2 of this figure. The lower limit of the measurement range depends on the environmental radiation.
*2: The C12137-08/-08D/-10/-10D do not perform conversion into dose equivalent rate using the G(E) function.
23
[Figure 4-1] Radiation measurement examples (C12137)
137Cs
133Ba
241Am
10000
Count
1000
100
10
1
10
100
1000
Energy (keV)
KACCB0337EA
MPPC
[Figure 4-2] Block diagram
CsI(Tl)
scintillator
4
Ambient temperature
Detected energy shift
50
3
40
2
30
1
20
0
10
-1
0
-2
-10
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Detected energy shift [662 keV] (%)
60
-3
1400
Time (min)
KACCB0273EA
Easy integration in devices
(Ta=25 °C)
100000
Gamma-rays
[Figure 4-3] Ambient temperature and detected energy
shift (typical example)
Ambient temperature (°C)
rays become lower in energy, the level of light emitted by
the scintillator weakens. However, the C12137 series, which
uses a high sensitivity MPPC, is able to detect gammarays over a wide range from a low energy region around 30
keV to 2 MeV. The low-light-level detection performance
of high gain MPPCs also contributes greatly to reducing
the measurement time. To reduce the measurement time,
the scintillator capacity must be increased to improve
the detection efficiency. However, as the scintillator
capacity is increased, the level of light that reaches the
photosensor is attenuated inside the scintillator, and the
lower limit of detection degrades accordingly. This means
that the detection of low-energy gamma-rays will become
more difficult. The MPPC offers higher gain than the PIN
photodiode or APD and makes low-light-level detection
possible. Even when it is combined with a large capacity
scintillator, low-energy gamma-rays can still be measured.
Preamp
Pulse-shaping
amplifier
A/D converter Microcontroller
High-voltage
power supply
USB
Power
supply
KACCC0632EA
Figure 4-4 shows the cross section of the C12137-01 radiation
detection module.
Since the radiation detection module includes a scintillator,
photosensor (MPPC), signal processing circuit, interface
circuit, and the like in a small case, it can easily be
incorporated into portable measuring instruments and
in-line measuring instruments.
In the C12137 series, the photosensor MPPC is a small, thin
type. The amount of space it takes up is relatively small. The
amount of space taken up by the scintillator is predominant.
This shows that even though the radiation detection module
is small, it can provide high detection efficiency.
Because the radiation detection module is compact, it is
advantageous in applications where the radiation dose from
the object under measurement is minute. Such applications
include inspection of food, beverages, and seafood. In these
types applications, the periphery of the detector must be
covered with lead to eliminate the effects of environmental
radiation. Because the radiation detection module is compact,
the amount of used lead can be reduced, which in turn
reduces the volume and weight of the entire device.
[Figure 4-4] Cross section diagram (C12137-01)
Superb temperature stability
The level of emitted light by the scintillator due to incident
gamma-rays and the photosensor sensitivity are temperature
dependent. This temperature dependence causes a shift
in the detection energy when the ambient temperature
changes even when gamma-rays with the same energy are
incident and leads to measurement errors and hindrance
to radionuclide identification. The C12137 series’ gammaray detector unit employs a structure with high temperature
stability as well as a temperature-compensation circuit.
Figure 4-3 illustrates its excellent temperature stability
performance against drastic temperature changes. The
temperature stability of the radiation detector module is ±5%
max. in the ambient temperature range of 0 to +50 °C.
24
Scintillator
Signal processing circuit,
interface circuit
KACCC0646EA
4-3
How to use
[Figure 4-6] Radiation detection module examples
C12137-08
C12137-08D
Real-time food inspection
Install the device driver and sample software supplied with
the C12137 series into a PC, start the software, and then
connect the C12137 series to the PC through USB. The power
for the C12137 series is supplied through the USB bus.
The sample software is designed to enable the basic functions
of the radiation detector module to be used easily. The
sample software provides functions for setting measurement
conditions, acquiring and saving data, drawing graphs, etc.
The C12137 series counts the number of pulses that exceed
the specified threshold and acquires the peak value at the
same time. The acquired data is shown on the PC.
C12137-01
C12137-01D
C12137
C12137-00D
Food inspection
Portable, high sensitivity detectors
monitoring posts
4-5
[Figure 4-5] Screen example of the sample software
(a) Count vs. energy
C12137-10
C12137-10D
Real-time food inspection
Applications
•
Environmental monitoring and mapping
•
Screening such as incoming and shipment inspections
at the production site
•
Incorporation into portable, high sensitivity detectors
(b) Measured value vs. time
4-4
New approaches
In the area of radiation detection, there is a growing demand
for high sensitivity, high speed, high stability measurements.
Hamamatsu will meet these demands as well as offer
customization of the shape and volume of the scintillator,
communication interface, and so on.
25
5.
•
Distance sensors
The signal light level returning from a target object decreases
in proportion to the square of the distance. If the optical
system is configured to match a long distance point, this
may cause a focus shift and measurement errors due to
excessive signal levels when measuring short distance
points. To cope with this, our distance sensors use a large
aspherical plastic lens having three focal points: long
distance, mid-distance, and short distance, so that changes
in the detection light level due to different distances are
reduced to a minimum. The area ratio of the lens with
three types of focal points is set so that a nearly constant
amount of signal is obtained up to about 30 m when all
signals are summed.
The signal level is high when detecting short distances,
so a satisfactory signal is obtained even on the small area
on the short-distance lens. The long-distance lens has a
focal distance of infinity over approximately the entire
lens surface which is made large to maintain a sufficient
signal level.
These distance sensors are designed to measure distances
to a reflective sheet attached to the target object. The
distance is measured by emitting pulsed light from a 660
nm semiconductor laser to irradiate the reflective sheet and
measuring the time-of-flight required for the laser light to
return to the sensor.
[Figure 5-1] Measurement of distance to reflective sheet
Reflective sheet
Measures
this distance
Distance sensor
KACCC0427EA
•
5-1
•
Features
Red (660 nm) semiconductor laser
The red beam makes it easy to check the optical axis.
High-speed response by pulse method
Measurement count: at least 160 measurements per second
•
Safety: Laser Class 1 (IEC JIS FDA)
•
Long service life (MTTF: 90000 h)
Laser is pulse-driven, so temperature increases in the
laser are suppressed. This also helps extend the service
life.
The distance sensors can detect objects moving at a high
speed.
•
Reducing distance-dependent changes in detection light level
High accuracy
To achieve a time measurement accuracy level of better
than 1 ps and a wide operating temperature range, optical
self-calibration is performed by switching the lighting of
two lasers for measurement and for self-calibration at high
speeds. This allows compensating in real time for electronic
circuit characteristics which vary during measurement.
•
Interface: flexible response to meet customer needs
•
Low power consumption
•
Compact and lightweight
•
High reliability
[Figure 5-2] Distance sensors and user options
Reflective sheets
Distance sensors
Cables
Interfaces
High-speed RS-422
150 m
max.
RS-232C
C7776-50
(for huge automated warehouses and
and large-size LCD production lines)
C10465
Protocol converter board
(for high-speed closed control)
RS-422
100 m
max.
C7776-10
(for large automated
warehouses and
clean room transport)
Cables for C7776
A8035: 3 m , one end unterminated
A8035-03: 20 m , one end unterminated
A8035-04: 10 m , one end unterminated
50 m
max.
A8034-03: 44 cm sq
A8034: 15 cm sq
C9417-10
(for automated warehouses
and clean room transport)
Cables for C9417
A8035-D: 3 m, one end unterminated
A8035-03D: 20 m, one end unterminated
A8035-04D: 10 m, one end unterminated
PC cable for evaluation
(cable with RS422-USB converter)
A8035-05: for C7776 series
A8035-06: for C9417-10
PC
KACCC0387EA
26
Our distance sensors are highly reliable during vibration
and shock as well as during long-term continuous operation
since there are no mechanically moving parts which are
used in general optical distance measuring devices. Even if
signal light is interrupted, measurement starts immediately
after the signal light resumes.
5-2
5-3
Characteristics
Figure 5-6 shows a measurement example of the difference
(distance error) between the distance data obtained by the
distance sensor and the actual distance.
[Figure 5-6] Distance error vs. distance
(C9417-10, typical example)
Structure
(Ta=25 °C, target A8034)
10
8
[Figure 5-3] Distance sensor configuration
6
Light receiving lens
Long-distance lens
Mid-distance lens
Short-distance lens
Photosensor
Distance error (mm)
Distance sensor
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
Laser
Reflective sheet
(mid-distance)
Light projection lens
Reflective sheet
(short-distance)
KACCC0428EA
-10
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Distance (m)
KACCB0191EA
[Figure 5-4] Internal view of distance sensor (C9417-10)
Photosensor
Laser for self-calibration
Laser for measurement
Light
projection lens
Light
receiving lens
[Figure 5-5] Signal level vs. distance
(distance sensor light receiving lens)
Signal level
Total output
Short-distance lens
Long-distance lens
Mid-distance lens
Distance
KACCB0190EA
27
5-4
Applications
Level meter
Detects river water levels
Distance measurement
Measures distances to and
speeds of a moving object
Area detection sensor
Automatically controls
door opening/closing
Level meter
Measures height,
shape, and volume
of cargo
28
Crane position control in
automated warehouse
Controls crane movement and
up/down position by means
of high-speed, high-accuracy
distance measurement
Photosensor amplifiers,
Photodiode modules
6.
[Figure 6-3] Block diagram
Photodiode module
C10439 series,
Photosensor amplifier C6386-01
Photosensor amplifier C9329
Photosensor amplifiers C8366/-01, C9051
RF
To make our photodiodes easier to use, we offer photosensor
amplifiers and photodiode modules with an internal currentto-voltage conversion amplifier. Several types with different
conversion impedance and frequency characteristics are
available as shown in Figure 6-2.
Photodiode
Current-tovoltage
converter
Figure [6-1] Photosensor amplifiers and photodiode modules
A/D
converter
Photodiode module
controller C10475
KACCC0409EA
6-1
Photosensor amplifiers
Photosensor amplifiers are current-to-voltage conversion
amplifiers designed to amplify low-level photocurrent in
photodiodes with very low noise.
Features
[Figure 6-2] Conversion impedance vs. cutoff frequency
Conversion impedance (V/A)
High sensitivity
Low-light-level
detection
Photosensor amplifier
(small board type)
C9051
1010
109
108
107
106
105
104
103
102
101
100 0
10
•
High-precision, low-noise components are used and
arranged in a noise-resistant configuration. The C6386-01
and C9329 have a zero adjustment function to eliminate
the offset.
Photodiode module
C10439-01/-02/-03
Photosensor amplifier (for low-level light)
C9329
Photodiode
module
C10439-07/-08/-09
/-10/-11
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
Photosensor amplifier
(with optical fiber)
C6386-01
Photosensor amplifier
(wide band)
C8366/-01
High accuracy and low noise
•
Dry battery operation (C6386-01, C9329)
•
Switchable detection sensitivity (C6386-01, C9329)
•
Wide bandwidth type available (C8366/-01)
The C8366 wide-band type achieves high-speed response
since a trimmer can adjust the feedback capacitance
according to the PIN photodiode being connected.
108
Cutoff frequency (Hz) Wide band
High-speed pulse detection
•
KACCB0189EB
Optical fiber type available (C6386-01)
The C6386-01 optical fiber type uses an optical fiber that
guides light to the internal photodiode. This reduces effects
from noise on the photodiode and circuitry even if there is
a noise source near the location of the light being measured.
•
With a data logger function (C9329)
[Table 6-1] Hamamatsu photosensor amplifiers
Type no.
C6386-01
Feature
With optical
fiber (1 m)
Photodiode
Internally mounted
Conversion impedance
Cutoff
frequency
(V/A)
10 MHz
103
3 MHz
104
Power supply
Output
Zero adjustment
knob
External power
supply (±15 V)
or dry battery (9 V × 2)
Analog
Yes
1 MHz
105
C8366
Wide
bandwidth
Sold separately
(high-speed Si PIN photodiode)
100 MHz
103
External power
supply (±15 V)
Analog
No
C8366-01
Wide
bandwidth
Sold separately
(InGaAs PIN photodiode)
100 MHz
103
External power
supply (±15 V)
Analog
No
C9051
Small board
type
Sold separately
(terminal capacitance: 15 nF or less)
16 Hz
108
AC adapter (12 V)
Analog
No
C9329
For low-level
light
Sold separately
(terminal capacitance: 5 nF or less)
1600 Hz
105, 107
16 Hz
109
AC adapter (12 V)
or dry battery (9 V)
Analog
Digital
Yes
29
[Figure 6-4] Oscilloscope output example of analog signal (C9329)
(sold separately) that converts the output of a photodiode
module into digital signals. High-resolution digital signals
(16 bits) can be obtained by serial connection (RS-232C)
to a PC. Measurement data can then easily be stored
into the PC using sample software that comes with the
controller. Measurement data can also be stored in the
internal memory (data logger function). The controller
operates also on dry battery and so can be used easily.
Features
Vertical axis: 1 V/div., horizontal axis: 400 µs/div.
•
Internal photodiode
S2281-01 photodiode with BNC connector (Ct=3300 pF typ.), middle range
The lineup includes six types of Si photodiodes and two
types of InGaAs photodiodes.
Light source: infrared LED (L1915-01), pulse width: 2 ms
Measuring device: TEKTRONIX TDS3034B (BW 20 MHz)
Ambient temperature: 25 ˚C, overshoot: approx. 3%
Usage (C9329)
The input section of the C9329 photosensor amplifier is a
BNC connector, so use a BNC plug coaxial cable to connect
it to a photodiode.
Use a dry battery or AC adapter (supplied) to supply power
to the photosensor amplifier.
Analog or digital operation mode is selectable for data output.
In analog mode, measurements are made by connecting the
output to a measuring device such as an oscilloscope using
a BNC plug coaxial cable. In digital mode, digital signals (16
bits) can be obtained by serial connection (RS-232C) to a PC.
•
Voltage output for easy handling
•
Selectable sensitivity (high/low range)
•
Compact size (half the size of a business card)
•
Can be mounted on optical bench rod (M4)
•
Photodiode module controller is provided (sold separately).
Measurement data can be easily loaded into a PC using
sample software that comes with the controller.
[Figure 6-6] Example of sample software displayed on PC screen
[Figure 6-5] Connection example (C9329, digital operation mode)
Coaxial cable
with BNC plug
RS-232C cable
PC
Photodiode
with BNC
S2281 series
To IN
terminal
Mode selector
switch
To RS-232C
terminal
Photosensor amplifier
C9329
To DC terminal
AC adapter
(supplied; not
necessary to
connect when
C9329 is operated
by dry battery)
[Figure 6-7] Connection examples (C10439 series)
(a) Connection to DC voltmeter or oscilloscope
Photodiode module
cable*
Rf range switch
KACCC0222EB
6-2
Photodiode modules
Photodiode modules are high-precision photodetectors
that include a Si or InGaAs photodiode together with a
current-to-voltage conversion amplifier. The output is an
analog voltage and can be easily checked with a voltmeter
and the like.
Photodiode modules have a sensitivity range (high/low)
switching function, so a highly accurate output can be
obtained by selecting a sensitivity range that matches the
light level to be detected.
Hamamatsu also provides a photodiode module controller
30
+V
-V
GND ±5 to ±12 V
NC
power supply
Photodiode
module
C10439 series
BNC cable
Mounted on optical
bench rod and the like
DC voltmeter,
oscilloscope, etc.
* Supplied with photodiode module
KACCC0365EA
(b) Connection to photodiode module controller
AC adapter*
(not necessary
to connect when
C10475 is operated
by dry battery)
(c) Brix meters
Photodiode module
controller C10475
Light source
Photodiode module*
cable
RS-232C
cable
100 to 240 VAC
50/60 Hz
KACCC0412EA
(d) Light leakage detection
BNC
cable*
Hole, crack, etc.
Photodiode
module
C10439 series
PC
(Install the sample software
supplied with controller.)
Mounted on optical
bench rod and the like
* Supplied with photodiode module
KACCC0366EA
KACCC0413EA
6-3
Applications
(e) Detection of fluorescence from printed matter
Black light
[Figure 6-8] Photodiode module application examples
(a) Optical power monitors, laser/LED monitors, and illuminometers
UV light
Fluorescence
emission
KACCC0414EA
(f) Gas/smoke detection
Light source
Light source
KACCC0410EA
(b) Water pollution measurement
Diffused light
KACCC0415EA
Light source
KACCC0411EA
[Table 6-2] Hamamatsu photodiode modules
Type no.
Photodiode
Photosensitive area
(mm)
C10439-01
2.4 × 2.4
C10439-02
5.8 × 5.8
C10439-03
C10439-07
Conversion impedance
Cutoff frequency
(V/A)
High gain: 109
Low gain: 107
Supply voltage
High gain: 10 Hz
Low gain: 1 kHz
10 × 10
Si
External power
supply
(±5 to ±12 V)
2.4 × 2.4
C10439-08
5.8 × 5.8
C10439-09
10 × 10
Analog
High gain: 106
Low gain: 104
High gain: 1 kHz
Low gain: 100 kHz
ϕ1
C10439-10
InGaAs
C10439-11
Output
ϕ3
31
7.
Optical system
Optics modules
The optics module is a customized opto-semiconductor
module that integrates photodiodes (or photodiode
array), optical system, signal processing circuit (analog,
digital), case, and so on.
Hamamatsu semiconductor process technology, assembly
technology, and module technology can be combined to
provide optics modules that meet customers’ specifications.
In blood analysis devices, the optics module is used to
measure the blood absorbance as well as measure the
fluorescence emission when light is incident on blood that
has been reacted with an reagent to detect the amount of
various substances in blood.
[Figure 7-1] Optics module used in a blood analysis device
The optical system consists of a beam splitter, band-pass
filter, and lens. The light that passes through the sample
is split by the beam splitter, is passed through the bandpass filter to extract the light at a specific wavelength,
and is incident to the photodiodes.
Signal processing circuit
The low level photocurrent from the photodiodes is converted
into voltage through the current-to-voltage conversion
amplifier. Finally, the optics module outputs the resultant
analog signal. The optics module offers high-speed signal
processing with high accuracy and low noise.
[Figure 7-2] Block diagram example
Beam splitter
Photodiode array
1 ch output
Blood
Xenon lamp, (flow cell, cuvette)
tungsten lamp,
LED, etc.
Band-pass
filter
2 ch output
I/V
converter
Photodiode
Signal
processing
circuit
Signal processing circuit
3 ch output
4 ch output
Vcc
GND
Vee
Optics module
KACCC0751EA
7-1
•
Features
Supports custom order products
The optics module can be customized to meet customers’
needs. The optics module also supports mounting
interference filters with high accuracy and COB (chip on
board) technology for mounting photodiodes on circuit
boards with high accuracy.
•
High accuracy and low noise
•
Wide dynamic range
•
Low crosstalk
•
High-speed response
KACCC0724EA
7-3
New approaches
Dispersive optics modules for detecting specific wavelengths
We are considering to develop a dispersive optics module
for detecting specific wavelengths. This module would use
a grating to separate light into about 10 to 16 channels.
The light separated by the grating would be detected by a
photodiode array. The photodiode array would be optimized
for detecting specific wavelengths, and it would include a
color filter for eliminating unneeded light.
Grating
Slit
7-2
Structure
Photodiode
array
Sample
The optics module consists of the following components.
Xenon
flash lamp
Photodiodes
Signal processing circuit
Dispersive optics module for
detecting specific wavelengths
KACCC0725EA
The photodiodes built into the optics module feature high
sensitivity, low crosstalk, and high-speed response.
32
Optics modules for detecting fluorescence
We are thinking of developing an optics module for detecting
fluorescence. This module would use LEDs for excitation
light source. The optics module for detecting fluorescence
would consist of an LED as an excitation light source,
dichroic mirror for separating the fluorescence from
excitation light, and band-pass filter for passing through
specific range of wavelengths.
Optics module
for detecting
fluorescence
Excitation
Balanced detectors
8.
These are differential amplification type photoelectric
conversion modules containing two photodiodes. The
photodiodes are connected in a direction that cancels out
the photocurrent of each photodiode. This configuration
cancels out the common mode noise of the two incident
light rays. The minute difference in light levels is treated as
a displacement signal, converted into an electrical signal,
and output. We offer a built-in InGaAs PIN photodiode
type covering a spectral range of 0.9 to 1.7 µm.
Fluorescence
emission
8-1
Sample
KACCC0726EA
Signal processing circuit diversification
We are planning to incorporate A/D converter, microcontroller,
and the like to expand the signal processing circuit options.
Features
•
Employs our unique structure that reduces multiple
reflections at the incident light wavelength of 1.0 µm
or 1.3 µm
•
Cutoff frequency: 200 MHz
•
Common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR): 35 dB typ.
•
FC receptacle for the input section
A single-mode fiber with an FC connector [APC (angled
physical contact) polished] can be connected.
•
SMA receptacle for the output section
•
Small size
8-2
Hamamatsu technologies
The balanced detector contains two characteristically aligned
Hamamatsu photodiodes and allows detection of the minute
difference in light levels between two photodiodes. Moreover,
it employs a structure that reduces multiple reflections of
incident light, which reduces light interference that would
be caused by such reflections. With customer order products,
it is possible to reduce reflections at specific wavelengths.
[Figure 8-1] Block diagram
Reference light
Photodiode
I/V amplifier
Signal light
Amplifier
OUT
Photodiode
KACCC0721EA
33
[Table 8-1] Specifications
Parameter
[Figure 8-3] OCT
C12668-01
Photosensor
InGaAs PIN photodiode
Detection wavelength
1.0 µm
Spectral response range
1.3 µm
Variable
wavelength
light source
A/D converter
Optical coupler
0.9 to 1.7 µm
Frequency bandwidth
To the subject
C12668-02
Circulator
DC to 200 MHz
Balanced
detector
Reference side
Common-mode rejection ratio
35 dB
KACCC0723EA
3 × 104 V/A
Transimpedance gain
50 Ω
Output impedance
Input section
FC receptacle (APC polished)
Output section
SMA receptacle
Supply voltage
±12 V (200 mA)
Dimensions
8-3
65 × 75 × 25 mm
How to use
For optical input, two single mode fibers with FC connectors
(APC polished) are used to apply a reference light and a signal
light. If the light level and phase of these two light rays are
uniform, the output would be zero. If there is a difference in
the light levels between the reference light and signal light,
the difference becomes the displacement signal, and this
signal is converted into an electric signal, and output from
the SMA receptacle. Note that since the output impedance
is 50 Ω, you will need to set the input impedance of the
connected measuring device to 50 Ω.
[Figure 8-2] I/O of balanced detector
Reference light
Input1
OUT
Signal light
Electrical
signal
Input2
KACCC0722EA
8-4
New approaches
We plan to offer a high-speed type (cutoff frequency: 500
MHz). We are also considering a built-in Si photodiode
type covering a spectral range of 300 to 1000 nm.
8-5
Applications
It is planned to be used in optical coherence tomography
(OCT) in high accuracy measuring instruments, such as
medical instruments and analytical instruments.
34
Usage (C3683-02)
PSD signal processing circuits,
PSD modules
9.
These are easy-to-use circuits and modules specifically
designed for Hamamatsu PSDs (position sensitive detectors).
PSD signal processing circuits are “circuit board” types on
which a PSD (sold separately) can be mounted. PSD modules
contain a PSD.
The C3683-02 comes with a connector for wiring to the
D-sub connector. Solder this wiring connector to a cable
that connects to an oscilloscope (or voltmeter) and power
supply (cable is not supplied).
[Figure 9-2] Connection example (C3683-02)
Oscilloscope
9-1
PSD signal processing circuits
PSD (sold separately)
C3683-02
Power supply (±15 V)
KACCC0424EB
PSD signal processing circuits have a current-to-voltage
converter that converts photocurrent from a PSD into
voltage. The signal is then processed and output as an analog
voltage (analog output type) or converted into digital data by
an A/D converter and output (digital output type).
Structure (C3683-02)
The C3683-02 PSD signal processing circuit for DC signals
is configured as shown in Figure 9-1. The current-to-voltage
converter converts photocurrent from a PSD into voltage
which is then processed by the signal processing circuit and
is output as an analog voltage matching a corresponding
position.
[Figure 9-1] Block diagram (C3683-02)
Differential signal
Cf
Light level monitor
Rf
Current-tovoltage
converter
Signal
processing
circuit
PSD photocurrent
9-2
PSD modules
PSD modules are position detection modules that integrate
a PSD (or 4-segment Si photodiode) and current-to-voltage
converter into a compact case. When used with a PSD
module controller (sold separately), position signals are
available from two connectors for analog output and digital
output.
Structure
The C10443 series PSD modules use a Hamamatsu PSD
(or 4-segment Si photodiode) and a current-to-voltage
converter which are assembled together in a case.
[Figure 9-3] Block diagram (C10443-01/-02/-03/-04)
X1
COM
VR
GND
+Vcc
GND
-Vcc
Bias
circuit
Output VX1
Y2
Output
2D
PSD
Current-tovoltage
converter
X2
Output VX2
Output VY1
Output VY2
Y1
+Vcc
-Vcc
Bias circuit
GND
KACCC0423EA
KACCC0345EB
[Table 9-1] Hamamatsu PSD signal processing circuits
Type no.
C3683-02
Applicable PSD
Compatible
signal
Output
Analog
1 × 104
1 × 105
1 × 106
16 kHz
(cutoff frequency)
±15
Digital
1 × 105
5 ms min.
(signal
conversion time)
+12
1D
C4674-01
2D
C9068
1D
DC
C9069
2D
Conversion impedance
Supply voltage
Response speed
(V/A)
(V)
Note: The output voltage (unit: V) values indicate the light spot position (unit: mm) from the center of the photosensitive area.
35
Usage (C10443-01/-02/-03/-04)
9-3
Connect the PSD module to the PSD module controller.
Position signals from the controller are available from the
two connectors for analog and digital outputs. When using
the analog output, connect an oscilloscope or voltmeter to
the analog output connector on the controller. The output
voltage (unit: V) values indicate the light spot position
(unit: mm) from the center of the photosensitive area.
When using the digital output, connect a PC to the digital
output connector on the controller by serial connection
(RS-232C). Position information can be easily loaded into
the PC by using the sample software that comes with the
controller.
Applications
•
Laser optical axis alignment
•
Distance sensors
•
Liquid level sensors
•
Distortion measurement
[Figure 9-4] Example of sample software displayed on PC screen
[Table 9-2] Hamamatsu PSD modules
Type no.
Photosensitive area
(mm)
Photosensor
C10443-01
Compatible
signal
Output
Cutoff frequency
Supply voltage
(kHz)
4×4
C10443-02
16
9×9
External power
supply
(±5 to ±12 V)
Two-dimensional PSD
AC, DC
C10443-03
Analog
12 × 12
C10443-04
C10443-06
160
4-segment photodiode
10 × 10
160
Note: When PSD module is used with PSD module controller (sold separately).
· Output can be changed to digital output.
· Output can be set so that the output voltage (unit: V) value indicates the light spot position (unit: mm) from the center of the photosensitive area (excluding the C10443-06).
[Figure 9-5] Connection example (PSD module)
AC adapter*
PSD module
C10443 series
Mounted on optical
bench rod and the like
Analog output
cable*
PSD module*
cable
Oscilloscope (or voltmeter)
PSD module
controller
C10460
RS-232C cable
PC
* Supplied with PSD module controller
KACCC0349EC
36
10. Color sensor modules/
evaluation circuit
10 - 1
Color sensor modules
For white balance detection of
LCD backlight (RGB-LED type) (C9303 series)
In order to monitor color changes caused by TFT-LCD
backlight’s RGB-LED temperature characteristics and
performance degradation, Hamamatsu provides the C9303
series color sensor modules that detect the white balance
on the LCD backlight optical waveguide. Based on these
detection results, feedback-controlling the light level of
each LED for RGB stabilizes the color on the LCD backlight.
The C9303 series comes in a small size that can easily be
mounted on the side of the LCD backlight optical waveguide.
The shape and RGB gain can be made to match customer
specifications.
The C9315 comes with an objective optical fiber. The internal
RGB color sensor detects light reflected from an object
illuminated with the white LED and outputs RGB digital
data. This objective optical fiber can measure light in very
small areas.
The C9315 connected to a PC is suitable for simple color
management and detection of difference between colors
with a relatively different spectral reflectance. The C9315
cannot be used to detect the absolute color.
Output from the C9315 is 12-bit digital data conforming to
RS-232C. This data is loaded into the PC by using sample
software that comes supplied with the C9315. The numerically
converted RGB color information can also be transferred in
real time directly into Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet cells.
Note: Microsoft and Excel are either registered trademarks or
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or
other countries.
[Figure 10-3] Connection example (C9315)
RS-232C
serial data
Six pieces of RGB data (12-bit digital) output
R, G, B: RGB data of object being detected
refR, refG, refB: RGB data of white reference card (supplied with C9315)
Object color monitoring by RGB ratio
[Figure 10-1] Connection example (C9303 series)
5 V DC
power supply
C9303 series
DC power supply
Vref=3 V
DC plug
AC adapter (supplied)
Oscilloscope (3 ch)
Voltmeter (3 ch)
A/D converter (3 ch) + PC
Analog voltage VR
R ch
Analog voltage VG
G ch
Analog voltage VB
B ch
KACCC0421EA
[Figure 10-4] Example of sample software displayed
on PC screen (C9315)
KACCC0420EA
[Figure 10-2] Color adjustment of TFT-LCD backlight using
RGB-LED (application example of C9303 series)
Color sensor module
C9303 series
Color controller
Luminance and color
coordinate settings
Red driver
Green driver
RGB-LED
Blue driver
KACCC0212EE
[Figure 10-5] Monitoring color of opaque objects
by comparing their color differences
(application example of C9315)
For measurement of RGB digital information on object color (C9315)
Trying to faithfully convey an object color is difficult in
cameras because the color changes due to the background
light and sensitivity. However, the C9315 color sensor module
makes this task simple by numerically converting the object
color. The C9315 uses a method similar to the stimulus value
direct-reading method for detection and allows simple
management of the object color. This method is fully practical
for applications that monitor color by relative comparison
with the color difference of “opaque objects with a close
spectral reflectance.”
Sorting out colors not
resembling pre-stored color data
Identifying multiple color marks
KACCC0422EA
37
10 - 2
[Figure 10-6] Connection example (C9331)
Color sensor evaluation circuit
Oscilloscope (3 ch)
Voltmeter (3 ch)
A/D converter (3 ch) + PC
5 V DC power supply
The C9331 is a circuit board designed for evaluating
Hamamatsu color sensors (S7505-01, S9032-02). It has a
current-to-voltage conversion amplifier that simultaneously
converts each component of the RGB photocurrents to
voltage and outputs it. Three trimmers are provided to
adjust the photocurrent gains for individual RGB colors.
Analog voltage VR
S7505-01
R ch
Analog voltage VG
G ch
Analog voltage VB
B ch
S9032-02
C9331
Color sensor (sold separately)
KACCC0419EA
[Table 10-1] Hamamatsu color sensor modules and evaluation circuit
Product name
Type no.
Color sensor module
C9303-03
C9303-04
Standard type
High gain type
Color sensor evaluation circuit
C9315
C9331
Photo
Features
white balance detection of LCD
• For
backlight (RGB-LED type)
design suited to attach to
• Small
the side of LCD backlight optical
waveguide
RGB information measurement
• For
of object color
an internal white LED as the light
• Has
Current-to-voltage conversion amplifier
source, converts the reflected light into • allowing a Hamamatsu color sensor
small areas using an
• Measures
objective optical fiber
• 12-bit digital output (RS-232C compatible)
RGB data, and outputs them to a PC
(S7505-01, S9032-02) to be mounted
Internal light
source
No
Yes (white LED)
No
Internal color
sensor
Yes
Yes
No
-
Variable (1 × 105 Ω to 5.1 × 105 Ω)
Digital output period: 0.2 s
DC to 14 kHz (-3 dB)
Conversion
impedance
Bandwidth
Applications
R: 91 kΩ
G: 91 kΩ
B: 100 kΩ
R: 680 kΩ
G: 680 kΩ
B: 680 kΩ
DC to 16 kHz
(-3 dB)
DC to 2.4 kHz
(-3 dB)
color measurement
• Object
balance detection of LCD
• White
Color monitoring of opaque body (molded • Light source color measurement
•
backlight (RGB-LED type)
parts, painting, printing, cosmetics, etc.) • Evaluation of S7505-01 and S9032-02
• Evaluation of S9032-02 RGB color sensor • Simple
detection of color difference
Object color
measurement
No
(Light source and optical system are required.)
Yes
No
(Light source and optical system are required.)
Light source color
measurement
Yes
No
Yes
AC adapter
• Dedicated
software
• Sample
(data acquisition, recording, relative chromaticity
-
Accessories
• Dedicated cable with connector
•
38
Yxy display not conforming to CIE)
White reference card
11. Image sensor application products
Driver circuits and multichannel detector heads compatible
with our main image sensors are available to easily evaluate
and test Hamamatsu image sensors. The driver circuit is a
circuit board type and can be used to evaluate the image
sensor at low cost. It can also be integrated into a device.
The multichannel detector head is a product that houses a
driver circuit in a heat dissipating case. The case can easily
be connected to an optical system, and depending on
the product, it includes a lens mount adapter. The driver
circuit and multichannel detector head consist of the
following components and are optimized for evaluating
the characteristics of the image sensor.
[Figure 11-1] Driver circuit C11165-01 for CCD linear image sensor
[Figure 11-2] InGaAs multichannel detector head C11512
· Power supply section
· Timing generator for driving the image sensor
· Video signal processing circuit
· A/D converter
· Controller
· Digital interface for various PCs
Using the supplied application software, you can connect
with a PC, easily set various parameters, acquire and analyze
data, and so on. You can evaluate the characteristics of
the sensor quickly and efficiently. The driver circuit and
multichannel detector head can be customized in shape,
size, interface type, etc.
We have an extensive lineup of products supporting various
types of image sensors (CCD linear/area image sensors,
CMOS linear image sensors, and InGaAs linear/area image
sensors). Moreover, these products support general-purpose
interfaces such as USB, Camera Link, or Ethernet. The USB
type can be connected to a USB port of a PC. The Camera
Link type is used in applications that handle high-speed, large
image data. It supports general-purpose Camera Link frame
grabber boards made by frame grabber board manufacturers.
The Ethernet type is designed for industrial and other highspeed applications where the controller PC is connected to
remote devices through long cables.
11 - 1
Features
•
Built-in 16-bit (or 14-bit) high accuracy A/D converter
•
Internal offset and gain adjustment functions
•
Data acquisition using various external trigger modes
•
Equipped with general-purpose interfaces such as
USB and Camera Link
•
Small size: can be integrated in devices
[Table 11-1] Hamamatsu image sensor application products
Type no.
C11287
C11288
C11160
C11165-01
C13015
C10854
C11512 series
C11513
C11514
Product name
Interface
S10420-01 series, S11510 series
Driver circuit for CCD area image sensor
Driver circuit for CCD linear image sensor
S11071 series
USB
Driver circuit for InGaAs area image sensor
S11151-2048
S11155-2048-01, S11156-2048-01
Driver circuit for CMOS linear image sensor
InGaAs multichannel detector head
Applicable image sensors
S11639
Camera Link
G10768 series
G11097 series
USB
G11135-512D, G11477-256D
G11478-256D
Camera Link
G11135-32S/-64S
39
11 - 2
[Figure 11-5] Connection example (C11287)
Structure
[Figure 11-3] Block diagram (typical example: C11287)
Sensor
Clock driver
Signal
Buffer
FPGA
(clock timing generation,
signal processing)
A/D converter
Bias circuit
I/F
controller
Trigger In
Trigger Out
USB
Power supply
circuit
USB cable
Trigger
Pulse
KACCC0728EA
USB bus powered
11 - 3
PC
BNC cable
How to use
Pulse generator
You can quickly start collecting data by simply installing the
supplied application software and driver into your PC. Since
the software also includes a function library (DLL), you can
efficiently develop software applications in a development
environment such as Microsoft® Visual C++®, Microsoft
Visual Basic®, and LabVIEW®.
With the Camera Link type, you can develop original software
applications by using a frame grabber board sold in the
market, a Camera Link cable, the application software and
DLL that comes with the frame grabber board.
Note: Microsoft, Visual C++, and Visual Basic are either registered
trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the
United States and/or other countries. LabVIEW is a registered
trademark of National Instruments.
[Figure 11-4] Example of application software on PC screen
40
Laser emission timing,
mechanical shutter, etc.
KACCC0729EA
11 - 4
New approaches
We plan to introduce additional products that support new
diversified, high-speed image sensors as well as develop
original signal processing ASICs. Furthermore, we plan to
quickly develop products supporting new PC interface and
industrial interface standards.
12. Special-purpose modules
[Figure 12-2] Connection example
Flame eyes
Output example
Output voltage (V)
12 - 1
If needed, take steps to suppress noise such as shielding
the cable or adding a capacitor (approx. 0.1 µF between
the anode and cathode of the photo IC diode).
The “flame eye” is a sensor that monitors flames in oil boilers
and heating equipment. It detects light emitted from the
flame so that the combustion state can be observed.
This flame eye utilizes a photo IC diode instead of the
conventional CdS cell. This flame eye ensures stable detection
performance compared to types using a CdS cell.
The flame eye is easy to install since the sensor is integrated
into the cable assembly. Two types with different light input
directions (head-on type and side-on type) are available.
Illuminance (lx)
KPICC0125EB
Features
•
Applications
Internal photo IC diode
The internal photo IC diode boosts the photocurrent
generated from the photodiode approx. 13000 times.
The photo IC diode outputs current and can be used the
same as a photodiode applied with a reverse voltage.
•
Spectral response suitable for detecting oil burner flames
•
Cable assembly for easy installation into equipment
•
Small output current variations and good output linearity
•
Oil boilers
•
Heating equipment
•
Safety devices for heaters
•
Alarms
12 - 2
Sunlight sensors
Sunlight sensors detect the amount of sunshine and ambient
light level. A photodiode with superb linearity relative to the
incident light level is built in a small case with a connector.
These sensors deliver high reliability and can be used as
sunlight sensors for automotive air conditioners.
[Figure 12-1] Flame eyes
[Figure 12-3] Sunlight sensor (S8369)
S10109
S10108
How to use
Unlike CdS cells, the photo IC diode has polarity (anode
and cathode), so always be sure to use it with a positive
voltage applied to the cathode.
A load resistance (RL) must also be set according to the
latter-stage circuit. If high-frequency components must
be eliminated, we recommend that a low-pass filter load
capacitor (CL) be inserted in parallel with the load resistance.
The cutoff frequency (fc) obtained from inserting the lowpass filter load capacitor is expressed by equation (1).
fc ≈ 1/(2π × CL × RL) ............ (1)
41
Features
•
High reliability (for automotive use)
•
Optical design of cover allows adjusting the directivity
to meet application requirements.
•
•
Photosensor (visible light sensor, near infrared light
sensor) is selectable according to application.
•
•
Head-up display brightness adjusting sensors
Internal pulse generator
Oscillating frequency is selectable in eight steps with a
switch.
•
Gain: settable in two steps
(1 × 106 V/A, 1 × 107 V/A)
•
Noise: 5 mVp-p (1 × 106 V/A)
•
Board size: 70 × 95 mm
How to use
Auto light sensors
Auto light sensors detect the ambient light level to
automatically turn on the vehicle headlights in tunnels and
the like.
Simultaneous measurement of 16 elements and
serial output
Simultaneous readout of 16-element signals allows highaccuracy, high-speed measurements.
Sunlight sensors
Sunlight sensors detect the amount of sunshine to control
the temperature and the volume of air flow for automotive
air conditioners.
•
•
Cover shape suitable for dashboard installation
Applications
•
Features
Mount the Hamamatsu 16-element Si photodiode array
directly on the board. Power is supplied from an AC
adapter (comes with the product).
[Figure 12-5] Connection example
Through-holes for
photodiode array mounting
Sunlight sensors detect the ambient brightness to
automatically adjust the brightness on the head-up display.
•
Simple sunlight measurements
A/D converter
PC
12 - 3
Driver circuit for Si photodiode array
AC adapter connector
Oscilloscope
42
Here we introduce a driver circuit for our 16-element Si
photodiode array. The combination of these allows highaccuracy, high-speed measurements by simultaneously
reading out each signal of the 16 elements. The driver circuit
provides a voltage output which makes signal processing
easy.
The driver board has solder through-holes that allow direct
mounting of the 16-element Si photodiode array. By adding
a commercially available sub-board, this driver circuit can
also be used to evaluate Hamamatsu 16-element InGaAs
PIN photodiode array.
•
Color measurement (print, paper, fire, ink, liquid, etc.)
•
Film thickness measurement (SiO2 film, photoresist
film, film, oil film, etc.)
•
Emission measurement (plasma monitor, sunlight,
quality control for light source and optical fiber)
[Figure 12-4] Driver circuit for Si photodiode array (C9004)
•
Non-destructive measurement (fruit, grain, soil,
plastic, blood, oil, etc.)
•
Density measurement (chemicals, plating liquid,
etching liquid, etc.)
•
Simple position measurement
Driver circuit for Si photodiode array
KACCC0426EB
Applications
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