EN

RS485 Protocol Structure
Contents
1
1.1
1.2
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 3
The RS-485 Interface ..................................................................................................................... 3
Commissioning Procedure with RS485 .......................................................................................... 3
2
2.1
Connection .................................................................................................................................... 4
Sensor Connection Diagram........................................................................................................... 4
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
Topology ........................................................................................................................................ 5
≤ 115 kbit/s: Topology for Baumer standard RS485 interfaces....................................................... 5
≤ 3 Mbit/s: Topology for Baumer fast RS485 interfaces ................................................................. 7
Using other outputs in addition to RS485 ....................................................................................... 9
4
4.1
4.2
Commands .................................................................................................................................. 10
Command Structure ...................................................................................................................... 10
Time Flows (Timing)...................................................................................................................... 16
5
5.1
5.2
Error handling ............................................................................................................................. 20
General information ...................................................................................................................... 20
Application specific error 11 .......................................................................................................... 21
6
6.1
6.2
Appendix ...................................................................................................................................... 22
Data types ..................................................................................................................................... 22
Example Index Table..................................................................................................................... 23
7
History of changes ..................................................................................................................... 24
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1
Introduction
1.1
The RS-485 Interface
Besides up to 31 sensors the bus contains a master which represents a PC or also a PLC (Programmable
Logic Controller). Communication with the desired sensor on the bus is initiated by the master, upon which the
sensor answers. Data can be sent by the master to the sensor (WRITE) or requested by it (READ). No data is
sent by the sensors without being requested by the master.
A message to the sensor contains:
• Sensor address
• Type: read or write
• Index: which command is to be executed
• Data (if required)
An answer from the sensor contains:
• Sensor address
• Type of answer (e.g. acknowledge, error, busy ....)
• Data (if required)
1.2
Commissioning Procedure with RS485
1
Connect the sensor according to the connection diagram, note recommended cables
2
Connect all the components to the required topology
3
Supply the sensor with +24 VDC
4
Enable the sensor for RS485 commands via the index command 010 "RS485 lock"
5
Control the sensor via the index commands with RS485
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2
2.1
Connection
Sensor Connection Diagram
+Vs and 0V are used for the power supply and RS485 uses Rx/Tx+ and Rx/Tx- for data exchange. These 4
pins are required for the operation of RS485.
Example of an 8-pin connection diagram
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3
Topology
There are two different recommended network structures depending on the sensors RS485 interface and the
needed data transfer rate.
3.1
≤ 115 kbit/s: Topology for Baumer standard RS485 interfaces1
This topology applies to most applications and sensor types with Baumer standard RS485 interface ≤115
kbit/s. Simple wiring and lower demands on the materials are the advantages.
Requirements:
• Shielded cables necessary
• Maximum 10m length from sensor to master
• At maximum 15 sensors2 can be integrated in such a network
• Data transfer rates up to 115 kbit/s for RS485
• In order to define the resistance level when no transmitter is active, the master must have failsafe bias
resistors RB
• The topology for Baumer fast RS485 interfaces (≤ 3 Mbit/s) is recommended for up to 31 sensors in
the same bus or for other cable lengths
Vcc
RB
Sensor directly connected to Master
Rx/Tx+
A
C Sensor 1
Rx/Tx-
< 10m
RS485
Master
D
RS485
Master
D
RB
Several sensors connected to master
Connection
point
C Sensor 1
C Sensor 2
B
Vcc
RB
B
B
C Sensor 3
B
Rx/Tx+
Rx/Tx-
RB
C Sensor 15
B
< 5m
< 5m
1
2
According to the data sheet in the sensors operating manual
Tested and released by Baumer
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A
Cable <10m
Maximum 10m length from sensor to master
10155587 ESG 34CH1000G
(5-pin, length 10 m, straight connector)
11046266 ESG 34CH0500G
(5-pin, length 5 m, straight connector)
11046264 ESG 34CH0200G
(5-pin, length 2 m, straight connector)
C
Sensor
Sensor with Baumer standard RS485
interface. Data transfer rates up to 115
kbit/s.
D
RS485 Master
The PC/PLC (Programmable Logic
Controller) controls the devices as master.
The master must have two Failsafe bias
resistors RB (300 Ohm - 5 kOhm, Pull-Up for
Rx/Tx+ and Pull-Down for Rx/Tx- resistors).
10129333 ESG 34FH1000G
(8-pin, length 10 m, straight connector)
10129332 ESG 34FH0500G
(8-pin, length 5 m, straight connector)
10127844 ESG 34FH0200G
(8-pin, length 2 m, straight connector)
Other cable lengths available on request
B
Cable <5m
Maximum 5m length to the connection point
11046264 ESG 34CH0200G
(5-pin, length 2 m, straight connector)
10127844 ESG 34FH0200G
(8-pin, length 2 m, straight connector)
Other cable lengths available on request
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3.2
≤ 3 Mbit/s: Topology for Baumer fast RS485 interfaces3
The defined topology and also high performance cables are required for sensors with Baumer fast RS485
interfaces with data transfer rates up to 3Mbit/s. Each device is connected in series to a single bus cable, on
both sides of the bus cable is a terminating resistor required. At maximum 31 sensors can be integrated in
such a network
Requirements:
• Both ends of the bus cable must be terminated with terminating resistors RT, value = 120 Ohm
• The terminating resistor can be integrated in the master or in the sensor
• The wave resistance of the bus cable must be 120 Ohm
• The stub line length has to be shorter than 0.3m (length = A)
• The cable lengths between the Tee connectors have to be in minimum 1m (length = C)
• The required transfer rate define the total length of the bus cable (length = E)
• At maximum 31 sensors in the same bus
• The cables must be twisted pair and shielded
• In order to define the resistance level when no transmitter is active, the master must have failsafe bias
resistors RB
• The total length of the bus cable depends on the data transfer rate and can be calculated by following
formula: 10^8 [bps*m]/ Data transfer rate [bps]
3.2.1
Point to point structure
RS485
Master
Rx/Tx-
A
RT
D1
B
RT
C
Example with separated
terminating resistor RT
Sensor
F
RB
RB
Rx/Tx+
Vcc
Example with integrated
terminating resistor RT
G
E
3
According to the data sheet in the sensors operating manual
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3.2.2
Structure for multiple sensors
C
B
C
D2
F
A
C
B
Sensor 31
Sensor …
A
A
C
B
F
Sensor 2
Sensor 1
RB
Rx/Tx-
A
RT
F
F
RB
Rx/Tx+
Vcc
RS485
Master
G
A
C
B
B
RT
D1
E
A
Stub cable
Maximum length 0.3m
11144301 ESG 34C/KSG34CH0030G/C/OBEZ
(5-pin, length 0.3 m, straight connector)
11147130 ESG 34F/KSG34CH0030G/C
(8-to-5-pin, length 0.3 m, straight connector)
E Bus cable (maximum length over all)
The total maximum length between the both
terminating resistors depends on the data
transfer rate: 10^8 [bps*m]/ Data transfer
rate [bps]
Example: 10^8/3000000=33 --> 33m
B
Tee connector
T-junction M12 CAN 5-pin (1 male/2 female)
10153972 T-Verteiler 5Pol M12 CAN
F Sensor
Sensor with Baumer fast RS485 interface.
Data transfer rates up to 3Mbit/s.
C
Bus cable (between devices)
Minimum 1m and maximum 5m length
11144304 ESG 34C/KSG34CH0200G/C/OBEZ
(5-pin, length 2 m, straight connector)
11144306 ESG 34C/KSG34CH0500G/C/OBEZ
(5-pin, length 5 m, straight connector)
G RS485 Master with ≤ 3Mbit/s
The PC/PLC (Programmable Logic
Controller) controls the devices as master.
The master must have two Failsafe bias
resistors RB (600 Ohm - 5 kOhm, Pull-Up for
Rx/Tx+ and Pull-Down for Rx/Tx- resistors).
Data transfer rate ≤ 3Mbit/s.
D1
D2
RT Terminating resistor
M12, 5-pole, 120 Ohm, male or female
D1 10153974 Rundstecker 5Pol AbschlussD2 11163234 ESG 34C CAN-terminator
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3.3
Using other outputs in addition to RS485
For using the other outputs like digital and analog outputs separated, the Signal splitter can be used for.
Sensor
Signal splitter
11141539 ESG 34F/KSG34FU0005G/C/S
Separator for RS485 and other signals like Digital
and Analog. M12 (8-pin) to M12 (5-pin) and M12
(8-pin). M12 (5-pin) for RS485 signals, M12 (8pin) for Analog, Digital and sync signals.
8-pol
5-pol 8-pol
M12 5-pin for RS485 signals
Rx/Tx+ ; Rx/Tx- ; GND ; +VS
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Signal
splitter
M12 8-pin for Analog and Digital signals
Analog I/U ; PNP/NPN ; Trigger/Sync In; GND ; +VS
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4
4.1
Commands
Command Structure
PAYLOAD
END
CHECKSUM
SEPARATOR
PAYLOAD ELEMENT
SEPARATOR
INDEX
DEVICE ADDR
TYPE
START
:01W020;10;41BE\r\n
The information to be transmitted is called PAYLOAD and has to be sent in a so-called frame so that the
command can be recognized and processed.
This frame always has the same structure and contains a start, a device address, a PAYLOAD, a checksum
and an end.
START
1 char
:
4.1.1
DEVICE ADDR
2 char
01…32
PAYLOAD
n char
Commands
CHECKSUM
4 char
****
END
2 char
\r\n
START
:01W020;10;41BE\r\n
The beginning of the command is indicated by a colon : .
ASCII
:
4.1.2
HEX
0x2B
DEVICE ADDR
:01W020;10;41BE\r\n
DEVICE ADDR stands for device address and corresponds to the address which is required to actuate the
correct sensor in a network with several sensors. The device address 01 … 31 can be programmed in the
sensor. Sensors in the same network must not have the same device address. The standard device address
is 01.
ASCII
0…31
HEX
0x30 0x30 0x30 … 0x32
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4.1.3
PAYLOAD
The information to be transmitted is called PAYLOAD.
There are 2 different PAYLOAD types:
•
•
Legible Coding- Developed for controlling the sensor with a terminal program
Machine Coding- Developed to ensure efficient and reliable communication between devices
4.1.3.1 PAYLOAD for Legible Coding
PAYLOAD
SEPARATOR
PAYLOAD ELEMENT
SEPARATOR
INDEX
TYPE
:01W020;10;41BE\r\n
Each PAYLOAD begins with the letter for TYPE, followed by the 3-digit index command (during sending).
Then any number of payload elements can follow (depending on the index command), each separated by socalled separators.
TYPE
Defines how the sensor has to deal with the command (read or write).
TYPE List for Send Command
ASCII
HEX
MESSAGE
R
0x52
READ
W
0x57
WRITE
TYPE List for Sensor Answer
ASCII
HEX
MESSAGE
A
0x41
ACK
a
0x61
ACKBUSY
B
0x42
BUSY
E
0x45
ERROR
e
0x65
ERROR LASTCMD
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Explanation
Read from the sensor. No PAYLOAD ELEMENT.
Write to the sensor. With PAYLOAD ELEMENT.
Explanation
The command was received and executed
successfully.
The command was received successfully, but
execution requires additional time. Applies to very
time-intensive commands and does not mean that
the command was not executed.
The device is busy and could not receive the
command.
An error occurred during analysis or execution of
the command. For more information, see section on
Error Correction.
An error occurred during the last command (applies
to read/write - delayed commands). The transmitted
command was ignored. For more information, see
section on Error Correction.
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INDEX
Consists of 3 characters and defines the command to be executed (See separate RS485 Index Command
List).
ASCII
000 … 999
Hex
0x30 0x30 0x30 … 0x39 0x39 0x39
SEPARATOR
Separator to subdivide commands.
ASCII
;
HEX
0x3B
MESSAGE
READ
PAYLOAD ELEMENT
The corresponding value is added depending on the INDEX command and the TYPE.
If TYPE = R (read), there is no need for a PAYLOAD ELEMENT.
If TYPE = W (write), a PAYLOAD ELEMENT is needed for transmitting the value to the sensor.
PAYLOAD for writing to device
TYPE
INDEX
SEPARATOR
PAYLOAD
ELEMENT
n char
10
SEPARATOR
PAYLOAD
ELEMENT
n char
….
SEPARATOR
1 char
3 char
1 char
1 char
1 char
020
;
;
;
Example W
Example:
:01W020;10;41BE\r\n (W=Write; 020= Measurement Type Selection;10 = AVG Distance)
…
…
…
PAYLOAD for reading from device
TYPE
INDEX
1 char
3 char
020
Example R
Example:
:01R020;99F5\r\n (R=Read; 020= Measurement Type Selection)
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4.1.3.2 PAYLOAD for Machine Coding
PAYLOAD from master to device (command)
TYPE
INDEX
DATA
uint8
uint8
uint8 [ ]
7-bit ASCII bin*
PAYLOAD from device to master (answer)
TYPE
PAYLOAD
uint8
uint8 [ ]
7-bit ASCII bin*
*The PAYLOAD consists of TYPE + INDEX + DATA as a 7-bit ASCII bit stream, see section "7-bit ASCII bin
coding"
PAYLOAD example:
12Aq34oit&/&()
TYPE
VALUE
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
MESSAGE
Reserved
READ
WRITE
ACK
ACKBUSY
BUSY
ERROR
ERROR LASTCMD
INDEX
VALUE
0…255
DATA
Data type
uint8, uint16, uint32,
int8, int16, int32
float32
bool
string
fixlist[]
varlist[]
Coding
Little endian integer (low byte first)
32 bit according to IEEE754
Coded as uint8, whereby:
0: false
1: true
Zero terminated string with a defined maximum length.
The field is filled with zeros after the zero termination up to the defined
maximum length.
The specified maximum length includes the zero termination byte.
All entries are linked.
All entries are linked and pre-pended with uint32 which contains the
number of entries in the list.
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7-bit ASCII bin coding
Ciphering method
• The binary data is divided into 7-bit groups
• The last 7-bit groups are filled with 0 bits
Extend each group with a most significant bit of 1 to 8 bits
Example:
Raw data: 0x33 0x33 0x33
Transmission data: 0x99 0xCC 0xE6 0xB0
BYTE 0 0x33
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
BYTE 1 0x33
BYTE 2 0x33
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
0x99
1
0xCC
1
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0xE6
1
0xB0
1
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4.1.4
CHECKSUM
:01W020;10;41BE\r\n
The CHECKSUM is used to check for correct transmission. It consists of the START, DEVICE ADDR and
PAYLOAD values and always has 4 digits.
Calculation:
CRC16-ARC / CRC-IBM
Bit-reflected polynom : x^16 + x^15 + x^2 + 1 = 0x8005, bit-reflected = 0xA001.
Init value : 0x0000, no final XOR value.
See http://reveng.sourceforge.net/crc-catalogue/16.htm for details.
Calculation example:
START
DEVICE ADDR
PAYLOAD
:
01
W020;10;
Accordingly, the checksum consists of:
:01W020;10;
=
41BE
Wildcard character for checksum:
A wildcard character can also be used as CHECKSUM.
ASCII
HEX
****
0x2A0x2A0x2A0x2A
4.1.5
END
:01W020;10;41BE\r\n
The end of the frame or command is marked by the 4-digit combination \r\n.
Important: This command must always be sent as HEX.
ASCII
\r\n
HEX
0x0D 0x0A
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4.2
Time Flows (Timing)
The time sequences are defined as follows:
Max
2.5 ms
200 ms
0.1 ms
500 ms
BUSY/ ACK
Request
Request
ACKBUSY
t_break
Min
Request
t_idle
BUSY
t_answer_diagmode
Request
Description
Time from reception of the last character of request to
sending the first character of the answer.
Time from reception of last character of request to sending
the first character of the answer if the sensor is in
diagnosing mode.
Time from reception of the last character of answer to
sending the first character of the next request.
If a request or an answer is not completed during t_break,
the message is rejected.
Note: There are exceptions for index Commands with a lot
of data.
BUSY
Name
t_answer
t
t_answer
t_idle
t_break
4.2.1
Sequences
Simple Read
Read access to an index, the data is replied immediately.
1) READ command
2) Answer time <= t_answer
3) Acknowledgment and data ACK,<DATA>
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Simple Write
Write access to an index.
1) WRITE command
2) Answer time <= t_answer
3) Acknowledgment ACK
Read with postponed answer
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
READ command
Answer time <= t_answer
ACKBUSY answer
READ command
Answer time <= t_answer
BUSY answer
READ command
Answer time <= t_answer
BUSY answer
READ command
Answer time <= t_answer
Acknowledgment and data ACK,<DATA>
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1. Sequence
2. Sequence
3. Sequence
4. Sequence
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Write with postponed answer
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
WRITE command,<DATA>
Answer time <= t_answer
ACKBUSY answer
READ command
Answer time <= t_answer
BUSY answer
READ command
Answer time <= t_answer
BUSY answer
READ command
Answer time <= t_answer
ACK acknowledgment
1. Sequence
2. Sequence
3. Sequence
4. Sequence
Read with error
1) READ command
2) Answer time <= t_answer
3) ERROR answer
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Write Postponed with error
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
WRITE command,<DATA>
Answer time <= t_answer
ACKBUSY answer
READ command
Answer time <= t_answer
BUSY answer
READ command
Answer time <= t_answer
BUSY answer
READ command
Answer time <= t_answer
ERROR_LASTCMD answer
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1. Sequence
2. Sequence
3. Sequence
4. Sequence
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5
5.1
Error handling
General information
:01E;11;2E72\r\n
If an error occurs, the sensor answers with an E or e in the payload. The E is written as an uppor or a lower
case letter depending on what the error was.
E
0x45
ERROR
e
0x65
ERROR LASTCMD
An error occurred during analysis or execution of
the command.
An error occurred during the last command (applies
to read/write - delayed commands). The transmitted
command was ignored.
The error type is also sent with a number in the payload.
1
2
3
Wrong message type
Wrong payload format
Wrong argument
4
5
Wrong argument count
Not enough data
6
7
8
9
10
11
Index do not exist
Index locked
Access not allowed
Not enough memory for encoding
Not possible to encode argument
Application specific error
12
Wrong state
Only Read or Write are valid for requests from master to device.
For example a missing separator
The given argument type doesn't match the expected type (ex.
Float value if an integer value is expected).
Number of arguments mismatch.
The length of the payload is below its minimum (type and
index).
Ex. Write access to read only index.
Internal error.
Internal error.
Not RS485 stack related error, read out chapter “Application
specific error 11” and the sensor-belonging Index Command
000 “Application error” for detailed information.
Internal error.
Sample answer of a sensor when an error occurred:
:01e;11;2E72\r\n
Error during the last command: Application specific error
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5.2
Application specific error 11
If the sensor outputs an error with the error number 11 - Application specific error -, the exact error type can be
identified via the Index Command 000 (for instructions see Index Command List).
For information to the exact application error number please refer to the sensor specific RS485 manual.
Example:
Step
1
Command to sensor
2
:01R000;5954\r\n
3
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Answer from the sensor
:01E;11;2E72\r\n
:01A;99;EC05\r\n
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Description
The sensor sends back an
error 11 (application
specific error)
The exact error code is
requested with the index
command 000 (read out
actual pending error)
After which the sensor
sends back the exact
application error:
“Application error: 99:
argument out of range”
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6
6.1
Appendix
Data types
Data type
uint8
Coding
1-3 characters
int8
Max: 255 Min: 0
1 sign (optional) and 1-3 characters
Max: 127 Min: -128
uint16
Examples:
-120
+33
78
1-5 characters
int16
Max: 65535 Min: 0
1 sign (optional) and 1- 5 characters
Max: 32767 Min: -32768
uint32
Examples
-32768
+378
258
1-10 characters
int32
Max: 4'294'967'295
Min: 0
1 sign (optional) and 1- 10 characters
Max: 2'147'483'647
Min: -2'147'483'648
float32
Examples
41647869
-52148877
+54547657
1 sign (optional) and 1-12 characters
Decimal separator ‘.’ ( 0x2E )
Note: Since the device uses floating point numbers according to IEEE754,
rounding errors may appear. This rounding error can lead to a small
difference between the written and the read value.
bool
Examples
123.23487824
-123.23487824
124578
+91.27
Coded as uint8 whereby:
1 (0x31): false
0 (0x30): true
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Variable number of characters, without zero termination.
string
The string must not contain ‘;’ ( 0x3B ).
Only readable ascii values are allowed ( 0x20 … 0x7E ).
The string may be shorter than the specified length.
Note: Due to compatibility with the machine coding, the actual length is 1
character less than the specified maximum length in the index table.
Example: www.baumer.com
<SPACE><Entry 1><SPACE><Entry2><SPACE>
Fixlist[type]
Example: Fixed list containing the three elements 77, 22, 33:
77 22 33
<Nr of entries><SPACE><Entry1><SPACE><Entry2><SPACE>…
varlist[type]
Example: List containing the three elements 7, 22, 333:
3 7 222 33
6.2
Example Index Table
Title
TYPE
INDEX
PAYLOAD
Write Command
Feedback from sensor
:01R001;C955\r\n
:01A;1;Baumer\sElectric\sAG;0007\r
ELEMENTS
Check vendor ID
R
001
-
\n
Vendor ID:1
Vendor name: Baumer Electric AG
Check Device info
R
002
-
:01R002;3955\r\n
:01A;11125351;0;OM70B.15L84AD.TIMD.7AO;101209793_0037;C2EC\r
\n
Device ID: 1112351
Variant ID: 0
Sensor type: OM70B.15L8-4AD.TIMD.7AO
Serial number: 101209793_0037
Give Bus address = 3
W
005
3
Change Baudrate to
W
006
2
38’400
Deactivation of
W
010
RS485 lock
en_BA_RS485_Protocol_Structure.docx
27.01.2016 15:19/tof V1.3 ANW_81149632
0
:01W005;3;15FE\r
:03A;8956\r\n
\n
Set address: 3
:01W006;0;A1FE\r
:01A;49F7\r\n
\n
New baud rate: 38400
:01W010;0;E9C3\r
:01A;49F7\r\n
\n
RS485 lock set: Lock deactivated
23/25
Baumer Electric AG
Frauenfeld, Switzerland
7
History of changes
Date
12.12.2014
12.01.2015
10.02.2015
31.07.2015
05.01.2016
Version
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.3
Description
Document created
Examples implemented, smaller changings e.g. Payload Element
Updated with information from R&D
Reference text concerning Application specific Error 11
3 Mbit structure changes (Terminator male and female)
en_BA_RS485_Protocol_Structure.docx
27.01.2016 15:19/tof V1.3 ANW_81149632
24/25
Baumer Electric AG
Frauenfeld, Switzerland
en_BA_RS485_Protocol_Structure.docx
27.01.2016 15:19/tof V1.3 ANW_81149632
25/25
Baumer Electric AG
Frauenfeld, Switzerland
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