Data Sheet

Freescale Semiconductor
Addendum
Document Number: QFN_Addendum
Rev. 0, 07/2014
Addendum for New QFN
Package Migration
This addendum provides the changes to the 98A case outline numbers for products covered in this book.
Case outlines were changed because of the migration from gold wire to copper wire in some packages. See
the table below for the old (gold wire) package versus the new (copper wire) package.
To view the new drawing, go to Freescale.com and search on the new 98A package number for your
device.
For more information about QFN package use, see EB806: Electrical Connection Recommendations for
the Exposed Pad on QFN and DFN Packages.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2014. All rights reserved.
Part Number
MC68HC908JW32
Package Description
Original (gold wire)
Current (copper wire)
package document number package document number
48 QFN
98ARH99048A
98ASA00466D
MC9RS08LA8
48 QFN
98ARL10606D
98ASA00466D
MC9S08GT16A
32 QFN
98ARH99035A
98ASA00473D
MC9S908QE32
32 QFN
98ARE10566D
98ASA00473D
MC9S908QE8
32 QFN
98ASA00071D
98ASA00736D
MC9S08JS16
24 QFN
98ARL10608D
98ASA00734D
MC9S08QG8
24 QFN
98ARL10605D
98ASA00474D
MC9S08SH8
24 QFN
98ARE10714D
98ASA00474D
MC9RS08KB12
24 QFN
98ASA00087D
98ASA00602D
MC9S08QG8
16 QFN
98ARE10614D
98ASA00671D
MC9RS08KB12
8 DFN
98ARL10557D
98ASA00672D
6 DFN
98ARL10602D
98ASA00735D
MC9S08AC16
MC9S908AC60
MC9S08AC128
MC9S08AW60
MC9S08GB60A
MC9S08GT16A
MC9S08JM16
MC9S08JM60
MC9S08LL16
MC9S08QE128
MC9S08QE32
MC9S08RG60
MCF51CN128
MC9S08QB8
MC9S08QG8
MC9RS08KA2
Addendum for New QFN Package Migration, Rev. 0
2
Freescale Semiconductor
MC9S08QG8
MC9S08QG4
Data Sheet
HCS08
Microcontrollers
MC9S08QG8
Rev. 5
11/2009
freescale.com
MC9S08QG8/4 Features
8-Bit HCS08 Central Processor Unit (CPU)
•
•
•
•
•
•
20-MHz HCS08 CPU (central processor unit)
HC08 instruction set with added BGND instruction
Background debugging system
Breakpoint capability to allow single breakpoint
setting during in-circuit debugging (plus two more
breakpoints in on-chip debug module)
Debug module containing two comparators and nine
trigger modes. Eight deep FIFO for storing
change-of-flow addresses and event-only data
Debug module supports both tag and force
breakpoints
Support for up to 32 interrupt/reset sources
Memory Options
•
•
FLASH read/program/erase over full operating
voltage and temperature
MC9S08QG8 — 8 Kbytes FLASH, 512 bytes RAM
MC9S08QG4 — 4 Kbytes FLASH, 256 bytes RAM
Power-Saving Modes
•
Wait plus three stops
Clock Source Options
•
•
ICS — Internal clock source module containing a
frequency-locked-loop (FLL) controlled by internal
or external reference; precision trimming of internal
reference allows 0.2% resolution and 2% deviation
over temperature and voltage; supports bus
frequencies from 1 MHz to 10 MHz
XOSC — Low-power oscillator module with
software selectable crystal or ceramic resonator
range, 31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz or 1 MHz to 16 MHz,
and supports external clock source input up to
20 MHz
System Protection
•
•
•
•
•
Watchdog computer operating properly (COP) reset
with option to run from dedicated 1-kHz internal
clock source or bus clock
Low-voltage detection with reset or interrupt
Illegal opcode detection with reset
Illegal address detection with reset
FLASH block protect
Peripherals
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ADC — 8-channel, 10-bit analog-to-digital
converter with automatic compare function,
asynchronous clock source, temperature sensor, and
internal bandgap reference channel; ADC is
hardware triggerable using the RTI counter
ACMP — Analog comparator module with option
to compare to internal reference; output can be
optionally routed to TPM module
SCI — Serial communications interface module
with option for 13-bit break capabilities
SPI — Serial peripheral interface module
IIC — Inter-integrated circuit bus module
TPM— 2-channel timer/pulse-width modulator;
each channel can be used for input capture, output
compare, buffered edge-aligned PWM, or buffered
center-aligned PWM
MTIM — 8-bit modulo timer module with 8-bit
prescaler
KBI — 8-pin keyboard interrupt module with software
selectable polarity on edge or edge/level modes
Input/Output
•
•
•
•
12 general-purpose input/output (I/O) pins, one
input-only pin and one output-only pin; outputs
10 mA each, 60 mA max for package
Software selectable pullups on ports when used as
input
Software selectable slew rate control and drive
strength on ports when used as output
Internal pullup on RESET and IRQ pins to reduce
customer system cost
Development Support
•
•
Single-wire background debug interface
On-chip, in-circuit emulation (ICE) with real-time
bus capture
Package Options
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
24-pin quad flat no lead (QFN) package
16-pin plastic dual in-line package (PDIP) —
MC9S08QG8 only
16-pin quad flat no lead (QFN) package
16-pin thin shrink small outline package (TSSOP)
8-pin dual flat no lead (DFN) package
8-pin PDIP — MC9S08QG4 only
8-pin narrow body small outline integrated circuit
(SOIC) package
MC9S08QG8 Data Sheet
Covers MC9S08QG8
MC9S08QG4
MC9S08QG8
Rev. 5
11/2009
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2007-2009. All rights reserved.
Revision History
To provide the most up-to-date information, the revision of our documents on the World Wide Web will be
the most current. Your printed copy may be an earlier revision. To verify you have the latest information
available, refer to:
http://freescale.com/
The following revision history table summarizes changes contained in this document.
Rev
No.
Revision
Date
Description of Changes
Previous version was 1.01; revision numbering will increment by integers from now
on.
Clarified PTA5 pullup behavior note; clarified that FCDIV is write once after reset;
expanded FPROT/NVPROT register description added note for servicing the COP
if the COP is enabled during an erase function; added requirements for using
ACMP0 in ACMP introduction; added factory trim value section to ICS introduction;
debug section added to Development Support chapter; updated RTI period and
added RTI graph to control timing section; other minor grammar edits.
2 Draft A
06/08/2006
3
10/2007
Added 24-pin QFN package and updated the A-5. DC Characteristics table Supply
Voltage row.
4
2/2008
Incorporated core team markups from shared review. See Project Sync issue
#3313 for archive.
5
11/2009
Added new part number information for the maskset revision 4.
Corrected bit 0 of KBISC register in the Table 4-2.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2007-2008. All rights reserved.
This product incorporates SuperFlash® Technology licensed
from SST.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
8
Freescale Semiconductor
PRELIMINARY
List of Chapters
Chapter
Title
Page
Chapter 1
Device Overview ...................................................................... 19
Chapter 2
External Signal Description .................................................... 23
Chapter 3
Modes of Operation ................................................................. 33
Chapter 4
Memory Map and Register Definition .................................... 39
Chapter 5
Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control.................. 59
Chapter 6
Parallel Input/Output Control.................................................. 77
Chapter 7
Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2) ...................................... 87
Chapter 8
Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2) ...................................... 107
Chapter 9
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)........................ 115
Chapter 10
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)........................................ 143
Chapter 11
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1) ....................................... 155
Chapter 12
Keyboard Interrupt (S08KBIV2) ............................................ 173
Chapter 13
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1).................................................. 181
Chapter 14
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)..................... 191
Chapter 15
Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3) ................................ 211
Chapter 16
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2) ......................... 227
Chapter 17
Development Support ........................................................... 243
Appendix A
Electrical Characteristics...................................................... 265
Appendix B
Ordering Information and Mechanical Drawings................ 289
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
7
Contents
Section Number
Title
Page
Chapter 1
Device Overview
1.1
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 19
1.1.1 Devices in the MC9S08QG8/4 Series ...............................................................................19
1.1.2 MCU Block Diagram.........................................................................................................20
Chapter 2
External Signal Description
2.1
2.2
Device Pin Assignment ................................................................................................................... 23
Recommended System Connections ............................................................................................... 25
2.2.1 Power .................................................................................................................................26
2.2.2 Oscillator (XOSC) .............................................................................................................27
2.2.3 Reset (Input Only) .............................................................................................................27
2.2.4 Background / Mode Select (BKGD/MS)...........................................................................28
2.2.5 General-Purpose I/O and Peripheral Ports.........................................................................28
Chapter 3
Modes of Operation
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 33
Features ........................................................................................................................................... 33
Run Mode........................................................................................................................................ 33
Active Background Mode ............................................................................................................... 33
Wait Mode ....................................................................................................................................... 34
Stop Modes...................................................................................................................................... 35
3.6.1 Stop3 Mode........................................................................................................................35
3.6.2 Stop2 Mode........................................................................................................................36
3.6.3 Stop1 Mode........................................................................................................................37
3.6.4 On-Chip Peripheral Modules in Stop Modes.....................................................................37
Chapter 4
Memory Map and Register Definition
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
MC9S08QG8/4 Memory Map ........................................................................................................ 39
Reset and Interrupt Vector Assignments ......................................................................................... 40
Register Addresses and Bit Assignments........................................................................................ 41
RAM................................................................................................................................................ 45
FLASH ............................................................................................................................................ 46
4.5.1 Features ..............................................................................................................................47
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
9
Section Number
4.6
4.7
Title
Page
4.5.2 Program and Erase Times ..................................................................................................47
4.5.3 Program and Erase Command Execution ..........................................................................48
4.5.4 Burst Program Execution...................................................................................................49
4.5.5 Access Errors .....................................................................................................................51
4.5.6 FLASH Block Protection...................................................................................................51
4.5.7 Vector Redirection .............................................................................................................52
Security............................................................................................................................................ 52
FLASH Registers and Control Bits................................................................................................. 54
4.7.1 FLASH Clock Divider Register (FCDIV) .........................................................................54
4.7.2 FLASH Options Register (FOPT and NVOPT).................................................................55
4.7.3 FLASH Configuration Register (FCNFG) ........................................................................56
4.7.4 FLASH Protection Register (FPROT and NVPROT) .......................................................56
4.7.5 FLASH Status Register (FSTAT).......................................................................................57
4.7.6 FLASH Command Register (FCMD)................................................................................58
Chapter 5
Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 59
Features ........................................................................................................................................... 59
MCU Reset...................................................................................................................................... 59
Computer Operating Properly (COP) Watchdog............................................................................. 60
Interrupts ......................................................................................................................................... 61
5.5.1 Interrupt Stack Frame ........................................................................................................62
5.5.2 External Interrupt Request Pin (IRQ) ................................................................................62
5.5.3 Interrupt Vectors, Sources, and Local Masks ....................................................................63
Low-Voltage Detect (LVD) System ................................................................................................ 65
5.6.1 Power-On Reset Operation ................................................................................................65
5.6.2 LVD Reset Operation.........................................................................................................65
5.6.3 LVD Interrupt Operation....................................................................................................65
5.6.4 Low-Voltage Warning (LVW)............................................................................................65
Real-Time Interrupt (RTI) ............................................................................................................... 65
Reset, Interrupt, and System Control Registers and Control Bits................................................... 66
5.8.1 Interrupt Pin Request Status and Control Register (IRQSC).............................................67
5.8.2 System Reset Status Register (SRS) ..................................................................................68
5.8.3 System Background Debug Force Reset Register (SBDFR).............................................69
5.8.4 System Options Register 1 (SOPT1) .................................................................................70
5.8.5 System Options Register 2 (SOPT2) .................................................................................71
5.8.6 System Device Identification Register (SDIDH, SDIDL).................................................72
5.8.7 System Real-Time Interrupt Status and Control Register (SRTISC).................................73
5.8.8 System Power Management Status and Control 1 Register (SPMSC1) ............................74
5.8.9 System Power Management Status and Control 2 Register (SPMSC2) ............................75
5.8.10 System Power Management Status and Control 3 Register (SPMSC3) ............................76
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
10
Freescale Semiconductor
Section Number
Title
Page
Chapter 6
Parallel Input/Output Control
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Port Data and Data Direction .......................................................................................................... 77
Pin Control — Pullup, Slew Rate, and Drive Strength ................................................................... 78
Pin Behavior in Stop Modes............................................................................................................ 79
Parallel I/O Registers ...................................................................................................................... 79
6.4.1 Port A Registers .................................................................................................................79
6.4.2 Port A Control Registers....................................................................................................80
6.4.3 Port B Registers .................................................................................................................83
6.4.4 Port B Control Registers ....................................................................................................84
Chapter 7
Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 87
7.1.1 Features ..............................................................................................................................87
Programmer’s Model and CPU Registers ....................................................................................... 88
7.2.1 Accumulator (A) ................................................................................................................88
7.2.2 Index Register (H:X) .........................................................................................................88
7.2.3 Stack Pointer (SP) ..............................................................................................................89
7.2.4 Program Counter (PC) .......................................................................................................89
7.2.5 Condition Code Register (CCR) ........................................................................................89
Addressing Modes........................................................................................................................... 91
7.3.1 Inherent Addressing Mode (INH)......................................................................................91
7.3.2 Relative Addressing Mode (REL) .....................................................................................91
7.3.3 Immediate Addressing Mode (IMM).................................................................................91
7.3.4 Direct Addressing Mode (DIR) .........................................................................................91
7.3.5 Extended Addressing Mode (EXT) ...................................................................................92
7.3.6 Indexed Addressing Mode .................................................................................................92
Special Operations........................................................................................................................... 93
7.4.1 Reset Sequence ..................................................................................................................93
7.4.2 Interrupt Sequence .............................................................................................................93
7.4.3 Wait Mode Operation.........................................................................................................94
7.4.4 Stop Mode Operation.........................................................................................................94
7.4.5 BGND Instruction..............................................................................................................95
HCS08 Instruction Set Summary .................................................................................................... 96
Chapter 8
Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2)
8.1
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 107
8.1.1 ACMP Configuration Information...................................................................................107
8.1.2 ACMP/TPM Configuration Information .........................................................................107
8.1.3 Features ............................................................................................................................109
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
11
Section Number
8.2
8.3
8.4
Title
Page
8.1.4 Modes of Operation .........................................................................................................109
8.1.5 Block Diagram .................................................................................................................109
External Signal Description .......................................................................................................... 111
Register Definition ........................................................................................................................ 111
8.3.1 ACMP Status and Control Register (ACMPSC) .............................................................112
Functional Description .................................................................................................................. 113
Chapter 9
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 115
9.1.1 Module Configurations ....................................................................................................117
9.1.2 Features ............................................................................................................................119
9.1.3 Block Diagram .................................................................................................................119
External Signal Description .......................................................................................................... 120
9.2.1 Analog Power (VDDAD)...................................................................................................121
9.2.2 Analog Ground (VSSAD)..................................................................................................121
9.2.3 Voltage Reference High (VREFH) ....................................................................................121
9.2.4 Voltage Reference Low (VREFL) .....................................................................................121
9.2.5 Analog Channel Inputs (ADx) .........................................................................................121
Register Definition ........................................................................................................................ 121
9.3.1 Status and Control Register 1 (ADCSC1) .......................................................................121
9.3.2 Status and Control Register 2 (ADCSC2) .......................................................................123
9.3.3 Data Result High Register (ADCRH)..............................................................................124
9.3.4 Data Result Low Register (ADCRL)...............................................................................124
9.3.5 Compare Value High Register (ADCCVH).....................................................................125
9.3.6 Compare Value Low Register (ADCCVL) ......................................................................125
9.3.7 Configuration Register (ADCCFG).................................................................................125
9.3.8 Pin Control 1 Register (APCTL1) ...................................................................................127
9.3.9 Pin Control 2 Register (APCTL2) ...................................................................................128
9.3.10 Pin Control 3 Register (APCTL3) ...................................................................................129
Functional Description .................................................................................................................. 130
9.4.1 Clock Select and Divide Control .....................................................................................130
9.4.2 Input Select and Pin Control ............................................................................................131
9.4.3 Hardware Trigger.............................................................................................................131
9.4.4 Conversion Control..........................................................................................................131
9.4.5 Automatic Compare Function..........................................................................................134
9.4.6 MCU Wait Mode Operation.............................................................................................134
9.4.7 MCU Stop3 Mode Operation...........................................................................................134
9.4.8 MCU Stop1 and Stop2 Mode Operation..........................................................................135
Initialization Information .............................................................................................................. 135
9.5.1 ADC Module Initialization Example ..............................................................................135
Application Information................................................................................................................ 137
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
12
Freescale Semiconductor
Section Number
Title
Page
9.6.1 External Pins and Routing ...............................................................................................137
9.6.2 Sources of Error ...............................................................................................................139
Chapter 10
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
10.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 143
10.1.1 Module Configuration......................................................................................................143
10.1.2 Factory Trim Value ..........................................................................................................143
10.1.3 Features ............................................................................................................................145
10.1.4 Modes of Operation .........................................................................................................145
10.1.5 Block Diagram .................................................................................................................146
10.2 External Signal Description .......................................................................................................... 147
10.3 Register Definition ........................................................................................................................ 147
10.3.1 ICS Control Register 1 (ICSC1) ......................................................................................147
10.3.2 ICS Control Register 2 (ICSC2) ......................................................................................148
10.3.3 ICS Trim Register (ICSTRM)..........................................................................................149
10.3.4 ICS Status and Control (ICSSC)......................................................................................149
10.4 Functional Description .................................................................................................................. 150
10.4.1 Operational Modes...........................................................................................................150
10.4.2 Mode Switching ...............................................................................................................152
10.4.3 Bus Frequency Divider ....................................................................................................152
10.4.4 Low Power Bit Usage ......................................................................................................153
10.4.5 Internal Reference Clock .................................................................................................153
10.4.6 Optional External Reference Clock .................................................................................153
10.4.7 Fixed Frequency Clock ....................................................................................................153
Chapter 11
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 155
11.1.1 Module Configuration......................................................................................................155
11.1.2 Features ............................................................................................................................157
11.1.3 Modes of Operation .........................................................................................................157
11.1.4 Block Diagram .................................................................................................................158
11.2 External Signal Description .......................................................................................................... 158
11.2.1 SCL — Serial Clock Line ................................................................................................158
11.2.2 SDA — Serial Data Line .................................................................................................158
11.3 Register Definition ........................................................................................................................ 158
11.3.1 IIC Address Register (IICA)............................................................................................159
11.3.2 IIC Frequency Divider Register (IICF) ...........................................................................159
11.3.3 IIC Control Register (IICC) .............................................................................................162
11.3.4 IIC Status Register (IICS)................................................................................................163
11.3.5 IIC Data I/O Register (IICD) ...........................................................................................164
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
13
Section Number
Title
Page
11.4 Functional Description .................................................................................................................. 165
11.4.1 IIC Protocol......................................................................................................................165
11.5 Resets ............................................................................................................................................ 168
11.6 Interrupts ....................................................................................................................................... 168
11.6.1 Byte Transfer Interrupt.....................................................................................................169
11.6.2 Address Detect Interrupt ..................................................................................................169
11.6.3 Arbitration Lost Interrupt.................................................................................................169
11.7 Initialization/Application Information .......................................................................................... 170
Chapter 12
Keyboard Interrupt (S08KBIV2)
12.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 173
12.1.1 Features ............................................................................................................................175
12.1.2 Modes of Operation .........................................................................................................175
12.1.3 Block Diagram .................................................................................................................175
12.2 External Signal Description .......................................................................................................... 176
12.3 Register Definition ........................................................................................................................ 176
12.3.1 KBI Status and Control Register (KBISC) ......................................................................176
12.3.2 KBI Pin Enable Register (KBIPE)...................................................................................177
12.3.3 KBI Edge Select Register (KBIES) .................................................................................177
12.4 Functional Description .................................................................................................................. 178
12.4.1 Edge Only Sensitivity ......................................................................................................178
12.4.2 Edge and Level Sensitivity ..............................................................................................178
12.4.3 KBI Pullup/Pulldown Resistors .......................................................................................179
12.4.4 KBI Initialization .............................................................................................................179
Chapter 13
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
13.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 181
13.1.1 MTIM/TPM Configuration Information..........................................................................181
13.1.2 Features ............................................................................................................................183
13.1.3 Modes of Operation .........................................................................................................183
13.1.4 Block Diagram .................................................................................................................184
13.2 External Signal Description .......................................................................................................... 184
13.3 Register Definition ........................................................................................................................ 184
13.3.1 MTIM Status and Control Register (MTIMSC) ..............................................................186
13.3.2 MTIM Clock Configuration Register (MTIMCLK)........................................................187
13.3.3 MTIM Counter Register (MTIMCNT)............................................................................188
13.3.4 MTIM Modulo Register (MTIMMOD)...........................................................................188
13.4 Functional Description .................................................................................................................. 189
13.4.1 MTIM Operation Example ..............................................................................................190
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
14
Freescale Semiconductor
Section Number
Title
Page
Chapter 14
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
14.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 191
14.1.1 Features ............................................................................................................................194
14.1.2 Modes of Operation .........................................................................................................194
14.1.3 Block Diagram .................................................................................................................195
14.2 Register Definition ........................................................................................................................ 197
14.2.1 SCI Baud Rate Registers (SCIBDH, SCIBHL) ...............................................................197
14.2.2 SCI Control Register 1 (SCIC1) ......................................................................................198
14.2.3 SCI Control Register 2 (SCIC2) ......................................................................................199
14.2.4 SCI Status Register 1 (SCIS1) .........................................................................................200
14.2.5 SCI Status Register 2 (SCIS2) .........................................................................................202
14.2.6 SCI Control Register 3 (SCIC3) ......................................................................................202
14.2.7 SCI Data Register (SCID)................................................................................................203
14.3 Functional Description .................................................................................................................. 204
14.3.1 Baud Rate Generation ......................................................................................................204
14.3.2 Transmitter Functional Description .................................................................................204
14.3.3 Receiver Functional Description .....................................................................................206
14.3.4 Interrupts and Status Flags...............................................................................................207
14.4 Additional SCI Functions.............................................................................................................. 208
14.4.1 8- and 9-Bit Data Modes..................................................................................................208
14.4.2 Stop Mode Operation.......................................................................................................209
14.4.3 Loop Mode.......................................................................................................................209
14.4.4 Single-Wire Operation .....................................................................................................209
Chapter 15
Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
15.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 211
15.1.1 Features ............................................................................................................................213
15.1.2 Block Diagrams ...............................................................................................................213
15.1.3 SPI Baud Rate Generation ...............................................................................................215
15.2 External Signal Description .......................................................................................................... 216
15.2.1 SPSCK — SPI Serial Clock.............................................................................................216
15.2.2 MOSI — Master Data Out, Slave Data In .......................................................................216
15.2.3 MISO — Master Data In, Slave Data Out .......................................................................216
15.2.4 SS — Slave Select ...........................................................................................................216
15.3 Modes of Operation....................................................................................................................... 217
15.3.1 SPI in Stop Modes ...........................................................................................................217
15.4 Register Definition ........................................................................................................................ 217
15.4.1 SPI Control Register 1 (SPIC1) .......................................................................................217
15.4.2 SPI Control Register 2 (SPIC2) .......................................................................................218
15.4.3 SPI Baud Rate Register (SPIBR).....................................................................................219
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
15
Section Number
Title
Page
15.4.4 SPI Status Register (SPIS) ...............................................................................................220
15.4.5 SPI Data Register (SPID) ................................................................................................221
15.5 Functional Description .................................................................................................................. 222
15.5.1 SPI Clock Formats ...........................................................................................................222
15.5.2 SPI Interrupts ...................................................................................................................225
15.5.3 Mode Fault Detection ......................................................................................................225
Chapter 16
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
16.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 227
16.1.1 ACMP/TPM Configuration Information .........................................................................227
16.1.2 MTIM/TPM Configuration Information..........................................................................227
16.1.3 Features ............................................................................................................................229
16.1.4 Block Diagram .................................................................................................................229
16.2 External Signal Description .......................................................................................................... 231
16.2.1 External TPM Clock Sources ..........................................................................................231
16.2.2 TPMCHn — TPM Channel n I/O Pins ............................................................................231
16.3 Register Definition ........................................................................................................................ 231
16.3.1 Timer Status and Control Register (TPMSC) ..................................................................232
16.3.2 Timer Counter Registers (TPMCNTH:TPMCNTL)........................................................233
16.3.3 Timer Counter Modulo Registers (TPMMODH:TPMMODL) .......................................234
16.3.4 Timer Channel n Status and Control Register (TPMCnSC) ............................................235
16.3.5 Timer Channel Value Registers (TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL)..............................................236
16.4 Functional Description .................................................................................................................. 237
16.4.1 Counter.............................................................................................................................237
16.4.2 Channel Mode Selection ..................................................................................................238
16.4.3 Center-Aligned PWM Mode............................................................................................240
16.5 TPM Interrupts .............................................................................................................................. 241
16.5.1 Clearing Timer Interrupt Flags ........................................................................................241
16.5.2 Timer Overflow Interrupt Description.............................................................................241
16.5.3 Channel Event Interrupt Description ...............................................................................242
16.5.4 PWM End-of-Duty-Cycle Events ....................................................................................242
Chapter 17
Development Support
17.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 243
17.1.1 Module Configuration......................................................................................................243
17.1.2 Features ............................................................................................................................244
17.2 Background Debug Controller (BDC) .......................................................................................... 244
17.2.1 BKGD Pin Description ....................................................................................................245
17.2.2 Communication Details ...................................................................................................246
17.2.3 BDC Commands ..............................................................................................................248
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
16
Freescale Semiconductor
Section Number
Title
Page
17.2.4 BDC Hardware Breakpoint..............................................................................................251
17.3 On-Chip Debug System (DBG) .................................................................................................... 252
17.3.1 Comparators A and B ......................................................................................................252
17.3.2 Bus Capture Information and FIFO Operation ................................................................252
17.3.3 Change-of-Flow Information ...........................................................................................253
17.3.4 Tag vs. Force Breakpoints and Triggers ..........................................................................253
17.3.5 Trigger Modes..................................................................................................................254
17.3.6 Hardware Breakpoints .....................................................................................................256
17.4 Register Definition ........................................................................................................................ 256
17.4.1 BDC Registers and Control Bits ......................................................................................256
17.4.2 System Background Debug Force Reset Register (SBDFR)...........................................258
17.4.3 DBG Registers and Control Bits......................................................................................259
Appendix A
Electrical Characteristics
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
A.7
A.8
A.9
A.10
A.11
A.12
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................265
Absolute Maximum Ratings...........................................................................................................265
Thermal Characteristics..................................................................................................................266
ESD Protection and Latch-Up Immunity .......................................................................................268
DC Characteristics..........................................................................................................................269
Supply Current Characteristics.......................................................................................................272
External Oscillator (XOSC) and Internal Clock Source (ICS) Characteristics..............................274
AC Characteristics..........................................................................................................................276
A.8.1 Control Timing ................................................................................................................276
A.8.2 TPM/MTIM Module Timing ...........................................................................................277
A.8.3 SPI Timing .......................................................................................................................278
Analog Comparator (ACMP) Electricals .......................................................................................282
ADC Characteristics.......................................................................................................................282
FLASH Specifications....................................................................................................................285
EMC Performance..........................................................................................................................286
A.12.1 Radiated Emissions..........................................................................................................286
A.12.2 Conducted Transient Susceptibility .................................................................................286
Appendix B
Ordering Information and Mechanical Drawings
B.1 Ordering Information .....................................................................................................................289
B.1.1 Device Numbering Scheme .............................................................................................289
B.2 Mechanical Drawings.....................................................................................................................289
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
17
Section Number
Title
Page
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
18
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 1
Device Overview
1.1
Introduction
The MC9S08QG8 is a member of the low-cost, high-performance HCS08 Family of 8-bit microcontroller
units (MCUs). All MCUs in the family use the enhanced HCS08 core and are available with a variety of
modules, memory sizes, memory types, and package types. Refer to Table 1-1 for features associated with
each device in this series.
1.1.1
Devices in the MC9S08QG8/4 Series
Table 1-1 summarizes the features available in the MC9S08QG8/4 series of MCUs.
Table 1-1. Devices in the MC9S08QG8/4 Series
Device
Feature
MC9S08QG8
Package
24-Pin
16-Pin
FLASH
8-Pin
24-Pin
16-Pin
8K
RAM
XOSC
MC9S08QG4
4K
512
yes
yes
256
no
yes
yes
ICS
yes
yes
ACMP
yes
yes
ADC
8-ch
8-ch
4-ch
8-ch
4-ch
yes
yes
yes
yes
IIC
yes
yes
IRQ
yes
yes
KBI
8-pin
8-pin
4-pin
no
8-ch
DBG
MTIM
8-Pin
8-pin
8-pin
yes
4-pin
yes
SCI
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
no
SPI
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
no
TPM
2-ch
2-ch
1-ch
2-ch
2-ch
1-ch
I/O pins
12 I/O
1 Output
only
1 Input
only
12 I/O
1 Output only
1 Input only
4 I/O
1 Output only
1 Input only
12 I/O
1 Output only
1 Input only
12 I/O
1 Output only
1 Input only
4 I/O
1 Output only
1 Input only
24 QFN
16 PDIP
16 QFN
16 TSSOP
8 DFN
8 SOIC
24 QFN
16 QFN
16 TSSOP
8 DFN
8 PDIP
8 SOIC
Package
Types
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
19
Chapter 1 Device Overview
1.1.2
MCU Block Diagram
BKGD/MS
IRQ
HCS08 CORE
DEBUG MODULE (DBG)
BDC
RESETS AND INTERRUPTS
MODES OF OPERATION
POWER MANAGEMENT
RTI
COP
IRQ
LVD
USER FLASH
(MC9S08QG8 = 8192 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 4096 BYTES)
USER RAM
(MC9S08QG8 = 512 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 256 BYTES)
16-MHz INTERNAL CLOCK
SOURCE (ICS)
LOW-POWER OSCILLATOR
31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz
1 MHz to 16 MHz
(XOSC)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD
VDDA
VSSA
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
SCL
IIC MODULE (IIC)
SDA
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
4
8-BIT KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT MODULE (KBI)
ANALOG COMPARATOR
(ACMP)
4
ACMPO
ACMP–
ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
4
10-BIT
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC)
16-BIT TIMER/PWM
MODULE (TPM)
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
4
TPMCH0
TPMCH1
SS
MISO
MOSI
SPSCK
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE MODULE (SPI)
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
INTERFACE MODULE (SCI)
VSS
PTA5//IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PORT A
HCS08 SYSTEM CONTROL
TCLK
8-BIT MODULO TIMER
MODULE (MTIM)
TxD
RxD
PORT B
CPU
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
EXTAL
XTAL
VREFH
VREFL
NOTES:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Not all pins or pin functions are available on all devices; see Table 1-1 for available functions on each device.
Port pins are software configurable with pullup device if input port.
Port pins are software configurable for output drive strength.
Port pins are software configurable for output slew rate control.
IRQ contains a software configurable (IRQPDD) pullup device if PTA5 enabled as IRQ pin function (IRQPE = 1).
RESET contains integrated pullup device if PTA5 enabled as reset pin function (RSTPE = 1).
PTA4 contains integrated pullup device if BKGD enabled (BKGDPE = 1).
SDA and SCL pin locations can be repositioned under software control (IICPS), defaults on PTA2 and PTA3.
When pin functions as KBI (KBIPEn = 1) and associated pin is configured to enable the pullup device, KBEDGn can be used to reconfigure
the pullup as a pulldown device.
Figure 1-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Block Diagram
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
20
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 1 Device Overview
Table 1-2 provides the functional versions of the on-chip modules.
Table 1-2. Versions of On-Chip Modules
Module
Version
Analog Comparator
(ACMP)
2
Analog-to-Digital Converter
(ADC)
1
Central Processing Unit
(CPU)
2
IIC Module
(IIC)
1
Internal Clock Source
(ICS)
1
Keyboard Interrupt
(KBI)
2
Modulo Timer
(MTIM)
1
Serial Communications Interface
(SCI)
3
Serial Peripheral Interface
(SPI)
3
Timer Pulse-Width Modulator
(TPM)
2
Low-Power Oscillator
(XOSC)
1
Debug Module
(DBG)
2
System Clock Distribution
Figure 1-2 shows a simplified clock connection diagram. Some modules in the MCU have selectable clock
inputs as shown. The clock inputs to the modules indicate the clock(s) that are used to drive the module
function. All memory mapped registers associated with the modules are clocked with BUSCLK.
EXTAL
TCLK
XTAL
SYSTEM
CONTROL
LOGIC
XOSC
TPM
MTIM
IIC
SCI
SPI
ICSFFE
ICSFFCLK
ICS
ICSOUT
÷2
FIXED FREQ CLOCK (XCLK)
÷2
BUSCLK
ICSLCLK**
1-kHz
COP
BDC
ICSERCLK*
RTI
* ICSERCLK requires XOSC module.
** ICSLCLK is the alternate BDC clock source for the MC9S08QG8/4.
CPU
ADC
ADC has min and max
frequency requirements.
See the ADC chapter
and
Appendix A, “Electrical
Characteristics.”
FLASH
FLASH has frequency
requirements for
program
and erase operation.
See Appendix A,
“Electrical
Characteristics.”
Figure 1-2. System Clock Distribution Diagram
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
21
Chapter 1 Device Overview
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
22
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 2
External Signal Description
This section describes signals that connect to package pins. It includes pinout diagrams, table of signal
properties, and detailed discussions of signals.
2.1
Device Pin Assignment
The following figures show the pin assignments for the available packages. Refer to Table 1-1 to see which
package types are available for each device in the series.
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET
1
8
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
2
7
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
VDD
3
6
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
VSS
4
5
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
8-PIN ASSIGNMENT
PDIP/SOIC
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET 1
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS 2
8 PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
7 PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
VDD 3
6 PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
VSS
5 PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
4
8-PIN ASSIGNMENT
DFN
Figure 2-1. 8-Pin Packages
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
23
Chapter 2 External Signal Description
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET
1
16
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
2
15
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
VDD
3
14
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
VSS
4
13
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
5
12
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
6
11
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
7
10
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB4/MISO
8
9
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
16-PIN ASSIGNMENT
PDIP
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
VDD
VSS
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET 1
13 PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
14 PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
15 PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
16 PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
16-PIN ASSIGNMENT
TSSOP
12 PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
11 PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS 2
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB4/MISO 8
9 PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
7
VSS 4
6
10 PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
5
VDD 3
16-PIN ASSIGNMENT
QFN
Figure 2-2. 16-Pin Packages
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
24
Freescale Semiconductor
NC
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
NC
Pin 1 indicator
NC
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET
NC
Chapter 2 External Signal Description
24 23 22 21 20 19
18 PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP‚
17 PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
MC9S08QG8/4
VSS 3
16 PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA4/ACMP0/BKGD/MS 1
VDD 2
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL 4
15 PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
PTB6/SDA/XTAL 5
14 PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
NC
13 PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
10 11 12
NC
9
PTB4/MISO
7 8
NC
NC
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS 6
Figure 2-3. 24-Pin Packages
2.2
Recommended System Connections
Figure 2-4 shows pin connections that are common to almost all MC9S08QG8/4 application systems.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
25
Chapter 2 External Signal Description
MC9S08QG8/4
VDD
SYSTEM
POWER
+
3V
CBLK
CBY
+
10 μF
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
VDD
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
PORT
A
0.1 μF
VSS
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET
NOTE 1
RF
C1
RS
C2
X1
I/O AND
XTAL
NOTE 2
PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE TO
EXTAL
NOTE 2
APPLICATION
SYSTEM
BACKGROUND HEADER
BKGD
VDD
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
VDD
ASYNCHRONOUS
PORT
B
4.7 kΩ–10 kΩ
INTERRUPT
INPUT
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB4/MISO
RESET/IRQ
0.1 μF
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
OPTIONAL
MANUAL
RESET
NOTES:
1. Not required if using the internal clock option.
2. XTAL is the same pin as PTB6; EXTAL the same pin as PTB7.
3. The RESET pin can only be used to reset into user mode; you can not enter BDM using the RESET pin.
BDM can be entered by holding MS low during POR or writing a 1 to BDFR in SBDFR with MS low after
issuing the BDM command.
4. IRQ feature has optional internal pullup device.
5. RC filter on RESET/IRQ pin recommended for noisy environments.
Figure 2-4. Basic System Connections
2.2.1
Power
VDD and VSS are the primary power supply pins for the MCU. This voltage source supplies power to all
I/O buffer circuitry, ACMP and ADC modules, and to an internal voltage regulator. The internal voltage
regulator provides a regulated lower-voltage source to the CPU and other internal circuitry of the MCU.
Typically, application systems have two separate capacitors across the power pins: a bulk electrolytic
capacitor, such as a 10-μF tantalum capacitor, to provide bulk charge storage for the overall system, and a
bypass capacitor, such as a 0.1-μF ceramic capacitor, located as near to the MCU power pins as practical
to suppress high-frequency noise.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
26
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 2 External Signal Description
2.2.2
Oscillator (XOSC)
Out of reset, the MCU uses an internally generated clock provided by the internal clock source (ICS)
module. The internal frequency is nominally 16-MHz and the default ICS settings will provide for a
8-MHz bus out of reset. For more information on the ICS, see Chapter 10, “Internal Clock Source
(S08ICSV1).”
The oscillator module (XOSC) in this MCU is a Pierce oscillator that can accommodate a crystal or
ceramic resonator in either of two frequency ranges selected by the RANGE bit in ICSC2. Rather than a
crystal or ceramic resonator, an external clock source can be connected to the EXTAL input pin.
Refer to Figure 2-4 for the following discussion. RS (when used) and RF should be low-inductance
resistors such as carbon composition resistors. Wire-wound resistors, and some metal film resistors, have
too much inductance. C1 and C2 normally should be high-quality ceramic capacitors that are specifically
designed for high-frequency applications.
RF is used to provide a bias path to keep the EXTAL input in its linear range during crystal startup, and its
value is not generally critical. Typical systems use 1 MΩ to 10 MΩ. Higher values are sensitive to
humidity, and lower values reduce gain and (in extreme cases) could prevent startup.
C1 and C2 are typically in the 5-pF to 25-pF range and are chosen to match the requirements of a specific
crystal or resonator. Be sure to take into account printed circuit board (PCB) capacitance and MCU pin
capacitance when sizing C1 and C2. The crystal manufacturer typically specifies a load capacitance which
is the series combination of C1 and C2, which are usually the same size. As a first-order approximation,
use 10 pF as an estimate of combined pin and PCB capacitance for each oscillator pin (EXTAL and
XTAL).
2.2.3
Reset (Input Only)
After a power-on reset (POR), the PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET pin defaults to a general-purpose input port
pin, PTA5. Setting RSTPE in SOPT1 configures the pin to be the RESET input pin. After configured as
RESET, the pin will remain RESET until the next POR. The RESET pin can be used to reset the MCU
from an external source when the pin is driven low. When enabled as the RESET pin (RSTPE = 1), an
internal pullup device is automatically enabled.
NOTE
This pin does not contain a clamp diode to VDD and should not be driven
above VDD.
The voltage measured on the internally pulled-up RESET pin will not be
pulled to VDD. The internal gates connected to this pin are pulled to VDD.
The RESET pullup should not be used to pull up components external to the
MCU.
NOTE
In EMC-sensitive applications, an external RC filter is recommended on the
RESET pin, if enabled. See Figure 2-4 for an example.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
27
Chapter 2 External Signal Description
2.2.4
Background / Mode Select (BKGD/MS)
During a power-on-reset (POR) or background debug force reset (see 5.8.3, “System Background Debug
Force Reset Register (SBDFR),” for more information), the PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS pin functions as a
mode select pin. Immediately after any reset, the pin functions as the background pin and can be used for
background debug communication. When enabled as the BKGD/MS pin (BKGDPE = 1), an internal
pullup device is automatically enabled.
The background debug communication function is enabled when BKGDPE in SOPT1 is set. BKGDPE is
set following any reset of the MCU and must be cleared to use the PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS pin’s
alternative pin functions.
If nothing is connected to this pin, the MCU will enter normal operating mode at the rising edge of the
internal reset after a POR or force BDC reset. If a debug system is connected to the 6-pin standard
background debug header, it can hold BKGD/MS low during a POR or immediately after issuing a
background debug force reset, which will force the MCU to active background mode.
The BKGD pin is used primarily for background debug controller (BDC) communications using a custom
protocol that uses 16 clock cycles of the target MCU’s BDC clock per bit time. The target MCU’s BDC
clock could be as fast as the maximum bus clock rate, so there must never be any significant capacitance
connected to the BKGD/MS pin that could interfere with background serial communications.
Although the BKGD pin is a pseudo open-drain pin, the background debug communication protocol
provides brief, actively driven, high speedup pulses to ensure fast rise times. Small capacitances from
cables and the absolute value of the internal pullup device play almost no role in determining rise and fall
times on the BKGD pin.
2.2.5
General-Purpose I/O and Peripheral Ports
The MC9S08QG8/4 series of MCUs support up to 12 general-purpose I/O pins, 1 input-only pin, and 1
output-only pin, which are shared with on-chip peripheral functions (timers, serial I/O, ADC, keyboard
interrupts, etc.). On each MC9S08QG8/4 device, there is one input-only and one output-only port pin.
When a port pin is configured as a general-purpose output or a peripheral uses the port pin as an output,
software can select one of two drive strengths and enable or disable slew rate control. When a port pin is
configured as a general-purpose input or a peripheral uses the port pin as an input, software can enable a
pullup device.
For information about controlling these pins as general-purpose I/O pins, see the Chapter 6, “Parallel
Input/Output Control.” For information about how and when on-chip peripheral systems use these pins,
see the appropriate chapter referenced in Table 2-2.
Immediately after reset, all pins that are not output-only are configured as high-impedance
general-purpose inputs with internal pullup devices disabled. After reset, the output-only port function is
not enabled but is configured for low output drive strength with slew rate control enabled. The PTA4 pin
defaults to BKGD/MS on any reset.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
28
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 2 External Signal Description
NOTE
To avoid extra current drain from floating input pins, the reset initialization
routine in the application program must either enable on-chip pullup devices
or change the direction of unused pins to outputs so the pins do not float.
When using the 8-pin devices, the user must either enable on-chip pullup
devices or change the direction of non-bonded out port B pins to outputs so
the pins do not float.
2.2.5.1
Pin Control Registers
To select drive strength or enable slew rate control or pullup devices, the user writes to the appropriate pin
control register located in the high page register block of the memory map. The pin control registers
operate independently of the parallel I/O registers and allow control of a port on an individual pin basis.
2.2.5.1.1
Internal Pullup Enable
An internal pullup device can be enabled for each port pin by setting the corresponding bit in one of the
pullup enable registers (PTxPEn). The pullup device is disabled if the pin is configured as an output by the
parallel I/O control logic or any shared peripheral function, regardless of the state of the corresponding
pullup enable register bit. The pullup device is also disabled if the pin is controlled by an analog function.
The KBI module, when enabled for rising edge detection, causes an enabled internal pull device to be
configured as a pulldown.
2.2.5.2
Output Slew Rate Control
Slew rate control can be enabled for each port pin by setting the corresponding bit in one of the slew rate
control registers (PTxSEn). When enabled, slew control limits the rate at which an output can transition in
order to reduce EMC emissions. Slew rate control has no effect on pins that are configured as inputs.
2.2.5.3
Output Drive Strength Select
An output pin can be selected to have high output drive strength by setting the corresponding bit in one of
the drive strength select registers (PTxDSn). When high drive is selected, a pin is capable of sourcing and
sinking greater current. Even though every I/O pin can be selected as high drive, the user must ensure that
the total current source and sink limits for the chip are not exceeded. Drive strength selection is intended
to affect the DC behavior of I/O pins. However, the AC behavior is also affected. High drive allows a pin
to drive a greater load with the same switching speed as a low drive enabled pin into a smaller load.
Because of this, the EMC emissions may be affected by enabling pins as high drive.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
29
Chapter 2 External Signal Description
Table 2-1. Pin Sharing Priority
Priority
Pin Number
24-pin 16-pin
Lowest
8-pin
Port Pin
1
Highest
Alt 1
IRQ
Alt 2
Alt 3
TCLK
RESET
24
1
1
PTA5
1
2
2
PTA4
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
—
PTB7
SCL2
EXTAL
5
6
—
PTB6
SDA2
XTAL
6
7
—
PTB5
TPMCH1
SS
10
8
—
PTB4
12
9
—
PTB3
KBIP7
MOSI
ADP7
13
10
—
PTB2
KBIP6
SPSCK
ADP6
14
11
—
PTB1
KBIP5
TxD
ADP5
15
12
—
PTB0
KBIP4
RxD
ADP4
16
13
5
PTA3
KBIP3
SCL2
ADP3
17
14
6
PTA2
KBIP2
SDA2
ADP2
18
15
7
PTA1
KBIP1
20
16
8
PTA0
KBIP0
ACMPO
Alt 4
BKGD
MS
VDD
VSS
MISO
TPMCH0
ADP13
ACMP–3
ADP03
ACMP+3
1
Pin does not contain a clamp diode to VDD and should not be driven above VDD. The
voltage measured on the internally pulled-up RESET pin will not be pulled to VDD. The
internal gates connected to this pin are pulled to VDD.
2
IIC pins can be repositioned using IICPS in SOPT2; default reset locations are on PTA2
and PTA3.
3
If ACMP and ADC are both enabled, both will have access to the pin.
Table 2-2. Pin Function Reference
Signal Function
Example(s)
Reference
Port Pins
PTAx, PTBx
Chapter 6, “Parallel Input/Output Control”
Analog comparator
ACMPO, ACMP–, ACMP+
Chapter 8, “Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2)”
Serial peripheral interface
SS, MISO, MOSI, SPSCK
Chapter 15, “Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
Keyboard interrupts
KBIPx
Chapter 12, “Keyboard Interrupt (S08KBIV2)”
Timer/PWM
TCLK, TPMCHx
Chapter 16, “Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)”
Inter-integrated circuit
SCL, SDA
Chapter 11, “Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)”
Serial communications interface
TxD, RxD
Chapter 14, “Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
Oscillator/clocking
EXTAL, XTAL
Chapter 10, “Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)”
Analog-to-digital
ADPx
Chapter 9, “Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)”
Power/core
BKGD/MS, VDD, VSS
Chapter 2, “External Signal Description”
Reset and interrupts
RESET, IRQ
Chapter 5, “Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control”
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
30
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 2 External Signal Description
NOTE
When an alternative function is first enabled, it is possible to get a spurious
edge to the module. User software should clear out any associated flags
before interrupts are enabled. Table 2-1 shows the priority if multiple
modules are enabled. The highest priority module will have control over the
pin. Selecting a higher priority pin function with a lower priority function
already enabled can cause spurious edges to the lower priority module. It is
recommended that all modules that share a pin be disabled before enabling
anther module.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
31
Chapter 2 External Signal Description
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
32
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 3
Modes of Operation
3.1
Introduction
The operating modes of the MC9S08QG8/4 are described in this section. Entry into each mode, exit from
each mode, and functionality while in each mode are described.
3.2
•
•
•
3.3
Features
Active background mode for code development
Wait mode:
— CPU halts operation to conserve power
— System clocks running
— Full voltage regulation is maintained
Stop modes: CPU and bus clocks stopped
— Stop1: Full powerdown of internal circuits for maximum power savings
— Stop2: Partial powerdown of internal circuits; RAM contents retained
— Stop3: All internal circuits powered for fast recovery; RAM and register contents are retained
Run Mode
Run is the normal operating mode for the MC9S08QG8/4. This mode is selected upon the MCU exiting
reset if the BKGD/MS pin is high. In this mode, the CPU executes code from internal memory with
execution beginning at the address fetched from memory at 0xFFFE:0xFFFF after reset.
3.4
Active Background Mode
The active background mode functions are managed through the background debug controller (BDC) in
the HCS08 core. The BDC, together with the on-chip debug module (DBG), provides the means for
analyzing MCU operation during software development.
Active background mode is entered in any of five ways:
• When the BKGD/MS pin is low during POR or immediately after issuing a background debug
force reset (see 5.8.3, “System Background Debug Force Reset Register (SBDFR)”)
• When a BACKGROUND command is received through the BKGD pin
• When a BGND instruction is executed
• When encountering a BDC breakpoint
• When encountering a DBG breakpoint
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
33
Chapter 3 Modes of Operation
After entering active background mode, the CPU is held in a suspended state waiting for serial background
commands rather than executing instructions from the user application program.
Background commands are of two types:
• Non-intrusive commands, defined as commands that can be issued while the user program is
running. Non-intrusive commands can be issued through the BKGD pin while the MCU is in run
mode; non-intrusive commands can also be executed when the MCU is in the active background
mode. Non-intrusive commands include:
— Memory access commands
— Memory-access-with-status commands
— BDC register access commands
— The BACKGROUND command
• Active background commands, which can only be executed while the MCU is in active background
mode. Active background commands include commands to:
— Read or write CPU registers
— Trace one user program instruction at a time
— Leave active background mode to return to the user application program (GO)
The active background mode is used to program a bootloader or user application program into the FLASH
program memory before the MCU is operated in run mode for the first time. When the MC9S08QG8/4 is
shipped from the Freescale factory, the FLASH program memory is erased by default unless specifically
noted, so there is no program that could be executed in run mode until the FLASH memory is initially
programmed. The active background mode can also be used to erase and reprogram the FLASH memory
after it has been previously programmed.
For additional information about the active background mode, refer to the Development Support chapter.
3.5
Wait Mode
Wait mode is entered by executing a WAIT instruction. Upon execution of the WAIT instruction, the CPU
enters a low-power state in which it is not clocked. The I bit in the condition code register (CCR) is cleared
when the CPU enters wait mode, enabling interrupts. When an interrupt request occurs, the CPU exits wait
mode and resumes processing, beginning with the stacking operations leading to the interrupt service
routine.
While the MCU is in wait mode, there are some restrictions on which background debug commands can
be used. Only the BACKGROUND command and memory-access-with-status commands are available
while the MCU is in wait mode. The memory-access-with-status commands do not allow memory access,
but they report an error indicating that the MCU is in either stop or wait mode. The BACKGROUND
command can be used to wake the MCU from wait mode and enter active background mode.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
34
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 3 Modes of Operation
3.6
Stop Modes
One of three stop modes is entered upon execution of a STOP instruction when STOPE in SOPT1 is set.
In any stop mode, the bus and CPU clocks are halted. The ICS module can be configured to leave the
reference clocks running. See Chapter 10, “Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1),” for more information.
Table 3-1 shows all of the control bits that affect stop mode selection and the mode selected under various
conditions. The selected mode is entered following the execution of a STOP instruction.
Table 3-1. Stop Mode Selection
STOPE
ENBDM 1
0
x
1
LVDE
LVDSE
PDC
PPDC
Stop Mode
x
x
x
Stop modes disabled; illegal opcode reset if STOP
instruction executed
1
x
x
x
Stop3 with BDM enabled 2
1
0
Both bits must be 1
x
x
Stop3 with voltage regulator active
1
0
Either bit a 0
0
x
Stop3
1
0
Either bit a 0
1
1
Stop2
1
0
Either bit a 0
1
0
Stop1
1
ENBDM is located in the BDCSCR which is only accessible through BDC commands; see Section 17.4.1.1, “BDC
Status and Control Register (BDCSCR)”.
2 When in Stop3 mode with BDM enabled, the S
IDD will be near RIDD levels because internal clocks are enabled.
3.6.1
Stop3 Mode
Stop3 mode is entered by executing a STOP instruction under the conditions as shown in Table 3-1. The
states of all of the internal registers and logic, RAM contents, and I/O pin states are maintained.
Stop3 can be exited by asserting RESET, or by an interrupt from one of the following sources: the real-time
interrupt (RTI), LVD, ADC, IRQ, or the KBI.
If stop3 is exited by means of the RESET pin, then the MCU is reset and operation will resume after taking
the reset vector. Exit by means of one of the internal interrupt sources results in the MCU taking the
appropriate interrupt vector.
3.6.1.1
LVD Enabled in Stop Mode
The LVD system is capable of generating either an interrupt or a reset when the supply voltage drops below
the LVD voltage. If the LVD is enabled in stop (LVDE and LVDSE bits in SPMSC1 both set) at the time
the CPU executes a STOP instruction, then the voltage regulator remains active during stop mode.
For the ADC to operate the LVD must be left enabled when entering stop3.
3.6.1.2
Active BDM Enabled in Stop Mode
Entry into the active background mode from run mode is enabled if ENBDM in BDCSCR is set. This
register is described in Chapter 17, “Development Support.” If ENBDM is set when the CPU executes a
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
35
Chapter 3 Modes of Operation
STOP instruction, the system clocks to the background debug logic remain active when the MCU enters
stop mode. Because of this, background debug communication remains possible. In addition, the voltage
regulator does not enter its low-power standby state but maintains full internal regulation.
Most background commands are not available in stop mode. The memory-access-with-status commands
do not allow memory access, but they report an error indicating that the MCU is in either stop or wait
mode. The BACKGROUND command can be used to wake the MCU from stop and enter active
background mode if the ENBDM bit is set. After entering background debug mode, all background
commands are available.
3.6.2
Stop2 Mode
Stop2 mode is entered by executing a STOP instruction under the conditions as shown in Table 3-1. Most
of the internal circuitry of the MCU is powered off in stop2 as in stop1 with the exception of the RAM.
Upon entering stop2, all I/O pin control signals are latched so that the pins retain their states during stop2.
Exit from stop2 is performed by asserting the wake-up pin (PTA5) on the MCU.
NOTE
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET always functions as an active-low wakeup input
when the MCU is in stop2, regardless of how the pin is configured before
entering stop2. The pullup is not automatically enabled. To use the internal
pullup, set the PTAPE5 bit in the PTAPE register
In addition, the real-time interrupt (RTI) can wake the MCU from stop2, if enabled.
Upon wake-up from stop2 mode, the MCU starts up as from a power-on reset (POR):
• All module control and status registers are reset
• The LVD reset function is enabled and the MCU remains in the reset state if VDD is below the LVD
trip point (low trip point selected due to POR)
• The CPU takes the reset vector
In addition to the above, upon waking up from stop2, the PPDF bit in SPMSC2 is set. This flag is used to
direct user code to go to a stop2 recovery routine. PPDF remains set and the I/O pin states remain latched
until a 1 is written to PPDACK in SPMSC2.
To maintain I/O states for pins that were configured as general-purpose I/O before entering stop2, the user
must restore the contents of the I/O port registers, which have been saved in RAM, to the port registers
before writing to the PPDACK bit. If the port registers are not restored from RAM before writing to
PPDACK, then the pins will switch to their reset states when PPDACK is written.
For pins that were configured as peripheral I/O, the user must reconfigure the peripheral module that
interfaces to the pin before writing to the PPDACK bit. If the peripheral module is not enabled before
writing to PPDACK, the pins will be controlled by their associated port control registers when the I/O
latches are opened.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
36
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 3 Modes of Operation
3.6.3
Stop1 Mode
Stop1 mode is entered by executing a STOP instruction under the conditions as shown in Table 3-1. Most
of the internal circuitry of the MCU is powered off in stop1, providing the lowest possible standby current.
Upon entering stop1, all I/O pins automatically transition to their default reset states.
Exit from stop1 is performed by asserting the wake-up pin (PTA5) on the MCU.
NOTE
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET always functions as an active-low wakeup input
when the MCU is in stop2, regardless of how the pin is configured before
entering stop2. The pullup is not automatically enabled. To use the internal
pullup, set the PTAPE5 bit in the PTAPE register
In addition, the real-time interrupt (RTI) can wake the MCU from stop1 if enabled.
Upon wake-up from stop1 mode, the MCU starts up as from a power-on reset (POR):
• All module control and status registers are reset
• The LVD reset function is enabled and the MCU remains in the reset state if VDD is below the LVD
trip point (low trip point selected due to POR)
• The CPU takes the reset vector
In addition to the above, upon waking up from stop1, the PDF bit in SPMSC2 is set. This flag is used to
direct user code to go to a stop1 recovery routine. PDF remains set until a 1 is written to PPDACK in
SPMSC2.
3.6.4
On-Chip Peripheral Modules in Stop Modes
When the MCU enters any stop mode, system clocks to the internal peripheral modules are stopped. Even
in the exception case (ENBDM = 1), where clocks to the background debug logic continue to operate,
clocks to the peripheral systems are halted to reduce power consumption. Refer to Section 3.6.3, “Stop1
Mode,” Section 3.6.2, “Stop2 Mode,” and Section 3.6.1, “Stop3 Mode,” for specific information on
system behavior in stop modes.
Table 3-2. Stop Mode Behavior
Mode
Peripheral
Stop1
Stop2
Stop3
CPU
Off
Off
Standby
RAM
Off
Standby
Standby
FLASH
Off
Off
Standby
Parallel Port Registers
Off
Off
Standby
ADC
Off
Off
Optionally On1
ACMP
Off
Off
Standby
ICS
Off
Off
Optionally On2
IIC
Off
Off
Standby
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
37
Chapter 3 Modes of Operation
Table 3-2. Stop Mode Behavior (continued)
Mode
Peripheral
Stop1
Stop2
Stop3
MTIM
Off
Off
Standby
SCI
Off
Off
Standby
SPI
Off
Off
Standby
TPM
Off
Off
Standby
Voltage Regulator
Off
Standby
Standby
XOSC
Off
Off
Optionally On3
I/O Pins
Hi-Z
States Held
States Held
1
Requires the asynchronous ADC clock and LVD to be enabled, else in standby.
IRCLKEN and IREFSTEN set in ICSC1, else in standby.
3
ERCLKEN and EREFSTEN set in ICSC2, else in standby. For high frequency range (RANGE in
ICSC2 set) requires the LVD to also be enabled in stop3.
2
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
38
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 4
Memory Map and Register Definition
4.1
MC9S08QG8/4 Memory Map
As shown in Figure 4-1, on-chip memory in the MC9S08QG8/4 series of MCUs consists of RAM, FLASH
program memory for nonvolatile data storage, and I/O and control/status registers. The registers are
divided into these groups:
• Direct-page registers (0x0000 through 0x005F)
• High-page registers (0x1800 through 0x184F)
• Nonvolatile registers (0xFFB0 through 0xFFBF)
0x0000
0x005F
0x0060
DIRECT PAGE REGISTERS
RAM
512 BYTES
0x025F
0x0260
0x17FF
0x1800
UNIMPLEMENTED
5536 BYTES
0x0000
0x005F
0x0060
0x015F
0x0160
0x025F
0x0260
0x17FF
0x1800
DIRECT PAGE REGISTERS
RAM
256 BYTES
RESERVED
256 BYTES
UNIMPLEMENTED
5536 BYTES
HIGH PAGE REGISTERS
HIGH PAGE REGISTERS
0x184F
0x1850
0x184F
0x1850
UNIMPLEMENTED
UNIMPLEMENTED
51,120 BYTES
51,120 BYTES
0xDFFF
0xE000
0xDFFF
0xE000
RESERVED
FLASH
8192 BYTES
0xEFFF
0xF000
4096 BYTES
FLASH
4096 BYTES
0xFFFF
0xFFFF
MC9S08QG8
MC9S08QG4
Figure 4-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Memory Map
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
39
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
4.2
Reset and Interrupt Vector Assignments
Table 4-1 shows address assignments for reset and interrupt vectors. The vector names shown in this table
are the labels used in the Freescale Semiconductor-provided equate file for the MC9S08QG8/4.
Table 4-1. Reset and Interrupt Vectors
Address
(High:Low)
0xFFC0:FFC1
Vector
Vector Name
Unused Vector Space
(available for user program)
0xFFCE:FFCF
0xFFD0:FFD1
RTI
Vrti
0xFFD2:FFD3
Reserved
—
0xFFD4:FFD5
Reserved
—
0xFFD6:FFD7
ACMP
Vacmp
0xFFD8:FFD9
ADC Conversion
Vadc
0xFFDA:FFDB
KBI Interrupt
Vkeyboard
0xFFDC:FFDD
IIC
Viic
0xFFDE:FFDF
SCI Transmit
Vscitx
0xFFE0:FFE1
SCI Receive
Vscirx
0xFFE2:FFE3
SCI Error
Vscierr
0xFFE4:FFE5
SPI
Vspi
0xFFE6:FFE7
MTIM Overflow
Vmtim
0xFFE8:FFE9
Reserved
—
0xFFEA:FFEB
Reserved
—
0xFFEC:FFED
Reserved
—
0xFFEE:FFEF
Reserved
—
0xFFF0:FFF1
TPM Overflow
Vtpmovf
0xFFF2:FFF3
TPM Channel 1
Vtpmch1
0xFFF4:FFF5
TPM Channel 0
Vtpmch0
0xFFF6:FFF7
Reserved
—
0xFFF8:FFF9
Low Voltage Detect
Vlvd
0xFFFA:FFFB
IRQ
Virq
0xFFFC:FFFD
SWI
Vswi
0xFFFE:FFFF
Reset
Vreset
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
40
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
4.3
Register Addresses and Bit Assignments
The registers in the MC9S08QG8/4 are divided into these groups:
• Direct-page registers are located in the first 96 locations in the memory map; these are accessible
with efficient direct addressing mode instructions.
• High-page registers are used much less often, so they are located from 0x1800 and above in the
memory map. This leaves more room in the direct page for more frequently used registers and
RAM.
• The nonvolatile register area consists of a block of 16 locations in FLASH memory at
0xFFB0–0xFFBF. Nonvolatile register locations include:
— NVPROT and NVOPT are loaded into working registers at reset.
— An 8-byte backdoor comparison key that optionally allows a user to gain controlled access to
secure memory.
Because the nonvolatile register locations are FLASH memory, they must be erased and
programmed like other FLASH memory locations.
Direct-page registers can be accessed with efficient direct addressing mode instructions. Bit manipulation
instructions can be used to access any bit in any direct-page register. Table 4-2 is a summary of all
user-accessible direct-page registers and control bits.
The direct page registers in Table 4-2 can use the more efficient direct addressing mode that requires only
the lower byte of the address. Because of this, the lower byte of the address in column one is shown in bold
text. In Table 4-3 and Table 4-4, the whole address in column one is shown in bold. In Table 4-2, Table 4-3,
and Table 4-4, the register names in column two are shown in bold to set them apart from the bit names to
the right. Cells that are not associated with named bits are shaded. A shaded cell with a 0 indicates this
unused bit always reads as a 0. Shaded cells with dashes indicate unused or reserved bit locations that could
read as 1s or 0s.
Table 4-2. Direct-Page Register Summary
Address
Register Name
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x0000
PTAD
0
0
PTAD5
PTAD4
PTAD3
PTAD2
PTAD1
PTAD0
0x0001
PTADD
0
0
PTADD5
PTADD4
PTADD3
PTADD2
PTADD1
PTADD0
0x0002
PTBD
PTBD7
PTBD6
PTBD5
PTBD4
PTBD3
PTBD2
PTBD1
PTBD0
0x0003
PTBDD
PTBDD7
PTBDD6
PTBDD5
PTBDD4
PTBDD3
PTBDD2
PTBDD1
PTBDD0
0x0004–
0x000B
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x000C
KBISC
0
0
0
0
KBF
KBACK
KBIE
KBMOD
0x000D
KBIPE
KBIPE7
KBIPE6
KBIPE5
KBIPE4
KBIPE3
KBIPE2
KBIPE1
KBIPE0
0x000E
KBIES
KBEDG7
KBEDG6
KBEDG5
KBEDG4
KBEDG3
KBEDG2
KBEDG1
KBEDG0
0x000F
IRQSC
0
IRQPDD
0
IRQPE
IRQF
IRQACK
IRQIE
IRQMOD
0x0010
ADCSC1
COCO
AIEN
ADCO
0x0011
ADCSC2
ADACT
ADTRG
ACFE
ACFGT
—
—
—
—
0x0012
ADCRH
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADR9
ADR8
0x0013
ADCRL
ADR7
ADR6
ADR5
ADR4
ADR3
ADR2
ADR1
ADR0
ADCH
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
41
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
Table 4-2. Direct-Page Register Summary (continued)
Address
Register Name
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x0014
ADCCVH
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADCV9
ADCV8
0x0015
ADCCVL
ADCV7
ADCV6
ADCV5
ADCV4
ADCV3
ADCV2
ADCV1
ADCV0
0x0016
ADCCFG
ADLPC
0x0017
APCTL1
ADPC7
ADPC6
ADPC5
ADPC4
ADPC3
ADPC2
ADPC1
ADPC0
0x0018
Reserved
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x0019
Reserved
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x001A
ADIV
ADLSMP
MODE
ADICLK
ACMPSC
ACME
ACBGS
ACF
ACIE
ACO
ACOPE
0x001B–
0x001F
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ACMOD
—
—
0x0020
SCIBDH
0
0
0
SBR12
SBR11
SBR10
SBR9
SBR8
0x0021
SCIBDL
SBR7
SBR6
SBR5
SBR4
SBR3
SBR2
SBR1
SBR0
0x0022
SCIC1
LOOPS
SCISWAI
RSRC
M
WAKE
ILT
PE
PT
0x0023
SCIC2
TIE
TCIE
RIE
ILIE
TE
RE
RWU
SBK
0x0024
SCIS1
TDRE
TC
RDRF
IDLE
OR
NF
FE
PF
0x0025
SCIS2
0
0
0
0
0
BRK13
0
RAF
0x0026
SCIC3
R8
T8
TXDIR
TXINV
ORIE
NEIE
FEIE
PEIE
0x0027
SCID
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x0028
SPIC1
SPIE
SPE
SPTIE
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SSOE
LSBFE
0x0029
SPIC2
0
0
0
MODFEN
BIDIROE
0
SPISWAI
SPC0
0x002A
SPIBR
0x002B
SPIS
0x002C
Reserved
0x002D
SPID
0
SPPR2
SPPR1
SPPR0
0
SPR2
SPR1
SPR0
SPRF
0
SPTEF
MODF
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x002E
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x002F
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x0030
IICA
0x0031
IICF
0x0032
IICC
IICEN
IICIE
MST
TX
TXAK
RSTA
0
0
0x0033
IICS
TCF
IAAS
BUSY
ARBL
0
SRW
IICIF
RXAK
0x0034
IICD
0x0035
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x0036
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x0037
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x0038
ICSC1
CLKS
IREFS
IRCLKEN
IREFSTEN
0x0039
ICSC2
BDIV
EREFS
ERCLKEN EREFSTEN
0x003A
ICSTRM
0x003B
ICSSC
0x003C
ADDR
0
MULT
ICR
DATA
RDIV
RANGE
HGO
LP
TRIM
0
0
0
0
MTIMSC
TOF
TOIE
TRST
TSTP
0x003D
MTIMCLK
0
0
0x003E
MTIMCNT
CLKST
0
CLKS
0
OSCINIT
FTRIM
0
0
PS
COUNT
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
42
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
Table 4-2. Direct-Page Register Summary (continued)
Address
Register Name
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x003F
MTIMMOD
MOD
0x0040
TPMSC
TOF
TOIE
CPWMS
CLKSB
CLKSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
0x0041
TPMCNTH
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0x0042
TPMCNTL
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x0043
TPMMODH
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0x0044
TPMMODL
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x0045
TPMC0SC
CH0F
CH0IE
MS0B
MS0A
ELS0B
ELS0A
0
0
0x0046
TPMC0VH
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0x0047
TPMC0VL
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x0048
TPMC1SC
CH1F
CH1IE
MS1B
MS1A
ELS1B
ELS1A
0
0
0x0049
TPMC1VH
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0x004A
TPMC1VL
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x004B–
0x005F
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
High-page registers, shown in Table 4-3, are accessed much less often than other I/O and control registers
so they have been located outside the direct addressable memory space, starting at 0x1800.
Table 4-3. High-Page Register Summary
Address
0x1800
Register Name
SRS
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
POR
PIN
COP
ILOP
ILAD
0
LVD
0
0x1801
SBDFR
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BDFR
0x1802
SOPT1
COPE
COPT
STOPE
—
0
0
BKGDPE
RSTPE
0x1803
SOPT2
COPCLKS
0
0
0
0
0
IICPS
ACIC
0x1804
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x1805
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x1806
SDIDH
—
—
—
—
ID11
ID10
ID9
ID8
0x1807
SDIDL
ID7
ID6
ID5
ID4
ID3
ID2
ID1
ID0
0x1808
SRTISC
RTIF
RTIACK
RTICLKS
RTIE
0
0x1809
SPMSC1
LVDF
LVDACK
LVDIE
LVDRE
LVDSE
LVDE
0
BGBE
0x180A
SPMSC2
0
0
0
PDF
PPDF
PPDACK
PDC
PPDC
0x180B
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x180C
SPMSC3
LVWF
LVWACK
LVDV
LVWV
—
—
—
—
0x180D–
0x180F
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x1810
DBGCAH
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0x1811
DBGCAL
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x1812
DBGCBH
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
RTIS
0x1813
DBGCBL
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x1814
DBGFH
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0x1815
DBGFL
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
43
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
Table 4-3. High-Page Register Summary (continued)
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0x1816
Address
DBGC
Register Name
DBGEN
ARM
TAG
BRKEN
RWA
RWAEN
RWB
RWBEN
0x1817
DBGT
TRGSEL
BEGIN
0
0
TRG3
TRG2
TRG1
TRG0
0x1818
DBGS
AF
BF
ARMF
0
CNT3
CNT2
CNT1
CNT0
0x1819–
0x181F
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x1820
FCDIV
DIVLD
PRDIV8
0x1821
FOPT
KEYEN
FNORED
0
0
0
0
SEC01
SEC00
0x1822
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x1823
FCNFG
0
0
KEYACC
0
0
0
0
0x1824
FPROT
0x1825
FSTAT
0x1826
FCMD
0x1827–
0x183F
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x1840
PTAPE
0
0
0x1841
PTASE
0
0x1842
PTADS
0
DIV
FPS
FCBEF
FCCF
FPVIOL
0
FPDIS
FACCERR
0
FBLANK
0
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
PTAPE5
PTAPE4
PTAPE3
PTAPE2
PTAPE1
PTAPE0
0
PTASE5
PTASE4
PTASE3
PTASE2
PTASE1
PTASE0
0
PTADS5
PTADS4
PTADS3
PTADS2
PTADS1
PTADS0
FCMD
0x1843
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0x1844
PTBPE
PTBPE7
PTBPE6
PTBPE5
PTBPE4
PTBPE3
PTBPE2
PTBPE1
PTBPE0
0x1845
PTBSE
PTBSE7
PTBSE6
PTBSE5
PTBSE4
PTBSE3
PTBSE2
PTBSE1
PTBSE0
0x1846
PTBDS
PTBDS7
PTBDS6
PTBDS5
PTBDS4
PTBDS3
PTBDS2
PTBDS1
PTBDS0
0x1847
Reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Nonvolatile FLASH registers, shown in Table 4-4, are located in the FLASH memory. These registers
include an 8-byte backdoor key that optionally can be used to gain access to secure memory resources.
During reset events, the contents of NVPROT and NVOPT in the nonvolatile register area of the FLASH
memory are transferred into corresponding FPROT and FOPT working registers in the high-page registers
to control security and block protection options.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
Table 4-4. Nonvolatile Register Summary
Address
Register Name
0xFFAE
Reserved for
Storage of FTRIM
0xFFAF
Reserved for
Storage of ICSTRM
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
FTRIM
—
—
—
—
—
—
TRIM
0xFFB0 – NVBACKKEY
0xFFB7
0xFFB8 – Unused
0xFFBC
8-Byte Comparison Key
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0xFFBD
NVPROT
FPS
FPDIS
0xFFBE
Unused
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0xFFBF
NVOPT
KEYEN
FNORED
0
0
0
0
SEC01
SEC00
Provided the key enable (KEYEN) bit is 1, the 8-byte comparison key can be used to temporarily
disengage memory security. This key mechanism can be accessed only through user code running in secure
memory. (A security key cannot be entered directly through background debug commands.) This security
key can be disabled completely by programming the KEYEN bit to 0. If the security key is disabled, the
only way to disengage security is by mass erasing the FLASH if needed (normally through the background
debug interface) and verifying that FLASH is blank. To avoid returning to secure mode after the next reset,
program the security bits (SEC01:SEC00) to the unsecured state (1:0).
4.4
RAM
The MC9S08QG8/4 includes static RAM. The locations in RAM below 0x0100 can be accessed using the
more efficient direct addressing mode, and any single bit in this area can be accessed with the bit
manipulation instructions (BCLR, BSET, BRCLR, and BRSET). Locating the most frequently accessed
program variables in this area of RAM is preferred.
The RAM retains data when the MCU is in low-power wait, stop2, or stop3 mode. At power-on or after
wakeup from stop1, the contents of RAM are uninitialized. RAM data is unaffected by any reset provided
that the supply voltage does not drop below the minimum value for RAM retention (VRAM).
For compatibility with M68HC05 MCUs, the HCS08 resets the stack pointer to 0x00FF. In the
MC9S08QG8/4, it is usually best to reinitialize the stack pointer to the top of the RAM so the direct page
RAM can be used for frequently accessed RAM variables and bit-addressable program variables. Include
the following 2-instruction sequence in your reset initialization routine (where RamLast is equated to the
highest address of the RAM in the Freescale Semiconductor-provided equate file).
LDHX
TXS
#RamLast+1
;point one past RAM
;SP<-(H:X-1)
When security is enabled, the RAM is considered a secure memory resource and is not accessible through
BDM or through code executing from non-secure memory. See Section 4.6, “Security,” for a detailed
description of the security feature.
The RAM array is not automatically initialized out of reset.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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45
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
4.5
FLASH
The FLASH memory is intended primarily for program storage. In-circuit programming allows the
operating program to be loaded into the FLASH memory after final assembly of the application product.
It is possible to program the entire array through the single-wire background debug interface. Because no
special voltages are needed for FLASH erase and programming operations, in-application programming
is also possible through other software-controlled communication paths. For a more detailed discussion of
in-circuit and in-application programming, refer to the HCS08 Family Reference Manual, Volume I,
Freescale Semiconductor document order number HCS08RMv1/D.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
4.5.1
Features
Features of the FLASH memory include:
• FLASH size
— MC9S08QG8: 8,192 bytes (16 pages of 512 bytes each)
— MC9S08QG4: 4,096 bytes (8 pages of 512 bytes each)
• Single power supply program and erase
• Command interface for fast program and erase operation
• Up to 100,000 program/erase cycles at typical voltage and temperature
• Flexible block protection
• Security feature for FLASH and RAM
• Auto power-down for low-frequency read accesses
4.5.2
Program and Erase Times
Before any program or erase command can be accepted, the FLASH clock divider register (FCDIV) must
be written to set the internal clock for the FLASH module to a frequency (fFCLK) between 150 kHz and
200 kHz (see Section 4.7.1, “FLASH Clock Divider Register (FCDIV)”). This register can be written only
once, so normally this write is done during reset initialization. FCDIV cannot be written if the access error
flag, FACCERR in FSTAT, is set. The user must ensure that FACCERR is not set before writing to the
FCDIV register. One period of the resulting clock (1/fFCLK) is used by the command processor to time
program and erase pulses. An integer number of these timing pulses are used by the command processor
to complete a program or erase command.
Table 4-5 shows program and erase times. The bus clock frequency and FCDIV determine the frequency
of FCLK (fFCLK). The time for one cycle of FCLK is tFCLK = 1/fFCLK. The times are shown as a number
of cycles of FCLK and as an absolute time for the case where tFCLK = 5 μs. Program and erase times
shown include overhead for the command state machine and enabling and disabling of program and erase
voltages.
Table 4-5. Program and Erase Times
Parameter
Cycles of FCLK
Time if FCLK = 200 kHz
Byte program
9
45 μs
Byte program (burst)
4
20 μs1
Page erase
4000
20 ms
Mass erase
20,000
100 ms
1
Excluding start/end overhead
NOTE
If the COP is enabled during an erase function, make sure the COP is
serviced during the erase command execution.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
4.5.3
Program and Erase Command Execution
The steps for executing any of the commands are listed below. The FCDIV register must be initialized and
any error flags cleared before beginning command execution. The command execution steps are:
1. Write a data value to an address in the FLASH array. The address and data information from this
write is latched into the FLASH interface. This write is a required first step in any command
sequence. For erase and blank check commands, the value of the data is not important. For page
erase commands, the address may be any address in the 512-byte page of FLASH to be erased. For
mass erase and blank check commands, the address can be any address in the FLASH memory.
Whole pages of 512 bytes are the smallest block of FLASH that may be erased.
NOTE
Do not program any byte in the FLASH more than once after a successful
erase operation. Reprogramming bits to a byte that is already programmed
is not allowed without first erasing the page in which the byte resides or
mass erasing the entire FLASH memory. Programming without first erasing
may disturb data stored in the FLASH.
2. Write the command code for the desired command to FCMD. The five valid commands are blank
check (0x05), byte program (0x20), burst program (0x25), page erase (0x40), and mass erase
(0x41). The command code is latched into the command buffer.
3. Write a 1 to the FCBEF bit in FSTAT to clear FCBEF and launch the command (including its
address and data information).
A partial command sequence can be aborted manually by writing a 0 to FCBEF any time after the write to
the memory array and before writing the 1 that clears FCBEF and launches the complete command.
Aborting a command in this way sets the FACCERR access error flag, which must be cleared before
starting a new command.
A strictly monitored procedure must be obeyed or the command will not be accepted. This minimizes the
possibility of any unintended changes to the FLASH memory contents. The command complete flag
(FCCF) indicates when a command is complete. The command sequence must be completed by clearing
FCBEF to launch the command. Figure 4-2 is a flowchart for executing all of the commands except for
burst programming. The FCDIV register must be initialized before using any FLASH commands. This
must be done only once following a reset.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
Note 1: Required only once after reset.
WRITE TO FCDIV (Note 1)
FLASH PROGRAM AND
ERASE FLOW
START
FACCERR ?
0
1
CLEAR ERROR
WRITE TO FLASH
TO BUFFER ADDRESS AND DATA
WRITE COMMAND TO FCMD
WRITE 1 TO FCBEF
TO LAUNCH COMMAND
AND CLEAR FCBEF (Note 2)
FPVIOL OR
FACCERR ?
Note 2: Wait at least four bus cycles
before checking FCBEF or FCCF.
YES
ERROR EXIT
NO
0
FCCF ?
1
DONE
Figure 4-2. FLASH Program and Erase Flowchart
4.5.4
Burst Program Execution
The burst program command is used to program sequential bytes of data in less time than would be
required using the standard program command. This is possible because the high voltage to the FLASH
array does not need to be disabled between program operations. Ordinarily, when a program or erase
command is issued, an internal charge pump associated with the FLASH memory must be enabled to
supply high voltage to the array. Upon completion of the command, the charge pump is turned off. When
a burst program command is issued, the charge pump is enabled and then remains enabled after completion
of the burst program operation if these two conditions are met:
• The next burst program command has been queued before the current program operation has
completed.
• The next sequential address selects a byte on the same physical row as the current byte being
programmed. A row of FLASH memory consists of 64 bytes. A byte within a row is selected by
addresses A5 through A0. A new row begins when addresses A5 through A0 are all zero.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
The first byte of a series of sequential bytes being programmed in burst mode will take the same amount
of time to program as a byte programmed in standard mode. Subsequent bytes will program in the burst
program time provided that the conditions above are met. In the case the next sequential address is the
beginning of a new row, the program time for that byte will be the standard time instead of the burst time.
This is because the high voltage to the array must be disabled and then enabled again. If a new burst
command has not been queued before the current command completes, then the charge pump will be
disabled and high voltage removed from the array.
Note 1: Required only once after reset.
WRITE TO FCDIV (Note 1)
FLASH BURST
PROGRAM FLOW
START
FACCERR ?
1
0
CLEAR ERROR
FCBEF ?
1
0
WRITE TO FLASH
TO BUFFER ADDRESS AND DATA
WRITE COMMAND (0x25) TO FCMD
WRITE 1 TO FCBEF
TO LAUNCH COMMAND
AND CLEAR FCBEF (Note 2)
FPVIO OR
FACCERR ?
NO
YES
Note 2: Wait at least four bus cycles before
checking FCBEF or FCCF.
YES
ERROR EXIT
NEW BURST COMMAND ?
NO
0
FCCF ?
1
DONE
Figure 4-3. FLASH Burst Program Flowchart
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
4.5.5
Access Errors
An access error occurs whenever the command execution protocol is violated.
Any of the following specific actions will cause the access error flag (FACCERR) in FSTAT to be set.
FACCERR must be cleared by writing a 1 to FACCERR in FSTAT before any command can be processed.
• Writing to a FLASH address before the internal FLASH clock frequency has been set by writing
to the FCDIV register
• Writing to a FLASH address while FCBEF is not set (A new command cannot be started until the
command buffer is empty.)
• Writing a second time to a FLASH address before launching the previous command (There is only
one write to FLASH for every command.)
• Writing a second time to FCMD before launching the previous command (There is only one write
to FCMD for every command.)
• Writing to any FLASH control register other than FCMD after writing to a FLASH address
• Writing any command code other than the five allowed codes (0x05, 0x20, 0x25, 0x40, or 0x41)
to FCMD
• Writing any FLASH control register other than the write to FSTAT (to clear FCBEF and launch the
command) after writing the command to FCMD
• The MCU enters stop mode while a program or erase command is in progress (The command is
aborted.)
• Writing the byte program, burst program, or page erase command code (0x20, 0x25, or 0x40) with
a background debug command while the MCU is secured (The background debug controller can
only do blank check and mass erase commands when the MCU is secure.)
• Writing 0 to FCBEF to cancel a partial command
4.5.6
FLASH Block Protection
The block protection feature prevents the protected region of FLASH from program or erase changes.
Block protection is controlled through the FLASH protection register (FPROT). When enabled, block
protection begins at any 512 byte boundary below the last address of FLASH, 0xFFFF. (See Section 4.7.4,
“FLASH Protection Register (FPROT and NVPROT)”).
After exit from reset, FPROT is loaded with the contents of the NVPROT location, which is in the
nonvolatile register block of the FLASH memory. FPROT cannot be changed directly from application
software so a runaway program cannot alter the block protection settings. Because NVPROT is within the
last 512 bytes of FLASH, if any amount of memory is protected, NVPROT is itself protected and cannot
be altered (intentionally or unintentionally) by the application software. FPROT can be written through
background debug commands, which allows a way to erase and reprogram a protected FLASH memory.
The block protection mechanism is illustrated in Figure 4-4. The FPS bits are used as the upper bits of the
last address of unprotected memory. This address is formed by concatenating FPS7:FPS1 with logic 1 bits
as shown. For example, to protect the last 1536 bytes of memory (addresses 0xFA00 through 0xFFFF), the
FPS bits must be set to 1111 100, which results in the value 0xF9FF as the last address of unprotected
memory. In addition to programming the FPS bits to the appropriate value, FPDIS (bit 0 of NVPROT)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
51
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
must be programmed to logic 0 to enable block protection. Therefore the value 0xF8 must be programmed
into NVPROT to protect addresses 0xFA00 through 0xFFFF.
FPS7 FPS6 FPS5 FPS4 FPS3
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
FPS2
FPS1
A10
A9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
Figure 4-4. Block Protection Mechanism
One use for block protection is to block protect an area of FLASH memory for a bootloader program. This
bootloader program then can be used to erase the rest of the FLASH memory and reprogram it. Because
the bootloader is protected, it remains intact even if MCU power is lost in the middle of an erase and
reprogram operation.
4.5.7
Vector Redirection
Whenever any block protection is enabled, the reset and interrupt vectors will be protected. Vector
redirection allows users to modify interrupt vector information without unprotecting bootloader and reset
vector space. Vector redirection is enabled by programming the FNORED bit in the NVOPT register
located at address 0xFFBF to zero. For redirection to occur, at least some portion but not all of the FLASH
memory must be block protected by programming the NVPROT register located at address 0xFFBD. All
of the interrupt vectors (memory locations 0xFFC0–0xFFFD) are redirected, though the reset vector
(0xFFFE:FFFF) is not.
For example, if 512 bytes of FLASH are protected, the protected address region is from 0xFE00 through
0xFFFF. The interrupt vectors (0xFFC0–0xFFFD) are redirected to the locations 0xFDC0–0xFDFD. Now,
if an SPI interrupt is taken for instance, the values in the locations 0xFDE0:FDE1 are used for the vector
instead of the values in the locations 0xFFE0:FFE1. This allows the user to reprogram the unprotected
portion of the FLASH with new program code including new interrupt vector values while leaving the
protected area, which includes the default vector locations, unchanged.
4.6
Security
The MC9S08QG8/4 includes circuitry to prevent unauthorized access to the contents of FLASH and RAM
memory. When security is engaged, FLASH and RAM are considered secure resources. Direct-page
registers, high-page registers, and the background debug controller are considered unsecured resources.
Programs executing within secure memory have normal access to any MCU memory locations and
resources. Attempts to access a secure memory location with a program executing from an unsecured
memory space or through the background debug interface are blocked (writes are ignored and reads return
all 0s).
Security is engaged or disengaged based on the state of two nonvolatile register bits (SEC01:SEC00) in
the FOPT register. During reset, the contents of the nonvolatile location NVOPT are copied from FLASH
into the working FOPT register in high-page register space. A user engages security by programming the
NVOPT location which can be done at the same time the FLASH memory is programmed. The 1:0 state
disengages security and the other three combinations engage security. Notice the erased state (1:1) makes
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
the MCU secure. During development, whenever the FLASH is erased, it is good practice to immediately
program the SEC00 bit to 0 in NVOPT so SEC01:SEC00 = 1:0. This would allow the MCU to remain
unsecured after a subsequent reset.
The on-chip debug module cannot be enabled while the MCU is secure. The separate background debug
controller can still be used for background memory access commands, but the MCU cannot enter active
background mode except by holding BKGD/MS low at the rising edge of reset.
A user can choose to allow or disallow a security unlocking mechanism through an 8-byte backdoor
security key. If the nonvolatile KEYEN bit in NVOPT/FOPT is 0, the backdoor key is disabled and there
is no way to disengage security without completely erasing all FLASH locations. If KEYEN is 1, a secure
user program can temporarily disengage security by:
1. Writing 1 to KEYACC in the FCNFG register. This makes the FLASH module interpret writes to
the backdoor comparison key locations (NVBACKKEY through NVBACKKEY+7) as values to
be compared against the key rather than as the first step in a FLASH program or erase command.
2. Writing the user-entered key values to the NVBACKKEY through NVBACKKEY+7 locations.
These writes must be done in order starting with the value for NVBACKKEY and ending with
NVBACKKEY+7. STHX should not be used for these writes because these writes cannot be done
on adjacent bus cycles. User software normally would get the key codes from outside the MCU
system through a communication interface such as a serial I/O.
3. Writing 0 to KEYACC in the FCNFG register. If the 8-byte key that was just written matches the
key stored in the FLASH locations, SEC01:SEC00 are automatically changed to 1:0 and security
will be disengaged until the next reset.
The security key can be written only from secure memory (either RAM or FLASH), so it cannot be entered
through background commands without the cooperation of a secure user program.
The backdoor comparison key (NVBACKKEY through NVBACKKEY+7) is located in FLASH memory
locations in the nonvolatile register space so users can program these locations exactly as they would
program any other FLASH memory location. The nonvolatile registers are in the same 512-byte block of
FLASH as the reset and interrupt vectors, so block protecting that space also block protects the backdoor
comparison key. Block protects cannot be changed from user application programs, so if the vector space
is block protected, the backdoor security key mechanism cannot permanently change the block protect,
security settings, or the backdoor key.
Security can always be disengaged through the background debug interface by taking these steps:
1. Disable any block protections by writing FPROT. FPROT can be written only with background
debug commands, not from application software.
2. Mass erase FLASH if necessary.
3. Blank check FLASH. Provided FLASH is completely erased, security is disengaged until the next
reset.
To avoid returning to secure mode after the next reset, program NVOPT so SEC01:SEC00 = 1:0.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
53
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
4.7
FLASH Registers and Control Bits
The FLASH module has six 8-bit registers in the high-page register space. Two locations (NVOPT,
NVPROT) in the nonvolatile register space in FLASH memory are copied into corresponding high-page
control registers (FOPT, FPROT) at reset. There is also an 8-byte comparison key in FLASH memory.
Refer to Table 4-3 and Table 4-4 for the absolute address assignments for all FLASH registers. This
section refers to registers and control bits only by their names. A Freescale Semiconductor-provided
equate or header file normally is used to translate these names into the appropriate absolute addresses.
4.7.1
FLASH Clock Divider Register (FCDIV)
Bit 7 of this register is a read-only status flag. Bits 6:0 may be read at any time but can be written only one
time. Before any erase or programming operations are possible, write to this register to set the frequency
of the clock for the nonvolatile memory system within acceptable limits.
7
R
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
DIVLD
PRDIV8
DIV
W
Reset
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 4-5. FLASH Clock Divider Register (FCDIV)
Table 4-6. FCDIV Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
DIVLD
Divisor Loaded Status Flag — When set, this read-only status flag indicates that the FCDIV register has been
written since reset. Reset clears this bit and the first write to this register causes this bit to become set regardless
of the data written.
0 FCDIV has not been written since reset; erase and program operations disabled for FLASH.
1 FCDIV has been written since reset; erase and program operations enabled for FLASH.
6
PRDIV8
5:0
DIV
Prescale (Divide) FLASH Clock by 8
0 Clock input to the FLASH clock divider is the bus rate clock.
1 Clock input to the FLASH clock divider is the bus rate clock divided by 8.
Divisor for FLASH Clock Divider — The FLASH clock divider divides the bus rate clock (or the bus rate clock
divided by 8 if PRDIV8 = 1) by the value in the 6-bit DIV field plus one. The resulting frequency of the internal
FLASH clock must fall within the range of 200 kHz to 150 kHz for proper FLASH operations. Program/Erase
timing pulses are one cycle of this internal FLASH clock which corresponds to a range of 5 μs to 6.7 μs. The
automated programming logic uses an integer number of these pulses to complete an erase or program
operation. See Equation 4-1 and Equation 4-2.
if PRDIV8 = 0 — fFCLK = fBus ÷ (DIV + 1)
Eqn. 4-1
if PRDIV8 = 1 — fFCLK = fBus ÷ (8 × (DIV + 1))
Eqn. 4-2
Table 4-7 shows the appropriate values for PRDIV8 and DIV for selected bus frequencies.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
Table 4-7. FLASH Clock Divider Settings
4.7.2
fBus
PRDIV8
(Binary)
DIV
(Decimal)
fFCLK
Program/Erase Timing Pulse
(5 μs Min, 6.7 μs Max)
20 MHz
1
12
192.3 kHz
5.2 μs
10 MHz
0
49
200 kHz
5 μs
8 MHz
0
39
200 kHz
5 μs
4 MHz
0
19
200 kHz
5 μs
2 MHz
0
9
200 kHz
5 μs
1 MHz
0
4
200 kHz
5 μs
200 kHz
0
0
200 kHz
5 μs
150 kHz
0
0
150 kHz
6.7 μs
FLASH Options Register (FOPT and NVOPT)
During reset, the contents of the nonvolatile location NVOPT are copied from FLASH into FOPT. To
change the value in this register, erase and reprogram the NVOPT location in FLASH memory as usual
and then issue a new MCU reset.
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
KEYEN
FNORED
0
0
0
0
SEC01
SEC00
W
Reset
This register is loaded from nonvolatile location NVOPT during reset.
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 4-6. FLASH Options Register (FOPT)
Table 4-8. FOPT Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
KEYEN
Backdoor Key Mechanism Enable — When this bit is 0, the backdoor key mechanism cannot be used to
disengage security. The backdoor key mechanism is accessible only from user (secured) firmware. BDM
commands cannot be used to write key comparison values that would unlock the backdoor key. For more detailed
information about the backdoor key mechanism, refer to Section 4.6, “Security.”
0 No backdoor key access allowed.
1 If user firmware writes an 8-byte value that matches the nonvolatile backdoor key (NVBACKKEY through
NVBACKKEY+7 in that order), security is temporarily disengaged until the next MCU reset.
6
FNORED
Vector Redirection Disable — When this bit is 1, then vector redirection is disabled.
0 Vector redirection enabled.
1 Vector redirection disabled.
1:0
SEC0[1:0]
Security State Code — This 2-bit field determines the security state of the MCU as shown in Table 4-9. When
the MCU is secure, the contents of RAM and FLASH memory cannot be accessed by instructions from any
unsecured source including the background debug interface. SEC01:SEC00 changes to 1:0 after successful
backdoor key entry or a successful blank check of FLASH.
For more detailed information about security, refer to Section 4.6, “Security.”
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
55
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
Table 4-9. Security States1
1
4.7.3
R
SEC01:SEC00
Description
0:0
secure
0:1
secure
1:0
unsecured
1:1
secure
SEC01:SEC00 changes to 1:0 after successful backdoor
key entry or a successful blank check of FLASH.
FLASH Configuration Register (FCNFG)
7
6
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
KEYACC
W
Reset
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 4-7. FLASH Configuration Register (FCNFG)
Table 4-10. FCNFG Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
5
KEYACC
Enable Writing of Access Key — This bit enables writing of the backdoor comparison key. For more detailed
information about the backdoor key mechanism, refer to Section 4.6, “Security.”
0 Writes to 0xFFB0–0xFFB7 are interpreted as the start of a FLASH programming or erase command.
1 Writes to NVBACKKEY (0xFFB0–0xFFB7) are interpreted as comparison key writes.
4.7.4
FLASH Protection Register (FPROT and NVPROT)
During reset, the contents of the nonvolatile location NVPROT are copied from FLASH into FPROT. This
register can be read at any time. If FPDIS = 0, protection can be increased, i.e., a smaller value of FPS can
be written. If FPDIS = 1, writes do not change protection.
7
R
6
5
4
3
2
1
FPS(1)
0
FPDIS(1)
W
Reset
1
This register is loaded from nonvolatile location NVPROT during reset.
Background commands can be used to change the contents of these bits in FPROT.
Figure 4-8. FLASH Protection Register (FPROT)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
56
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
Table 4-11. FPROT Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:1
FPS
FLASH Protect Select Bits — When FPDIS = 0, this 7-bit field determines the ending address of unprotected
FLASH locations at the high address end of the FLASH. Protected FLASH locations cannot be erased or
programmed.
0
FPDIS
4.7.5
FLASH Protection Disable
0 FLASH block specified by FPS7:FPS1 is block protected (program or erase not allowed).
1 No FLASH block is protected.
FLASH Status Register (FSTAT)
7
6
R
5
4
FPVIOL
FACCERR
0
0
FCCF
FCBEF
3
2
1
0
0
FBLANK
0
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset
1
1
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 4-9. FLASH Status Register (FSTAT)
Table 4-12. FSTAT Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
FCBEF
FLASH Command Buffer Empty Flag — The FCBEF bit is used to launch commands. It also indicates that the
command buffer is empty so that a new command sequence can be executed when performing burst
programming. The FCBEF bit is cleared by writing a 1 to it or when a burst program command is transferred to
the array for programming. Only burst program commands can be buffered.
0 Command buffer is full (not ready for additional commands).
1 A new burst program command can be written to the command buffer.
6
FCCF
FLASH Command Complete Flag — FCCF is set automatically when the command buffer is empty and no
command is being processed. FCCF is cleared automatically when a new command is started (by writing 1 to
FCBEF to register a command). Writing to FCCF has no meaning or effect.
0 Command in progress
1 All commands complete
5
FPVIOL
Protection Violation Flag — FPVIOL is set automatically when FCBEF is cleared to register a command that
attempts to erase or program a location in a protected block (the erroneous command is ignored). FPVIOL is
cleared by writing a 1 to FPVIOL.
0 No protection violation.
1 An attempt was made to erase or program a protected location.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
57
Chapter 4 Memory Map and Register Definition
Table 4-12. FSTAT Register Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
4
FACCERR
Access Error Flag — FACCERR is set automatically when the proper command sequence is not obeyed exactly
(the erroneous command is ignored), if a program or erase operation is attempted before the FCDIV register has
been initialized, or if the MCU enters stop while a command was in progress. For a more detailed discussion of
the exact actions that are considered access errors, see Section 4.5.5, “Access Errors.” FACCERR is cleared by
writing a 1 to FACCERR. Writing a 0 to FACCERR has no meaning or effect.
0 No access error.
1 An access error has occurred.
2
FBLANK
FLASH Verified as All Blank (erased) Flag — FBLANK is set automatically at the conclusion of a blank check
command if the entire FLASH array was verified to be erased. FBLANK is cleared by clearing FCBEF to write a
new valid command. Writing to FBLANK has no meaning or effect.
0 After a blank check command is completed and FCCF = 1, FBLANK = 0 indicates the FLASH array is not
completely erased.
1 After a blank check command is completed and FCCF = 1, FBLANK = 1 indicates the FLASH array is
completely erased (all 0xFF).
4.7.6
FLASH Command Register (FCMD)
Only five command codes are recognized in normal user modes as shown in Table 4-13. Refer to
Section 4.5.3, “Program and Erase Command Execution,” for a detailed discussion of FLASH
programming and erase operations.
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset
FCMD
0
0
0
0
Figure 4-10. FLASH Command Register (FCMD)
Table 4-13. FLASH Commands
Command
FCMD
Equate File Label
Blank check
0x05
mBlank
Byte program
0x20
mByteProg
Byte program — burst mode
0x25
mBurstProg
Page erase (512 bytes/page)
0x40
mPageErase
Mass erase (all FLASH)
0x41
mMassErase
All other command codes are illegal and generate an access error.
It is not necessary to perform a blank check command after a mass erase operation. The blank check
command is only required as part of the security unlocking mechanism.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
58
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 5
Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.1
Introduction
This section discusses basic reset and interrupt mechanisms and the various sources of reset and interrupts
in the MC9S08QG8/4. Some interrupt sources from peripheral modules are discussed in greater detail
within other sections of this data sheet. This section gathers basic information about all reset and interrupt
sources in one place for easy reference. A few reset and interrupt sources, including the computer
operating properly (COP) watchdog and real-time interrupt (RTI), are not part of on-chip peripheral
systems with their own chapters but are part of the system control logic.
5.2
Features
Reset and interrupt features include:
• Multiple sources of reset for flexible system configuration and reliable operation
• Reset status register (SRS) to indicate source of most recent reset
• Separate interrupt vectors for each module (reduces polling overhead) (see Table 5-2)
5.3
MCU Reset
Resetting the MCU provides a way to start processing from a known set of initial conditions. During reset,
most control and status registers are forced to initial values and the program counter is loaded from the
reset vector (0xFFFE:0xFFFF). On-chip peripheral modules are disabled and I/O pins are initially
configured as general-purpose, high-impedance inputs with pullup devices disabled. The I bit in the
condition code register (CCR) is set to block maskable interrupts so the user program has a chance to
initialize the stack pointer (SP) and system control settings. SP is forced to 0x00FF at reset.
The MC9S08QG8/4 has the following sources for reset:
• External pin reset (PIN) — enabled using RSTPE in SOPT1
• Power-on reset (POR)
• Low-voltage detect (LVD)
• Computer operating properly (COP) timer
• Illegal opcode detect (ILOP)
• Illegal address detect (ILAD)
• Background debug force reset
Each of these sources, with the exception of the background debug force reset, has an associated bit in the
system reset status register.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
59
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.4
Computer Operating Properly (COP) Watchdog
The COP watchdog is intended to force a system reset when the application software fails to execute as
expected. To prevent a system reset from the COP timer (when it is enabled), application software must
reset the COP counter periodically. If the application program gets lost and fails to reset the COP counter
before it times out, a system reset is generated to force the system back to a known starting point.
After any reset, the COPE becomes set in SOPT1 enabling the COP watchdog (see Section 5.8.4, “System
Options Register 1 (SOPT1),” for additional information). If the COP watchdog is not used in an
application, it can be disabled by clearing COPE. The COP counter is reset by writing any value to the
address of SRS. This write does not affect the data in the read-only SRS. Instead, the act of writing to this
address is decoded and sends a reset signal to the COP counter.
The COPCLKS bit in SOPT2 (see Section 5.8.5, “System Options Register 2 (SOPT2),” for additional
information) selects the clock source used for the COP timer. The clock source options are either the bus
clock or an internal 1-kHz clock source. With each clock source, there is an associated short and long
time-out controlled by COPT in SOPT1. Table 5-1 summaries the control functions of the COPCLKS and
COPT bits. The COP watchdog defaults to operation from the 1-kHz clock source and the associated long
time-out (28 cycles).
Table 5-1. COP Configuration Options
Control Bits
1
Clock Source
COP Overflow Count
0
~1 kHz
25 cycles (32 ms)1
0
1
~1 kHz
28 cycles (256 ms)1
1
0
Bus
213 cycles
1
1
Bus
218 cycles
COPCLKS
COPT
0
Values are shown in this column based on tRTI = 1 ms. See tRTI in the appendix
Section A.8.1, “Control Timing,” for the tolerance of this value.
Even if the application will use the reset default settings of COPE, COPCLKS, and COPT, the user must
write to the write-once SOPT1 and SOPT2 registers during reset initialization to lock in the settings. That
way, they cannot be changed accidentally if the application program gets lost. The initial writes to SOPT1
and SOPT2 will reset the COP counter.
The write to SRS that services (clears) the COP counter must not be placed in an interrupt service routine
(ISR) because the ISR could continue to be executed periodically even if the main application program
fails.
In background debug mode, the COP counter will not increment.
When the bus clock source is selected, the COP counter does not increment while the system is in stop
mode. The COP counter resumes as soon as the MCU exits stop mode.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
When the 1-kHz clock source is selected, the COP counter is re-initialized to zero upon entry to stop mode.
The COP counter begins from zero after the MCU exits stop mode.
5.5
Interrupts
Interrupts provide a way to save the current CPU status and registers, execute an interrupt service routine
(ISR), and then restore the CPU status so processing resumes where it was before the interrupt. Other than
the software interrupt (SWI), which is a program instruction, interrupts are caused by hardware events
such as an edge on the IRQ pin or a timer-overflow event. The debug module can also generate an SWI
under certain circumstances.
If an event occurs in an enabled interrupt source, an associated read-only status flag will become set. The
CPU will not respond until and unless the local interrupt enable is a 1 to enable the interrupt. The I bit in
the CCR is 0 to allow interrupts. The global interrupt mask (I bit) in the CCR is initially set after reset,
which masks (prevents) all maskable interrupt sources. The user program initializes the stack pointer and
performs other system setup before clearing the I bit to allow the CPU to respond to interrupts.
When the CPU receives a qualified interrupt request, it completes the current instruction before responding
to the interrupt. The interrupt sequence obeys the same cycle-by-cycle sequence as the SWI instruction
and consists of:
• Saving the CPU registers on the stack
• Setting the I bit in the CCR to mask further interrupts
• Fetching the interrupt vector for the highest-priority interrupt that is currently pending
• Filling the instruction queue with the first three bytes of program information starting from the
address fetched from the interrupt vector locations
While the CPU is responding to the interrupt, the I bit is automatically set to avoid the possibility of
another interrupt interrupting the ISR itself (this is called nesting of interrupts). Normally, the I bit is
restored to 0 when the CCR is restored from the value stacked on entry to the ISR. In rare cases, the I bit
can be cleared inside an ISR (after clearing the status flag that generated the interrupt) so that other
interrupts can be serviced without waiting for the first service routine to finish. This practice is not
recommended for anyone other than the most experienced programmers because it can lead to subtle
program errors that are difficult to debug.
The interrupt service routine ends with a return-from-interrupt (RTI) instruction which restores the CCR,
A, X, and PC registers to their pre-interrupt values by reading the previously saved information from the
stack.
NOTE
For compatibility with M68HC08 devices, the H register is not
automatically saved and restored. It is good programming practice to push
H onto the stack at the start of the interrupt service routine (ISR) and restore
it immediately before the RTI that is used to return from the ISR.
When two or more interrupts are pending when the I bit is cleared, the highest priority source is serviced
first (see Table 5-2).
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
61
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.5.1
Interrupt Stack Frame
Figure 5-1 shows the content and organization of a stack frame. Before the interrupt, the stack pointer (SP)
points at the next available byte location on the stack. The current values of CPU registers are stored on
the stack starting with the low-order byte of the program counter (PCL) and ending with the CCR. After
stacking, the SP points at the next available location on the stack, which is the address that is one less than
the address where the CCR was saved. The PC value that is stacked is the address of the instruction in the
main program that would have executed next if the interrupt had not occurred.
UNSTACKING
ORDER
TOWARD LOWER ADDRESSES
7
0
5
1
4
2
3
3
2
4
PROGRAM COUNTER HIGH
1
5
PROGRAM COUNTER LOW
CONDITION CODE REGISTER
SP AFTER
INTERRUPT STACKING
ACCUMULATOR
INDEX REGISTER (LOW BYTE X)*
SP BEFORE
THE INTERRUPT
²
²
STACKING
ORDER
²
TOWARD HIGHER ADDRESSES
* High byte (H) of index register is not automatically stacked.
Figure 5-1. Interrupt Stack Frame
When an RTI instruction is executed, these values are recovered from the stack in reverse order. As part
of the RTI sequence, the CPU fills the instruction pipeline by reading three bytes of program information,
starting from the PC address recovered from the stack.
The status flag causing the interrupt must be acknowledged (cleared) before returning from the ISR.
Typically, the flag is cleared at the beginning of the ISR so that if another interrupt is generated by this
same source, it will be registered so it can be serviced after completion of the current ISR.
5.5.2
External Interrupt Request Pin (IRQ)
External interrupts are managed by the IRQ status and control register, IRQSC. When the IRQ function is
enabled, synchronous logic monitors the pin for edge-only or edge-and-level events. When the MCU is in
stop mode and system clocks are shut down, a separate asynchronous path is used so the IRQ (if enabled)
can wake the MCU.
5.5.2.1
Pin Configuration Options
The IRQ pin enable (IRQPE) control bit in IRQSC must be 1 for the IRQ pin to act as the interrupt request
(IRQ) input. As an IRQ input, the user can choose whether the pin detects edges-only or edges and levels
(IRQMOD), and whether an event causes an interrupt or only sets the IRQF flag, which can be polled by
software.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
The IRQ pin, when enabled, defaults to use an internal pullup device (IRQPDD = 0). If the user desires to
use an external pullup, the IRQPDD can be written to a 1 to turn off the internal device.
BIH and BIL instructions may be used to detect the level on the IRQ pin when the pin is configured to act
as the IRQ input.
NOTE
This pin does not contain a clamp diode to VDD and should not be driven
above VDD.
The voltage measured on the internally pulled-up IRQ pin will not be pulled
to VDD. The internal gates connected to this pin are pulled to VDD. The IRQ
pullup should not be used to pull up components external to the MCU. The
internal gates connected to this pin are pulled all the way to VDD.
5.5.2.2
Edge and Level Sensitivity
The IRQMOD control bit reconfigures the detection logic so it detects edge events and pin levels. In this
edge detection mode, the IRQF status flag becomes set when an edge is detected (when the IRQ pin
changes from the deasserted to the asserted level), but the flag is continuously set (and cannot be cleared)
as long as the IRQ pin remains at the asserted level.
5.5.3
Interrupt Vectors, Sources, and Local Masks
Table 5-2 provides a summary of all interrupt sources. Higher-priority sources are located toward the
bottom of the table. The high-order byte of the address for the interrupt service routine is located at the
first address in the vector address column, and the low-order byte of the address for the interrupt service
routine is located at the next higher address.
When an interrupt condition occurs, an associated flag bit becomes set. If the associated local interrupt
enable is 1, an interrupt request is sent to the CPU. Within the CPU, if the global interrupt mask (I bit in
the CCR) is 0, the CPU will finish the current instruction; stack the PCL, PCH, X, A, and CCR CPU
registers; set the I bit; and then fetch the interrupt vector for the highest priority pending interrupt.
Processing then continues in the interrupt service routine.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
63
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
Table 5-2. Vector Summary
Vector
Priority
Vector
Number
Address
(High:Low)
Vector
Name
Lower
31
through
24
0xFFC0:FFC1
through
0xFFCE:FFCF
23
0xFFD0:FFD1
Vrti
System
control
RTIF
RTIE
Real-time interrupt
22
0xFFD2:FFD3
—
—
—
—
—
21
0xFFD4:FFD5
—
—
—
—
—
20
0xFFD6:FFD7
Vacmp
ACMP
ACF
ACIE
ACMP
Module
Source
Enable
Description
Unused Vector Space
(available for user program)
19
0xFFD8:FFD9
Vadc
ADC
COCO
AIEN
ADC
18
0xFFDA:FFDB
Vkeyboard
KBI
KBF
KBIE
Keyboard pins
17
0xFFDC:FFDD
Viic
IIC
IICIF
IICIE
IIC control
16
0xFFDE:FFDF
Vscitx
SCI
TDRE
TC
TIE
TCIE
SCI transmit
15
0xFFE0:FFE1
Vscirx
SCI
IDLE
RDRF
ILIE
RIE
SCI receive
ORIE
NFIE
FEIE
PFIE
SCI error
14
0xFFE2:FFE3
Vscierr
SCI
OR
NF
FE
PF
13
0xFFE4:FFE5
Vspi
SPI
SPIF
MODF
SPTEF
SPIE
SPIE
SPTIE
SPI
12
0xFFE6:FFE7
Vmtim
MTIM
TOF
TOIE
MTIM
11
0xFFE8:FFE9
—
—
—
—
—
10
0xFFEA:FFEB
—
—
—
—
—
9
0xFFEC:FFED
—
—
—
—
—
8
0xFFEE:FFEF
—
—
—
—
—
7
0xFFF0:FFF1
Vtpmovf
TPM
TOF
TOIE
TPM overflow
6
0xFFF2:FFF3
Vtpmch1
TPM
CH1F
CH1IE
TPM channel 1
5
0xFFF4:FFF5
Vtpmch0
TPM
CH0F
CH0IE
TPM channel 0
4
0xFFF6:FFF7
—
—
—
—
—
3
0xFFF8:FFF9
Vlvd
System
control
LVDF
LVDIE
Low-voltage detect
2
0xFFFA:FFFB
Virq
IRQ
IRQF
IRQIE
IRQ pin
1
0xFFFC:FFFD
Vswi
CPU
SWI
Instruction
—
Software interrupt
System
control
COP
LVD
RESET pin
Illegal opcode
Illegal address
POR
COPE
LVDRE
RSTPE
—
—
—
Watchdog timer
Low-voltage detect
External pin
Illegal opcode
Illegal address
power-on-reset
Higher
0
0xFFFE:FFFF
Vreset
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.6
Low-Voltage Detect (LVD) System
The MC9S08QG8/4 includes a system to protect against low voltage conditions to protect memory
contents and control MCU system states during supply voltage variations. The system is comprised of a
power-on reset (POR) circuit and a LVD circuit with a user selectable trip voltage, either high (VLVDH) or
low (VLVDL). The LVD circuit is enabled when LVDE in SPMSC1 is high and the trip voltage is selected
by LVDV in SPMSC3. The LVD is disabled upon entering any of the stop modes unless LVDSE is set in
SPMSC1. If LVDSE and LVDE are both set, then the MCU cannot enter stop1 or stop2, and the current
consumption in stop3 with the LVD enabled will be greater.
5.6.1
Power-On Reset Operation
When power is initially applied to the MCU, or when the supply voltage drops below the VPOR level, the
POR circuit will cause a reset condition. As the supply voltage rises, the LVD circuit will hold the MCU
in reset until the supply has risen above the VLVDL level. Both the POR bit and the LVD bit in SRS are set
following a POR.
5.6.2
LVD Reset Operation
The LVD can be configured to generate a reset upon detection of a low voltage condition by setting
LVDRE to 1. After an LVD reset has occurred, the LVD system will hold the MCU in reset until the supply
voltage has risen above the level determined by LVDV. The LVD bit in the SRS register is set following
either an LVD reset or POR.
5.6.3
LVD Interrupt Operation
When a low voltage condition is detected and the LVD circuit is configured using SPMSC1 for interrupt
operation (LVDE set, LVDIE set, and LVDRE clear), then LVDF in SPMSC1 will be set and an LVD
interrupt request will occur.
5.6.4
Low-Voltage Warning (LVW)
The LVD system has a low voltage warning flag to indicate to the user that the supply voltage is
approaching, but is above, the LVD voltage. The LVW does not have an interrupt associated with it. There
are two user selectable trip voltages for the LVW, one high (VLVWH) and one low (VLVWL). The trip
voltage is selected by LVWV in SPMSC3.
5.7
Real-Time Interrupt (RTI)
The real-time interrupt function can be used to generate periodic interrupts. The RTI can accept two
sources of clocks, the 1-kHz internal clock or an external clock if available. External clock input requires
the XOSC module; consult Table 1-1 to see if your MCU contains this module. The RTICLKS bit in
SRTISC is used to select the RTI clock source.
Either RTI clock source can be used when the MCU is in run, wait or stop3 mode. When using the external
oscillator in stop3, it must be enabled in stop (EREFSTEN = 1) and configured for low frequency operation
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
65
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
(RANGE = 0). Only the internal 1-kHz clock source can be selected to wake the MCU from stop1 or stop2
modes.
The SRTISC register includes a read-only status flag, a write-only acknowledge bit, and a 3-bit control
value (RTIS) used to select one of seven wakeup periods. The RTI has a local interrupt enable, RTIE, to
allow masking of the real-time interrupt. The RTI can be disabled by writing each bit of RTIS to 0s, and
no interrupts will be generated. See Section 5.8.7, “System Real-Time Interrupt Status and Control
Register (SRTISC),” for detailed information about this register.
5.8
Reset, Interrupt, and System Control Registers and Control Bits
One 8-bit register in the direct page register space and eight 8-bit registers in the high-page register space
are related to reset and interrupt systems.
Refer to the direct-page register summary in Chapter 4, “Memory Map and Register Definition,” for the
absolute address assignments for all registers. This section refers to registers and control bits only by their
names. A Freescale-provided equate or header file is used to translate these names into the appropriate
absolute addresses.
Some control bits in the SOPT1, SOPT2, and SPMSC2 registers are related to modes of operation.
Although brief descriptions of these bits are provided here, the related functions are discussed in greater
detail in Chapter 3, “Modes of Operation.”
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.8.1
Interrupt Pin Request Status and Control Register (IRQSC)
This direct page register includes status and control bits, which are used to configure the IRQ function,
report status, and acknowledge IRQ events.
7
R
6
1
5
4
IRQPDD
0
IRQPE
0
3
2
IRQF
0
W
Reset
1
0
IRQIE
IRQMOD
0
0
IRQACK
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 5-2. Interrupt Request Status and Control Register (IRQSC)
1
Bit 5 is a reserved bit that must always be written to 0.
Table 5-3. IRQSC Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
6
IRQPDD
Interrupt Request (IRQ) Pull Device Disable — This read/write control bit is used to disable the internal pullup
device when the IRQ pin is enabled (IRQPE = 1) allowing for an external device to be used.
0 IRQ pull device enabled if IRQPE = 1.
1 IRQ pull device disabled if IRQPE = 1.
4
IRQPE
IRQ Pin Enable — This read/write control bit enables the IRQ pin function. When this bit is set the IRQ pin can
be used as an interrupt request.
0 IRQ pin function is disabled.
1 IRQ pin function is enabled.
3
IRQF
2
IRQACK
1
IRQIE
0
IRQMOD
IRQ Flag — This read-only status bit indicates when an interrupt request event has occurred.
0 No IRQ request.
1 IRQ event detected.
IRQ Acknowledge — This write-only bit is used to acknowledge interrupt request events (write 1 to clear IRQF).
Writing 0 has no meaning or effect. Reads always return 0. If edge-and-level detection is selected (IRQMOD = 1),
IRQF cannot be cleared while the IRQ pin remains at its asserted level.
IRQ Interrupt Enable — This read/write control bit determines whether IRQ events generate an interrupt
request.
0 Interrupt request when IRQF set is disabled (use polling).
1 Interrupt requested whenever IRQF = 1.
IRQ Detection Mode — This read/write control bit selects either edge-only detection or edge-and-level
detection. See Section 5.5.2.2, “Edge and Level Sensitivity,” for more details.
0 IRQ event on falling edges only.
1 IRQ event on falling edges and low levels.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
67
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.8.2
System Reset Status Register (SRS)
This high page register includes read-only status flags to indicate the source of the most recent reset. When
a debug host forces reset by writing 1 to BDFR in the SBDFR register, all of the status bits in SRS will be
cleared. Writing any value to this register address clears the COP watchdog timer without affecting the
contents of this register. The reset state of these bits depends on what caused the MCU to reset.
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
POR
PIN
COP
ILOP
ILAD
0
LVD
0
W
Writing any value to SRS address clears COP watchdog timer.
POR:
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
LVD:
u(1)
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Note (2)
Note (2)
Note (2)
Note (2)
0
0
0
Any other
reset:
Figure 5-3. System Reset Status (SRS)
1
2
u = unaffected
Any of these reset sources that are active at the time of reset entry will cause the corresponding bit(s) to be set; bits
corresponding to sources that are not active at the time of reset entry will be cleared.
Table 5-4. SRS Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
POR
Power-On Reset — Reset was caused by the power-on detection logic. Because the internal supply voltage was
ramping up at the time, the low-voltage reset (LVD) status bit is also set to indicate that the reset occurred while
the internal supply was below the LVD threshold.
0 Reset not caused by POR.
1 POR caused reset.
6
PIN
External Reset Pin — Reset was caused by an active-low level on the external reset pin.
0 Reset not caused by external reset pin.
1 Reset came from external reset pin.
5
COP
Computer Operating Properly (COP) Watchdog — Reset was caused by the COP watchdog timer timing out.
This reset source can be blocked by COPE = 0.
0 Reset not caused by COP timeout.
1 Reset caused by COP timeout.
4
ILOP
Illegal Opcode — Reset was caused by an attempt to execute an unimplemented or illegal opcode. The STOP
instruction is considered illegal if stop is disabled by STOPE = 0 in the SOPT1 register. The BGND instruction is
considered illegal if active background mode is disabled by ENBDM = 0 in the BDCSC register.
0 Reset not caused by an illegal opcode.
1 Reset caused by an illegal opcode.
3
ILAD
Illegal Address — Reset was caused by an attempt to access either data or an instruction at an unimplemented
memory address.
0 Reset not caused by an illegal address
1 Reset caused by an illegal address
1
LVD
Low Voltage Detect — If the LVDRE bit is set and the supply drops below the LVD trip voltage, an LVD reset will
occur. This bit is also set by POR.
0 Reset not caused by LVD trip or POR.
1 Reset caused by LVD trip or POR.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
68
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.8.3
System Background Debug Force Reset Register (SBDFR)
This high page register contains a single write-only control bit. A serial background command such as
WRITE_BYTE must be used to write to SBDFR. Attempts to write this register from a user program are
ignored. Reads always return 0x00.
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BDFR1
W
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 5-4. System Background Debug Force Reset Register (SBDFR)
1
BDFR is writable only through serial background debug commands, not from user programs.
Table 5-5. SBDFR Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
0
BDFR
Background Debug Force Reset — A serial background command such as WRITE_BYTE can be used to allow
an external debug host to force a target system reset. Writing 1 to this bit forces an MCU reset. This bit cannot
be written from a user program. To enter user mode, PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS must be high immediately after
issuing WRITE_BYTE command. To enter BDM, PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS must be low immediately after issuing
WRITE_BYTE command. See Table A-9., “Control Timing,” for more information.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
69
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.8.4
System Options Register 1 (SOPT1)
This high page register is a write-once register so only the first write after reset is honored. It can be read
at any time. Any subsequent attempt to write to SOPT1 (intentionally or unintentionally) is ignored to
avoid accidental changes to these sensitive settings. SOPT1 must be written during the user reset
initialization program to set the desired controls even if the desired settings are the same as the reset
settings.
1
4
7
6
5
COPE
COPT
STOPE
Reset:
1
1
0
1
0
POR:
1
1
0
1
LVD:
1
1
0
1
R
3
2
1
0
0
0
BKGDPE
RSTPE
0
1
u(2)
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
W
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 5-5. System Options Register 1 (SOPT1)
1
2
Bit 4 is reserved; writes will change the value but will have no effect on this MCU.
u = unaffected
Table 5-6. SOPT1 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
COPE
COP Watchdog Enable — This write-once bit selects whether the COP watchdog is enabled.
0 COP watchdog timer disabled.
1 COP watchdog timer enabled (force reset on timeout).
6
COPT
COP Watchdog Timeout — This write-once bit selects the timeout period of the COP. COPT along with
COPCLKS in SOPT2 defines the COP timeout period.
0 Short timeout period selected.
1 Long timeout period selected.
5
STOPE
Stop Mode Enable — This write-once bit is used to enable stop mode. If stop mode is disabled and a user
program attempts to execute a STOP instruction, an illegal opcode reset is forced.
0 Stop mode disabled.
1 Stop mode enabled.
1
BKGDPE
0
RSTPE
Background Debug Mode Pin Enable — This write-once bit when set enables the PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
pin to function as BKGD/MS. When clear, the pin functions as one of its output only alternative functions. This
pin defaults to the BKGD/MS function following any MCU reset.
0 PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS pin functions as PTA4 or ACMPO.
1 PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS pin functions as BKGD/MS.
RESET Pin Enable — This write-once bit when set enables the PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET pin to function as
RESET. When clear, the pin functions as one of its input only alternative functions. This pin defaults to its
input-only port function following an MCU POR. When RSTPE is set, an internal pullup device is enabled on
RESET.
0 PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET pin functions as PTA5, IRQ, or TCLK.
1 PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET pin functions as RESET.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.8.5
System Options Register 2 (SOPT2)
This high page register contains bits to configure MCU specific features on the MC9S08QG8/4 devices.
7
R
COPCLKS1
6
5
4
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
IICPS
ACIC
0
0
W
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 5-6. System Options Register 2 (SOPT2)
1
This bit can be written only one time after reset. Additional writes are ignored.
Table 5-7. SOPT2 Register Field Descriptions
Field
7
COPCLKS
Description
COP Watchdog Clock Select — This write-once bit selects the clock source of the COP watchdog.
0 Internal 1-kHz clock is source to COP.
1 Bus clock is source to COP.
1
IICPS
IIC Pin Select— This bit selects the location of the SDA and SCL pins of the IIC module.
0 SDA on PTA2, SCL on PTA3.
1 SDA on PTB6, SCL on PTB7.
0
ACIC
Analog Comparator to Input Capture Enable— This bit connects the output of ACMP to TPM input channel 0.
0 ACMP output not connected to TPM input channel 0.
1 ACMP output connected to TPM input channel 0.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
71
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.8.6
System Device Identification Register (SDIDH, SDIDL)
These high page read-only registers are included so host development systems can identify the HCS08
derivative and revision number. This allows the development software to recognize where specific
memory blocks, registers, and control bits are located in a target MCU.
7
6
5
4
R
3
2
1
0
ID11
ID10
ID9
ID8
0
0
0
0
W
Reset:
—
—
—
—
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 5-7. System Device Identification Register — High (SDIDH)
Table 5-8. SDIDH Register Field Descriptions
Field
7:4
Reserved
3:0
ID[11:8]
R
Description
Bits 7:4 are reserved. Reading these bits will result in an indeterminate value; writes have no effect.
Part Identification Number — Each derivative in the HCS08 Family has a unique identification number. The
MC9S08QG8 is hard coded to the value 0x009. See also ID bits in Table 5-9.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ID7
ID6
ID5
ID4
ID3
ID2
ID1
ID0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
W
Reset:
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 5-8. System Device Identification Register — Low (SDIDL)
Table 5-9. SDIDL Register Field Descriptions
Field
7:0
ID[7:0]
Description
Part Identification Number — Each derivative in the HCS08 Family has a unique identification number. The
MC9S08QG8 is hard coded to the value 0x009. See also ID bits in Table 5-8.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.8.7
System Real-Time Interrupt Status and Control Register (SRTISC)
This high page register contains status and control bits for the RTI.
R
7
6
RTIF
0
W
5
4
RTICLKS
RTIE
0
0
3
2
1
0
0
RTIS
RTIACK
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 5-9. System RTI Status and Control Register (SRTISC)
Table 5-10. SRTISC Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
RTIF
Real-Time Interrupt Flag — This read-only status bit indicates the periodic wakeup timer has timed out.
0 Periodic wakeup timer not timed out.
1 Periodic wakeup timer timed out.
6
RTIACK
Real-Time Interrupt Acknowledge — This write-only bit is used to acknowledge real-time interrupt request
(write 1 to clear RTIF). Writing 0 has no meaning or effect. Reads always return 0.
5
RTICLKS
Real-Time Interrupt Clock Select — This read/write bit selects the clock source for the real-time interrupt.
0 Real-time interrupt request clock source is internal 1-kHz oscillator.
1 Real-time interrupt request clock source is external clock.
4
RTIE
Real-Time Interrupt Enable — This read-write bit enables real-time interrupts.
0 Real-time interrupts disabled.
1 Real-time interrupts enabled.
2:0
RTIS
Real-Time Interrupt Delay Selects — These read/write bits select the period for the RTI. See Table 5-11.
Table 5-11. Real-Time Interrupt Period
RTIS2:RTIS1:RTIS0
Using Internal 1-kHz Clock Source1 2
Using External Clock Source
Period = text3
0:0:0
Disable RTI
Disable RTI
0:0:1
8 ms
text x 256
0:1:0
32 ms
text x 1024
0:1:1
64 ms
text x 2048
1:0:0
128 ms
text x 4096
1:0:1
256 ms
text x 8192
1:1:0
512 ms
text x 16384
1:1:1
1.024 s
text x 32768
1
Values are shown in this column based on tRTI = 1 ms. See tRTI in the appendix Section A.8.1, “Control Timing,” for the
tolerance of this value.
2 The initial RTI timeout period will be up to one 1-kHz clock period less than the time specified.
3
text is the period of the external crystal frequency.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
73
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.8.8
System Power Management Status and Control 1 Register
(SPMSC1)
This high page register contains status and control bits to support the low voltage detect function and to
enable the bandgap voltage reference for use by the ADC module. To configure the low voltage detect trip
voltage, see Table 5-14 for the LVDV bit description in SPMSC3.
R
7
6
LVDF
0
W
Reset:
5
4
3
2
LVDIE
LVDRE2
LVDSE
LVDE 2
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
BGBE
LVDACK
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 5-10. System Power Management Status and Control 1 Register (SPMSC1)
1
Bit 1 is a reserved bit that must always be written to 0.
2
This bit can be written only one time after reset. Additional writes are ignored.
Table 5-12. SPMSC1 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
LVDF
Low-Voltage Detect Flag — Provided LVDE = 1, this read-only status bit indicates a low-voltage detect event.
6
LVDACK
Low-Voltage Detect Acknowledge — This write-only bit is used to acknowledge low voltage detection errors
(write 1 to clear LVDF). Reads always return 0.
5
LVDIE
Low-Voltage Detect Interrupt Enable — This bit enables hardware interrupt requests for LVDF.
0 Hardware interrupt disabled (use polling).
1 Request a hardware interrupt when LVDF = 1.
4
LVDRE
Low-Voltage Detect Reset Enable — This write-once bit enables LVDF events to generate a hardware reset
(provided LVDE = 1).
0 LVDF does not generate hardware resets.
1 Force an MCU reset when LVDF = 1.
3
LVDSE
Low-Voltage Detect Stop Enable — Provided LVDE = 1, this read/write bit determines whether the low-voltage
detect function operates when the MCU is in stop mode.
0 Low-voltage detect disabled during stop mode.
1 Low-voltage detect enabled during stop mode.
2
LVDE
Low-Voltage Detect Enable — This write-once bit enables low-voltage detect logic and qualifies the operation
of other bits in this register.
0 LVD logic disabled.
1 LVD logic enabled.
0
BGBE
Bandgap Buffer Enable — This bit enables an internal buffer for the bandgap voltage reference for use by the
ADC module on one of its internal channels or as a voltage reference for ACMP module.
0 Bandgap buffer disabled.
1 Bandgap buffer enabled.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.8.9
System Power Management Status and Control 2 Register
(SPMSC2)
This high page register contains status and control bits to configure the stop mode behavior of the MCU.
See Section 3.6, “Stop Modes,” for more information on stop modes.
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
0
0
0
PDF
PPDF
0
W
Reset:
1
0
PDC1
PPDC1
0
0
PPDACK
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 5-11. System Power Management Status and Control 2 Register (SPMSC2)
1
This bit can be written only one time after reset. Additional writes are ignored.
Table 5-13. SPMSC2 Register Field Descriptions
Field
4
PDF
3
PPDF
Description
Power Down Flag — This read-only status bit indicates the MCU has recovered from stop1 mode.
0 MCU has not recovered from stop1 mode.
1 MCU recovered from stop1 mode.
Partial Power Down Flag — This read-only status bit indicates that the MCU has recovered from stop2 mode.
0 MCU has not recovered from stop2 mode.
1 MCU recovered from stop2 mode.
2
PPDACK
Partial Power Down Acknowledge — Writing a 1 to PPDACK clears the PPDF and the PDF bits.
1
PDC
Power Down Control — The PDC bit controls entry into the power down (stop2 and stop1) modes.
0 Power down modes are disabled.
1 Power down modes are enabled.
0
PPDC
Partial Power Down Control — The PPDC bit controls which power down mode is selected.
0 Stop1 full power down mode enabled if PDC set.
1 Stop2 partial power down mode enabled if PDC set.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
75
Chapter 5 Resets, Interrupts, and General System Control
5.8.10
System Power Management Status and Control 3 Register
(SPMSC3)
This high page register is used to report the status of the low voltage warning function and to select the
low voltage detect trip voltage.
R
7
6
LVWF
0
W
5
4
LVDV
LVWV
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
LVWACK
POR:
01
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
LVD:
01
0
U
U
0
0
0
0
Any other
reset:
01
0
U
U
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
U= Unaffected by reset
Figure 5-12. System Power Management Status and Control 3 Register (SPMSC3)
1
LVWF will be set in the case when VSupply transitions below the trip point or after reset and VSupply is already below VLVW.
Table 5-14. SPMSC3 Register Field Descriptions
Field
7
LVWF
6
LVWACK
Description
Low-Voltage Warning Flag — The LVWF bit indicates the low voltage warning status.
0 Low voltage warning not present.
1 Low voltage warning is present or was present.
Low-Voltage Warning Acknowledge — The LVWF bit indicates the low voltage warning status. Writing a 1 to
LVWACK clears LVWF to a 0 if a low voltage warning is not present.
5
LVDV
Low-Voltage Detect Voltage Select — The LVDV bit selects the LVD trip point voltage (VLVD).
0 Low trip point selected (VLVD = VLVDL).
1 High trip point selected (VLVD = VLVDH).
4
LVWV
Low-Voltage Warning Voltage Select — The LVWV bit selects the LVW trip point voltage (VLVW).
0 Low trip point selected (VLVW = VLVWL).
1 High trip point selected (VLVW = VLVWH).
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 6
Parallel Input/Output Control
This section explains software controls related to parallel input/output (I/O) and pin control. The
MC9S08QG8 has two parallel I/O ports which include a total of 12 I/O pins, one output-only pin and one
input-only pin. See Section Chapter 2, “External Signal Description,” for more information about pin
assignments and external hardware considerations of these pins. Not all pins are available on all devices
of the MC9S08QG8/4 Family; see Table 1-1 for the number of general-purpose pins available on your
device.
All of these I/O pins are shared with on-chip peripheral functions as shown in Table 2-2. The peripheral
modules have priority over the I/Os so that when a peripheral is enabled, the I/O functions associated with
the shared pins are disabled. After reset, the shared peripheral functions are disabled so that the pins are
controlled by the I/O. All of the I/Os are configured as inputs (PTxDDn = 0) with pullup devices disabled
(PTxPEn = 0), except for output-only pin PTA4 which defaults to the BKGD/MS pin.
NOTE
Not all general-purpose I/O pins are available on all packages. To avoid
extra current drain from floating input pins, the user reset initialization
routine in the application program must either enable on-chip pullup devices
or change the direction of unconnected pins to outputs so the pins do not
float.
6.1
Port Data and Data Direction
Reading and writing of parallel I/Os is performed through the port data registers. The direction, either input
or output, is controlled through the port data direction registers. The parallel I/O port function for an
individual pin is illustrated in the block diagram shown in Figure 6-1.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
77
Chapter 6 Parallel Input/Output Control
PTxDDn
D
Output Enable
Q
PTxDn
D
Output Data
Q
1
Port Read
Data
0
Input Data
Synchronizer
BUSCLK
Figure 6-1. Parallel I/O Block Diagram
The data direction control bit (PTxDDn) determines whether the output buffer for the associated pin is
enabled, and also controls the source for port data register reads. The input buffer for the associated pin is
always enabled unless the pin is enabled as an analog function or is an output-only pin.
When a shared digital function is enabled for a pin, the output buffer is controlled by the shared function.
However, the data direction register bit will continue to control the source for reads of the port data register.
When a shared analog function is enabled for a pin, both the input and output buffers are disabled. A value
of 0 is read for any port data bit where the bit is an input (PTxDDn = 0) and the input buffer is disabled. In
general, whenever a pin is shared with both an alternate digital function and an analog function, the analog
function has priority such that if both the digital and analog functions are enabled, the analog function
controls the pin.
It is a good programming practice to write to the port data register before changing the direction of a port
pin to become an output. This ensures that the pin will not be driven momentarily with an old data value
that happened to be in the port data register.
6.2
Pin Control — Pullup, Slew Rate, and Drive Strength
Associated with the parallel I/O ports is a set of registers located in the high page register space that operate
independently of the parallel I/O registers. These registers are used to control pullups, slew rate, and drive
strength for the pins.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
78
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 6 Parallel Input/Output Control
6.3
Pin Behavior in Stop Modes
Pin behavior following execution of a STOP instruction depends on the stop mode that is entered. An
explanation of pin behavior for the various stop modes follows:
• In stop1 mode, all internal registers including parallel I/O control and data registers are powered
off. Each of the pins assumes its default reset state (output buffer and internal pullup disabled).
Upon exit from stop1, all pins must be re-configured the same as if the MCU had been reset by
POR.
• Stop2 mode is a partial power-down mode, whereby latches maintain the pin state as before the
STOP instruction was executed. CPU register status and the state of I/O registers must be saved in
RAM before the STOP instruction is executed to place the MCU in stop2 mode. Upon recovery
from stop2 mode, before accessing any I/O, the user must examine the state of the PPDF bit in the
SPMSC2 register. If the PPDF bit is 0, I/O must be initialized as if a power on reset had occurred.
If the PPDF bit is 1, I/O data previously stored in RAM, before the STOP instruction was executed,
and peripherals previously enabled will require being initialized and restored to their pre-stop
condition. The user must then write a 1 to the PPDACK bit in the SPMSC2 register. Access of pins
is now permitted again in the user application program.
• In stop3 mode, all pin states are maintained because internal logic stays powered up. Upon
recovery, all pin functions are the same as before entering stop3.
6.4
Parallel I/O Registers
6.4.1
Port A Registers
This section provides information about the registers associated with the parallel I/O ports.
Refer to tables in Chapter 4, “Memory Map and Register Definition,” for the absolute address assignments
for all parallel I/O. This section refers to registers and control bits only by their names. A Freescale
Semiconductor-provided equate or header file normally is used to translate these names into the
appropriate absolute addresses.
6.4.1.1
R
Port A Data (PTAD)
7
6
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
PTAD51
PTAD42
PTAD3
PTAD2
PTAD1
PTAD0
0
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset:
0
0
Figure 6-2. Port A Data Register (PTAD)
1
2
Reads of bit PTAD5 always return the pin value of PTA5, regardless of the value stored in bit PTADD5.
Reads of bit PTAD4 always return the contents of PTAD4, regardless of the value stored in bit PTADD4.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
79
Chapter 6 Parallel Input/Output Control
Table 6-1. PTAD Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
5:0
PTAD[5:0]
Port A Data Register Bits — For port A pins that are inputs, reads return the logic level on the pin. For port A
pins that are configured as outputs, reads return the last value written to this register.
Writes are latched into all bits of this register. For port A pins that are configured as outputs, the logic level is
driven out the corresponding MCU pin.
Reset forces PTAD to all 0s, but these 0s are not driven out the corresponding pins because reset also configures
all port pins as high-impedance inputs with pullups disabled.
6.4.1.2
R
Port A Data Direction (PTADD)
7
6
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
PTADD51
PTADD42
PTADD3
PTADD2
PTADD1
PTADD0
0
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset:
0
0
Figure 6-3. Port A Data Direction Register (PTADD)
1
PTADD5 has no effect on the input-only PTA5 pin.
PTADD4 has no effect on the output-only PTA4 pin.
2
Table 6-2. PTADD Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
5:0
Data Direction for Port A Bits — These read/write bits control the direction of port A pins and what is read for
PTADD[5:0] PTAD reads.
0 Input (output driver disabled) and reads return the pin value.
1 Output driver enabled for port A bit n and PTAD reads return the contents of PTADn.
6.4.2
Port A Control Registers
The pins associated with port A are controlled by the registers in this section. These registers control the
pin pullup, slew rate, and drive strength of the port A pins independent of the parallel I/O register.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
80
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 6 Parallel Input/Output Control
6.4.2.1
Port A Internal Pullup Enable (PTAPE)
An internal pullup device can be enabled for each port pin by setting the corresponding bit in the pullup
enable register (PTAPEn). The pullup device is disabled if the pin is configured as an output by the parallel
I/O control logic or any shared peripheral function regardless of the state of the corresponding pullup
enable register bit. The pullup device is also disabled if the pin is controlled by an analog function.
R
7
6
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
PTAPE5
PTAPE41
PTAPE3
PTAPE2
PTAPE1
PTAPE0
0
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset:
0
0
Figure 6-4. Internal Pullup Enable for Port A Register (PTAPE)
1
PTAPE4 has no effect on the output-only PTA4 pin.
Table 6-3. PTAPE Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
5:0
Internal Pullup Enable for Port A Bits — Each of these control bits determines if the internal pullup device is
PTAPE[5:0] enabled for the associated PTA pin. For port A pins that are configured as outputs, these bits have no effect and
the internal pullup devices are disabled.
0 Internal pullup device disabled for port A bit n.
1 Internal pullup device enabled for port A bit n.
6.4.2.2
Port A Slew Rate Enable (PTASE)
Slew rate control can be enabled for each port pin by setting the corresponding bit in the slew rate control
register (PTASEn). When enabled, slew control limits the rate at which an output can transition to reduce
EMC emissions. Slew rate control has no effect on pins which are configured as inputs.
R
7
6
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
PTASE51
PTASE4
PTASE3
PTASE2
PTASE1
PTASE0
1
1
1
1
1
1
W
Reset:
0
0
Figure 6-6. Slew Rate Enable for Port A Register (PTASE)
1
PTASE5 has no effect on the input-only PTA5 pin.
Table 6-4. PTASE Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
5:0
Output Slew Rate Enable for Port A Bits — Each of these control bits determines if the output slew rate control
PTASE[5:0] is enabled for the associated PTA pin. For port A pins that are configured as inputs, these bits have no effect.
0 Output slew rate control disabled for port A bit n.
1 Output slew rate control enabled for port A bit n.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
81
Chapter 6 Parallel Input/Output Control
6.4.2.3
Port A Drive Strength Select (PTADS)
An output pin can be selected to have high output drive strength by setting the corresponding bit in the
drive strength select register (PTADS). When high drive is selected, a pin is capable of sourcing and
sinking greater current. Even though every I/O pin can be selected as high drive, the user must ensure that
the total current source and sink limits for the chip are not exceeded. Drive strength selection is intended
to affect the DC behavior of I/O pins. However, the AC behavior is also affected. High drive allows a pin
to drive a greater load with the same switching speed as a low drive enabled pin into a smaller load.
Because of this the EMC emissions may be affected by enabling pins as high drive.
6.4.2.4
R
Port A Drive Strength Select (PTADS)
7
6
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
PTADS51
PTADS4
PTADS3
PTADS2
PTADS1
PTADS0
0
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset:
0
0
Figure 6-8. Drive Strength Selection for Port A Register (PTADS)
1
PTADS5 has no effect on the input-only PTA5 pin.
Table 6-5. PTADS Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
5:0
Output Drive Strength Selection for Port A Bits — Each of these control bits selects between low and high
PTADS[5:0] output drive for the associated PTA pin. For port A pins that are configured as inputs, these bits have no effect.
0 Low output drive strength selected for port A bit n.
1 High output drive strength selected for port A bit n.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
82
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 6 Parallel Input/Output Control
6.4.3
Port B Registers
This section provides information about the registers associated with the parallel I/O ports.
Refer to tables in Chapter 4, “Memory Map and Register Definition,” for the absolute address assignments
for all parallel I/O. This section refers to registers and control bits only by their names. A Freescale
Semiconductor-provided equate or header file normally is used to translate these names into the
appropriate absolute addresses.
6.4.3.1
Port B Data (PTBD)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PTBD7
PTBD6
PTBD5
PTBD4
PTBD3
PTBD2
PTBD1
PTBD0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset:
Figure 6-10. Port B Data Register (PTBD)
Table 6-6. PTBD Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:0
PTBD[7:0]
Port B Data Register Bits — For port B pins that are inputs, reads return the logic level on the pin. For port B
pins that are configured as outputs, reads return the last value written to this register.
Writes are latched into all bits of this register. For port B pins that are configured as outputs, the logic level is
driven out the corresponding MCU pin.
Reset forces PTBD to all 0s, but these 0s are not driven out the corresponding pins because reset also configures
all port pins as high-impedance inputs with pullups disabled.
6.4.3.2
Port B Data Direction (PTBDD)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PTBDD7
PTBDD6
PTBDD5
PTBDD4
PTBDD3
PTBDD2
PTBDD1
PTBDD0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset:
Figure 6-11. Data Direction for Port B (PTBDD)
Table 6-7. PTBDD Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:0
Data Direction for Port B Bits — These read/write bits control the direction of port B pins and what is read for
PTBDD[7:0] PTBD reads.
0 Input (output driver disabled) and reads return the pin value.
1 Output driver enabled for port B bit n and PTBD reads return the contents of PTBDn.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
83
Chapter 6 Parallel Input/Output Control
6.4.4
Port B Control Registers
The pins associated with port B are controlled by the registers in this section. These registers control the
pin pullup, slew rate, and drive strength of the port B pins independent of the parallel I/O register.
6.4.4.1
Port B Internal Pullup Enable (PTBPE)
An internal pullup device can be enabled for each port pin by setting the corresponding bit in the pullup
enable register (PTBPEn). The pullup device is disabled if the pin is configured as an output by the parallel
I/O control logic or any shared peripheral function regardless of the state of the corresponding pullup
enable register bit. The pullup device is also disabled if the pin is controlled by an analog function.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PTBPE7
PTBPE6
PTBPE5
PTBPE4
PTBPE3
PTBPE2
PTBPE1
PTBPE0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset:
Figure 6-12. Internal Pullup Enable for Port B Register (PTBPE)
Table 6-8. PTBPE Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:0
Internal Pullup Enable for Port B Bits — Each of these control bits determines if the internal pullup device is
PTBPE[7:0] enabled for the associated PTB pin. For port B pins that are configured as outputs, these bits have no effect and
the internal pullup devices are disabled.
0 Internal pullup device disabled for port B bit n.
1 Internal pullup device enabled for port B bit n.
6.4.4.2
Port B Slew Rate Enable (PTBSE)
Slew rate control can be enabled for each port pin by setting the corresponding bit in the slew rate control
register (PTBSEn). When enabled, slew control limits the rate at which an output can transition in order to
reduce EMC emissions. Slew rate control has no effect on pins which are configured as input.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PTBSE7
PTBSE6
PTBSE5
PTBSE4
PTBSE3
PTBSE2
PTBSE1
PTBSE0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
R
W
Reset:
Figure 6-14. Slew Rate Enable for Port B Register (PTBSE)
Table 6-9. PTBSE Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:0
Output Slew Rate Enable for Port B Bits — Each of these control bits determines if the output slew rate control
PTBSE[7:0] is enabled for the associated PTB pin. For port B pins that are configured as inputs, these bits have no effect.
0 Output slew rate control disabled for port B bit n.
1 Output slew rate control enabled for port B bit n.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
84
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 6 Parallel Input/Output Control
6.4.4.3
Port B Drive Strength Select (PTBDS)
An output pin can be selected to have high output drive strength by setting the corresponding bit in the
drive strength select register (PTBDSn). When high drive is selected, a pin is capable of sourcing and
sinking greater current. Even though every I/O pin can be selected as high drive, the user must ensure that
the total current source and sink limits for the chip are not exceeded. Drive strength selection is intended
to affect the DC behavior of I/O pins. However, the AC behavior is also affected. High drive allows a pin
to drive a greater load with the same switching speed as a low drive enabled pin into a smaller load.
Because of this the EMC emissions may be affected by enabling pins as high drive.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PTBDS7
PTBDS6
PTBDS5
PTBDS4
PTBDS3
PTBDS2
PTBDS1
PTBDS0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset:
Figure 6-16. Drive Strength Selection for Port B Register (PTBDS)
Table 6-10. PTBDS Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:0
Output Drive Strength Selection for Port B Bits — Each of these control bits selects between low and high
PTBDS[7:0] output drive for the associated PTB pin. For port B pins that are configured as inputs, these bits have no effect.
0 Low output drive strength selected for port B bit n.
1 High output drive strength selected for port B bit n.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
85
Chapter 6 Parallel Input/Output Control
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
86
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7
Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
7.1
Introduction
This section provides summary information about the registers, addressing modes, and instruction set of
the CPU of the HCS08 Family. For a more detailed discussion, refer to the HCS08 Family Reference
Manual, volume 1, Freescale Semiconductor document order number HCS08RMV1/D.
The HCS08 CPU is fully source- and object-code-compatible with the M68HC08 CPU. Several
instructions and enhanced addressing modes were added to improve C compiler efficiency and to support
a new background debug system which replaces the monitor mode of earlier M68HC08 microcontrollers
(MCU).
7.1.1
Features
Features of the HCS08 CPU include:
• Object code fully upward-compatible with M68HC05 and M68HC08 Families
• All registers and memory are mapped to a single 64-Kbyte address space
• 16-bit stack pointer (any size stack anywhere in 64-Kbyte address space)
• 16-bit index register (H:X) with powerful indexed addressing modes
• 8-bit accumulator (A)
• Many instructions treat X as a second general-purpose 8-bit register
• Seven addressing modes:
— Inherent — Operands in internal registers
— Relative — 8-bit signed offset to branch destination
— Immediate — Operand in next object code byte(s)
— Direct — Operand in memory at 0x0000–0x00FF
— Extended — Operand anywhere in 64-Kbyte address space
— Indexed relative to H:X — Five submodes including auto increment
— Indexed relative to SP — Improves C efficiency dramatically
• Memory-to-memory data move instructions with four address mode combinations
• Overflow, half-carry, negative, zero, and carry condition codes support conditional branching on
the results of signed, unsigned, and binary-coded decimal (BCD) operations
• Efficient bit manipulation instructions
• Fast 8-bit by 8-bit multiply and 16-bit by 8-bit divide instructions
• STOP and WAIT instructions to invoke low-power operating modes
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
87
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
7.2
Programmer’s Model and CPU Registers
Figure 7-1 shows the five CPU registers. CPU registers are not part of the memory map.
7
0
ACCUMULATOR
A
16-BIT INDEX REGISTER H:X
H INDEX REGISTER (HIGH)
8
15
INDEX REGISTER (LOW)
7
X
0
SP
STACK POINTER
0
15
PROGRAM COUNTER
7
0
CONDITION CODE REGISTER V 1 1 H I N Z C
PC
CCR
CARRY
ZERO
NEGATIVE
INTERRUPT MASK
HALF-CARRY (FROM BIT 3)
TWO’S COMPLEMENT OVERFLOW
Figure 7-1. CPU Registers
7.2.1
Accumulator (A)
The A accumulator is a general-purpose 8-bit register. One operand input to the arithmetic logic unit
(ALU) is connected to the accumulator and the ALU results are often stored into the A accumulator after
arithmetic and logical operations. The accumulator can be loaded from memory using various addressing
modes to specify the address where the loaded data comes from, or the contents of A can be stored to
memory using various addressing modes to specify the address where data from A will be stored.
Reset has no effect on the contents of the A accumulator.
7.2.2
Index Register (H:X)
This 16-bit register is actually two separate 8-bit registers (H and X), which often work together as a 16-bit
address pointer where H holds the upper byte of an address and X holds the lower byte of the address. All
indexed addressing mode instructions use the full 16-bit value in H:X as an index reference pointer;
however, for compatibility with the earlier M68HC05 Family, some instructions operate only on the
low-order 8-bit half (X).
Many instructions treat X as a second general-purpose 8-bit register that can be used to hold 8-bit data
values. X can be cleared, incremented, decremented, complemented, negated, shifted, or rotated. Transfer
instructions allow data to be transferred from A or transferred to A where arithmetic and logical operations
can then be performed.
For compatibility with the earlier M68HC05 Family, H is forced to 0x00 during reset. Reset has no effect
on the contents of X.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
88
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
7.2.3
Stack Pointer (SP)
This 16-bit address pointer register points at the next available location on the automatic last-in-first-out
(LIFO) stack. The stack may be located anywhere in the 64-Kbyte address space that has RAM and can
be any size up to the amount of available RAM. The stack is used to automatically save the return address
for subroutine calls, the return address and CPU registers during interrupts, and for local variables. The
AIS (add immediate to stack pointer) instruction adds an 8-bit signed immediate value to SP. This is most
often used to allocate or deallocate space for local variables on the stack.
SP is forced to 0x00FF at reset for compatibility with the earlier M68HC05 Family. HCS08 programs
normally change the value in SP to the address of the last location (highest address) in on-chip RAM
during reset initialization to free up direct page RAM (from the end of the on-chip registers to 0x00FF).
The RSP (reset stack pointer) instruction was included for compatibility with the M68HC05 Family and
is seldom used in new HCS08 programs because it only affects the low-order half of the stack pointer.
7.2.4
Program Counter (PC)
The program counter is a 16-bit register that contains the address of the next instruction or operand to be
fetched.
During normal program execution, the program counter automatically increments to the next sequential
memory location every time an instruction or operand is fetched. Jump, branch, interrupt, and return
operations load the program counter with an address other than that of the next sequential location. This
is called a change-of-flow.
During reset, the program counter is loaded with the reset vector that is located at 0xFFFE and 0xFFFF.
The vector stored there is the address of the first instruction that will be executed after exiting the reset
state.
7.2.5
Condition Code Register (CCR)
The 8-bit condition code register contains the interrupt mask (I) and five flags that indicate the results of
the instruction just executed. Bits 6 and 5 are set permanently to 1. The following paragraphs describe the
functions of the condition code bits in general terms. For a more detailed explanation of how each
instruction sets the CCR bits, refer to the HCS08 Family Reference Manual, volume 1, Freescale
Semiconductor document order number HCS08RMv1.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
89
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
7
0
CONDITION CODE REGISTER V 1 1 H I N Z C
CCR
CARRY
ZERO
NEGATIVE
INTERRUPT MASK
HALF-CARRY (FROM BIT 3)
TWO’S COMPLEMENT OVERFLOW
Figure 7-2. Condition Code Register
Table 7-1. CCR Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
V
Two’s Complement Overflow Flag — The CPU sets the overflow flag when a two’s complement overflow occurs.
The signed branch instructions BGT, BGE, BLE, and BLT use the overflow flag.
0 No overflow
1 Overflow
4
H
Half-Carry Flag — The CPU sets the half-carry flag when a carry occurs between accumulator bits 3 and 4 during
an add-without-carry (ADD) or add-with-carry (ADC) operation. The half-carry flag is required for binary-coded
decimal (BCD) arithmetic operations. The DAA instruction uses the states of the H and C condition code bits to
automatically add a correction value to the result from a previous ADD or ADC on BCD operands to correct the
result to a valid BCD value.
0 No carry between bits 3 and 4
1 Carry between bits 3 and 4
3
I
Interrupt Mask Bit — When the interrupt mask is set, all maskable CPU interrupts are disabled. CPU interrupts
are enabled when the interrupt mask is cleared. When a CPU interrupt occurs, the interrupt mask is set
automatically after the CPU registers are saved on the stack, but before the first instruction of the interrupt service
routine is executed.
Interrupts are not recognized at the instruction boundary after any instruction that clears I (CLI or TAP). This
ensures that the next instruction after a CLI or TAP will always be executed without the possibility of an intervening
interrupt, provided I was set.
0 Interrupts enabled
1 Interrupts disabled
2
N
Negative Flag — The CPU sets the negative flag when an arithmetic operation, logic operation, or data
manipulation produces a negative result, setting bit 7 of the result. Simply loading or storing an 8-bit or 16-bit value
causes N to be set if the most significant bit of the loaded or stored value was 1.
0 Non-negative result
1 Negative result
1
Z
Zero Flag — The CPU sets the zero flag when an arithmetic operation, logic operation, or data manipulation
produces a result of 0x00 or 0x0000. Simply loading or storing an 8-bit or 16-bit value causes Z to be set if the
loaded or stored value was all 0s.
0 Non-zero result
1 Zero result
0
C
Carry/Borrow Flag — The CPU sets the carry/borrow flag when an addition operation produces a carry out of bit
7 of the accumulator or when a subtraction operation requires a borrow. Some instructions — such as bit test and
branch, shift, and rotate — also clear or set the carry/borrow flag.
0 No carry out of bit 7
1 Carry out of bit 7
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
90
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
7.3
Addressing Modes
Addressing modes define the way the CPU accesses operands and data. In the HCS08, all memory, status
and control registers, and input/output (I/O) ports share a single 64-Kbyte linear address space so a 16-bit
binary address can uniquely identify any memory location. This arrangement means that the same
instructions that access variables in RAM can also be used to access I/O and control registers or nonvolatile
program space.
Some instructions use more than one addressing mode. For instance, move instructions use one addressing
mode to specify the source operand and a second addressing mode to specify the destination address.
Instructions such as BRCLR, BRSET, CBEQ, and DBNZ use one addressing mode to specify the location
of an operand for a test and then use relative addressing mode to specify the branch destination address
when the tested condition is true. For BRCLR, BRSET, CBEQ, and DBNZ, the addressing mode listed in
the instruction set tables is the addressing mode needed to access the operand to be tested, and relative
addressing mode is implied for the branch destination.
7.3.1
Inherent Addressing Mode (INH)
In this addressing mode, operands needed to complete the instruction (if any) are located within CPU
registers so the CPU does not need to access memory to get any operands.
7.3.2
Relative Addressing Mode (REL)
Relative addressing mode is used to specify the destination location for branch instructions. A signed 8-bit
offset value is located in the memory location immediately following the opcode. During execution, if the
branch condition is true, the signed offset is sign-extended to a 16-bit value and is added to the current
contents of the program counter, which causes program execution to continue at the branch destination
address.
7.3.3
Immediate Addressing Mode (IMM)
In immediate addressing mode, the operand needed to complete the instruction is included in the object
code immediately following the instruction opcode in memory. In the case of a 16-bit immediate operand,
the high-order byte is located in the next memory location after the opcode, and the low-order byte is
located in the next memory location after that.
7.3.4
Direct Addressing Mode (DIR)
In direct addressing mode, the instruction includes the low-order eight bits of an address in the direct page
(0x0000–0x00FF). During execution a 16-bit address is formed by concatenating an implied 0x00 for the
high-order half of the address and the direct address from the instruction to get the 16-bit address where
the desired operand is located. This is faster and more memory efficient than specifying a complete 16-bit
address for the operand.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
91
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
7.3.5
Extended Addressing Mode (EXT)
In extended addressing mode, the full 16-bit address of the operand is located in the next two bytes of
program memory after the opcode (high byte first).
7.3.6
Indexed Addressing Mode
Indexed addressing mode has seven variations including five that use the 16-bit H:X index register pair
and two that use the stack pointer as the base reference.
7.3.6.1
Indexed, No Offset (IX)
This variation of indexed addressing uses the 16-bit value in the H:X index register pair as the address of
the operand needed to complete the instruction.
7.3.6.2
Indexed, No Offset with Post Increment (IX+)
This variation of indexed addressing uses the 16-bit value in the H:X index register pair as the address of
the operand needed to complete the instruction. The index register pair is then incremented
(H:X = H:X + 0x0001) after the operand has been fetched. This addressing mode is only used for MOV
and CBEQ instructions.
7.3.6.3
Indexed, 8-Bit Offset (IX1)
This variation of indexed addressing uses the 16-bit value in the H:X index register pair plus an unsigned
8-bit offset included in the instruction as the address of the operand needed to complete the instruction.
7.3.6.4
Indexed, 8-Bit Offset with Post Increment (IX1+)
This variation of indexed addressing uses the 16-bit value in the H:X index register pair plus an unsigned
8-bit offset included in the instruction as the address of the operand needed to complete the instruction.
The index register pair is then incremented (H:X = H:X + 0x0001) after the operand has been fetched. This
addressing mode is used only for the CBEQ instruction.
7.3.6.5
Indexed, 16-Bit Offset (IX2)
This variation of indexed addressing uses the 16-bit value in the H:X index register pair plus a 16-bit offset
included in the instruction as the address of the operand needed to complete the instruction.
7.3.6.6
SP-Relative, 8-Bit Offset (SP1)
This variation of indexed addressing uses the 16-bit value in the stack pointer (SP) plus an unsigned 8-bit
offset included in the instruction as the address of the operand needed to complete the instruction.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
92
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
7.3.6.7
SP-Relative, 16-Bit Offset (SP2)
This variation of indexed addressing uses the 16-bit value in the stack pointer (SP) plus a 16-bit offset
included in the instruction as the address of the operand needed to complete the instruction.
7.4
Special Operations
The CPU performs a few special operations that are similar to instructions but do not have opcodes like
other CPU instructions. In addition, a few instructions such as STOP and WAIT directly affect other MCU
circuitry. This section provides additional information about these operations.
7.4.1
Reset Sequence
Reset can be caused by a power-on-reset (POR) event, internal conditions such as the COP (computer
operating properly) watchdog, or by assertion of an external active-low reset pin. When a reset event
occurs, the CPU immediately stops whatever it is doing (the MCU does not wait for an instruction
boundary before responding to a reset event). For a more detailed discussion about how the MCU
recognizes resets and determines the source, refer to the Resets, Interrupts, and System Configuration
chapter.
The reset event is considered concluded when the sequence to determine whether the reset came from an
internal source is done and when the reset pin is no longer asserted. At the conclusion of a reset event, the
CPU performs a 6-cycle sequence to fetch the reset vector from 0xFFFE and 0xFFFF and to fill the
instruction queue in preparation for execution of the first program instruction.
7.4.2
Interrupt Sequence
When an interrupt is requested, the CPU completes the current instruction before responding to the
interrupt. At this point, the program counter is pointing at the start of the next instruction, which is where
the CPU should return after servicing the interrupt. The CPU responds to an interrupt by performing the
same sequence of operations as for a software interrupt (SWI) instruction, except the address used for the
vector fetch is determined by the highest priority interrupt that is pending when the interrupt sequence
started.
The CPU sequence for an interrupt is:
1. Store the contents of PCL, PCH, X, A, and CCR on the stack, in that order.
2. Set the I bit in the CCR.
3. Fetch the high-order half of the interrupt vector.
4. Fetch the low-order half of the interrupt vector.
5. Delay for one free bus cycle.
6. Fetch three bytes of program information starting at the address indicated by the interrupt vector
to fill the instruction queue in preparation for execution of the first instruction in the interrupt
service routine.
After the CCR contents are pushed onto the stack, the I bit in the CCR is set to prevent other interrupts
while in the interrupt service routine. Although it is possible to clear the I bit with an instruction in the
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
93
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
interrupt service routine, this would allow nesting of interrupts (which is not recommended because it
leads to programs that are difficult to debug and maintain).
For compatibility with the earlier M68HC05 MCUs, the high-order half of the H:X index register pair (H)
is not saved on the stack as part of the interrupt sequence. The user must use a PSHH instruction at the
beginning of the service routine to save H and then use a PULH instruction just before the RTI that ends
the interrupt service routine. It is not necessary to save H if you are certain that the interrupt service routine
does not use any instructions or auto-increment addressing modes that might change the value of H.
The software interrupt (SWI) instruction is like a hardware interrupt except that it is not masked by the
global I bit in the CCR and it is associated with an instruction opcode within the program so it is not
asynchronous to program execution.
7.4.3
Wait Mode Operation
The WAIT instruction enables interrupts by clearing the I bit in the CCR. It then halts the clocks to the
CPU to reduce overall power consumption while the CPU is waiting for the interrupt or reset event that
will wake the CPU from wait mode. When an interrupt or reset event occurs, the CPU clocks will resume
and the interrupt or reset event will be processed normally.
If a serial BACKGROUND command is issued to the MCU through the background debug interface while
the CPU is in wait mode, CPU clocks will resume and the CPU will enter active background mode where
other serial background commands can be processed. This ensures that a host development system can still
gain access to a target MCU even if it is in wait mode.
7.4.4
Stop Mode Operation
Usually, all system clocks, including the crystal oscillator (when used), are halted during stop mode to
minimize power consumption. In such systems, external circuitry is needed to control the time spent in
stop mode and to issue a signal to wake up the target MCU when it is time to resume processing. Unlike
the earlier M68HC05 and M68HC08 MCUs, the HCS08 can be configured to keep a minimum set of
clocks running in stop mode. This optionally allows an internal periodic signal to wake the target MCU
from stop mode.
When a host debug system is connected to the background debug pin (BKGD) and the ENBDM control
bit has been set by a serial command through the background interface (or because the MCU was reset into
active background mode), the oscillator is forced to remain active when the MCU enters stop mode. In this
case, if a serial BACKGROUND command is issued to the MCU through the background debug interface
while the CPU is in stop mode, CPU clocks will resume and the CPU will enter active background mode
where other serial background commands can be processed. This ensures that a host development system
can still gain access to a target MCU even if it is in stop mode.
Recovery from stop mode depends on the particular HCS08 and whether the oscillator was stopped in stop
mode. Refer to the Modes of Operation chapter for more details.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
94
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
7.4.5
BGND Instruction
The BGND instruction is new to the HCS08 compared to the M68HC08. BGND would not be used in
normal user programs because it forces the CPU to stop processing user instructions and enter the active
background mode. The only way to resume execution of the user program is through reset or by a host
debug system issuing a GO, TRACE1, or TAGGO serial command through the background debug
interface.
Software-based breakpoints can be set by replacing an opcode at the desired breakpoint address with the
BGND opcode. When the program reaches this breakpoint address, the CPU is forced to active
background mode rather than continuing the user program.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
95
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
7.5
HCS08 Instruction Set Summary
Table 7-2 provides a summary of the HCS08 instruction set in all possible addressing modes. The table
shows operand construction, execution time in internal bus clock cycles, and cycle-by-cycle details for
each addressing mode variation of each instruction.
ADC
ADC
ADC
ADC
ADC
ADC
ADC
ADC
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
ADD
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
Operation
Add with Carry
A ← (A) + (M) + (C)
Add without Carry
A ← (A) + (M)
Object Code
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
A9
B9
C9
D9
E9
F9
9E D9
9E E9
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
AB
BB
CB
DB
EB
FB
9E DB
9E EB
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
Cycles
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-2. . Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 1 of 9)
Cyc-by-Cyc
Details
Affect
on CCR
VH I N Z C
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
–
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
–
AIS #opr8i
Add Immediate Value (Signed) to
Stack Pointer
SP ← (SP) + (M)
IMM
A7 ii
2
pp
–– – – – –
AIX #opr8i
Add Immediate Value (Signed) to
Index Register (H:X)
H:X ← (H:X) + (M)
IMM
AF ii
2
pp
–– – – – –
Logical AND
A ← (A) & (M)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
A4
B4
C4
D4
E4
F4
9E D4
9E E4
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
0– –
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
38 dd
48
58
68 ff
78
9E 68 ff
5
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
– –
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
37 dd
47
57
67 ff
77
9E 67 ff
5
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
– –
REL
24 rr
3
ppp
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
ASL opr8a
ASLA
ASLX
ASL oprx8,X
ASL ,X
ASL oprx8,SP
ASR opr8a
ASRA
ASRX
ASR oprx8,X
ASR ,X
ASR oprx8,SP
BCC rel
Arithmetic Shift Left
C
0
b7
b0
(Same as LSL)
Arithmetic Shift Right
C
b7
b0
Branch if Carry Bit Clear
(if C = 0)
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
–
–– – – – –
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
96
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
Operation
Object Code
Cycles
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-2. . Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 2 of 9)
Cyc-by-Cyc
Details
Affect
on CCR
VH I N Z C
11
13
15
17
19
1B
1D
1F
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
–– – – – –
BCLR n,opr8a
Clear Bit n in Memory
(Mn ← 0)
DIR (b0)
DIR (b1)
DIR (b2)
DIR (b3)
DIR (b4)
DIR (b5)
DIR (b6)
DIR (b7)
BCS rel
Branch if Carry Bit Set (if C = 1)
(Same as BLO)
REL
25 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BEQ rel
Branch if Equal (if Z = 1)
REL
27 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BGE rel
Branch if Greater Than or Equal To
(if N ⊕ V = 0) (Signed)
REL
90 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BGND
Enter active background if ENBDM=1
Waits for and processes BDM commands
until GO, TRACE1, or TAGGO
INH
82
5+
fp...ppp
–– – – – –
BGT rel
Branch if Greater Than (if Z | (N ⊕ V) = 0)
(Signed)
REL
92 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BHCC rel
Branch if Half Carry Bit Clear (if H = 0)
REL
28 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BHCS rel
Branch if Half Carry Bit Set (if H = 1)
REL
29 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BHI rel
Branch if Higher (if C | Z = 0)
REL
22 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BHS rel
Branch if Higher or Same (if C = 0)
(Same as BCC)
REL
24 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BIH rel
Branch if IRQ Pin High (if IRQ pin = 1)
REL
2F rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BIL rel
Branch if IRQ Pin Low (if IRQ pin = 0)
REL
2E rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
Bit Test
(A) & (M)
(CCR Updated but Operands Not Changed)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
0– –
BIT
BIT
BIT
BIT
BIT
BIT
BIT
BIT
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
A5
B5
C5
D5
E5
F5
9E D5
9E E5
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
–
BLE rel
Branch if Less Than or Equal To
(if Z | (N ⊕ V) = 1) (Signed)
REL
93 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BLO rel
Branch if Lower (if C = 1) (Same as BCS)
REL
25 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BLS rel
Branch if Lower or Same (if C | Z = 1)
REL
23 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BLT rel
Branch if Less Than (if N ⊕ V = 1) (Signed)
REL
91 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BMC rel
Branch if Interrupt Mask Clear (if I = 0)
REL
2C rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BMI rel
Branch if Minus (if N = 1)
REL
2B rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BMS rel
Branch if Interrupt Mask Set (if I = 1)
REL
2D rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BNE rel
Branch if Not Equal (if Z = 0)
REL
26 rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
BPL rel
Branch if Plus (if N = 0)
REL
2A rr
3
ppp
–– – – – –
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
97
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
Operation
BRA rel
Branch Always (if I = 1)
BRCLR n,opr8a,rel
DIR (b0)
DIR (b1)
DIR (b2)
DIR (b3)
Branch if Bit n in Memory Clear (if (Mn) = 0)
DIR (b4)
DIR (b5)
DIR (b6)
DIR (b7)
01
03
05
07
09
0B
0D
0F
BRN rel
Branch Never (if I = 0)
REL
21 rr
Branch if Bit n in Memory Set (if (Mn) = 1)
DIR (b0)
DIR (b1)
DIR (b2)
DIR (b3)
DIR (b4)
DIR (b5)
DIR (b6)
DIR (b7)
00
02
04
06
08
0A
0C
0E
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
BSET n,opr8a
Set Bit n in Memory (Mn ← 1)
DIR (b0)
DIR (b1)
DIR (b2)
DIR (b3)
DIR (b4)
DIR (b5)
DIR (b6)
DIR (b7)
10
12
14
16
18
1A
1C
1E
BSR rel
Branch to Subroutine
PC ← (PC) + $0002
push (PCL); SP ← (SP) – $0001
push (PCH); SP ← (SP) – $0001
PC ← (PC) + rel
REL
BRSET n,opr8a,rel
Branch if (A) = (M)
Branch if (A) = (M)
Branch if (X) = (M)
Branch if (A) = (M)
Branch if (A) = (M)
Branch if (A) = (M)
REL
Object Code
DIR
IMM
IMM
IX1+
IX+
SP1
Cycles
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-2. . Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 3 of 9)
Cyc-by-Cyc
Details
Affect
on CCR
VH I N Z C
3
ppp
–– – – – –
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
–– – – –
3
ppp
–– – – – –
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
rpppp
–– – – –
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
rfwpp
–– – – – –
AD rr
5
ssppp
–– – – – –
5
4
4
5
5
6
rpppp
pppp
pppp
rpppp
rfppp
prpppp
–– – – – –
20 rr
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
CBEQ opr8a,rel
CBEQA #opr8i,rel
CBEQX #opr8i,rel
CBEQ oprx8,X+,rel
CBEQ ,X+,rel
CBEQ oprx8,SP,rel
Compare and...
CLC
Clear Carry Bit (C ← 0)
INH
98
1
p
–– – – – 0
CLI
Clear Interrupt Mask Bit (I ← 0)
INH
9A
1
p
–– 0 – – –
CLR opr8a
CLRA
CLRX
CLRH
CLR oprx8,X
CLR ,X
CLR oprx8,SP
Clear
DIR
INH
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
3F dd
4F
5F
8C
6F ff
7F
9E 6F ff
5
1
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
0– – 0 1 –
M ← $00
A ← $00
X ← $00
H ← $00
M ← $00
M ← $00
M ← $00
31
41
51
61
71
9E 61
dd
ii
ii
ff
rr
ff
rr
rr
rr
rr
rr
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
98
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
CMP
CMP
CMP
CMP
CMP
CMP
CMP
CMP
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
Operation
Compare Accumulator with Memory
A–M
(CCR Updated But Operands Not Changed)
Object Code
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
A1
B1
C1
D1
E1
F1
9E D1
9E E1
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
Cycles
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-2. . Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 4 of 9)
Cyc-by-Cyc
Details
Affect
on CCR
VH I N Z C
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
5
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
0– –
– –
COM opr8a
COMA
COMX
COM oprx8,X
COM ,X
COM oprx8,SP
Complement
M ← (M)= $FF – (M)
(One’s Complement) A ← (A) = $FF – (A)
X ← (X) = $FF – (X)
M ← (M) = $FF – (M)
M ← (M) = $FF – (M)
M ← (M) = $FF – (M)
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
33 dd
43
53
63 ff
73
9E 63 ff
CPHX opr16a
CPHX #opr16i
CPHX opr8a
CPHX oprx8,SP
Compare Index Register (H:X) with Memory
(H:X) – (M:M + $0001)
(CCR Updated But Operands Not Changed)
EXT
IMM
DIR
SP1
3E
65
75
9E F3
hh ll
jj kk
dd
ff
6
3
5
6
prrfpp
ppp
rrfpp
prrfpp
– –
Compare X (Index Register Low) with
Memory
X–M
(CCR Updated But Operands Not Changed)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
A3
B3
C3
D3
E3
F3
9E D3
9E E3
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
– –
1
p
U– –
7
4
4
7
6
8
rfwpppp
fppp
fppp
rfwpppp
rfwppp
prfwpppp
–– – – – –
CPX
CPX
CPX
CPX
CPX
CPX
CPX
CPX
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
DAA
Decimal Adjust Accumulator
After ADD or ADC of BCD Values
INH
72
DBNZ opr8a,rel
DBNZA rel
DBNZX rel
DBNZ oprx8,X,rel
DBNZ ,X,rel
DBNZ oprx8,SP,rel
DIR
INH
Decrement A, X, or M and Branch if Not Zero
INH
(if (result) ≠ 0)
IX1
DBNZX Affects X Not H
IX
SP1
3B
4B
5B
6B
7B
9E 6B
DEC opr8a
DECA
DECX
DEC oprx8,X
DEC ,X
DEC oprx8,SP
Decrement
Divide
A ← (H:A)÷(X); H ← Remainder
DIV
EOR
EOR
EOR
EOR
EOR
EOR
EOR
EOR
M ← (M) – $01
A ← (A) – $01
X ← (X) – $01
M ← (M) – $01
M ← (M) – $01
M ← (M) – $01
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
Exclusive OR Memory with Accumulator
A ← (A ⊕ M)
ee ff
ff
dd rr
rr
rr
ff rr
rr
ff rr
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
3A dd
4A
5A
6A ff
7A
9E 6A ff
5
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
– –
INH
52
6
fffffp
–– – –
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
A8
B8
C8
D8
E8
F8
9E D8
9E E8
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
0– –
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
1
–
–
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
99
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
INC opr8a
INCA
INCX
INC oprx8,X
INC ,X
INC oprx8,SP
Operation
Increment
M ← (M) + $01
A ← (A) + $01
X ← (X) + $01
M ← (M) + $01
M ← (M) + $01
M ← (M) + $01
Object Code
Cycles
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-2. . Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 5 of 9)
Cyc-by-Cyc
Details
Affect
on CCR
VH I N Z C
5
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
3
4
4
3
3
ppp
pppp
pppp
ppp
ppp
–– – – – –
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
3C dd
4C
5C
6C ff
7C
9E 6C ff
BC
CC
DC
EC
FC
– –
–
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
JMP
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
Jump
PC ← Jump Address
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
JSR
JSR
JSR
JSR
JSR
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
Jump to Subroutine
PC ← (PC) + n (n = 1, 2, or 3)
Push (PCL); SP ← (SP) – $0001
Push (PCH); SP ← (SP) – $0001
PC ← Unconditional Address
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
BD
CD
DD
ED
FD
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
5
6
6
5
5
ssppp
pssppp
pssppp
ssppp
ssppp
–– – – – –
LDA
LDA
LDA
LDA
LDA
LDA
LDA
LDA
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
Load Accumulator from Memory
A ← (M)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
A6
B6
C6
D6
E6
F6
9E D6
9E E6
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
0– –
–
Load Index Register (H:X)
H:X ← (M:M + $0001)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX
IX2
IX1
SP1
jj kk
dd
hh ll
9E
9E
9E
9E
45
55
32
AE
BE
CE
FE
3
4
5
5
6
5
5
ppp
rrpp
prrpp
prrfp
pprrpp
prrpp
prrpp
0– –
–
Load X (Index Register Low) from Memory
X ← (M)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
AE
BE
CE
DE
EE
FE
9E DE
9E EE
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
0– –
–
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
38 dd
48
58
68 ff
78
9E 68 ff
5
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
–
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
34 dd
44
54
64 ff
74
9E 64 ff
5
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
– – 0
LDHX
LDHX
LDHX
LDHX
LDHX
LDHX
LDHX
LDX
LDX
LDX
LDX
LDX
LDX
LDX
LDX
#opr16i
opr8a
opr16a
,X
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
oprx8,SP
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
LSL opr8a
LSLA
LSLX
LSL oprx8,X
LSL ,X
LSL oprx8,SP
LSR opr8a
LSRA
LSRX
LSR oprx8,X
LSR ,X
LSR oprx8,SP
Logical Shift Left
C
0
b7
b0
(Same as ASL)
Logical Shift Right
0
C
b7
b0
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
ff
ee ff
ff
–
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
100
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
Operation
Object Code
Affect
on CCR
VH I N Z C
rpwpp
rfwpp
pwpp
rfwpp
0– –
42
5
ffffp
–0 – – – 0
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
30 dd
40
50
60 ff
70
9E 60 ff
5
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
No Operation — Uses 1 Bus Cycle
INH
9D
1
p
–– – – – –
Nibble Swap Accumulator
A ← (A[3:0]:A[7:4])
INH
62
1
p
–– – – – –
Inclusive OR Accumulator and Memory
A ← (A) | (M)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
AA
BA
CA
DA
EA
FA
9E DA
9E EA
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
0– –
Move
(M)destination ← (M)source
In IX+/DIR and DIR/IX+ Modes,
H:X ← (H:X) + $0001
DIR/DIR
DIR/IX+
IMM/DIR
IX+/DIR
4E
5E
6E
7E
MUL
Unsigned multiply
X:A ← (X) × (A)
INH
NEG opr8a
NEGA
NEGX
NEG oprx8,X
NEG ,X
NEG oprx8,SP
Negate
M ← – (M) = $00 – (M)
(Two’s Complement) A ← – (A) = $00 – (A)
X ← – (X) = $00 – (X)
M ← – (M) = $00 – (M)
M ← – (M) = $00 – (M)
M ← – (M) = $00 – (M)
NOP
NSA
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
Cyc-by-Cyc
Details
5
5
4
5
MOV opr8a,opr8a
MOV opr8a,X+
MOV #opr8i,opr8a
MOV ,X+,opr8a
ORA
ORA
ORA
ORA
ORA
ORA
ORA
ORA
Cycles
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-2. . Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 6 of 9)
dd dd
dd
ii dd
dd
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
–
–
–
–
PSHA
Push Accumulator onto Stack
Push (A); SP ← (SP) – $0001
INH
87
2
sp
–– – – – –
PSHH
Push H (Index Register High) onto Stack
Push (H); SP ← (SP) – $0001
INH
8B
2
sp
–– – – – –
PSHX
Push X (Index Register Low) onto Stack
Push (X); SP ← (SP) – $0001
INH
89
2
sp
–– – – – –
PULA
Pull Accumulator from Stack
SP ← (SP + $0001); Pull (A)
INH
86
3
ufp
–– – – – –
PULH
Pull H (Index Register High) from Stack
SP ← (SP + $0001); Pull (H)
INH
8A
3
ufp
–– – – – –
PULX
Pull X (Index Register Low) from Stack
SP ← (SP + $0001); Pull (X)
INH
88
3
ufp
–– – – – –
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
39 dd
49
59
69 ff
79
9E 69 ff
5
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
–
–
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
36 dd
46
56
66 ff
76
9E 66 ff
5
1
1
5
4
6
rfwpp
p
p
rfwpp
rfwp
prfwpp
–
–
ROL opr8a
ROLA
ROLX
ROL oprx8,X
ROL ,X
ROL oprx8,SP
Rotate Left through Carry
ROR opr8a
RORA
RORX
ROR oprx8,X
ROR ,X
ROR oprx8,SP
Rotate Right through Carry
C
b7
b0
C
b7
b0
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
101
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
Operation
Object Code
Cycles
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-2. . Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 7 of 9)
Cyc-by-Cyc
Details
VH I N Z C
RSP
Reset Stack Pointer (Low Byte)
SPL ← $FF
(High Byte Not Affected)
INH
9C
1
p
RTI
Return from Interrupt
SP ← (SP) + $0001;
SP ← (SP) + $0001;
SP ← (SP) + $0001;
SP ← (SP) + $0001;
SP ← (SP) + $0001;
INH
80
9
uuuuufppp
RTS
Return from Subroutine
SP ← SP + $0001; Pull (PCH)
SP ← SP + $0001; Pull (PCL)
INH
81
5
ufppp
Subtract with Carry
A ← (A) – (M) – (C)
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
A2
B2
C2
D2
E2
F2
9E D2
9E E2
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
SBC
SBC
SBC
SBC
SBC
SBC
SBC
SBC
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
Pull (CCR)
Pull (A)
Pull (X)
Pull (PCH)
Pull (PCL)
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
Affect
on CCR
–– – – – –
–– – – – –
–
–
SEC
Set Carry Bit
(C ← 1)
INH
99
1
p
–– – – – 1
SEI
Set Interrupt Mask Bit
(I ← 1)
INH
9B
1
p
–– 1 – – –
Store Accumulator in Memory
M ← (A)
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
B7
C7
D7
E7
F7
9E D7
9E E7
wpp
pwpp
pwpp
wpp
wp
ppwpp
pwpp
0–
–
–
ee ff
ff
3
4
4
3
2
5
4
35 dd
96 hh ll
9E FF ff
4
5
5
wwpp
pwwpp
pwwpp
0–
–
–
2
fp...
–– 0 – – –
3
4
4
3
2
5
4
wpp
pwpp
pwpp
wpp
wp
ppwpp
pwpp
0–
STA
STA
STA
STA
STA
STA
STA
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
STHX opr8a
STHX opr16a
STHX oprx8,SP
Store H:X (Index Reg.)
(M:M + $0001) ← (H:X)
DIR
EXT
SP1
STOP
Enable Interrupts: Stop Processing
Refer to MCU Documentation
I bit ← 0; Stop Processing
INH
8E
Store X (Low 8 Bits of Index Register)
in Memory
M ← (X)
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
BF
CF
DF
EF
FF
9E DF
9E EF
STX
STX
STX
STX
STX
STX
STX
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
–
–
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
102
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
Operation
Object Code
VH I N Z C
83
11
sssssvvfppp
INH
84
1
p
Transfer Accumulator to X (Index Register
Low)
X ← (A)
INH
97
1
p
–– – – – –
Transfer CCR to Accumulator
A ← (CCR)
INH
85
1
p
–– – – – –
DIR
INH
INH
IX1
IX
SP1
3D dd
4D
5D
6D ff
7D
9E 6D ff
4
1
1
4
3
5
rfpp
p
p
rfpp
rfp
prfpp
0–
SWI
Software Interrupt
PC ← (PC) + $0001
Push (PCL); SP ← (SP) – $0001
Push (PCH); SP ← (SP) – $0001
Push (X); SP ← (SP) – $0001
Push (A); SP ← (SP) – $0001
Push (CCR); SP ← (SP) – $0001
I ← 1;
PCH ← Interrupt Vector High Byte
PCL ← Interrupt Vector Low Byte
INH
TAP
Transfer Accumulator to CCR
CCR ← (A)
TAX
TPA
TST opr8a
TSTA
TSTX
TST oprx8,X
TST ,X
TST oprx8,SP
Affect
on CCR
pp
rpp
prpp
prpp
rpp
rfp
pprpp
prpp
A0
B0
C0
D0
E0
F0
9E D0
9E E0
#opr8i
opr8a
opr16a
oprx16,X
oprx8,X
,X
oprx16,SP
oprx8,SP
Cyc-by-Cyc
Details
2
3
4
4
3
3
5
4
IMM
DIR
EXT
IX2
IX1
IX
SP2
SP1
SUB
SUB
SUB
SUB
SUB
SUB
SUB
SUB
Cycles
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-2. . Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 8 of 9)
Subtract
A ← (A) – (M)
Test for Negative or Zero
(M) – $00
(A) – $00
(X) – $00
(M) – $00
(M) – $00
(M) – $00
ii
dd
hh ll
ee ff
ff
ee ff
ff
–
–
–– 1 – – –
–
–
TSX
Transfer SP to Index Reg.
H:X ← (SP) + $0001
INH
95
2
fp
–– – – – –
TXA
Transfer X (Index Reg. Low) to Accumulator
A ← (X)
INH
9F
1
p
–– – – – –
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
103
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
Operation
Object Code
Cycles
Source
Form
Address
Mode
Table 7-2. . Instruction Set Summary (Sheet 9 of 9)
Cyc-by-Cyc
Details
Affect
on CCR
VH I N Z C
TXS
Transfer Index Reg. to SP
SP ← (H:X) – $0001
INH
94
2
fp
–– – – – –
WAIT
Enable Interrupts; Wait for Interrupt
I bit ← 0; Halt CPU
INH
8F
2+
fp...
–– 0 – – –
Source Form: Everything in the source forms columns, except expressions in italic characters, is literal information which must appear in
the assembly source file exactly as shown. The initial 3- to 5-letter mnemonic and the characters (# , ( ) and +) are always a literal
characters.
n
Any label or expression that evaluates to a single integer in the range 0-7.
opr8i
Any label or expression that evaluates to an 8-bit immediate value.
opr16i Any label or expression that evaluates to a 16-bit immediate value.
opr8a
Any label or expression that evaluates to an 8-bit direct-page address ($00xx).
opr16a Any label or expression that evaluates to a 16-bit address.
oprx8
Any label or expression that evaluates to an unsigned 8-bit value, used for indexed addressing.
oprx16 Any label or expression that evaluates to a 16-bit value, used for indexed addressing.
rel
Any label or expression that refers to an address that is within –128 to +127 locations from the start of the next instruction.
Operation Symbols:
A
Accumulator
CCR Condition code register
H
Index register high byte
M
Memory location
n
Any bit
opr
Operand (one or two bytes)
PC
Program counter
PCH Program counter high byte
PCL Program counter low byte
rel
Relative program counter offset byte
SP
Stack pointer
SPL Stack pointer low byte
X
Index register low byte
&
Logical AND
|
Logical OR
⊕
Logical EXCLUSIVE OR
()
Contents of
+
Add
–
Subtract, Negation (two’s complement)
×
Multiply
÷
Divide
#
Immediate value
←
Loaded with
:
Concatenated with
Addressing Modes:
DIR Direct addressing mode
EXT Extended addressing mode
IMM Immediate addressing mode
INH Inherent addressing mode
IX
Indexed, no offset addressing mode
IX1
Indexed, 8-bit offset addressing mode
IX2
Indexed, 16-bit offset addressing mode
IX+
Indexed, no offset, post increment addressing mode
IX1+ Indexed, 8-bit offset, post increment addressing mode
REL Relative addressing mode
SP1 Stack pointer, 8-bit offset addressing mode
SP2 Stack pointer 16-bit offset addressing mode
CCR Bits:
V
Overflow bit
H
Half-carry bit
I
Interrupt mask
N
Negative bit
Z
Zero bit
C
Carry/borrow bit
CCR Effects:
Set or cleared
–
Not affected
U
Undefined
Cycle-by-Cycle Codes:
f
Free cycle. This indicates a cycle where the CPU
does not require use of the system buses. An f
cycle is always one cycle of the system bus clock
and is always a read cycle.
p
Progryam fetch; read from next consecutive
location in program memory
r
Read 8-bit operand
s
Push (write) one byte onto stack
u
Pop (read) one byte from stack
v
Read vector from $FFxx (high byte first)
w
Write 8-bit operand
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
104
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
Table 7-3. Opcode Map (Sheet 1 of 2)
Bit-Manipulation
Branch
00
5 10
5 20
3 30
BRSET0
3
01
BRCLR0
3
02
BRSET2
3
05
BRSET3
3
07
BRCLR4
3
0A
BRSET5
3
0B
BRSET6
3
0D
BRCLR6
3
0E
BRSET7
3
0F
BRCLR7
3
INH
IMM
DIR
EXT
DD
IX+D
DIR 2
5 2F
Inherent
Immediate
Direct
Extended
DIR to DIR
IX+ to DIR
DBNZ
INC
REL 2
3 3D
TST
REL 2
3 3E
BIL
BIH
CLR
REL 2
REL
IX
IX1
IX2
IMD
DIX+
DIR 1
ROL
INH 2
1 6A
Relative
Indexed, No Offset
Indexed, 8-Bit Offset
Indexed, 16-Bit Offset
IMM to DIR
DIR to IX+
INH 2
4 6B
DBNZ
DBNZ
INC
IX1 1
4 7D
CLRX
IX1 1
CLR
ADD
INH 2
1
Stack Pointer, 8-Bit Offset
Stack Pointer, 16-Bit Offset
Indexed, No Offset with
Post Increment
Indexed, 1-Byte Offset with
Post Increment
BSR
Page 2
WAIT
INH 1
2
5 BD
ADD
DIR 3
3 CC
LDX
2
1 AF
TXA
INH 2
LDX
IMM 2
2 BF
AIX
DIR 3
Opcode in
Hexadecimal F0
Number of Bytes 1
EXT 3
4 DF
STX
EXT 3
EOR
ADC
IX2 2
STA
IX
3
EOR
IX
3
ADC
IX1 1
3 FA
ORA
IX
3
ORA
IX1 1
3 FB
ADD
JSR
LDX
IX1 1
3 FF
IX
5
JSR
IX1 1
3 FE
IX1 1
IX
3
JMP
IX1 1
5 FD
STX
IX
3
ADD
IX1 1
3 FC
JMP
IX2 2
4 EF
STX
IX
2
IX1 1
3 F9
IX2 2
4 EE
LDX
IX
3
LDA
IX1 1
3 F8
IX2 2
6 ED
JSR
EXT 3
4 DE
LDX
DIR 3
3 CF
STX
IMM 2
JSR
DIR 3
3 CE
BIT
STA
IX2 2
4 EC
JMP
EXT 3
6 DD
IX
3
IX1 1
3 F7
IX2 2
4 EB
ADD
EXT 3
4 DC
JMP
DIR 3
5 CD
JSR
REL 2
2 BE
EXT 3
4 DB
AND
LDA
IX2 2
4 EA
ORA
IX
3
IX1 1
3 F6
IX2 2
4 E9
ADC
CPX
BIT
IX2 2
4 E8
EOR
IX
3
IX1 1
3 F5
IX2 2
4 E7
EXT 3
4 DA
ORA
JMP
INH 2
AE
INH
2+ 9F
ADC
DIR 3
3 CB
ADD
IMM 2
BC
INH
1 AD
NOP
IX 1
IMM 2
2 BB
AND
LDA
EXT 3
4 D9
IX
3
SBC
IX1 1
3 F4
STA
EOR
DIR 3
3 CA
ORA
RSP
1
2+ 9E
STOP
ADC
CPX
IX2 2
4 E6
EXT 3
4 D8
CMP
IX1 1
3 F3
BIT
STA
DIR 3
3 C9
IMM 2
2 BA
ORA
SEI
INH 1
9D
IX
5 8E
MOV
ADC
INH 2
1 AB
INH 1
1 9C
CLRH
IX 1
3
IMD 2
IX+D 1
5 7F
4 8F
CLR
INH 2
INH 1
2 9B
EOR
SBC
IX2 2
4 E5
EXT 3
4 D7
DIR 3
3 C8
IMM 2
2 B9
INH 2
1 AA
CLI
TST
IX1 1
4 7E
MOV
SEC
INH 1
3 9A
PSHH
IX 1
4 8C
EOR
INH 2
1 A9
PULH
IX 1
6 8B
IX1 2
5 7C
TST
INH 2
5 6E
IX1+
DEC
INC
INH 2
1 6D
PSHX
IX 1
4 8A
IX1 1
7 7B
INH 3
1 6C
SP1
SP2
IX+
ROL
CLC
INH 1
2 99
AND
IX
3
IX1 1
3 F2
IX2 2
4 E4
EXT 3
4 D6
LDA
STA
IMM 2
2 B8
CPX
EXT 3
4 D5
DIR 3
3 C7
CMP
IX2 2
4 E3
BIT
LDA
AIS
INH 2
1 A8
AND
DIR 3
3 C6
IMM 2
2 B7
TAX
INH 1
3 98
PULX
IX 1
4 89
IX1 1
5 7A
DEC
DD 2
DIX+ 3
1 5F
1 6F
INH 1
LSL
IX1 1
5 79
LDA
SBC
3
SUB
IX1 1
3 F1
IX2 2
4 E2
EXT 3
4 D4
BIT
IMM 2
2 B6
EXT 2
1 A7
CPX
DIR 3
3 C5
BIT
STHX
INH 3
2 97
AND
CMP
EXT 3
4 D3
DIR 3
3 C4
IMM 2
2 B5
INH 2
5 A6
PSHA
IX 1
4 88
LSL
INH 2
1 69
MOV
CLRA
ASR
IX1 1
5 78
TSTX
INH 1
5 5E
MOV
EXT 3
5 4F
ASR
INH 2
1 68
PULA
CPX
AND
TSX
INH 1
3 96
SBC
3 F0
SUB
IX2 2
4 E1
EXT 3
4 D2
DIR 3
3 C3
IMM 2
2 B4
INH 2
2 A5
TPA
IX 1
4 87
CPX
TXS
CMP
SBC
SUB
EXT 3
4 D1
DIR 3
3 C2
IMM 2
2 B3
REL 2
2 A4
INH 1
1 95
DIR 1
4 86
IX1 1
5 77
INCX
INH 1
1 5D
TSTA
DIR 1
6 4E
CPHX
REL 3
3 3F
INCA
DIR 1
4 4D
INH 2
1 67
DBNZX
INH 2
1 5C
CPHX
ROR
BLE
TAP
CMP
SBC
SUB
DIR 3
3 C1
IMM 2
2 B2
REL 2
3 A3
INH 2
1 94
IX 1
5 85
IMM 2
5 76
ROR
DECX
INH 1
4 5B
DBNZA
DIR 2
5 4C
CPHX
ROLX
INH 1
1 5A
DECA
DIR 1
7 4B
REL 3
3 3C
BMS
DIR 2
5 2E
DIR 2
DEC
BMC
DIR 2
5 2D
ROLA
DIR 1
5 4A
REL 2
3 3B
BMI
DIR 2
5 2C
BCLR7
DIR 2
ROL
LSR
CMP
BGT
SWI
SUB
IMM 2
2 B1
REL 2
3 A2
INH 2
11 93
IX 1
4 84
IX1 1
3 75
DIR 3
1 66
BGND
COM
SUB
BLT
INH 2
5+ 92
Register/Memory
3 C0
4 D0
4 E0
2 B0
REL 2
3 A1
RTS
INH 1
4 83
LSR
LSLX
INH 1
1 59
DAA
3 A0
BGE
INH 2
6 91
IX+ 1
1 82
IX1 1
5 74
INH 2
4 65
ASRX
INH 1
1 58
LSLA
DIR 1
5 49
REL 2
3 3A
DIR 2
5 2B
BSET7
DIR 2
5 1F
LSL
BHCS
BPL
ASRA
DIR 1
5 48
REL 2
3 39
DIR 2
5 2A
BCLR6
DIR 2
5 1E
ASR
COM
RORX
INH 1
1 57
CBEQ
INH 1
5 73
INH 2
1 64
LDHX
IMM 2
1 56
RORA
DIR 1
5 47
BHCC
DIR 2
5 29
BSET6
DIR 2
5 1D
ROR
INH 1
1 63
RTI
IX 1
5 81
IX1+ 2
1 72
LSRX
INH 1
3 55
NEG
NSA
COMX
INH 1
1 54
LDHX
DIR 3
5 46
REL 2
3 38
INH 1
1 53
LSRA
DIR 1
4 45
STHX
BEQ
DIR 2
5 28
BCLR5
DIR 2
5 1C
LSR
CBEQ
Control
9 90
4 80
IX1 1
5 71
IMM 3
6 62
DIV
COMA
DIR 1
5 44
REL 2
3 37
BSET5
DIR 2
5 1B
BRCLR5
3
0C
DIR 2
5 27
BCLR4
DIR 2
5 1A
COM
REL 2
3 36
BNE
MUL
5 70
NEG
INH 2
4 61
CBEQX
IMM 3
5 52
EXT 1
5 43
REL 2
3 35
BCS
CBEQA
LDHX
NEGX
INH 1
4 51
DIR 3
5 42
BCC
DIR 2
5 26
BSET4
DIR 2
5 19
CBEQ
REL 2
3 34
DIR 2
5 25
BCLR3
DIR 2
5 18
BRSET4
3
09
BLS
NEGA
DIR 1
5 41
REL 3
3 33
DIR 2
5 24
BSET3
DIR 2
5 17
BRCLR3
3
08
DIR 2
5 23
BCLR2
DIR 2
5 16
NEG
REL 3
3 32
BHI
BSET2
DIR 2
5 15
BRCLR2
3
06
BRN
DIR 2
5 22
BCLR1
DIR 2
5 14
5 40
REL 2
3 31
BSET1
DIR 2
5 13
BRCLR1
3
04
BRA
DIR 2
5 21
BCLR0
DIR 2
5 12
BRSET1
3
03
BSET0
DIR 2
5 11
Read-Modify-Write
1 50
1 60
IX
3
LDX
IX
2
STX
IX
3 HCS08 Cycles
Instruction Mnemonic
IX Addressing Mode
SUB
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
105
Chapter 7 Central Processor Unit (S08CPUV2)
Table 7-3. Opcode Map (Sheet 2 of 2)
Bit-Manipulation
Branch
Read-Modify-Write
9E60
Control
Register/Memory
9ED0 5 9EE0
6
NEG
SUB
3
SP1
9E61
6
CBEQ
4
CMP
SP1
CMP
4
SP2 3
SP1
9ED2 5 9EE2 4
SBC
9E63
SBC
4
SP2 3
SP1
9ED3 5 9EE3 4 9EF3
6
COM
CPX
3
SP1
9E64
6
CPX
AND
SP1
SP1
AND
4
SP2 3
SP1
9ED5 5 9EE5 4
BIT
BIT
6
4
SP2 3
SP1
9ED6 5 9EE6 4
3
SP1
9E67
6
4
SP2 3
SP1
9ED7 5 9EE7 4
9E66
6
CPHX
4
SP2 3
SP1 3
9ED4 5 9EE4 4
LSR
3
4
SUB
4
SP2 3
SP1
9ED1 5 9EE1 4
ROR
LDA
ASR
LDA
STA
3
SP1
9E68
6
STA
4
SP2 3
SP1
9ED8 5 9EE8 4
LSL
EOR
3
SP1
9E69
6
EOR
4
SP2 3
SP1
9ED9 5 9EE9 4
ROL
ADC
3
SP1
9E6A 6
ADC
4
SP2 3
SP1
9EDA 5 9EEA 4
DEC
ORA
3
SP1
9E6B 8
ORA
4
SP2 3
SP1
9EDB 5 9EEB 4
DBNZ
ADD
4
SP1
9E6C 6
4
ADD
SP2 3
SP1
INC
3
SP1
9E6D 5
TST
3
SP1
9EAE
5 9EBE
LDHX
2
9E6F
6 9ECE
LDHX
IX 4
5 9EDE
LDHX
IX2 3
6
CLR
3
INH
IMM
DIR
EXT
DD
IX+D
Inherent
Immediate
Direct
Extended
DIR to DIR
IX+ to DIR
REL
IX
IX1
IX2
IMD
DIX+
Relative
Indexed, No Offset
Indexed, 8-Bit Offset
Indexed, 16-Bit Offset
IMM to DIR
DIR to IX+
SP1
SP2
IX+
IX1+
Note: All Sheet 2 Opcodes are Preceded by the Page 2 Prebyte (9E)
5 9EEE
LDX
4 9EFE
LDX
5
LDHX
IX1 4
SP2 3
SP1 3
SP1
9EDF 5 9EEF 4 9EFF 5
STX
SP1
4
SP2 3
STX
SP1 3
STHX
SP1
Stack Pointer, 8-Bit Offset
Stack Pointer, 16-Bit Offset
Indexed, No Offset with
Post Increment
Indexed, 1-Byte Offset with
Post Increment
Prebyte (9E) and Opcode in
Hexadecimal 9E60
6 HCS08 Cycles
Instruction Mnemonic
SP1 Addressing Mode
NEG
Number of Bytes 3
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
106
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 8
Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2)
8.1
Introduction
The analog comparator module (ACMP) provides a circuit for comparing two analog input voltages or for
comparing one analog input voltage to an internal reference voltage. The comparator circuit is designed to
operate across the full range of the supply voltage (rail-to-rail operation).
Figure 8-1 shows the MC9S08QG8/4 block diagram with the ACMP highlighted.
8.1.1
ACMP Configuration Information
When using the bandgap reference voltage for input to ACMP+, the user must enable the bandgap buffer
by setting BGBE =1 in SPMSC1; see Section 5.8.8, “System Power Management Status and Control 1
Register (SPMSC1)”. For the value of the bandgap voltage reference see Section A.5, “DC
Characteristics”.
To use ACMPO, the BKGDPE bit in SOPT1 must be cleared. This will disable the background debug
mode and on-chip ICE.
8.1.2
ACMP/TPM Configuration Information
The ACMP module can be configured to connect the output of the analog comparator to TPM input capture
channel 0 by setting ACIC in SOPT2. With ACIC set, the TPMCH0 pin is not available externally
regardless of the configuration of the TPM module.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
107
Chapter 8 Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2)
BKGD/MS
IRQ
HCS08 CORE
DEBUG MODULE (DBG)
BDC
RESETS AND INTERRUPTS
MODES OF OPERATION
POWER MANAGEMENT
RTI
COP
IRQ
LVD
USER FLASH
(MC9S08QG8 = 8192 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 4096 BYTES)
USER RAM
(MC9S08QG8 = 512 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 256 BYTES)
16-MHz INTERNAL CLOCK
SOURCE (ICS)
LOW-POWER OSCILLATOR
31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz
1 MHz to 16 MHz
(XOSC)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD
VDDA
VSSA
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
SCL
IIC MODULE (IIC)
SDA
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
4
8-BIT KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT MODULE (KBI)
ANALOG COMPARATOR
(ACMP)
4
ACMPO
ACMP–
ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
4
10-BIT
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC)
16-BIT TIMER/PWM
MODULE (TPM)
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
4
TPMCH0
TPMCH1
SS
MISO
MOSI
SPSCK
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE MODULE (SPI)
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
INTERFACE MODULE (SCI)
VSS
PTA5//IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PORT A
HCS08 SYSTEM CONTROL
TCLK
8-BIT MODULO TIMER
MODULE (MTIM)
TxD
RxD
PORT B
CPU
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
EXTAL
XTAL
VREFH
VREFL
NOTES:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Not all pins or pin functions are available on all devices, see Table 1-1 for available functions on each device.
Port pins are software configurable with pullup device if input port.
Port pins are software configurable for output drive strength.
Port pins are software configurable for output slew rate control.
IRQ contains a software configurable (IRQPDD) pullup device if PTA5 enabled as IRQ pin function (IRQPE = 1).
RESET contains integrated pullup device if PTA5 enabled as reset pin function (RSTPE = 1).
PTA4 contains integrated pullup device if BKGD enabled (BKGDPE = 1).
SDA and SCL pin locations can be repositioned under software control (IICPS), defaults on PTA2 and PTA3.
When pin functions as KBI (KBIPEn = 1) and associated pin is configured to enable the pullup device, KBEDGn can be used to reconfigure
the pullup as a pulldown device.
Figure 8-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Block Diagram Highlighting ACMP Block and Pins
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
108
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2)
8.1.3
Features
The ACMP has the following features:
• Full rail-to-rail supply operation.
• Less than 40 mV of input offset.
• Less than 15 mV of hysteresis.
• Selectable interrupt on rising edge, falling edge, or either rising or falling edges of comparator
output.
• Option to compare to fixed internal bandgap reference voltage.
• Option to allow comparator output to be visible on a pin, ACMPO.
8.1.4
Modes of Operation
This section defines the ACMP operation in wait, stop, and background debug modes.
8.1.4.1
ACMP in Wait Mode
The ACMP continues to run in wait mode if enabled before executing the WAIT instruction. Therefore,
the ACMP can be used to bring the MCU out of wait mode if the ACMP interrupt, ACIE, is enabled. For
lowest possible current consumption, the ACMP should be disabled by software if not required as an
interrupt source during wait mode.
8.1.4.2
ACMP in Stop Modes
The ACMP is disabled in all stop modes, regardless of the settings before executing the STOP instruction.
Therefore, the ACMP cannot be used as a wake up source from stop modes.
During either stop1 or stop2 mode, the ACMP module will be fully powered down. Upon wake-up from
stop1 or stop2 mode, the ACMP module will be in the reset state.
During stop3 mode, clocks to the ACMP module are halted. No registers are affected. In addition, the
ACMP comparator circuit will enter a low power state. No compare operation will occur while in stop3.
If stop3 is exited with a reset, the ACMP will be put into its reset state. If stop3 is exited with an interrupt,
the ACMP continues from the state it was in when stop3 was entered.
8.1.4.3
ACMP in Active Background Mode
When the microcontroller is in active background mode, the ACMP will continue to operate normally.
8.1.5
Block Diagram
The block diagram for the analog comparator module is shown Figure 8-2.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
109
Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2)
Internal Bus
Internal
Reference
ACIE
ACBGS
ACME
ACMP
INTERRUPT
REQUEST
Status & Control
Register
ACF
ACMP+
+
–
ACMP–
set ACF
ACMOD
ACOPE
Interrupt
Control
Comparator
ACMPO
Figure 8-2. Analog Comparator (ACMP) Block Diagram
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
110
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2)
8.2
External Signal Description
The ACMP has two analog input pins, ACMP+ and ACMP– and one digital output pin ACMPO. Each of
these pins can accept an input voltage that varies across the full operating voltage range of the MCU. As
shown in Figure 8-2, the ACMP– pin is connected to the inverting input of the comparator, and the
ACMP+ pin is connected to the comparator non-inverting input if ACBGS is a 0. As shown in Figure 8-2,
the ACMPO pin can be enabled to drive an external pin.
The signal properties of ACMP are shown in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1. Signal Properties
Signal
8.3
Function
I/O
ACMP–
Inverting analog input to the ACMP.
(Minus input)
I
ACMP+
Non-inverting analog input to the ACMP.
(Positive input)
I
ACMPO
Digital output of the ACMP.
O
Register Definition
The ACMP includes one register:
• An 8-bit status and control register
Refer to the direct-page register summary in the memory section of this data sheet for the absolute address
assignments for all ACMP registers.This section refers to registers and control bits only by their names
and relative address offsets.
Some MCUs may have more than one ACMP, so register names include placeholder characters to identify
which ACMP is being referenced.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
111
Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2)
8.3.1
ACMP Status and Control Register (ACMPSC)
ACMPSC contains the status flag and control bits which are used to enable and configure the ACMP.
7
6
5
4
3
ACME
ACBGS
ACF
ACIE
0
0
0
0
R
2
1
0
ACO
ACOPE
ACMOD
W
Reset:
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 8-3. ACMP Status and Control Register
Table 8-2. ACMP Status and Control Register Field Descriptions
Field
7
ACME
Description
Analog Comparator Module Enable — ACME enables the ACMP module.
0 ACMP not enabled
1 ACMP is enabled
6
ACBGS
Analog Comparator Bandgap Select — ACBGS is used to select between the bandgap reference voltage or
the ACMP+ pin as the input to the non-inverting input of the analog comparatorr.
0 External pin ACMP+ selected as non-inverting input to comparator
1 Internal reference select as non-inverting input to comparator
5
ACF
Analog Comparator Flag — ACF is set when a compare event occurs. Compare events are defined by ACMOD.
ACF is cleared by writing a one to ACF.
0 Compare event has not occurred
1 Compare event has occurred
4
ACIE
Analog Comparator Interrupt Enable — ACIE enables the interrupt from the ACMP. When ACIE is set, an
interrupt will be asserted when ACF is set.
0 Interrupt disabled
1 Interrupt enabled
3
ACO
Analog Comparator Output — Reading ACO will return the current value of the analog comparator output. ACO
is reset to a 0 and will read as a 0 when the ACMP is disabled (ACME = 0).
2
ACOPE
Analog Comparator Output Pin Enable — ACOPE is used to enable the comparator output to be placed onto
the external pin, ACMPO.
0 Analog comparator output not available on ACMPO
1 Analog comparator output is driven out on ACMPO
1:0
ACMOD
Analog Comparator Mode — ACMOD selects the type of compare event which sets ACF.
00 Encoding 0 — Comparator output falling edge
01 Encoding 1 — Comparator output rising edge
10 Encoding 2 — Comparator output falling edge
11 Encoding 3 — Comparator output rising or falling edge
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
112
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2)
8.4
Functional Description
The analog comparator can be used to compare two analog input voltages applied to ACMP+ and ACMP–;
or it can be used to compare an analog input voltage applied to ACMP– with an internal bandgap reference
voltage. ACBGS is used to select between the bandgap reference voltage or the ACMP+ pin as the input
to the non-inverting input of the analog comparator. The comparator output is high when the non-inverting
input is greater than the inverting input, and is low when the non-inverting input is less than the inverting
input. ACMOD is used to select the condition which will cause ACF to be set. ACF can be set on a rising
edge of the comparator output, a falling edge of the comparator output, or either a rising or a falling edge
(toggle). The comparator output can be read directly through ACO. The comparator output can be driven
onto the ACMPO pin using ACOPE.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
113
Analog Comparator (S08ACMPV2)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
114
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 9
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
9.1
Introduction
The 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is a successive approximation ADC designed for operation
within an integrated microcontroller system-on-chip.
Figure 9-1 shows the MC9S08QG8/4 with the ADC module and pins highlighted.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
115
Chapter 9 Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
BKGD/MS
IRQ
HCS08 CORE
DEBUG MODULE (DBG)
BDC
RESETS AND INTERRUPTS
MODES OF OPERATION
POWER MANAGEMENT
RTI
COP
IRQ
LVD
USER FLASH
(MC9S08QG8 = 8192 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 4096 BYTES)
USER RAM
(MC9S08QG8 = 512 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 256 BYTES)
16-MHz INTERNAL CLOCK
SOURCE (ICS)
LOW-POWER OSCILLATOR
31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz
1 MHz to 16 MHz
(XOSC)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD
VDDA
VSSA
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
SCL
IIC MODULE (IIC)
SDA
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
4
8-BIT KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT MODULE (KBI)
ANALOG COMPARATOR
(ACMP)
4
ACMPO
ACMP–
ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
4
10-BIT
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC)
16-BIT TIMER/PWM
MODULE (TPM)
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
4
TPMCH0
TPMCH1
SS
MISO
MOSI
SPSCK
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE MODULE (SPI)
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
INTERFACE MODULE (SCI)
VSS
PTA5//IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PORT A
HCS08 SYSTEM CONTROL
TCLK
8-BIT MODULO TIMER
MODULE (MTIM)
TxD
RxD
PORT B
CPU
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
EXTAL
XTAL
VREFH
VREFL
NOTES:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Not all pins or pin functions are available on all devices, see Table 1-1 for available functions on each device.
Port pins are software configurable with pullup device if input port.
Port pins are software configurable for output drive strength.
Port pins are software configurable for output slew rate control.
IRQ contains a software configurable (IRQPDD) pullup device if PTA5 enabled as IRQ pin function (IRQPE = 1).
RESET contains integrated pullup device if PTA5 enabled as reset pin function (RSTPE = 1).
PTA4 contains integrated pullup device if BKGD enabled (BKGDPE = 1).
SDA and SCL pin locations can be repositioned under software control (IICPS), defaults on PTA2 and PTA3.
When pin functions as KBI (KBIPEn = 1) and associated pin is configured to enable the pullup device, KBEDGn can be used to reconfigure
the pullup as a pulldown device.
Figure 9-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Block Diagram Highlighting ADC Block and Pins
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
116
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 9 Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
9.1.1
Module Configurations
This section provides device-specific information for configuring the ADC on MC9S08QG8/4 devices.
9.1.1.1
Analog Supply and Voltage Reference Connections
The VDDAD and VREFH sources for the ADC are internally connected to the VDD pin. The VSSAD and
VREFL sources for the ADC are internally connected to the VSS pin.
9.1.1.2
Channel Assignments
The ADC channel assignments for the MC9S08QG8/4 devices are shown in Table 9-1. Reserved channels
convert to an unknown value.
Table 9-1. ADC Channel Assignment
1
ADCH
Channel
Input
Pin Control
ADCH
Channel
Input
Pin Control
00000
AD0
PTA0/ADP0
ADPC0
10000
AD16
VSS
N/A
00001
AD1
PTA1/ADP1
ADPC1
10001
AD17
VSS
N/A
00010
AD2
PTA2/ADP2
ADPC2
10010
AD18
VSS
N/A
00011
AD3
PTA3/ADP3
ADPC3
10011
AD19
VSS
N/A
00100
AD4
PTB0/ADP4
ADPC4
10100
AD20
VSS
N/A
00101
AD5
PTB1/ADP5
ADPC5
10101
AD21
VSS
N/A
00110
AD6
PTB2/ADP6
ADPC6
10110
AD22
Reserved
N/A
00111
AD7
PTB3/ADP7
ADPC7
10111
AD23
Reserved
N/A
01000
AD8
VSS
N/A
11000
AD24
Reserved
N/A
01001
AD9
VSS
N/A
11001
AD25
Reserved
N/A
01010
AD10
VSS
N/A
11010
AD26
Temperature
Sensor1
N/A
01011
AD11
VSS
N/A
11011
AD27
Internal Bandgap
N/A
01100
AD12
VSS
N/A
11100
—
Reserved
N/A
01101
AD13
VSS
N/A
11101
VREFH
VDD
N/A
01110
AD14
VSS
N/A
11110
VREFL
VSS
N/A
01111
AD15
VSS
N/A
11111
Module
Disabled
None
N/A
For information, see Section 9.1.1.6, “Temperature Sensor.”
NOTE
Selecting the internal bandgap channel requires BGBE =1 in SPMSC1; see
Section 5.8.8, “System Power Management Status and Control 1 Register
(SPMSC1).” For the value of the bandgap voltage reference see
Section A.5, “DC Characteristics.”
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
117
Chapter 9 Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
9.1.1.3
Alternate Clock
The ADC is capable of performing conversions using the MCU bus clock, the bus clock divided by two,
or the local asynchronous clock (ADACK) within the module. The alternate clock, ALTCLK, input for the
MC9S08QG8/4 MCU devices is not implemented.
9.1.1.4
Hardware Trigger
The ADC hardware trigger, ADHWT, is output from the real-time interrupt (RTI) counter. The RTI counter
can be clocked by either ICSERCLK or a nominal 1-kHz clock source within the RTI block.
The period of the RTI is determined by the input clock frequency and the RTIS bits. The RTI counter is a
free running counter that generates an overflow at the RTI rate determined by the RTIS bits. When the
ADC hardware trigger is enabled, a conversion is initiated upon an RTI counter overflow.
The RTI can be configured to cause a hardware trigger in MCU run, wait, and stop3.
9.1.1.5
Analog Pin Enables
The ADC on MC9S08QG8 devices contains only one analog pin enable register, APCTL1.
9.1.1.6
Temperature Sensor
The ADC module includes a temperature sensor whose output is connected to one of the ADC analog
channel inputs. Equation 9-1 provides an approximate transfer function of the temperature sensor.
Temp = 25 - ((VTEMP -VTEMP25) ÷ m)
Eqn. 9-1
where:
— VTEMP is the voltage of the temperature sensor channel at the ambient temperature.
— VTEMP25 is the voltage of the temperature sensor channel at 25°C.
— m is the hot or cold voltage versus temperature slope in V/°C.
For temperature calculations, use the VTEMP25 and m values from Section A.10, “ADC Characteristics,”
in Appendix A, “Electrical Characteristics.”
In application code, the user reads the temperature sensor channel, calculates VTEMP, and compares to
VTEMP25. If VTEMP is greater than VTEMP25, the cold slope value is applied in Equation 9-1. If VTEMP is
less than VTEMP25 the hot slope value is applied in Equation 9-1.
9.1.1.7
Low-Power Mode Operation
The ADC is capable of running in stop3 mode but requires LVDSE and LVDE in SPMSC1 to be set.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
118
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
9.1.2
Features
Features of the ADC module include:
• Linear successive approximation algorithm with 10 bits resolution.
• Up to 28 analog inputs.
• Output formatted in 10- or 8-bit right-justified format.
• Single or continuous conversion (automatic return to idle after single conversion).
• Configurable sample time and conversion speed/power.
• Conversion complete flag and interrupt.
• Input clock selectable from up to four sources.
• Operation in wait or stop3 modes for lower noise operation.
• Asynchronous clock source for lower noise operation.
• Selectable asynchronous hardware conversion trigger.
• Automatic compare with interrupt for less-than, or greater-than or equal-to, programmable value.
9.1.3
Block Diagram
Figure 9-2 provides a block diagram of the ADC module
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
119
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
ADIV
ADLPC
MODE
ADLSMP
2
ADTRG
ADCO
ADCH
1
ADCCFG
complete
COCO
ADCSC1
ADICLK
Compare true
AIEN
3
Async
Clock Gen
ADACK
MCU STOP
ADCK
÷2
ALTCLK
abort
transfer
sample
initialize
•••
AD0
convert
Control Sequencer
ADHWT
Bus Clock
Clock
Divide
AIEN 1
COCO 2
ADVIN
Interrupt
SAR Converter
AD27
VREFH
Data Registers
Sum
VREFL
Compare true
3
Compare Value Registers
ACFGT
Value
Compare
Logic
ADCSC2
Figure 9-2. ADC Block Diagram
9.2
External Signal Description
The ADC module supports up to 28 separate analog inputs. It also requires four supply/reference/ground
connections.
Table 9-2. Signal Properties
Name
Function
AD27–AD0
Analog Channel inputs
VREFH
High reference voltage
VREFL
Low reference voltage
VDDAD
Analog power supply
VSSAD
Analog ground
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
120
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
9.2.1
Analog Power (VDDAD)
The ADC analog portion uses VDDAD as its power connection. In some packages, VDDAD is connected
internally to VDD. If externally available, connect the VDDAD pin to the same voltage potential as VDD.
External filtering may be necessary to ensure clean VDDAD for good results.
9.2.2
Analog Ground (VSSAD)
The ADC analog portion uses VSSAD as its ground connection. In some packages, VSSAD is connected
internally to VSS. If externally available, connect the VSSAD pin to the same voltage potential as VSS.
9.2.3
Voltage Reference High (VREFH)
VREFH is the high reference voltage for the converter. In some packages, VREFH is connected internally to
VDDAD. If externally available, VREFH may be connected to the same potential as VDDAD, or may be
driven by an external source that is between the minimum VDDAD spec and the VDDAD potential (VREFH
must never exceed VDDAD).
9.2.4
Voltage Reference Low (VREFL)
VREFL is the low reference voltage for the converter. In some packages, VREFL is connected internally to
VSSAD. If externally available, connect the VREFL pin to the same voltage potential as VSSAD.
9.2.5
Analog Channel Inputs (ADx)
The ADC module supports up to 28 separate analog inputs. An input is selected for conversion through
the ADCH channel select bits.
9.3
Register Definition
These memory mapped registers control and monitor operation of the ADC:
•
•
•
•
•
•
9.3.1
Status and control register, ADCSC1
Status and control register, ADCSC2
Data result registers, ADCRH and ADCRL
Compare value registers, ADCCVH and ADCCVL
Configuration register, ADCCFG
Pin enable registers, APCTL1, APCTL2, APCTL3
Status and Control Register 1 (ADCSC1)
This section describes the function of the ADC status and control register (ADCSC1). Writing ADCSC1
aborts the current conversion and initiates a new conversion (if the ADCH bits are equal to a value other
than all 1s).
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
121
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
7
R
6
5
4
AIEN
ADCO
0
0
3
2
1
0
1
1
COCO
ADCH
W
Reset:
0
1
1
1
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 9-3. Status and Control Register (ADCSC1)
Table 9-3. ADCSC1 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
COCO
Conversion Complete Flag — The COCO flag is a read-only bit which is set each time a conversion is
completed when the compare function is disabled (ACFE = 0). When the compare function is enabled (ACFE =
1) the COCO flag is set upon completion of a conversion only if the compare result is true. This bit is cleared
whenever ADCSC1 is written or whenever ADCRL is read.
0 Conversion not completed
1 Conversion completed
6
AIEN
Interrupt Enable — AIEN is used to enable conversion complete interrupts. When COCO becomes set while
AIEN is high, an interrupt is asserted.
0 Conversion complete interrupt disabled
1 Conversion complete interrupt enabled
5
ADCO
Continuous Conversion Enable — ADCO is used to enable continuous conversions.
0 One conversion following a write to the ADCSC1 when software triggered operation is selected, or one
conversion following assertion of ADHWT when hardware triggered operation is selected.
1 Continuous conversions initiated following a write to ADCSC1 when software triggered operation is selected.
Continuous conversions are initiated by an ADHWT event when hardware triggered operation is selected.
4:0
ADCH
Input Channel Select — The ADCH bits form a 5-bit field which is used to select one of the input channels. The
input channels are detailed in Figure 9-4.
The successive approximation converter subsystem is turned off when the channel select bits are all set to 1.
This feature allows for explicit disabling of the ADC and isolation of the input channel from all sources.
Terminating continuous conversions this way will prevent an additional, single conversion from being performed.
It is not necessary to set the channel select bits to all 1s to place the ADC in a low-power state when continuous
conversions are not enabled because the module automatically enters a low-power state when a conversion
completes.
Figure 9-4. Input Channel Select
ADCH
Input Select
ADCH
Input Select
00000
AD0
10000
AD16
00001
AD1
10001
AD17
00010
AD2
10010
AD18
00011
AD3
10011
AD19
00100
AD4
10100
AD20
00101
AD5
10101
AD21
00110
AD6
10110
AD22
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
122
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
Figure 9-4. Input Channel Select (continued)
9.3.2
ADCH
Input Select
ADCH
Input Select
00111
AD7
10111
AD23
01000
AD8
11000
AD24
01001
AD9
11001
AD25
01010
AD10
11010
AD26
01011
AD11
11011
AD27
01100
AD12
11100
Reserved
01101
AD13
11101
VREFH
01110
AD14
11110
VREFL
01111
AD15
11111
Module disabled
Status and Control Register 2 (ADCSC2)
The ADCSC2 register is used to control the compare function, conversion trigger and conversion active
of the ADC module.
7
R
6
5
4
ADTRG
ACFE
ACFGT
0
0
0
ADACT
3
2
0
0
0
0
1
0
R1
R1
0
0
W
Reset:
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
1
Bits 1 and 0 are reserved bits that must always be written to 0.
Figure 9-5. Status and Control Register 2 (ADCSC2)
Table 9-4. ADCSC2 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
ADACT
Conversion Active — ADACT indicates that a conversion is in progress. ADACT is set when a conversion is
initiated and cleared when a conversion is completed or aborted.
0 Conversion not in progress
1 Conversion in progress
6
ADTRG
Conversion Trigger Select — ADTRG is used to select the type of trigger to be used for initiating a conversion.
Two types of trigger are selectable: software trigger and hardware trigger. When software trigger is selected, a
conversion is initiated following a write to ADCSC1. When hardware trigger is selected, a conversion is initiated
following the assertion of the ADHWT input.
0 Software trigger selected
1 Hardware trigger selected
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
123
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
Table 9-4. ADCSC2 Register Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
5
ACFE
Compare Function Enable — ACFE is used to enable the compare function.
0 Compare function disabled
1 Compare function enabled
4
ACFGT
Compare Function Greater Than Enable — ACFGT is used to configure the compare function to trigger when
the result of the conversion of the input being monitored is greater than or equal to the compare value. The
compare function defaults to triggering when the result of the compare of the input being monitored is less than
the compare value.
0 Compare triggers when input is less than compare level
1 Compare triggers when input is greater than or equal to compare level
9.3.3
Data Result High Register (ADCRH)
ADCRH contains the upper two bits of the result of a 10-bit conversion. When configured for 8-bit
conversions both ADR8 and ADR9 are equal to zero. ADCRH is updated each time a conversion
completes except when automatic compare is enabled and the compare condition is not met. In 10-bit
MODE, reading ADCRH prevents the ADC from transferring subsequent conversion results into the result
registers until ADCRL is read. If ADCRL is not read until after the next conversion is completed, then the
intermediate conversion result will be lost. In 8-bit mode there is no interlocking with ADCRL. In the case
that the MODE bits are changed, any data in ADCRH becomes invalid.
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ADR9
ADR8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset:
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 9-6. Data Result High Register (ADCRH)
9.3.4
Data Result Low Register (ADCRL)
ADCRL contains the lower eight bits of the result of a 10-bit conversion, and all eight bits of an 8-bit
conversion. This register is updated each time a conversion completes except when automatic compare is
enabled and the compare condition is not met. In 10-bit mode, reading ADCRH prevents the ADC from
transferring subsequent conversion results into the result registers until ADCRL is read. If ADCRL is not
read until the after next conversion is completed, then the intermediate conversion results will be lost. In
8-bit mode, there is no interlocking with ADCRH. In the case that the MODE bits are changed, any data
in ADCRL becomes invalid.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
124
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADR7
ADR6
ADR5
ADR4
ADR3
ADR2
ADR1
ADR0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset:
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 9-7. Data Result Low Register (ADCRL)
9.3.5
Compare Value High Register (ADCCVH)
This register holds the upper two bits of the 10-bit compare value. These bits are compared to the upper
two bits of the result following a conversion in 10-bit mode when the compare function is enabled.In 8-bit
operation, ADCCVH is not used during compare.
R
7
6
5
4
0
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
ADCV9
ADCV8
0
0
W
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 9-8. Compare Value High Register (ADCCVH)
9.3.6
Compare Value Low Register (ADCCVL)
This register holds the lower 8 bits of the 10-bit compare value, or all 8 bits of the 8-bit compare value.
Bits ADCV7:ADCV0 are compared to the lower 8 bits of the result following a conversion in either 10-bit
or 8-bit mode.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADCV7
ADCV6
ADCV5
ADCV4
ADCV3
ADCV2
ADCV1
ADCV0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset:
Figure 9-9. Compare Value Low Register(ADCCVL)
9.3.7
Configuration Register (ADCCFG)
ADCCFG is used to select the mode of operation, clock source, clock divide, and configure for low power
or long sample time.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
125
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
ADLPC
ADIV
ADLSMP
MODE
ADICLK
W
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 9-10. Configuration Register (ADCCFG)
Table 9-5. ADCCFG Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
ADLPC
Low Power Configuration — ADLPC controls the speed and power configuration of the successive
approximation converter. This is used to optimize power consumption when higher sample rates are not required.
0 High speed configuration
1 Low power configuration: {FC31}The power is reduced at the expense of maximum clock speed.
6:5
ADIV
Clock Divide Select — ADIV select the divide ratio used by the ADC to generate the internal clock ADCK.
Table 9-6 shows the available clock configurations.
4
ADLSMP
Long Sample Time Configuration — ADLSMP selects between long and short sample time. This adjusts the
sample period to allow higher impedance inputs to be accurately sampled or to maximize conversion speed for
lower impedance inputs. Longer sample times can also be used to lower overall power consumption when
continuous conversions are enabled if high conversion rates are not required.
0 Short sample time
1 Long sample time
3:2
MODE
Conversion Mode Selection — MODE bits are used to select between 10- or 8-bit operation. See Table 9-7.
1:0
ADICLK
Input Clock Select — ADICLK bits select the input clock source to generate the internal clock ADCK. See
Table 9-8.
Table 9-6. Clock Divide Select
ADIV
Divide Ratio
Clock Rate
00
1
Input clock
01
2
Input clock ÷ 2
10
4
Input clock ÷ 4
11
8
Input clock ÷ 8
Table 9-7. Conversion Modes
MODE
Mode Description
00
8-bit conversion (N=8)
01
Reserved
10
10-bit conversion (N=10)
11
Reserved
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
126
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
Table 9-8. Input Clock Select
ADICLK
Selected Clock Source
00
9.3.8
Bus clock
01
Bus clock divided by 2
10
Alternate clock (ALTCLK)
11
Asynchronous clock (ADACK)
Pin Control 1 Register (APCTL1)
The pin control registers are used to disable the I/O port control of MCU pins used as analog inputs.
APCTL1 is used to control the pins associated with channels 0–7 of the ADC module.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADPC7
ADPC6
ADPC5
ADPC4
ADPC3
ADPC2
ADPC1
ADPC0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset:
Figure 9-11. Pin Control 1 Register (APCTL1)
Table 9-9. APCTL1 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
ADPC7
ADC Pin Control 7 — ADPC7 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD7.
0 AD7 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD7 pin I/O control disabled
6
ADPC6
ADC Pin Control 6 — ADPC6 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD6.
0 AD6 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD6 pin I/O control disabled
5
ADPC5
ADC Pin Control 5 — ADPC5 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD5.
0 AD5 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD5 pin I/O control disabled
4
ADPC4
ADC Pin Control 4 — ADPC4 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD4.
0 AD4 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD4 pin I/O control disabled
3
ADPC3
ADC Pin Control 3 — ADPC3 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD3.
0 AD3 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD3 pin I/O control disabled
2
ADPC2
ADC Pin Control 2 — ADPC2 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD2.
0 AD2 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD2 pin I/O control disabled
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
127
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
Table 9-9. APCTL1 Register Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
1
ADPC1
ADC Pin Control 1 — ADPC1 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD1.
0 AD1 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD1 pin I/O control disabled
0
ADPC0
ADC Pin Control 0 — ADPC0 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD0.
0 AD0 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD0 pin I/O control disabled
9.3.9
Pin Control 2 Register (APCTL2)
APCTL2 is used to control channels 8–15 of the ADC module.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADPC15
ADPC14
ADPC13
ADPC12
ADPC11
ADPC10
ADPC9
ADPC8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset:
Figure 9-12. Pin Control 2 Register (APCTL2)
Table 9-10. APCTL2 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
ADPC15
ADC Pin Control 15 — ADPC15 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD15.
0 AD15 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD15 pin I/O control disabled
6
ADPC14
ADC Pin Control 14 — ADPC14 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD14.
0 AD14 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD14 pin I/O control disabled
5
ADPC13
ADC Pin Control 13 — ADPC13 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD13.
0 AD13 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD13 pin I/O control disabled
4
ADPC12
ADC Pin Control 12 — ADPC12 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD12.
0 AD12 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD12 pin I/O control disabled
3
ADPC11
ADC Pin Control 11 — ADPC11 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD11.
0 AD11 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD11 pin I/O control disabled
2
ADPC10
ADC Pin Control 10 — ADPC10 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD10.
0 AD10 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD10 pin I/O control disabled
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
128
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
Table 9-10. APCTL2 Register Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
1
ADPC9
ADC Pin Control 9 — ADPC9 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD9.
0 AD9 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD9 pin I/O control disabled
0
ADPC8
ADC Pin Control 8 — ADPC8 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD8.
0 AD8 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD8 pin I/O control disabled
9.3.10
Pin Control 3 Register (APCTL3)
APCTL3 is used to control channels 16–23 of the ADC module.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADPC23
ADPC22
ADPC21
ADPC20
ADPC19
ADPC18
ADPC17
ADPC16
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset:
Figure 9-13. Pin Control 3 Register (APCTL3)
Table 9-11. APCTL3 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
ADPC23
ADC Pin Control 23 — ADPC23 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD23.
0 AD23 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD23 pin I/O control disabled
6
ADPC22
ADC Pin Control 22 — ADPC22 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD22.
0 AD22 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD22 pin I/O control disabled
5
ADPC21
ADC Pin Control 21 — ADPC21 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD21.
0 AD21 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD21 pin I/O control disabled
4
ADPC20
ADC Pin Control 20 — ADPC20 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD20.
0 AD20 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD20 pin I/O control disabled
3
ADPC19
ADC Pin Control 19 — ADPC19 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD19.
0 AD19 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD19 pin I/O control disabled
2
ADPC18
ADC Pin Control 18 — ADPC18 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD18.
0 AD18 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD18 pin I/O control disabled
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
129
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
Table 9-11. APCTL3 Register Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
1
ADPC17
ADC Pin Control 17 — ADPC17 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD17.
0 AD17 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD17 pin I/O control disabled
0
ADPC16
ADC Pin Control 16 — ADPC16 is used to control the pin associated with channel AD16.
0 AD16 pin I/O control enabled
1 AD16 pin I/O control disabled
9.4
Functional Description
The ADC module is disabled during reset or when the ADCH bits are all high. The module is idle when a
conversion has completed and another conversion has not been initiated. When idle, the module is in its
lowest power state.
The ADC can perform an analog-to-digital conversion on any of the software selectable channels. The
selected channel voltage is converted by a successive approximation algorithm into an 11-bit digital result.
In 8-bit mode, the selected channel voltage is converted by a successive approximation algorithm into a
9-bit digital result.
When the conversion is completed, the result is placed in the data registers (ADCRH and ADCRL).In
10-bit mode, the result is rounded to 10 bits and placed in ADCRH and ADCRL. In 8-bit mode, the result
is rounded to 8 bits and placed in ADCRL. The conversion complete flag (COCO) is then set and an
interrupt is generated if the conversion complete interrupt has been enabled (AIEN = 1).
The ADC module has the capability of automatically comparing the result of a conversion with the
contents of its compare registers. The compare function is enabled by setting the ACFE bit and operates
in conjunction with any of the conversion modes and configurations.
9.4.1
Clock Select and Divide Control
One of four clock sources can be selected as the clock source for the ADC module. This clock source is
then divided by a configurable value to generate the input clock to the converter (ADCK). The clock is
selected from one of the following sources by means of the ADICLK bits.
•
•
•
•
The bus clock, which is equal to the frequency at which software is executed. This is the default
selection following reset.
The bus clock divided by 2. For higher bus clock rates, this allows a maximum divide by 16 of the
bus clock.
ALTCLK, as defined for this MCU (See module section introduction).
The asynchronous clock (ADACK) – This clock is generated from a clock source within the ADC
module. When selected as the clock source this clock remains active while the MCU is in wait or
stop3 mode and allows conversions in these modes for lower noise operation.
Whichever clock is selected, its frequency must fall within the specified frequency range for ADCK. If the
available clocks are too slow, the ADC will not perform according to specifications. If the available clocks
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
130
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
are too fast, then the clock must be divided to the appropriate frequency. This divider is specified by the
ADIV bits and can be divide-by 1, 2, 4, or 8.
9.4.2
Input Select and Pin Control
The pin control registers (APCTL3, APCTL2, and APCTL1) are used to disable the I/O port control of the
pins used as analog inputs.When a pin control register bit is set, the following conditions are forced for the
associated MCU pin:
• The output buffer is forced to its high impedance state.
• The input buffer is disabled. A read of the I/O port returns a zero for any pin with its input buffer
disabled.
• The pullup is disabled.
9.4.3
Hardware Trigger
The ADC module has a selectable asynchronous hardware conversion trigger, ADHWT, that is enabled
when the ADTRG bit is set. This source is not available on all MCUs. Consult the module introduction for
information on the ADHWT source specific to this MCU.
When ADHWT source is available and hardware trigger is enabled (ADTRG=1), a conversion is initiated
on the rising edge of ADHWT. If a conversion is in progress when a rising edge occurs, the rising edge is
ignored. In continuous convert configuration, only the initial rising edge to launch continuous conversions
is observed. The hardware trigger function operates in conjunction with any of the conversion modes and
configurations.
9.4.4
Conversion Control
Conversions can be performed in either 10-bit mode or 8-bit mode as determined by the MODE bits.
Conversions can be initiated by either a software or hardware trigger. In addition, the ADC module can be
configured for low power operation, long sample time, continuous conversion, and automatic compare of
the conversion result to a software determined compare value.
9.4.4.1
Initiating Conversions
A conversion is initiated:
• Following a write to ADCSC1 (with ADCH bits not all 1s) if software triggered operation is
selected.
• Following a hardware trigger (ADHWT) event if hardware triggered operation is selected.
• Following the transfer of the result to the data registers when continuous conversion is enabled.
If continuous conversions are enabled a new conversion is automatically initiated after the completion of
the current conversion. In software triggered operation, continuous conversions begin after ADCSC1 is
written and continue until aborted. In hardware triggered operation, continuous conversions begin after a
hardware trigger event and continue until aborted.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
131
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
9.4.4.2
Completing Conversions
A conversion is completed when the result of the conversion is transferred into the data result registers,
ADCRH and ADCRL. This is indicated by the setting of COCO. An interrupt is generated if AIEN is high
at the time that COCO is set.
A blocking mechanism prevents a new result from overwriting previous data in ADCRH and ADCRL if
the previous data is in the process of being read while in 10-bit MODE (the ADCRH register has been read
but the ADCRL register has not). When blocking is active, the data transfer is blocked, COCO is not set,
and the new result is lost. In the case of single conversions with the compare function enabled and the
compare condition false, blocking has no effect and ADC operation is terminated. In all other cases of
operation, when a data transfer is blocked, another conversion is initiated regardless of the state of ADCO
(single or continuous conversions enabled).
If single conversions are enabled, the blocking mechanism could result in several discarded conversions
and excess power consumption. To avoid this issue, the data registers must not be read after initiating a
single conversion until the conversion completes.
9.4.4.3
Aborting Conversions
Any conversion in progress will be aborted when:
•
A write to ADCSC1 occurs (the current conversion will be aborted and a new conversion will be
initiated, if ADCH are not all 1s).
•
A write to ADCSC2, ADCCFG, ADCCVH, or ADCCVL occurs. This indicates a mode of
operation change has occurred and the current conversion is therefore invalid.
•
The MCU is reset.
•
The MCU enters stop mode with ADACK not enabled.
When a conversion is aborted, the contents of the data registers, ADCRH and ADCRL, are not altered but
continue to be the values transferred after the completion of the last successful conversion. In the case that
the conversion was aborted by a reset, ADCRH and ADCRL return to their reset states.
9.4.4.4
Power Control
The ADC module remains in its idle state until a conversion is initiated. If ADACK is selected as the
conversion clock source, the ADACK clock generator is also enabled.
Power consumption when active can be reduced by setting ADLPC. This results in a lower maximum
value for fADCK (see the electrical specifications).
9.4.4.5
Total Conversion Time
The total conversion time depends on the sample time (as determined by ADLSMP), the MCU bus
frequency, the conversion mode (8-bit or 10-bit), and the frequency of the conversion clock (fADCK). After
the module becomes active, sampling of the input begins. ADLSMP is used to select between short and
long sample times.When sampling is complete, the converter is isolated from the input channel and a
successive approximation algorithm is performed to determine the digital value of the analog signal. The
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
result of the conversion is transferred to ADCRH and ADCRL upon completion of the conversion
algorithm.
If the bus frequency is less than the fADCK frequency, precise sample time for continuous conversions
cannot be guaranteed when short sample is enabled (ADLSMP=0). If the bus frequency is less than 1/11th
of the fADCK frequency, precise sample time for continuous conversions cannot be guaranteed when long
sample is enabled (ADLSMP=1).
The maximum total conversion time for different conditions is summarized in Table 9-12.
Table 9-12. Total Conversion Time vs. Control Conditions
Conversion Type
ADICLK
ADLSMP
Max Total Conversion Time
Single or first continuous 8-bit
0x, 10
0
20 ADCK cycles + 5 bus clock cycles
Single or first continuous 10-bit
0x, 10
0
23 ADCK cycles + 5 bus clock cycles
Single or first continuous 8-bit
0x, 10
1
40 ADCK cycles + 5 bus clock cycles
Single or first continuous 10-bit
0x, 10
1
43 ADCK cycles + 5 bus clock cycles
Single or first continuous 8-bit
11
0
5 μs + 20 ADCK + 5 bus clock cycles
Single or first continuous 10-bit
11
0
5 μs + 23 ADCK + 5 bus clock cycles
Single or first continuous 8-bit
11
1
5 μs + 40 ADCK + 5 bus clock cycles
Single or first continuous 10-bit
11
1
5 μs + 43 ADCK + 5 bus clock cycles
Subsequent continuous 8-bit;
fBUS > fADCK
xx
0
17 ADCK cycles
Subsequent continuous 10-bit;
fBUS > fADCK
xx
0
20 ADCK cycles
Subsequent continuous 8-bit;
fBUS > fADCK/11
xx
1
37 ADCK cycles
Subsequent continuous 10-bit;
fBUS > fADCK/11
xx
1
40 ADCK cycles
The maximum total conversion time is determined by the clock source chosen and the divide ratio selected.
The clock source is selectable by the ADICLK bits, and the divide ratio is specified by the ADIV bits. For
example, in 10-bit mode, with the bus clock selected as the input clock source, the input clock divide-by-1
ratio selected, and a bus frequency of 8 MHz, then the conversion time for a single conversion is:
Conversion time =
23 ADCK cyc
8 MHz/1
+
5 bus cyc
8 MHz
= 3.5 μs
Number of bus cycles = 3.5 μs x 8 MHz = 28 cycles
NOTE
The ADCK frequency must be between fADCK minimum and fADCK
maximum to meet ADC specifications.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
133
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
9.4.5
Automatic Compare Function
The compare function can be configured to check for either an upper limit or lower limit. After the input
is sampled and converted, the result is added to the two’s complement of the compare value (ADCCVH
and ADCCVL). When comparing to an upper limit (ACFGT = 1), if the result is greater-than or equal-to
the compare value, COCO is set. When comparing to a lower limit (ACFGT = 0), if the result is less than
the compare value, COCO is set. The value generated by the addition of the conversion result and the two’s
complement of the compare value is transferred to ADCRH and ADCRL.
Upon completion of a conversion while the compare function is enabled, if the compare condition is not
true, COCO is not set and no data is transferred to the result registers. An ADC interrupt is generated upon
the setting of COCO if the ADC interrupt is enabled (AIEN = 1).
NOTE
The compare function can be used to monitor the voltage on a channel while
the MCU is in either wait or stop3 mode. The ADC interrupt will wake the
MCU when the compare condition is met.
9.4.6
MCU Wait Mode Operation
The WAIT instruction puts the MCU in a lower power-consumption standby mode from which recovery
is very fast because the clock sources remain active. If a conversion is in progress when the MCU enters
wait mode, it continues until completion. Conversions can be initiated while the MCU is in wait mode by
means of the hardware trigger or if continuous conversions are enabled.
The bus clock, bus clock divided by two, and ADACK are available as conversion clock sources while in
wait mode. The use of ALTCLK as the conversion clock source in wait is dependent on the definition of
ALTCLK for this MCU. Consult the module introduction for information on ALTCLK specific to this
MCU.
A conversion complete event sets the COCO and generates an ADC interrupt to wake the MCU from wait
mode if the ADC interrupt is enabled (AIEN = 1).
9.4.7
MCU Stop3 Mode Operation
The STOP instruction is used to put the MCU in a low power-consumption standby mode during which
most or all clock sources on the MCU are disabled.
9.4.7.1
Stop3 Mode With ADACK Disabled
If the asynchronous clock, ADACK, is not selected as the conversion clock, executing a STOP instruction
aborts the current conversion and places the ADC in its idle state. The contents of ADCRH and ADCRL
are unaffected by stop3 mode.After exiting from stop3 mode, a software or hardware trigger is required to
resume conversions.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
134
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
9.4.7.2
Stop3 Mode With ADACK Enabled
If ADACK is selected as the conversion clock, the ADC continues operation during stop3 mode. For
guaranteed ADC operation, the MCU’s voltage regulator must remain active during stop3 mode. Consult
the module introduction for configuration information for this MCU.
If a conversion is in progress when the MCU enters stop3 mode, it continues until completion. Conversions
can be initiated while the MCU is in stop3 mode by means of the hardware trigger or if continuous
conversions are enabled.
A conversion complete event sets the COCO and generates an ADC interrupt to wake the MCU from stop3
mode if the ADC interrupt is enabled (AIEN = 1).
NOTE
It is possible for the ADC module to wake the system from low power stop
and cause the MCU to begin consuming run-level currents without
generating a system level interrupt. To prevent this scenario, software
should ensure that the data transfer blocking mechanism (discussed in
Section 9.4.4.2, “Completing Conversions) is cleared when entering stop3
and continuing ADC conversions.
9.4.8
MCU Stop1 and Stop2 Mode Operation
The ADC module is automatically disabled when the MCU enters either stop1 or stop2 mode. All module
registers contain their reset values following exit from stop1 or stop2. Therefore the module must be
re-enabled and re-configured following exit from stop1 or stop2.
9.5
Initialization Information
This section gives an example which provides some basic direction on how a user would initialize and
configure the ADC module. The user has the flexibility of choosing between configuring the module for
8-bit or 10-bit resolution, single or continuous conversion, and a polled or interrupt approach, among many
other options. Refer to Table 9-6, Table 9-7, and Table 9-8 for information used in this example.
NOTE
Hexadecimal values designated by a preceding 0x, binary values designated
by a preceding %, and decimal values have no preceding character.
9.5.1
9.5.1.1
ADC Module Initialization Example
Initialization Sequence
Before the ADC module can be used to complete conversions, an initialization procedure must be
performed. A typical sequence is as follows:
1. Update the configuration register (ADCCFG) to select the input clock source and the divide ratio
used to generate the internal clock, ADCK. This register is also used for selecting sample time and
low-power configuration.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
135
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
2. Update status and control register 2 (ADCSC2) to select the conversion trigger (hardware or
software) and compare function options, if enabled.
3. Update status and control register 1 (ADCSC1) to select whether conversions will be continuous
or completed only once, and to enable or disable conversion complete interrupts. The input channel
on which conversions will be performed is also selected here.
9.5.1.2
Pseudo — Code Example
In this example, the ADC module will be set up with interrupts enabled to perform a single 10-bit
conversion at low power with a long sample time on input channel 1, where the internal ADCK clock will
be derived from the bus clock divided by 1.
ADCCFG = 0x98 (%10011000)
Bit 7
ADLPC
1
Configures for low power (lowers maximum clock speed)
Bit 6:5 ADIV
00
Sets the ADCK to the input clock ÷ 1
Bit 4
ADLSMP 1
Configures for long sample time
Bit 3:2 MODE
10
Sets mode at 10-bit conversions
Bit 1:0 ADICLK 00
Selects bus clock as input clock source
ADCSC2 = 0x00 (%00000000)
Bit 7
ADACT
0
Bit 6
ADTRG
0
Bit 5
ACFE
0
Bit 4
ACFGT
0
Bit 3:2
00
Bit 1:0
00
Flag indicates if a conversion is in progress
Software trigger selected
Compare function disabled
Not used in this example
Unimplemented or reserved, always reads zero
Reserved for Freescale’s internal use; always write zero
ADCSC1 = 0x41 (%01000001)
Bit 7
COCO
0
Bit 6
AIEN
1
Bit 5
ADCO
0
Bit 4:0 ADCH
00001
Read-only flag which is set when a conversion completes
Conversion complete interrupt enabled
One conversion only (continuous conversions disabled)
Input channel 1 selected as ADC input channel
ADCRH/L = 0xxx
Holds results of conversion. Read high byte (ADCRH) before low byte (ADCRL) so that conversion
data cannot be overwritten with data from the next conversion.
ADCCVH/L = 0xxx
Holds compare value when compare function enabled
APCTL1=0x02
AD1 pin I/O control disabled. All other AD pins remain general purpose I/O pins
APCTL2=0x00
All other AD pins remain general purpose I/O pins
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
136
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
RESET
INITIALIZE ADC
ADCCFG = $98
ADCSC2 = $00
ADCSC1 = $41
CHECK
COCO=1?
NO
YES
READ ADCRH
THEN ADCRL TO
CLEAR COCO BIT
CONTINUE
Figure 9-14. Initialization Flowchart for Example
9.6
Application Information
This section contains information for using the ADC module in applications. The ADC has been designed
to be integrated into a microcontroller for use in embedded control applications requiring an A/D
converter.
9.6.1
External Pins and Routing
The following sections discuss the external pins associated with the ADC module and how they should be
used for best results.
9.6.1.1
Analog Supply Pins
The ADC module has analog power and ground supplies (VDDAD and VSSAD) which are available as
separate pins on some devices. On other devices, VSSAD is shared on the same pin as the MCU digital VSS,
and on others, both VSSAD and VDDAD are shared with the MCU digital supply pins. In these cases, there
are separate pads for the analog supplies which are bonded to the same pin as the corresponding digital
supply so that some degree of isolation between the supplies is maintained.
When available on a separate pin, both VDDAD and VSSAD must be connected to the same voltage potential
as their corresponding MCU digital supply (VDD and VSS) and must be routed carefully for maximum
noise immunity and bypass capacitors placed as near as possible to the package.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
137
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
In cases where separate power supplies are used for analog and digital power, the ground connection
between these supplies must be at the VSSAD pin. This should be the only ground connection between these
supplies if possible. The VSSAD pin makes a good single point ground location.
9.6.1.2
Analog Reference Pins
In addition to the analog supplies, the ADC module has connections for two reference voltage inputs. The
high reference is VREFH, which may be shared on the same pin as VDDAD on some devices. The low
reference is VREFL, which may be shared on the same pin as VSSAD on some devices.
When available on a separate pin, VREFH may be connected to the same potential as VDDAD, or may be
driven by an external source that is between the minimum VDDAD spec and the VDDAD potential (VREFH
must never exceed VDDAD). When available on a separate pin, VREFL must be connected to the same
voltage potential as VSSAD. Both VREFH and VREFL must be routed carefully for maximum noise
immunity and bypass capacitors placed as near as possible to the package.
AC current in the form of current spikes required to supply charge to the capacitor array at each successive
approximation step is drawn through the VREFH and VREFL loop. The best external component to meet this
current demand is a 0.1 μF capacitor with good high frequency characteristics. This capacitor is connected
between VREFH and VREFL and must be placed as near as possible to the package pins. Resistance in the
path is not recommended because the current will cause a voltage drop which could result in conversion
errors. Inductance in this path must be minimum (parasitic only).
9.6.1.3
Analog Input Pins
The external analog inputs are typically shared with digital I/O pins on MCU devices. The pin I/O control
is disabled by setting the appropriate control bit in one of the pin control registers. Conversions can be
performed on inputs without the associated pin control register bit set. It is recommended that the pin
control register bit always be set when using a pin as an analog input. This avoids problems with contention
because the output buffer will be in its high impedance state and the pullup is disabled. Also, the input
buffer draws dc current when its input is not at either VDD or VSS. Setting the pin control register bits for
all pins used as analog inputs should be done to achieve lowest operating current.
Empirical data shows that capacitors on the analog inputs improve performance in the presence of noise
or when the source impedance is high. Use of 0.01 μF capacitors with good high-frequency characteristics
is sufficient. These capacitors are not necessary in all cases, but when used they must be placed as near as
possible to the package pins and be referenced to VSSA.
For proper conversion, the input voltage must fall between VREFH and VREFL. If the input is equal to or
exceeds VREFH, the converter circuit converts the signal to $3FF (full scale 10-bit representation) or $FF
(full scale 8-bit representation). If the input is equal to or less than VREFL, the converter circuit converts it
to $000. Input voltages between VREFH and VREFL are straight-line linear conversions. There will be a
brief current associated with VREFL when the sampling capacitor is charging. The input is sampled for
3.5 cycles of the ADCK source when ADLSMP is low, or 23.5 cycles when ADLSMP is high.
For minimal loss of accuracy due to current injection, pins adjacent to the analog input pins should not be
transitioning during conversions.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
138
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
9.6.2
Sources of Error
Several sources of error exist for A/D conversions. These are discussed in the following sections.
9.6.2.1
Sampling Error
For proper conversions, the input must be sampled long enough to achieve the proper accuracy. Given the
maximum input resistance of approximately 7kΩ and input capacitance of approximately 5.5 pF, sampling
to within 1/4LSB (at 10-bit resolution) can be achieved within the minimum sample window (3.5 cycles @
8 MHz maximum ADCK frequency) provided the resistance of the external analog source (RAS) is kept
below 5 kΩ.
Higher source resistances or higher-accuracy sampling is possible by setting ADLSMP (to increase the
sample window to 23.5 cycles) or decreasing ADCK frequency to increase sample time.
9.6.2.2
Pin Leakage Error
Leakage on the I/O pins can cause conversion error if the external analog source resistance (RAS) is high.
If this error cannot be tolerated by the application, keep RAS lower than VDDAD / (2N*ILEAK) for less than
1/4LSB leakage error (N = 8 in 8-bit mode or 10 in 10-bit mode).
9.6.2.3
Noise-Induced Errors
System noise which occurs during the sample or conversion process can affect the accuracy of the
conversion. The ADC accuracy numbers are guaranteed as specified only if the following conditions are
met:
• There is a 0.1 μF low-ESR capacitor from VREFH to VREFL.
• There is a 0.1 μF low-ESR capacitor from VDDAD to VSSAD.
• If inductive isolation is used from the primary supply, an additional 1 μF capacitor is placed from
VDDAD to VSSAD.
• VSSAD (and VREFL, if connected) is connected to VSS at a quiet point in the ground plane.
• Operate the MCU in wait or stop3 mode before initiating (hardware triggered conversions) or
immediately after initiating (hardware or software triggered conversions) the ADC conversion.
— For software triggered conversions, immediately follow the write to the ADCSC1 with a WAIT
instruction or STOP instruction.
— For stop3 mode operation, select ADACK as the clock source. Operation in stop3 reduces VDD
noise but increases effective conversion time due to stop recovery.
• There is no I/O switching, input or output, on the MCU during the conversion.
There are some situations where external system activity causes radiated or conducted noise emissions or
excessive VDD noise is coupled into the ADC. In these situations, or when the MCU cannot be placed in
wait or stop3 or I/O activity cannot be halted, these recommended actions may reduce the effect of noise
on the accuracy:
• Place a 0.01 μF capacitor (CAS) on the selected input channel to VREFL or VSSAD (this will
improve noise issues but will affect sample rate based on the external analog source resistance).
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
139
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
•
•
Average the result by converting the analog input many times in succession and dividing the sum
of the results. Four samples are required to eliminate the effect of a 1LSB, one-time error.
Reduce the effect of synchronous noise by operating off the asynchronous clock (ADACK) and
averaging. Noise that is synchronous to ADCK cannot be averaged out.
9.6.2.4
Code Width and Quantization Error
The ADC quantizes the ideal straight-line transfer function into 1024 steps (in 10-bit mode). Each step
ideally has the same height (1 code) and width. The width is defined as the delta between the transition
points to one code and the next. The ideal code width for an N bit converter (in this case N can be 8 or 10),
defined as 1LSB, is:
1LSB = (VREFH - VREFL) / 2N
Eqn. 9-2
There is an inherent quantization error due to the digitization of the result. For 8-bit or 10-bit conversions
the code will transition when the voltage is at the midpoint between the points where the straight line
transfer function is exactly represented by the actual transfer function. Therefore, the quantization error
will be ± 1/2LSB in 8- or 10-bit mode. As a consequence, however, the code width of the first ($000)
conversion is only 1/2LSB and the code width of the last ($FF or $3FF) is 1.5LSB.
9.6.2.5
Linearity Errors
The ADC may also exhibit non-linearity of several forms. Every effort has been made to reduce these
errors but the system should be aware of them because they affect overall accuracy. These errors are:
• Zero-scale error (EZS) (sometimes called offset) — This error is defined as the difference between
the actual code width of the first conversion and the ideal code width (1/2LSB). Note, if the first
conversion is $001, then the difference between the actual $001 code width and its ideal (1LSB) is
used.
• Full-scale error (EFS) — This error is defined as the difference between the actual code width of
the last conversion and the ideal code width (1.5LSB). Note, if the last conversion is $3FE, then the
difference between the actual $3FE code width and its ideal (1LSB) is used.
• Differential non-linearity (DNL) — This error is defined as the worst-case difference between the
actual code width and the ideal code width for all conversions.
• Integral non-linearity (INL) — This error is defined as the highest-value the (absolute value of the)
running sum of DNL achieves. More simply, this is the worst-case difference of the actual
transition voltage to a given code and its corresponding ideal transition voltage, for all codes.
• Total unadjusted error (TUE) — This error is defined as the difference between the actual transfer
function and the ideal straight-line transfer function, and therefore includes all forms of error.
9.6.2.6
Code Jitter, Non-Monotonicity and Missing Codes
Analog-to-digital converters are susceptible to three special forms of error. These are code jitter,
non-monotonicity, and missing codes.
Code jitter is when, at certain points, a given input voltage converts to one of two values when sampled
repeatedly. Ideally, when the input voltage is infinitesimally smaller than the transition voltage, the
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
140
Freescale Semiconductor
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
converter yields the lower code (and vice-versa). However, even very small amounts of system noise can
cause the converter to be indeterminate (between two codes) for a range of input voltages around the
transition voltage. This range is normally around ±1/2 LSB and will increase with noise. This error may be
reduced by repeatedly sampling the input and averaging the result. Additionally the techniques discussed
in Section 9.6.2.3 will reduce this error.
Non-monotonicity is defined as when, except for code jitter, the converter converts to a lower code for a
higher input voltage. Missing codes are those values which are never converted for any input value.
In 8-bit or 10-bit mode, the ADC is guaranteed to be monotonic and to have no missing codes.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
141
Analog-to-Digital Converter (S08ADC10V1)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
142
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 10
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
10.1
Introduction
The internal clock source (ICS) module provides clock source choices for the MCU. The module contains
a frequency-locked loop (FLL) as a clock source that is controllable by either an internal or an external
reference clock. The module can provide this FLL clock or either of the internal or external reference
clocks as a source for the MCU system clock. There are also signals provided to control a low power
oscillator (XOSC) module to allow the use of an external crystal/resonator as the external reference clock.
Whichever clock source is chosen, it is passed through a reduced bus divider (BDIV) which allows a lower
final output clock frequency to be derived.
The bus frequency will be one-half of the ICSOUT frequency.
NOTE
The external reference clock is not available on all packages. See Table 1-1
for external clock availability for each package option.
10.1.1
Module Configuration
When the internal reference is enabled in stop mode (IREFSTEN = 1), the voltage regulator must also be
enabled in stop mode by setting the LVDE and LVDSE bits in the SPMSC1 register.
On this MCU, the internal reference is not connected to any module that is operational in stop mode.
Therefore, the IREFSTEN bit in the ICSC1 register should always be cleared.
Figure 10-1 shows the MC9S08QG8/4 block diagram with the ICS highlighted.
10.1.2
Factory Trim Value
A factory trim value is stored in FLASH during production testing. To be used, this value must be copied
from FLASH memory to the ICSTRM register. A factory value for this FTRIM bit is also stored in FLASH
and must be copied into the FTRIM bit in the ICSSC register. See Table 4-4 for the FLASH locations of
the factory ICSTRM and FTRIM values.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
143
Chapter 10 Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
BKGD/MS
IRQ
HCS08 CORE
DEBUG MODULE (DBG)
BDC
RESETS AND INTERRUPTS
MODES OF OPERATION
POWER MANAGEMENT
RTI
COP
IRQ
LVD
USER FLASH
(MC9S08QG8 = 8192 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 4096 BYTES)
USER RAM
(MC9S08QG8 = 512 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 256 BYTES)
16-MHz INTERNAL CLOCK
SOURCE (ICS)
LOW-POWER OSCILLATOR
31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz
1 MHz to 16 MHz
(XOSC)
VSS
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD
VDDA
VSSA
PTA5//IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
SCL
IIC MODULE (IIC)
SDA
PORT A
HCS08 SYSTEM CONTROL
TCLK
8-BIT MODULO TIMER
MODULE (MTIM)
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
4
8-BIT KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT MODULE (KBI)
ANALOG COMPARATOR
(ACMP)
4
ACMPO
ACMP–
ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
4
10-BIT
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC)
16-BIT TIMER/PWM
MODULE (TPM)
TPMCH0
TPMCH1
SS
MISO
MOSI
SPSCK
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE MODULE (SPI)
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
INTERFACE MODULE (SCI)
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
4
TxD
RxD
PORT B
CPU
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
EXTAL
XTAL
VREFH
VREFL
NOTES:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Not all pins or pin functions are available on all devices, see Table 1-1 for available functions on each device.
Port pins are software configurable with pullup device if input port.
Port pins are software configurable for output drive strength.
Port pins are software configurable for output slew rate control.
IRQ contains a software configurable (IRQPDD) pullup device if PTA5 enabled as IRQ pin function (IRQPE = 1).
RESET contains integrated pullup device if PTA5 enabled as reset pin function (RSTPE = 1).
PTA4 contains integrated pullup device if BKGD enabled (BKGDPE = 1).
SDA and SCL pin locations can be repositioned under software control (IICPS), defaults on PTA2 and PTA3.
When pin functions as KBI (KBIPEn = 1) and associated pin is configured to enable the pullup device, KBEDGn can be used to reconfigure
the pullup as a pulldown device.
Figure 10-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Block Diagram Highlighting ICS Block and Pins
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
144
Freescale Semiconductor
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
10.1.3
Features
Key features of the ICS module are:
• Frequency-locked loop (FLL) is trimmable for accuracy
— 0.2% resolution using internal 32 kHz reference
— 2% deviation over voltage and temperature using internal 32 kHz reference
• External reference clock up to 5 MHz can be used to control the FLL
— 3 bit select for reference divider is provided
• Internal reference clock has 9 trim bits available
• Internal or external reference clock can be selected as the clock source for the MCU
• Whichever clock is selected as the source can be divided down
— 2 bit select for clock divider is provided
– Allowable dividers are: 1, 2, 4, 8
– BDC clock is provided as a constant divide by 2 of the DCO output
• Control signals for a low power oscillator as the external reference clock are provided
— HGO, RANGE, EREFS, ERCLKEN, EREFSTEN
• FLL engaged internal mode is automatically selected out of reset
10.1.4
Modes of Operation
The ICS features the following modes of operation: FEI, FEE, FBI, FBILP, FBE, FBELP, and stop.
10.1.4.1
FLL Engaged Internal (FEI)
In FLL engaged internal mode, which is the default mode, the ICS supplies a clock derived from the FLL
which is controlled by the internal reference clock. The BDC clock is supplied from the FLL.
10.1.4.2
FLL Engaged External (FEE)
In FLL engaged external mode, the ICS supplies a clock derived from the FLL which is controlled by an
external reference clock. The BDC clock is supplied from the FLL.
10.1.4.3
FLL Bypassed Internal (FBI)
In FLL bypassed internal mode, the FLL is enabled and controlled by the internal reference clock, but is
bypassed. The ICS supplies a clock derived from the internal reference clock. The BDC clock is supplied
from the FLL.
10.1.4.4
FLL Bypassed Internal Low Power (FBILP)
In FLL bypassed internal low power mode, the FLL is disabled and bypassed, and the ICS supplies a clock
derived from the internal reference clock. The BDC clock is not available.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
145
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
10.1.4.5
FLL Bypassed External (FBE)
In FLL bypassed external mode, the FLL is enabled and controlled by an external reference clock, but is
bypassed. The ICS supplies a clock derived from the external reference clock. The external reference clock
can be an external crystal/resonator supplied by an OSC controlled by the ICS, or it can be another external
clock source. The BDC clock is supplied from the FLL.
10.1.4.6
FLL Bypassed External Low Power (FBELP)
In FLL bypassed external low power mode, the FLL is disabled and bypassed, and the ICS supplies a clock
derived from the external reference clock. The external reference clock can be an external crystal/resonator
supplied by an OSC controlled by the ICS, or it can be another external clock source. The BDC clock is
not available.
10.1.4.7
Stop (STOP)
In stop mode, the FLL is disabled and the internal or external reference clock can be selected to be enabled
or disabled. The BDC clock is not available. ICS does not provide an MCU clock source.
10.1.5
Block Diagram
This section contains the ICS block diagram.
Optional
External Reference
Clock Source
Block
RANGE
HGO
EREFS
EREFSTEN
ICSERCLK
ERCLKEN
IRCLKEN
IREFSTEN
ICSIRCLK
CLKS
BDIV
/ 2n
Internal
Reference
Clock
9
IREFS
ICSOUT
n=0-3
LP
DCO
DCOOUT
/2
ICSLCLK
TRIM
ICSFFCLK
9
/ 2n
RDIV_CLK
Filter
n=0-7
FLL
RDIV
Internal Clock Source Block
Figure 10-2. Internal Clock Source (ICS) Block Diagram
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
146
Freescale Semiconductor
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
10.2
External Signal Description
No ICS signal connects off chip.
10.3
Register Definition
10.3.1
ICS Control Register 1 (ICSC1)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
IREFS
IRCLKEN
IREFSTEN
1
0
0
R
CLKS
RDIV
W
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 10-3. ICS Control Register 1 (ICSC1)
Table 10-1. ICS Control Register 1 Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:6
CLKS
Clock Source Select — Selects the clock source that controls the bus frequency. The actual bus frequency
depends on the value of the BDIV bits.
00 Output of FLL is selected.
01 Internal reference clock is selected.
10 External reference clock is selected.
11 Reserved, defaults to 00.
5:3
RDIV
Reference Divider — Selects the amount to divide down the FLL reference clock selected by the IREFS bits.
Resulting frequency must be in the range 31.25 kHz to 39.0625 kHz.
000 Encoding 0 — Divides reference clock by 1 (reset default)
001 Encoding 1 — Divides reference clock by 2
010 Encoding 2 — Divides reference clock by 4
011 Encoding 3 — Divides reference clock by 8
100 Encoding 4 — Divides reference clock by 16
101 Encoding 5 — Divides reference clock by 32
110 Encoding 6 — Divides reference clock by 64
111 Encoding 7 — Divides reference clock by 128
2
IREFS
Internal Reference Select — The IREFS bit selects the reference clock source for the FLL.
1 Internal reference clock selected
0 External reference clock selected
1
IRCLKEN
0
IREFSTEN
Internal Reference Clock Enable — The IRCLKEN bit enables the internal reference clock for use as
ICSIRCLK.
1 ICSIRCLK active
0 ICSIRCLK inactive
Internal Reference Stop Enable — The IREFSTEN bit controls whether or not the internal reference clock
remains enabled when the ICS enters stop mode.
1 Internal reference clock stays enabled in stop if IRCLKEN is set or if ICS is in FEI, FBI, or FBILP mode before
entering stop
0 Internal reference clock is disabled in stop
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
147
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
10.3.2
ICS Control Register 2 (ICSC2)
7
6
5
4
3
2
RANGE
HGO
LP
EREFS
0
0
0
0
1
0
R
BDIV
ERCLKEN EREFSTEN
W
Reset:
0
1
0
0
Figure 10-4. ICS Control Register 2 (ICSC2)
Table 10-2. ICS Control Register 2 Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:6
BDIV
Bus Frequency Divider — Selects the amount to divide down the clock source selected by the CLKS bits. This
controls the bus frequency.
00 Encoding 0 — Divides selected clock by 1
01 Encoding 1 — Divides selected clock by 2 (reset default)
10 Encoding 2 — Divides selected clock by 4
11 Encoding 3 — Divides selected clock by 8
5
RANGE
Frequency Range Select — Selects the frequency range for the external oscillator.
1 High frequency range selected for the external oscillator
0 Low frequency range selected for the external oscillator
4
HGO
High Gain Oscillator Select — The HGO bit controls the external oscillator mode of operation.
1 Configure external oscillator for high gain operation
0 Configure external oscillator for low power operation
3
LP
Low Power Select — The LP bit controls whether the FLL is disabled in FLL bypassed modes.
1 FLL is disabled in bypass modes unless BDM is active
0 FLL is not disabled in bypass mode
2
EREFS
1
ERCLKEN
External Reference Select — The EREFS bit selects the source for the external reference clock.
1 Oscillator requested
0 External Clock Source requested
External Reference Enable — The ERCLKEN bit enables the external reference clock for use as ICSERCLK.
1 ICSERCLK active
0 ICSERCLK inactive
0
External Reference Stop Enable — The EREFSTEN bit controls whether or not the external reference clock
EREFSTEN remains enabled when the ICS enters stop mode.
1 External reference clock stays enabled in stop if ERCLKEN is set or if ICS is in FEE, FBE, or FBELP mode
before entering stop
0 External reference clock is disabled in stop
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
148
Freescale Semiconductor
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
10.3.3
ICS Trim Register (ICSTRM)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
TRIM
W
POR:
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reset:
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
Figure 10-5. ICS Trim Register (ICSTRM)
Table 10-3. ICS Trim Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:0
TRIM
ICS Trim Setting — The TRIM bits control the internal reference clock frequency by controlling the internal
reference clock period. The bits’ effect are binary weighted (i.e., bit 1 will adjust twice as much as bit 0).
Increasing the binary value in TRIM will increase the period, and decreasing the value will decrease the period.
An additional fine trim bit is available in ICSSC as the FTRIM bit.
10.3.4
ICS Status and Control (ICSSC)
R
7
6
5
4
0
0
0
0
3
2
CLKST
1
0
OSCINIT
FTRIM
W
POR:
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
U
Figure 10-6. ICS Status and Control Register (ICSSC)
Table 10-4. ICS Status and Control Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
3:2
CLKST
Clock Mode Status — The CLKST bits indicate the current clock mode. The CLKST bits don’t update
immediately after a write to the CLKS bits due to internal synchronization between clock domains.
00 Output of FLL is selected.
01 FLL Bypassed, Internal reference clock is selected.10FLL Bypassed, External reference clock is selected.
11
Reserved.
1
OSC Initialization — If the external reference clock is selected by ERCLKEN or by the ICS being in FEE, FBE,
or FBELP mode, and if EREFS is set, then this bit is set after the initialization cycles of the external oscillator
clock have completed. This bit is only cleared when either ERCLKEN or EREFS are cleared.
FTRIM
0
ICS Fine Trim — The FTRIM bit controls the smallest adjustment of the internal reference clock frequency.
Setting FTRIM will increase the period and clearing FTRIM will decrease the period by the smallest amount
possible.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
149
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
10.4
Functional Description
10.4.1
Operational Modes
The states of the ICS are shown as a state diagram and are described in the following sections. The arrows
indicate the allowed movements between the states.
IREFS=1
CLKS=00
FLL Engaged
Internal (FEI)
IREFS=0
CLKS=10BDM Enabled
or LP =0
FLL Bypassed
External Low
Power(FBELP)
FLL Bypassed
External (FBE)
IREFS=0
CLKS=10
BDM Disabled
and LP=1
IREFS=1
CLKS=01
BDM Enabled
or LP=0
FLL Bypassed
Internal (FBI)
FLL Bypassed
Internal Low
Power(FBILP)
IREFS=1
CLKS=01
BDM Disabled
and LP=1
FLL Engaged
External (FEE)
IREFS=0
CLKS=00
Entered from any state
when MCU enters stop
Stop
Returns to state that was active
before MCU entered stop, unless
RESET occurs while in stop.
Figure 10-7. Clock Switching Modes
10.4.1.1
FLL Engaged Internal (FEI)
FLL engaged internal (FEI) is the default mode of operation out of any reset and is entered when all the
following conditions occur:
• CLKS bits are written to 00
• IREFS bit is written to 1
• RDIV bits are written to divide reference clock to be within the range of 31.25 kHz to 39.0625 kHz.
In FLL engaged internal mode, the ICSOUT clock is derived from the FLL clock, which is controlled by
the internal reference clock. The FLL loop will lock the frequency to 512 times the filter frequency, as
selected by the RDIV bits. The ICSLCLK is available for BDC communications, and the internal reference
clock is enabled.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
150
Freescale Semiconductor
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
10.4.1.2
FLL Engaged External (FEE)
The FLL engaged external (FEE) mode is entered when all the following conditions occur:
•
•
•
CLKS bits are written to 00
IREFS bit is written to 0
RDIV bits are written to divide reference clock to be within the range of 31.25 kHz to 39.0625 kHz
In FLL engaged external mode, the ICSOUT clock is derived from the FLL clock which is controlled by
the external reference clock.The FLL loop will lock the frequency to 512 times the filter frequency, as
selected by the RDIV bits. The ICSLCLK is available for BDC communications, and the external
reference clock is enabled.
10.4.1.3
FLL Bypassed Internal (FBI)
The FLL bypassed internal (FBI) mode is entered when all the following conditions occur:
• CLKS bits are written to 01
• IREFS bit is written to 1
• BDM mode is active or LP bit is written to 0
In FLL bypassed internal mode, the ICSOUT clock is derived from the internal reference clock. The FLL
clock is controlled by the internal reference clock, and the FLL loop will lock the FLL frequency to 512
times the filter frequency, as selected by the RDIV bits. The ICSLCLK will be available for BDC
communications, and the internal reference clock is enabled.
10.4.1.4
FLL Bypassed Internal Low Power (FBILP)
The FLL bypassed internal low power (FBILP) mode is entered when all the following conditions occur:
• CLKS bits are written to 01
• IREFS bit is written to 1.
• BDM mode is not active and LP bit is written to 1
In FLL bypassed internal low power mode, the ICSOUT clock is derived from the internal reference clock
and the FLL is disabled. The ICSLCLK will be not be available for BDC communications, and the internal
reference clock is enabled.
10.4.1.5
FLL Bypassed External (FBE)
The FLL bypassed external (FBE) mode is entered when all the following conditions occur:
• CLKS bits are written to 10.
• IREFS bit is written to 0.
• BDM mode is active or LP bit is written to 0.
In FLL bypassed external mode, the ICSOUT clock is derived from the external reference clock. The FLL
clock is controlled by the external reference clock, and the FLL loop will lock the FLL frequency to 512
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
151
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
times the filter frequency, as selected by the RDIV bits, so that the ICSLCLK will be available for BDC
communications, and the external reference clock is enabled.
10.4.1.6
FLL Bypassed External Low Power (FBELP)
The FLL bypassed external low power (FBELP) mode is entered when all the following conditions occur:
• CLKS bits are written to 10.
• IREFS bit is written to 0.
• BDM mode is not active and LP bit is written to 1.
In FLL bypassed external low power mode, the ICSOUT clock is derived from the external reference clock
and the FLL is disabled. The ICSLCLK will be not be available for BDC communications. The external
reference clock is enabled.
10.4.1.7
Stop
ICS stop mode is entered whenever the MCU enters stop. In this mode, all ICS clock signals are stopped
except in the following cases:
ICSIRCLK will be active in stop mode when all the following conditions occur:
• IRCLKEN bit is written to 1
• IREFSTEN bit is written to 1
ICSERCLK will be active in stop mode when all the following conditions occur:
• ERCLKEN bit is written to 1
• EREFSTEN bit is written to 1
10.4.2
Mode Switching
When switching between FLL engaged internal (FEI) and FLL engaged external (FEE) modes the IREFS
bit can be changed at anytime, but the RDIV bits must be changed simultaneously so that the resulting
frequency stays in the range of 31.25 kHz to 39.0625 kHz. After a change in the IREFS value the FLL will
begin locking again after a few full cycles of the resulting divided reference frequency.
The CLKS bits can also be changed at anytime, but the RDIV bits must be changed simultaneously so that
the resulting frequency stays in the range of 31.25 kHz to 39.0625 kHz. The actual switch to the newly
selected clock will not occur until after a few full cycles of the new clock. If the newly selected clock is
not available, the previous clock will remain selected.
10.4.3
Bus Frequency Divider
The BDIV bits can be changed at anytime and the actual switch to the new frequency will occur
immediately.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
152
Freescale Semiconductor
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
10.4.4
Low Power Bit Usage
The low power bit (LP) is provided to allow the FLL to be disabled and thus conserve power when it is
not being used. However, in some applications it may be desirable to enable the FLL and allow it to lock
for maximum accuracy before switching to an FLL engaged mode. Do this by writing the LP bit to 0.
10.4.5
Internal Reference Clock
When IRCLKEN is set the internal reference clock signal will be presented as ICSIRCLK, which can be
used as an additional clock source. The ICSIRCLK frequency can be re-targeted by trimming the period
of the internal reference clock. This can be done by writing a new value to the TRIM bits in the ICSTRM
register. Writing a larger value will slow down the ICSIRCLK frequency, and writing a smaller value to
the ICSTRM register will speed up the ICSIRCLK frequency. The TRIM bits will effect the ICSOUT
frequency if the ICS is in FLL engaged internal (FEI), FLL bypassed internal (FBI), or FLL bypassed
internal low power (FBILP) mode. The TRIM and FTRIM value will not be affected by a reset.
Until ICSIRCLK is trimmed, programming low reference divider (RDIV) factors may result in ICSOUT
frequencies that exceed the maximum chip-level frequency and violate the chip-level clock timing
specifications (see the Device Overview chapter).
If IREFSTEN is set and the IRCLKEN bit is written to 1, the internal reference clock will keep running
during stop mode in order to provide a fast recovery upon exiting stop.
All MCU devices are factory programmed with a trim value in a reserved memory location. This value can
be copied to the ICSTRM register during reset initialization. The factory trim value does not include the
FTRIM bit. For finer precision, the user can trim the internal oscillator in the application and set the
FTRIM bit accordingly.
10.4.6
Optional External Reference Clock
The ICS module can support an external reference clock with frequencies between 31.25 kHz to 5 MHz
in all modes. When the ERCLKEN is set, the external reference clock signal will be presented as
ICSERCLK, which can be used as an additional clock source. When IREFS = 1, the external reference
clock will not be used by the FLL and will only be used as ICSERCLK. In these modes, the frequency can
be equal to the maximum frequency the chip-level timing specifications will support (see the Device
Overview chapter).
If EREFSTEN is set and the ERCLKEN bit is written to 1, the external reference clock will keep running
during stop mode in order to provide a fast recovery upon exiting stop.
10.4.7
Fixed Frequency Clock
The ICS provides the divided FLL reference clock as ICSFFCLK for use as an additional clock source for
peripheral modules. The ICS provides an output signal (ICSFFE) which indicates when the ICS is
providing ICSOUT frequencies four times or greater than the divided FLL reference clock (ICSFFCLK).
In FLL engaged mode (FEI and FEE), this is always true and ICSFFE is always high. In ICS Bypass
modes, ICSFFE will get asserted for the following combinations of BDIV and RDIV values:
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
153
Internal Clock Source (S08ICSV1)
•
•
•
•
BDIV=00 (divide by 1), RDIV ≥ 010
BDIV=01 (divide by 2), RDIV ≥ 011
BDIV=10 (divide by 4), RDIV ≥ 100
BDIV=11 (divide by 8), RDIV ≥ 101
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
154
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 11
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.1
Introduction
The inter-integrated circuit (IIC) provides a method of communication between a number of devices. The
interface is designed to operate up to 100 kbps with maximum bus loading and timing. The device is
capable of operating at higher baud rates, up to a maximum of clock/20, with reduced bus loading. The
maximum communication length and the number of devices that can be connected are limited by a
maximum bus capacitance of 400 pF.
11.1.1
Module Configuration
The IIC module pins, SDA and SCL can be repositioned under software control using IICPS in SOPT2 as
as shown in Table 11-1. IICPS in SOPT2 selects which general-purpose I/O ports are associated with IIC
operation.
Table 11-1. IIC Position Options
IICPS in SOPT2
Port Pin for SDA
Port Pin for SCL
0 (default)
PTA2
PTA3
1
PTB6
PTB7
Figure 11-1 is the MC9S08QG8/4 block diagram with the IIC block highlighted.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
155
Chapter 11 Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
BKGD/MS
IRQ
HCS08 CORE
DEBUG MODULE (DBG)
BDC
RESETS AND INTERRUPTS
MODES OF OPERATION
POWER MANAGEMENT
RTI
COP
IRQ
LVD
USER FLASH
(MC9S08QG8 = 8192 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 4096 BYTES)
USER RAM
(MC9S08QG8 = 512 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 256 BYTES)
16-MHz INTERNAL CLOCK
SOURCE (ICS)
LOW-POWER OSCILLATOR
31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz
1 MHz to 16 MHz
(XOSC)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD
VDDA
VSSA
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
SCL
IIC MODULE (IIC)
SDA
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
4
8-BIT KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT MODULE (KBI)
ANALOG COMPARATOR
(ACMP)
4
ACMPO
ACMP–
ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
4
10-BIT
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC)
16-BIT TIMER/PWM
MODULE (TPM)
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
4
TPMCH0
TPMCH1
SS
MISO
MOSI
SPSCK
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE MODULE (SPI)
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
INTERFACE MODULE (SCI)
VSS
PTA5//IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PORT A
HCS08 SYSTEM CONTROL
TCLK
8-BIT MODULO TIMER
MODULE (MTIM)
TxD
RxD
PORT B
CPU
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
EXTAL
XTAL
VREFH
VREFL
NOTES:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Not all pins or pin functions are available on all devices, see Table 1-1 for available functions on each device.
Port pins are software configurable with pullup device if input port.
Port pins are software configurable for output drive strength.
Port pins are software configurable for output slew rate control.
IRQ contains a software configurable (IRQPDD) pullup device if PTA5 enabled as IRQ pin function (IRQPE = 1).
RESET contains integrated pullup device if PTA5 enabled as reset pin function (RSTPE = 1).
PTA4 contains integrated pullup device if BKGD enabled (BKGDPE = 1).
SDA and SCL pin locations can be repositioned under software control (IICPS), defaults on PTA2 and PTA3.
When pin functions as KBI (KBIPEn = 1) and associated pin is configured to enable the pullup device, KBEDGn can be used to reconfigure
the pullup as a pulldown device.
Figure 11-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Block Diagram Highlighting IIC Block and Pins
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
156
Freescale Semiconductor
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.1.2
Features
The IIC includes these distinctive features:
• Compatible with IIC bus standard
• Multi-master operation
• Software programmable for one of 64 different serial clock frequencies
• Software selectable acknowledge bit
• Interrupt driven byte-by-byte data transfer
• Arbitration lost interrupt with automatic mode switching from master to slave
• Calling address identification interrupt
• START and STOP signal generation/detection
• Repeated START signal generation
• Acknowledge bit generation/detection
• Bus busy detection
11.1.3
Modes of Operation
The IIC functions the same in normal and monitor modes. A brief description of the IIC in the various
MCU modes is given here.
• Run mode — This is the basic mode of operation. To conserve power in this mode, disable the
module.
• Wait mode — The module will continue to operate while the MCU is in wait mode and can provide
a wake-up interrupt.
• Stop mode — The IIC is inactive in stop3 mode for reduced power consumption. The STOP
instruction does not affect IIC register states. Stop2 will reset the register contents.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
157
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.1.4
Block Diagram
Figure 11-2 is a block diagram of the IIC.
ADDRESS
DATA BUS
INTERRUPT
ADDR_DECODE
CTRL_REG
DATA_MUX
FREQ_REG
ADDR_REG
STATUS_REG
DATA_REG
INPUT
SYNC
START
STOP
ARBITRATION
CONTROL
CLOCK
CONTROL
IN/OUT
DATA
SHIFT
REGISTER
ADDRESS
COMPARE
SCL
SDA
Figure 11-2. IIC Functional Block Diagram
11.2
External Signal Description
This section describes each user-accessible pin signal.
11.2.1
SCL — Serial Clock Line
The bidirectional SCL is the serial clock line of the IIC system.
11.2.2
SDA — Serial Data Line
The bidirectional SDA is the serial data line of the IIC system.
11.3
Register Definition
This section consists of the IIC register descriptions in address order.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
158
Freescale Semiconductor
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
Refer to the direct-page register summary in the Memory chapter of this data sheet for the absolute address
assignments for all IIC registers. This section refers to registers and control bits only by their names. A
Freescale-provided equate or header file is used to translate these names into the appropriate absolute
addresses.
11.3.1
IIC Address Register (IICA)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
R
ADDR
W
Reset
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 11-3. IIC Address Register (IICA)
Table 11-2. IICA Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:1
ADDR[7:1]
IIC Address Register — The ADDR contains the specific slave address to be used by the IIC module. This is
the address the module will respond to when addressed as a slave.
11.3.2
IIC Frequency Divider Register (IICF)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
R
MULT
ICR
W
Reset
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 11-4. IIC Frequency Divider Register (IICF)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
159
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
Table 11-3. IICF Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:6
MULT
IIC Multiplier Factor — The MULT bits define the multiplier factor mul. This factor is used along with the SCL
divider to generate the IIC baud rate. The multiplier factor mul as defined by the MULT bits is provided below.
00 mul = 01
01 mul = 02
10 mul = 04
11 Reserved
5:0
ICR
IIC Clock Rate — The ICR bits are used to prescale the bus clock for bit rate selection. These bits are used to
define the SCL divider and the SDA hold value. The SCL divider multiplied by the value provided by the MULT
register (multiplier factor mul) is used to generate IIC baud rate.
IIC baud rate = bus speed (Hz)/(mul * SCL divider)
SDA hold time is the delay from the falling edge of the SCL (IIC clock) to the changing of SDA (IIC data). The ICR
is used to determine the SDA hold value.
SDA hold time = bus period (s) * SDA hold value
Table 11-4 provides the SCL divider and SDA hold values for corresponding values of the ICR. These values can
be used to set IIC baud rate and SDA hold time. For example:
Bus speed = 8 MHz
MULT is set to 01 (mul = 2)
Desired IIC baud rate = 100 kbps
IIC baud rate = bus speed (Hz)/(mul * SCL divider)
100000 = 8000000/(2*SCL divider)
SCL divider = 40
Table 11-4 shows that ICR must be set to 0B to provide an SCL divider of 40 and that this will result in an SDA
hold value of 9.
SDA hold time = bus period (s) * SDA hold value
SDA hold time = 1/8000000 * 9 = 1.125 μs
If the generated SDA hold value is not acceptable, the MULT bits can be used to change the ICR. This will result
in a different SDA hold value.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
160
Freescale Semiconductor
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
Table 11-4. IIC Divider and Hold Values
ICR
(hex)
SCL Divider
SDA Hold
Value
ICR
(hex)
SCL Divider
SDA Hold
Value
00
20
7
20
160
17
01
22
7
21
192
17
02
24
8
22
224
33
03
26
8
23
256
33
04
28
9
24
288
49
05
30
9
25
320
49
06
34
10
26
384
65
07
40
10
27
480
65
08
28
7
28
320
33
09
32
7
29
384
33
0A
36
9
2A
448
65
0B
40
9
2B
512
65
0C
44
11
2C
576
97
0D
48
11
2D
640
97
0E
56
13
2E
768
129
0F
68
13
2F
960
129
10
48
9
30
640
65
11
56
9
31
768
65
12
64
13
32
896
129
13
72
13
33
1024
129
14
80
17
34
1152
193
15
88
17
35
1280
193
16
104
21
36
1536
257
17
128
21
37
1920
257
18
80
9
38
1280
129
19
96
9
39
1536
129
1A
112
17
3A
1792
257
1B
128
17
3B
2048
257
1C
144
25
3C
2304
385
1D
160
25
3D
2560
385
1E
192
33
3E
3072
513
1F
240
33
3F
3840
513
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
161
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.3.3
IIC Control Register (IICC)
7
6
5
4
3
IICEN
IICIE
MST
TX
TXAK
R
W
Reset
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
RSTA
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 11-5. IIC Control Register (IICC)
Table 11-5. IICC Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
IICEN
IIC Enable — The IICEN bit determines whether the IIC module is enabled.
0 IIC is not enabled.
1 IIC is enabled.
6
IICIE
IIC Interrupt Enable — The IICIE bit determines whether an IIC interrupt is requested.
0 IIC interrupt request not enabled.
1 IIC interrupt request enabled.
5
MST
Master Mode Select — The MST bit is changed from a 0 to a 1 when a START signal is generated on the bus
and master mode is selected. When this bit changes from a 1 to a 0 a STOP signal is generated and the mode
of operation changes from master to slave.
0 Slave Mode.
1 Master Mode.
4
TX
Transmit Mode Select — The TX bit selects the direction of master and slave transfers. In master mode this bit
should be set according to the type of transfer required. Therefore, for address cycles, this bit will always be high.
When addressed as a slave this bit should be set by software according to the SRW bit in the status register.
0 Receive.
1 Transmit.
3
TXAK
Transmit Acknowledge Enable — This bit specifies the value driven onto the SDA during data acknowledge
cycles for both master and slave receivers.
0 An acknowledge signal will be sent out to the bus after receiving one data byte.
1 No acknowledge signal response is sent.
2
RSTA
Repeat START — Writing a one to this bit will generate a repeated START condition provided it is the current
master. This bit will always be read as a low. Attempting a repeat at the wrong time will result in loss of arbitration.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
162
Freescale Semiconductor
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.3.4
IIC Status Register (IICS)
7
R
6
TCF
5
4
BUSY
IAAS
3
2
0
SRW
ARBL
1
0
RXAK
IICIF
W
Reset
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 11-6. IIC Status Register (IICS)
Table 11-6. IICS Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
TCF
Transfer Complete Flag — This bit is set on the completion of a byte transfer. Note that this bit is only valid
during or immediately following a transfer to the IIC module or from the IIC module.The TCF bit is cleared by
reading the IICD register in receive mode or writing to the IICD in transmit mode.
0 Transfer in progress.
1 Transfer complete.
6
IAAS
Addressed as a Slave — The IAAS bit is set when the calling address matches the programmed slave address.
Writing the IICC register clears this bit.
0 Not addressed.
1 Addressed as a slave.
5
BUSY
Bus Busy — The BUSY bit indicates the status of the bus regardless of slave or master mode. The BUSY bit is
set when a START signal is detected and cleared when a STOP signal is detected.
0 Bus is idle.
1 Bus is busy.
4
ARBL
Arbitration Lost — This bit is set by hardware when the arbitration procedure is lost. The ARBL bit must be
cleared by software, by writing a one to it.
0 Standard bus operation.
1 Loss of arbitration.
2
SRW
Slave Read/Write — When addressed as a slave the SRW bit indicates the value of the R/W command bit of
the calling address sent to the master.
0 Slave receive, master writing to slave.
1 Slave transmit, master reading from slave.
1
IICIF
IIC Interrupt Flag — The IICIF bit is set when an interrupt is pending. This bit must be cleared by software, by
writing a one to it in the interrupt routine. One of the following events can set the IICIF bit:
• One byte transfer completes
• Match of slave address to calling address
• Arbitration lost
0 No interrupt pending.
1 Interrupt pending.
0
RXAK
Receive Acknowledge — When the RXAK bit is low, it indicates an acknowledge signal has been received after
the completion of one byte of data transmission on the bus. If the RXAK bit is high it means that no acknowledge
signal is detected.
0 Acknowledge received.
1 No acknowledge received.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
163
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.3.5
IIC Data I/O Register (IICD)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
R
DATA
W
Reset
0
0
0
0
Figure 11-7. IIC Data I/O Register (IICD)
Table 11-7. IICD Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:0
DATA
Data — In master transmit mode, when data is written to the IICD, a data transfer is initiated. The most significant
bit is sent first. In master receive mode, reading this register initiates receiving of the next byte of data.
NOTE
When transmitting out of master receive mode, the IIC mode should be
switched before reading the IICD register to prevent an inadvertent
initiation of a master receive data transfer.
In slave mode, the same functions are available after an address match has occurred.
Note that the TX bit in IICC must correctly reflect the desired direction of transfer in master and slave
modes for the transmission to begin. For instance, if the IIC is configured for master transmit but a master
receive is desired, then reading the IICD will not initiate the receive.
Reading the IICD will return the last byte received while the IIC is configured in either master receive or
slave receive modes. The IICD does not reflect every byte that is transmitted on the IIC bus, nor can
software verify that a byte has been written to the IICD correctly by reading it back.
In master transmit mode, the first byte of data written to IICD following assertion of MST is used for the
address transfer and should comprise of the calling address (in bit 7–bit 1) concatenated with the required
R/W bit (in position bit 0).
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
164
Freescale Semiconductor
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.4
Functional Description
This section provides a complete functional description of the IIC module.
11.4.1
IIC Protocol
The IIC bus system uses a serial data line (SDA) and a serial clock line (SCL) for data transfer. All devices
connected to it must have open drain or open collector outputs. A logic AND function is exercised on both
lines with external pull-up resistors. The value of these resistors is system dependent.
Normally, a standard communication is composed of four parts:
• START signal
• Slave address transmission
• Data transfer
• STOP signal
The STOP signal should not be confused with the CPU STOP instruction. The IIC bus system
communication is described briefly in the following sections and illustrated in Figure 11-8.
MSB
SCL
SDA
1
LSB
2
3
4
5
6
7
CALLING ADDRESS
START
SIGNAL
1
XXX
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
6
7
8
1
9
READ/ ACK
WRITE BIT
XX
9
NO STOP
ACK SIGNAL
BIT
MSB
AD7 AD6 AD5 AD4 AD3 AD2 AD1 R/W
CALLING ADDRESS
1
DATA BYTE
LSB
2
LSB
READ/ ACK
WRITE BIT
MSB
SDA
9
AD7 AD6 AD5 AD4 AD3 AD2 AD1 R/W
START
SIGNAL
SCL
8
MSB
LSB
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
AD7 AD6 AD5 AD4 AD3 AD2 AD1 R/W
REPEATED
START
SIGNAL
NEW CALLING ADDRESS
READ/ NO STOP
SIGNAL
WRITE ACK
BIT
Figure 11-8. IIC Bus Transmission Signals
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
165
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.4.1.1
START Signal
When the bus is free; i.e., no master device is engaging the bus (both SCL and SDA lines are at logical
high), a master may initiate communication by sending a START signal. As shown in Figure 11-8, a
START signal is defined as a high-to-low transition of SDA while SCL is high. This signal denotes the
beginning of a new data transfer (each data transfer may contain several bytes of data) and brings all slaves
out of their idle states.
11.4.1.2
Slave Address Transmission
The first byte of data transferred immediately after the START signal is the slave address transmitted by
the master. This is a seven-bit calling address followed by a R/W bit. The R/W bit tells the slave the desired
direction of data transfer.
1 = Read transfer, the slave transmits data to the master.
0 = Write transfer, the master transmits data to the slave.
Only the slave with a calling address that matches the one transmitted by the master will respond by
sending back an acknowledge bit. This is done by pulling the SDA low at the 9th clock (see Figure 11-8).
No two slaves in the system may have the same address. If the IIC module is the master, it must not
transmit an address that is equal to its own slave address. The IIC cannot be master and slave at the same
time. However, if arbitration is lost during an address cycle, the IIC will revert to slave mode and operate
correctly even if it is being addressed by another master.
11.4.1.3
Data Transfer
Before successful slave addressing is achieved, the data transfer can proceed byte-by-byte in a direction
specified by the R/W bit sent by the calling master.
All transfers that come after an address cycle are referred to as data transfers, even if they carry sub-address
information for the slave device
Each data byte is 8 bits long. Data may be changed only while SCL is low and must be held stable while
SCL is high as shown in Figure 11-8. There is one clock pulse on SCL for each data bit, the MSB being
transferred first. Each data byte is followed by a 9th (acknowledge) bit, which is signalled from the
receiving device. An acknowledge is signalled by pulling the SDA low at the ninth clock. In summary, one
complete data transfer needs nine clock pulses.
If the slave receiver does not acknowledge the master in the 9th bit time, the SDA line must be left high
by the slave. The master interprets the failed acknowledge as an unsuccessful data transfer.
If the master receiver does not acknowledge the slave transmitter after a data byte transmission, the slave
interprets this as an end of data transfer and releases the SDA line.
In either case, the data transfer is aborted and the master does one of two things:
• Relinquishes the bus by generating a STOP signal.
• Commences a new calling by generating a repeated START signal.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
166
Freescale Semiconductor
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.4.1.4
STOP Signal
The master can terminate the communication by generating a STOP signal to free the bus. However, the
master may generate a START signal followed by a calling command without generating a STOP signal
first. This is called repeated START. A STOP signal is defined as a low-to-high transition of SDA while
SCL at logical 1 (see Figure 11-8).
The master can generate a STOP even if the slave has generated an acknowledge at which point the slave
must release the bus.
11.4.1.5
Repeated START Signal
As shown in Figure 11-8, a repeated START signal is a START signal generated without first generating
a STOP signal to terminate the communication. This is used by the master to communicate with another
slave or with the same slave in different mode (transmit/receive mode) without releasing the bus.
11.4.1.6
Arbitration Procedure
The IIC bus is a true multi-master bus that allows more than one master to be connected on it. If two or
more masters try to control the bus at the same time, a clock synchronization procedure determines the bus
clock, for which the low period is equal to the longest clock low period and the high is equal to the shortest
one among the masters. The relative priority of the contending masters is determined by a data arbitration
procedure, a bus master loses arbitration if it transmits logic 1 while another master transmits logic 0. The
losing masters immediately switch over to slave receive mode and stop driving SDA output. In this case,
the transition from master to slave mode does not generate a STOP condition. Meanwhile, a status bit is
set by hardware to indicate loss of arbitration.
11.4.1.7
Clock Synchronization
Because wire-AND logic is performed on the SCL line, a high-to-low transition on the SCL line affects all
the devices connected on the bus. The devices start counting their low period and after a device’s clock has
gone low, it holds the SCL line low until the clock high state is reached. However, the change of low to
high in this device clock may not change the state of the SCL line if another device clock is still within its
low period. Therefore, synchronized clock SCL is held low by the device with the longest low period.
Devices with shorter low periods enter a high wait state during this time (see Figure 11-9). When all
devices concerned have counted off their low period, the synchronized clock SCL line is released and
pulled high. There is then no difference between the device clocks and the state of the SCL line and all the
devices start counting their high periods. The first device to complete its high period pulls the SCL line
low again.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
167
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
DELAY
START COUNTING HIGH PERIOD
SCL1
SCL2
SCL
INTERNAL COUNTER RESET
Figure 11-9. IIC Clock Synchronization
11.4.1.8
Handshaking
The clock synchronization mechanism can be used as a handshake in data transfer. Slave devices may hold
the SCL low after completion of one byte transfer (9 bits). In such case, it halts the bus clock and forces
the master clock into wait states until the slave releases the SCL line.
11.4.1.9
Clock Stretching
The clock synchronization mechanism can be used by slaves to slow down the bit rate of a transfer. After
the master has driven SCL low the slave can drive SCL low for the required period and then release it. If
the slave SCL low period is greater than the master SCL low period then the resulting SCL bus signal low
period is stretched.
11.5
Resets
The IIC is disabled after reset. The IIC cannot cause an MCU reset.
11.6
Interrupts
The IIC generates a single interrupt.
An interrupt from the IIC is generated when any of the events in Table 11-8 occur provided the IICIE bit
is set. The interrupt is driven by bit IICIF (of the IIC status register) and masked with bit IICIE (of the IIC
control register). The IICIF bit must be cleared by software by writing a one to it in the interrupt routine.
The user can determine the interrupt type by reading the status register.
Table 11-8. Interrupt Summary
Interrupt Source
Status
Flag
Local Enable
Complete 1-byte transfer
TCF
IICIF
IICIE
Match of received calling address
IAAS
IICIF
IICIE
Arbitration Lost
ARBL
IICIF
IICIE
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
168
Freescale Semiconductor
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.6.1
Byte Transfer Interrupt
The TCF (transfer complete flag) bit is set at the falling edge of the 9th clock to indicate the completion
of byte transfer.
11.6.2
Address Detect Interrupt
When the calling address matches the programmed slave address (IIC address register), the IAAS bit in
the status register is set. The CPU is interrupted provided the IICIE is set. The CPU must check the SRW
bit and set its Tx mode accordingly.
11.6.3
Arbitration Lost Interrupt
The IIC is a true multi-master bus that allows more than one master to be connected on it. If two or more
masters try to control the bus at the same time, the relative priority of the contending masters is determined
by a data arbitration procedure. The IIC module asserts this interrupt when it loses the data arbitration
process and the ARBL bit in the status register is set.
Arbitration is lost in the following circumstances:
• SDA sampled as a low when the master drives a high during an address or data transmit cycle.
• SDA sampled as a low when the master drives a high during the acknowledge bit of a data receive
cycle.
• A START cycle is attempted when the bus is busy.
• A repeated START cycle is requested in slave mode.
• A STOP condition is detected when the master did not request it.
This bit must be cleared by software by writing a one to it.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
169
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
11.7
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Initialization/Application Information
Module Initialization (Slave)
Write: IICA
— to set the slave address
Write: IICC
— to enable IIC and interrupts
Initialize RAM variables (IICEN = 1 and IICIE = 1) for transmit data
Initialize RAM variables used to achieve the routine shown in Figure 11-11
Module Initialization (Master)
Write: IICF
— to set the IIC baud rate (example provided in this chapter)
Write: IICC
— to enable IIC and interrupts
Initialize RAM variables (IICEN = 1 and IICIE = 1) for transmit data
Initialize RAM variables used to achieve the routine shown in Figure 11-11
Write: IICC
— to enable TX
Write: IICC
— to enable MST (master mode)
Write: IICD
— with the address of the target slave. (The LSB of this byte will determine whether the communication is
master receive or transmit.)
Module Use
The routine shown in Figure 11-11 can handle both master and slave IIC operations. For slave operation, an
incoming IIC message that contains the proper address will begin IIC communication. For master operation,
communication must be initiated by writing to the IICD register.
Register Model
ADDR
IICA
0
Address to which the module will respond when addressed as a slave (in slave mode)
MULT
IICF
ICR
Baud rate = BUSCLK / (2 x MULT x (SCL DIVIDER))
IICC
IICEN
IICIE
MST
TX
TXAK
RSTA
0
0
BUSY
ARBL
0
SRW
IICIF
RXAK
Module configuration
IICS
TCF
IAAS
Module status flags
IICD
DATA
Data register; Write to transmit IIC data read to read IIC data
Figure 11-10. IIC Module Quick Start
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
170
Freescale Semiconductor
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
Clear
IICIF
Master
Mode
?
Y
TX
N
Y
RX
Tx/Rx
?
Arbitration
Lost
?
N
Last Byte
Transmitted
?
N
Clear ARBL
Y
RXAK=0
?
Last
Byte to Be Read
?
N
N
N
Y
Y
IAAS=1
?
Y
IAAS=1
?
Y
N
Address Transfer
Y
End of
Addr Cycle
(Master Rx)
?
Y
Y
(Read)
2nd Last
Byte to Be Read
?
N
SRW=1
?
Write Next
Byte to IICD
Set TXACK =1
TX/RX
?
Generate
Stop Signal
(MST = 0)
Y
Set TX
Mode
RX
TX
N (Write)
N
Data Transfer
ACK from
Receiver
?
N
Switch to
Rx Mode
Dummy Read
from IICD
Generate
Stop Signal
(MST = 0)
Read Data
from IICD
and Store
Read Data
from IICD
and Store
Tx Next
Byte
Write Data
to IICD
Set RX
Mode
Switch to
Rx Mode
Dummy Read
from IICD
Dummy Read
from IICD
RTI
Figure 11-11. Typical IIC Interrupt Routine
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
171
Inter-Integrated Circuit (S08IICV1)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
172
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 12
Keyboard Interrupt (S08KBIV2)
12.1
Introduction
The keyboard interrupt KBI module provides up to eight independently enabled external interrupt sources.
Figure 12-1 Shows the MC9S08QG8/4 block guide with the KBI highlighted.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
173
Chapter 12 Keyboard Interrupt (S08KBIV2)
BKGD/MS
IRQ
HCS08 CORE
DEBUG MODULE (DBG)
BDC
RESETS AND INTERRUPTS
MODES OF OPERATION
POWER MANAGEMENT
RTI
COP
IRQ
LVD
USER FLASH
(MC9S08QG8 = 8192 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 4096 BYTES)
USER RAM
(MC9S08QG8 = 512 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 256 BYTES)
16-MHz INTERNAL CLOCK
SOURCE (ICS)
LOW-POWER OSCILLATOR
31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz
1 MHz to 16 MHz
(XOSC)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD
VDDA
VSSA
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
SCL
IIC MODULE (IIC)
SDA
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
4
8-BIT KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT MODULE (KBI)
ANALOG COMPARATOR
(ACMP)
4
ACMPO
ACMP–
ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
4
10-BIT
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC)
16-BIT TIMER/PWM
MODULE (TPM)
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
4
TPMCH0
TPMCH1
SS
MISO
MOSI
SPSCK
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE MODULE (SPI)
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
INTERFACE MODULE (SCI)
VSS
PTA5//IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PORT A
HCS08 SYSTEM CONTROL
TCLK
8-BIT MODULO TIMER
MODULE (MTIM)
TxD
RxD
PORT B
CPU
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
EXTAL
XTAL
VREFH
VREFL
NOTES:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Not all pins or pin functions are available on all devices, see Table 1-1 for available functions on each device.
Port pins are software configurable with pullup device if input port.
Port pins are software configurable for output drive strength.
Port pins are software configurable for output slew rate control.
IRQ contains a software configurable (IRQPDD) pullup device if PTA5 enabled as IRQ pin function (IRQPE = 1).
RESET contains integrated pullup device if PTA5 enabled as reset pin function (RSTPE = 1).
PTA4 contains integrated pullup device if BKGD enabled (BKGDPE = 1).
SDA and SCL pin locations can be repositioned under software control (IICPS), defaults on PTA2 and PTA3.
When pin functions as KBI (KBIPEn = 1) and associated pin is configured to enable the pullup device, KBEDGn can be used to reconfigure
the pullup as a pulldown device.
Figure 12-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Block Diagram Highlighting KBI Block and Pins
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
174
Freescale Semiconductor
Keyboard Interrupts (S08KBIV2)
12.1.1
Features
The KBI features include:
• Up to eight keyboard interrupt pins with individual pin enable bits.
• Each keyboard interrupt pin is programmable as falling edge (or rising edge) only, or both falling
edge and low level (or both rising edge and high level) interrupt sensitivity.
• One software enabled keyboard interrupt.
• Exit from low-power modes.
12.1.2
Modes of Operation
This section defines the KBI operation in wait, stop, and background debug modes.
12.1.2.1
KBI in Wait Mode
The KBI continues to operate in wait mode if enabled before executing the WAIT instruction. Therefore,
an enabled KBI pin (KBPEx = 1) can be used to bring the MCU out of wait mode if the KBI interrupt is
enabled (KBIE = 1).
12.1.2.2
KBI in Stop Modes
The KBI operates asynchronously in stop3 mode if enabled before executing the STOP instruction.
Therefore, an enabled KBI pin (KBPEx = 1) can be used to bring the MCU out of stop3 mode if the KBI
interrupt is enabled (KBIE = 1).
During either stop1 or stop2 mode, the KBI is disabled. In some systems, the pins associated with the KBI
may be sources of wakeup from stop1 or stop2, see the stop modes section in the Modes of Operation
chapter. Upon wake-up from stop1 or stop2 mode, the KBI module will be in the reset state.
12.1.2.3
KBI in Active Background Mode
When the microcontroller is in active background mode, the KBI will continue to operate normally.
12.1.3
Block Diagram
The block diagram for the keyboard interrupt module is shown Figure 12-2.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
175
Keyboard Interrupts (S08KBIV2)
BUSCLK
KBACK
VDD
1
KBIP0
0
S
RESET
KBF
D CLR Q
KBIPE0
SYNCHRONIZER
CK
KBEDG0
KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT FF
1
KBIPn
0
S
STOP
STOP BYPASS
KBI
INTERRU
PT
KBMOD
KBIPEn
KBIE
KBEDGn
Figure 12-2. KBI Block Diagram
12.2
External Signal Description
The KBI input pins can be used to detect either falling edges, or both falling edge and low level interrupt
requests. The KBI input pins can also be used to detect either rising edges, or both rising edge and high
level interrupt requests.
The signal properties of KBI are shown in Table 12-1.
Table 12-1. Signal Properties
Signal
KBIPn
12.3
Function
Keyboard interrupt pins
I/O
I
Register Definition
The KBI includes three registers:
• An 8-bit pin status and control register.
• An 8-bit pin enable register.
• An 8-bit edge select register.
Refer to the direct-page register summary in the Memory chapter for the absolute address assignments for
all KBI registers. This section refers to registers and control bits only by their names.
Some MCUs may have more than one KBI, so register names include placeholder characters to identify
which KBI is being referenced.
12.3.1
KBI Status and Control Register (KBISC)
KBISC contains the status flag and control bits, which are used to configure the KBI.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
176
Freescale Semiconductor
Keyboard Interrupts (S08KBIV2)
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
0
0
0
0
KBF
0
W
Reset:
1
0
KBIE
KBMOD
0
0
KBACK
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented
Figure 12-3. KBI Status and Control Register
Table 12-2. KBISC Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:4
Unused register bits, always read 0.
3
KBF
Keyboard Interrupt Flag — KBF indicates when a keyboard interrupt is detected. Writes have no effect on KBF.
0 No keyboard interrupt detected.
1 Keyboard interrupt detected.
2
KBACK
Keyboard Acknowledge — Writing a 1 to KBACK is part of the flag clearing mechanism. KBACK always reads
as 0.
1
KBIE
Keyboard Interrupt Enable — KBIE determines whether a keyboard interrupt is requested.
0 Keyboard interrupt request not enabled.
1 Keyboard interrupt request enabled.
0
KBMOD
12.3.2
Keyboard Detection Mode — KBMOD (along with the KBEDG bits) controls the detection mode of the keyboard
interrupt pins.0Keyboard detects edges only.
1 Keyboard detects both edges and levels.
KBI Pin Enable Register (KBIPE)
KBIPE contains the pin enable control bits.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
KBIPE7
KBIPE6
KBIPE5
KBIPE4
KBIPE3
KBIPE2
KBIPE1
KBIPE0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset:
Figure 12-4. KBI Pin Enable Register
Table 12-3. KBIPE Register Field Descriptions
Field
7:0
KBIPEn
12.3.3
Description
Keyboard Pin Enables — Each of the KBIPEn bits enable the corresponding keyboard interrupt pin.
0 Pin not enabled as keyboard interrupt.
1 Pin enabled as keyboard interrupt.
KBI Edge Select Register (KBIES)
KBIES contains the edge select control bits.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
177
Keyboard Interrupts (S08KBIV2)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
KBEDG7
KBEDG6
KBEDG5
KBEDG4
KBEDG3
KBEDG2
KBEDG1
KBEDG0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset:
Figure 12-5. KBI Edge Select Register
Table 12-4. KBIES Register Field Descriptions
Field
7:0
KBEDGn
12.4
Description
Keyboard Edge Selects — Each of the KBEDGn bits selects the falling edge/low level or rising edge/high level
function of the corresponding pin).
0 Falling edge/low level.
1 Rising edge/high level.
Functional Description
This on-chip peripheral module is called a keyboard interrupt (KBI) module because originally it was
designed to simplify the connection and use of row-column matrices of keyboard switches. However, these
inputs are also useful as extra external interrupt inputs and as an external means of waking the MCU from
stop or wait low-power modes.
The KBI module allows up to eight pins to act as additional interrupt sources. Writing to the KBIPEn bits
in the keyboard interrupt pin enable register (KBIPE) independently enables or disables each KBI pin.
Each KBI pin can be configured as edge sensitive or edge and level sensitive based on the KBMOD bit in
the keyboard interrupt status and control register (KBISC). Edge sensitive can be software programmed to
be either falling or rising; the level can be either low or high. The polarity of the edge or edge and level
sensitivity is selected using the KBEDGn bits in the keyboard interrupt edge select register (KBIES).
12.4.1
Edge Only Sensitivity
Synchronous logic is used to detect edges. A falling edge is detected when an enabled keyboard interrupt
(KBIPEn=1) input signal is seen as a logic 1 (the deasserted level) during one bus cycle and then a logic 0
(the asserted level) during the next cycle. A rising edge is detected when the input signal is seen as a logic
0 (the deasserted level) during one bus cycle and then a logic 1 (the asserted level) during the next
cycle.Before the first edge is detected, all enabled keyboard interrupt input signals must be at the
deasserted logic levels. After any edge is detected, all enabled keyboard interrupt input signals must return
to the deasserted level before any new edge can be detected.
A valid edge on an enabled KBI pin will set KBF in KBISC. If KBIE in KBISC is set, an interrupt request
will be presented to the CPU. Clearing of KBF is accomplished by writing a 1 to KBACK in KBISC.
12.4.2
Edge and Level Sensitivity
A valid edge or level on an enabled KBI pin will set KBF in KBISC. If KBIE in KBISC is set, an interrupt
request will be presented to the CPU. Clearing of KBF is accomplished by writing a 1 to KBACK in
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
178
Freescale Semiconductor
Keyboard Interrupts (S08KBIV2)
KBISC provided all enabled keyboard inputs are at their deasserted levels. KBF will remain set if any
enabled KBI pin is asserted while attempting to clear by writing a 1 to KBACK.
12.4.3
KBI Pullup/Pulldown Resistors
The KBI pins can be configured to use an internal pullup/pulldown resistor using the associated I/O port
pullup enable register. If an internal resistor is enabled, the KBIES register is used to select whether the
resistor is a pullup (KBEDGn = 0) or a pulldown (KBEDGn = 1).
12.4.4
KBI Initialization
When a keyboard interrupt pin is first enabled it is possible to get a false keyboard interrupt flag. To
prevent a false interrupt request during keyboard initialization, the user should do the following:
1. Mask keyboard interrupts by clearing KBIE in KBISC.
2. Enable the KBI polarity by setting the appropriate KBEDGn bits in KBIES.
3. If using internal pullup/pulldown device, configure the associated pullup enable bits in PTxPE.
4. Enable the KBI pins by setting the appropriate KBIPEn bits in KBIPE.
5. Write to KBACK in KBISC to clear any false interrupts.
6. Set KBIE in KBISC to enable interrupts.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
179
Keyboard Interrupts (S08KBIV2)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
180
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 13
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
13.1
Introduction
The MTIM is a simple 8-bit timer with several software selectable clock sources and a programmable
interrupt.
The central component of the MTIM is the 8-bit counter, which can operate as a free-running counter or a
modulo counter. A timer overflow interrupt can be enabled to generate periodic interrupts for time-based
software loops.
Figure 13-1 shows the MC9S08QG8/4 block diagram with the MTIM highlighted.
13.1.1
MTIM/TPM Configuration Information
The external clock for the MTIM module, TCLK, is selected by setting CLKS = 1:1 or 1:0 in MTIMCLK,
which selects the TCLK pin input. The TCLK input on PTA5 can be enabled as external clock inputs to
both the MTIM and TPM modules simultaneously.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
181
Chapter 13 Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
BKGD/MS
IRQ
HCS08 CORE
DEBUG MODULE (DBG)
BDC
RESETS AND INTERRUPTS
MODES OF OPERATION
POWER MANAGEMENT
RTI
COP
IRQ
LVD
USER FLASH
(MC9S08QG8 = 8192 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 4096 BYTES)
USER RAM
(MC9S08QG8 = 512 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 256 BYTES)
16-MHz INTERNAL CLOCK
SOURCE (ICS)
LOW-POWER OSCILLATOR
31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz
1 MHz to 16 MHz
(XOSC)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD
VDDA
VSSA
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
SCL
IIC MODULE (IIC)
SDA
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
4
8-BIT KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT MODULE (KBI)
ANALOG COMPARATOR
(ACMP)
4
ACMPO
ACMP–
ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
4
10-BIT
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC)
16-BIT TIMER/PWM
MODULE (TPM)
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
4
TPMCH0
TPMCH1
SS
MISO
MOSI
SPSCK
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE MODULE (SPI)
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
INTERFACE MODULE (SCI)
VSS
PTA5//IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PORT A
HCS08 SYSTEM CONTROL
TCLK
8-BIT MODULO TIMER
MODULE (MTIM)
TxD
RxD
PORT B
CPU
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
EXTAL
XTAL
VREFH
VREFL
NOTES:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Not all pins or pin functions are available on all devices, see Table 1-1 for available functions on each device.
Port pins are software configurable with pullup device if input port.
Port pins are software configurable for output drive strength.
Port pins are software configurable for output slew rate control.
IRQ contains a software configurable (IRQPDD) pullup device if PTA5 enabled as IRQ pin function (IRQPE = 1).
RESET contains integrated pullup device if PTA5 enabled as reset pin function (RSTPE = 1).
PTA4 contains integrated pullup device if BKGD enabled (BKGDPE = 1).
SDA and SCL pin locations can be repositioned under software control (IICPS), defaults on PTA2 and PTA3.
When pin functions as KBI (KBIPEn = 1) and associated pin is configured to enable the pullup device, KBEDGn can be used to reconfigure
the pullup as a pulldown device.
Figure 13-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Block Diagram Highlighting MTIM Block and Pins
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
182
Freescale Semiconductor
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
13.1.2
Features
Timer system features include:
• 8-bit up-counter
— Free-running or 8-bit modulo limit
— Software controllable interrupt on overflow
— Counter reset bit (TRST)
— Counter stop bit (TSTP)
• Four software selectable clock sources for input to prescaler:
— System bus clock — rising edge
— Fixed frequency clock (XCLK) — rising edge
— External clock source on the TCLK pin — rising edge
— External clock source on the TCLK pin — falling edge
• Nine selectable clock prescale values:
— Clock source divide by 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, or 256
13.1.3
Modes of Operation
This section defines the MTIM’s operation in stop, wait and background debug modes.
13.1.3.1
MTIM in Wait Mode
The MTIM continues to run in wait mode if enabled before executing the WAIT instruction. Therefore,
the MTIM can be used to bring the MCU out of wait mode if the timer overflow interrupt is enabled. For
lowest possible current consumption, the MTIM should be stopped by software if not needed as an
interrupt source during wait mode.
13.1.3.2
MTIM in Stop Modes
The MTIM is disabled in all stop modes, regardless of the settings before executing the STOP instruction.
Therefore, the MTIM cannot be used as a wake up source from stop modes.
Waking from stop1 and stop2 modes, the MTIM will be put into its reset state. If stop3 is exited with a
reset, the MTIM will be put into its reset state. If stop3 is exited with an interrupt, the MTIM continues
from the state it was in when stop3 was entered. If the counter was active upon entering stop3, the count
will resume from the current value.
13.1.3.3
MTIM in Active Background Mode
The MTIM suspends all counting until the microcontroller returns to normal user operating mode.
Counting resumes from the suspended value as long as an MTIM reset did not occur (TRST written to a 1
or MTIMMOD written).
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
183
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
13.1.4
Block Diagram
The block diagram for the modulo timer module is shown Figure 13-2.
BUSCLK
XCLK
TCLK
SYNC
MTIM
INTERRU
PT
CLOCK
SOURCE
SELECT
PRESCALE
AND SELECT
DIVIDE BY
CLKS
PS
8-BIT COUNTER
(MTIMCNT)
TRST
TSTP
8-BIT COMPARATOR
TOF
8-BIT MODULO
(MTIMMOD)
TOIE
Figure 13-2. Modulo Timer (MTIM) Block Diagram
13.2
External Signal Description
The MTIM includes one external signal, TCLK, used to input an external clock when selected as the
MTIM clock source. The signal properties of TCLK are shown in Table 13-1.
Table 13-1. Signal Properties
Signal
TCLK
Function
External clock source input into MTIM
I/O
I
The TCLK input must be synchronized by the bus clock. Also, variations in duty cycle and clock jitter
must be accommodated. Therefore, the TCLK signal must be limited to one-fourth of the bus frequency.
The TCLK pin can be muxed with a general-purpose port pin. See the Pins and Connections chapter for
the pin location and priority of this function.
13.3
Register Definition
Figure 13-3 is a summary of MTIM registers.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
184
Freescale Semiconductor
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
Figure 13-3. MTIM Register Summary
Name
7
R
6
TOF
MTIMSC
5
4
0
TOIE
W
R
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
TSTP
TRST
0
MTIMCLK
0
CLKS
PS
W
R
COUNT
MTIMCNT
W
R
MTIMMOD
MOD
W
Each MTIM includes four registers:
• An 8-bit status and control register
• An 8-bit clock configuration register
• An 8-bit counter register
• An 8-bit modulo register
Refer to the direct-page register summary in the Memory chapter of this data sheet for the absolute address
assignments for all MTIM registers.This section refers to registers and control bits only by their names and
relative address offsets.
Some MCUs may have more than one MTIM, so register names include placeholder characters to identify
which MTIM is being referenced.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
185
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
13.3.1
MTIM Status and Control Register (MTIMSC)
MTIMSC contains the overflow status flag and control bits which are used to configure the interrupt enable,
reset the counter, and stop the counter.
7
R
6
5
TOF
0
TOIE
W
Reset:
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TSTP
TRST
0
0
0
1
Figure 13-4. MTIM Status and Control Register
Table 13-2. MTIM Status and Control Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
TOF
MTIM Overflow Flag — This read-only bit is set when the MTIM counter register overflows to $00 after reaching
the value in the MTIM modulo register. Clear TOF by reading the MTIMSC register while TOF is set, then writing
a 0 to TOF. TOF is also cleared when TRST is written to a 1 or when any value is written to the MTIMMOD register.
0 MTIM counter has not reached the overflow value in the MTIM modulo register.
1 MTIM counter has reached the overflow value in the MTIM modulo register.
6
TOIE
MTIM Overflow Interrupt Enable — This read/write bit enables MTIM overflow interrupts. If TOIE is set, then an
interrupt is generated when TOF = 1. Reset clears TOIE. Do not set TOIE if TOF = 1. Clear TOF first, then set TOIE.
0 TOF interrupts are disabled. Use software polling.
1 TOF interrupts are enabled.
5
TRST
MTIM Counter Reset — When a 1 is written to this write-only bit, the MTIM counter register resets to $00 and TOF
is cleared. Reading this bit always returns 0.
0 No effect. MTIM counter remains at current state.
1 MTIM counter is reset to $00.
4
TSTP
MTIM Counter Stop — When set, this read/write bit stops the MTIM counter at its current value. Counting resumes
from the current value when TSTP is cleared. Reset sets TSTP to prevent the MTIM from counting.
0 MTIM counter is active.
1 MTIM counter is stopped.
3:0
Unused register bits, always read 0.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
186
Freescale Semiconductor
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
13.3.2
MTIM Clock Configuration Register (MTIMCLK)
MTIMCLK contains the clock select bits (CLKS) and the prescaler select bits (PS).
R
7
6
0
0
5
4
3
2
CLKS
1
0
0
0
PS
W
Reset:
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 13-5. MTIM Clock Configuration Register
Table 13-3. MTIM Clock Configuration Register Field Description
Field
7:6
5:4
CLKS
3:0
PS
Description
Unused register bits, always read 0.
Clock Source Select — These two read/write bits select one of four different clock sources as the input to the
MTIM prescaler. Changing the clock source while the counter is active does not clear the counter. The count
continues with the new clock source. Reset clears CLKS to 000.
00
Encoding 0. Bus clock (BUSCLK)
01
Encoding 1. Fixed-frequency clock (XCLK)
10
Encoding 3. External source (TCLK pin), falling edge
11
Encoding 4. External source (TCLK pin), rising edge
All other encodings default to the bus clock (BUSCLK).
Clock Source Prescaler — These four read/write bits select one of nine outputs from the 8-bit prescaler. Changing
the prescaler value while the counter is active does not clear the counter. The count continues with the new
prescaler value. Reset clears PS to 0000.
0000 Encoding 0. MTIM clock source ÷ 1
0001 Encoding 1. MTIM clock source ÷ 2
0010 Encoding 2. MTIM clock source ÷ 4
0011 Encoding 3. MTIM clock source ÷ 8
0100 Encoding 4. MTIM clock source ÷ 16
0101 Encoding 5. MTIM clock source ÷ 32
0110 Encoding 6. MTIM clock source ÷ 64
0111 Encoding 7. MTIM clock source ÷ 128
1000 Encoding 8. MTIM clock source ÷ 256
All other encodings default to MTIM clock source ÷ 256.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
187
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
13.3.3
MTIMCNT
MTIM Counter Register (MTIMCNT)
is the read-only value of the current MTIM count of the 8-bit counter.
7
6
5
4
R
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
COUNT
W
Reset:
0
0
0
0
Figure 13-6. MTIM Counter Register
Table 13-4. MTIM Counter Register Field Description
Field
Description
7:0
COUNT
MTIM Count — These eight read-only bits contain the current value of the 8-bit counter. Writes have no effect to
this register. Reset clears the count to $00.
13.3.4
MTIM Modulo Register (MTIMMOD)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
R
MOD
W
Reset:
0
0
0
0
Figure 13-7. MTIM Modulo Register
Table 13-5. MTIM Modulo Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:0
MOD
MTIM Modulo — These eight read/write bits contain the modulo value used to reset the count and set TOF. A value
of $00 puts the MTIM in free-running mode. Writing to MTIMMOD resets the COUNT to $00 and clears TOF. Reset
sets the modulo to $00.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
188
Freescale Semiconductor
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
13.4
Functional Description
The MTIM is composed of a main 8-bit up-counter with an 8-bit modulo register, a clock source selector,
and a prescaler block with nine selectable values. The module also contains software selectable interrupt
logic.
The MTIM counter (MTIMCNT) has three modes of operation: stopped, free-running, and modulo. Out of
reset, the counter is stopped. If the counter is started without writing a new value to the modulo register,
then the counter will be in free-running mode. The counter is in modulo mode when a value other than $00
is in the modulo register while the counter is running.
After any MCU reset, the counter is stopped and reset to $00, and the modulus is set to $00. The bus clock
is selected as the default clock source and the prescale value is divide by 1. To start the MTIM in
free-running mode, simply write to the MTIM status and control register (MTIMSC) and clear the MTIM
stop bit (TSTP).
Four clock sources are software selectable: the internal bus clock, the fixed frequency clock (XCLK), and
an external clock on the TCLK pin, selectable as incrementing on either rising or falling edges. The MTIM
clock select bits (CLKS1:CLKS0) in MTIMSC are used to select the desired clock source. If the counter is
active (TSTP = 0) when a new clock source is selected, the counter will continue counting from the
previous value using the new clock source.
Nine prescale values are software selectable: clock source divided by 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, or 256.
The prescaler select bits (PS[3:0]) in MTIMSC select the desired prescale value. If the counter is active
(TSTP = 0) when a new prescaler value is selected, the counter will continue counting from the previous
value using the new prescaler value.
The MTIM modulo register (MTIMMOD) allows the overflow compare value to be set to any value from
$01 to $FF. Reset clears the modulo value to $00, which results in a free running counter.
When the counter is active (TSTP = 0), the counter increments at the selected rate until the count matches
the modulo value. When these values match, the counter overflows to $00 and continues counting. The
MTIM overflow flag (TOF) is set whenever the counter overflows. The flag sets on the transition from the
modulo value to $00. Writing to MTIMMOD while the counter is active resets the counter to $00 and clears
TOF.
Clearing TOF is a two-step process. The first step is to read the MTIMSC register while TOF is set. The
second step is to write a 0 to TOF. If another overflow occurs between the first and second steps, the
clearing process is reset and TOF will remain set after the second step is performed. This will prevent the
second occurrence from being missed. TOF is also cleared when a 1 is written to TRST or when any value
is written to the MTIMMOD register.
The MTIM allows for an optional interrupt to be generated whenever TOF is set. To enable the MTIM
overflow interrupt, set the MTIM overflow interrupt enable bit (TOIE) in MTIMSC. TOIE should never be
written to a 1 while TOF = 1. Instead, TOF should be cleared first, then the TOIE can be set to 1.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
189
Modulo Timer (S08MTIMV1)
13.4.1
MTIM Operation Example
This section shows an example of the MTIM operation as the counter reaches a matching value from the
modulo register.
selected
clock source
MTIM clock
(PS=%0010)
MTIMCNT
$A7
$A8
$A9
$AA
$00
$01
TOF
MTIMMOD:
$AA
Figure 13-8. MTIM counter overflow example
In the example of Figure 13-8, the selected clock source could be any of the five possible choices. The
prescaler is set to PS = %0010 or divide-by-4. The modulo value in the MTIMMOD register is set to $AA.
When the counter, MTIMCNT, reaches the modulo value of $AA, the counter overflows to $00 and
continues counting. The timer overflow flag, TOF, sets when the counter value changes from $AA to $00.
An MTIM overflow interrupt is generated when TOF is set, if TOIE = 1.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
190
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 14
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
14.1
Introduction
Figure 14-1 shows the MC9S08QG8/4 block diagram with the SCI highlighted.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
191
Chapter 14 Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
BKGD/MS
IRQ
HCS08 CORE
DEBUG MODULE (DBG)
BDC
RESETS AND INTERRUPTS
MODES OF OPERATION
POWER MANAGEMENT
RTI
COP
IRQ
LVD
USER FLASH
(MC9S08QG8 = 8192 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 4096 BYTES)
USER RAM
(MC9S08QG8 = 512 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 256 BYTES)
16-MHz INTERNAL CLOCK
SOURCE (ICS)
LOW-POWER OSCILLATOR
31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz
1 MHz to 16 MHz
(XOSC)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD
VDDA
VSSA
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
SCL
IIC MODULE (IIC)
SDA
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
4
8-BIT KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT MODULE (KBI)
ANALOG COMPARATOR
(ACMP)
4
ACMPO
ACMP–
ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
4
10-BIT
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC)
16-BIT TIMER/PWM
MODULE (TPM)
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
4
TPMCH0
TPMCH1
SS
MISO
MOSI
SPSCK
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE MODULE (SPI)
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
INTERFACE MODULE (SCI)
VSS
PTA5//IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PORT A
HCS08 SYSTEM CONTROL
TCLK
8-BIT MODULO TIMER
MODULE (MTIM)
TxD
RxD
PORT B
CPU
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
EXTAL
XTAL
VREFH
VREFL
NOTES:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Not all pins or pin functions are available on all devices, see Table 1-1 for available functions on each device.
Port pins are software configurable with pullup device if input port.
Port pins are software configurable for output drive strength.
Port pins are software configurable for output slew rate control.
IRQ contains a software configurable (IRQPDD) pullup/pulldown device if PTA5 enabled as IRQ pin function (IRQPE = 1).
RESET contains integrated pullup device if PTA5 enabled as reset pin function (RSTPE = 1).
PTA4 contains integrated pullup device if BKGD enabled (BKGDPE = 1).
SDA and SCL pin locations can be repositioned under software control (IICPS), defaults on PTA2 and PTA3.
When pin functions as KBI (KBIPEn = 1) and associated pin is configured to enable the pullup device, KBEDGn can be used to reconfigure
the pullup as a pulldown device.
Figure 14-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Block Diagram Highlighting SCI Block and Pins
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
192
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 14 Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
Module Initialization:
Write:
SCIBDH:SCIBDL
to set
baud rate
Write:
SCFC1
to configure
1-wire/2-wire, 9/8-bit data, wakeup, and parity, if used.
Write;
SCIC2
to configure
interrupts, enable Rx and Tx, RWU
Enable Rx wakeup, SBK sends break character
Write:
SCIC3
to enable
Rx error interrupt sources. Also controls pin direction in
1-wire modes. R8 and T8 only used in 9-bit data modes.
Module Use:
Wait for TDRE, then write data to SCID
Wait for RDRF, then read data from SCID
A small number of applications will use RWU to manage automatic receiver wakeup, SBK to send break characters, and
R8 and T8 for 9-bit data.
SCIBDH
SCIBDL
SBR7
SBR6
SBR5
SBR12
SBR11
SBR10
SBR9
SBR8
SBR4
SBR3
SBR2
SBR1
SBR0
Baud rate = BUSCLK / (16 x SBR12:SBR0)
SCIC1
LOOPS
SCISWAI
RSRC
M
WAKE
ILT
PE
PT
RIE
ILIE
TE
RE
RWU
SBK
Module configuration
TIE
SCIC2
TCIE
Local interrupt enables Tx and Rx enable
SCIS1
TDRE
TC
RDRF
IDLE
Interrupt flags
Rx wakeup and send break
OR
NF
FE
PF
Rx error flags
BRK13
SCIS2
RAF
Configure LIN support options and monitor receiver activity
R8
SCIS3
T8
TXDIR
TXINV
ORIE
NEIE
FEIE
PEIE
R1/T1
R0/T0
Local interrupt enables
9th data bits
Rx/Tx pin Tx data path
direction in polarity
single-wire
mode
SCIID
R7/T7
R6/T6
R5/T5
R4/T4
R3/T3
R2/T2
Read: Rx data; write: Tx data
Figure 14-2. SCI Module Quick Start
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
193
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
14.1.1
Features
Features of SCI module include:
• Full-duplex, standard non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format
• Double-buffered transmitter and receiver with separate enables
• Programmable baud rates (13-bit modulo divider)
• Interrupt-driven or polled operation:
— Transmit data register empty and transmission complete
— Receive data register full
— Receive overrun, parity error, framing error, and noise error
— Idle receiver detect
• Hardware parity generation and checking
• Programmable 8-bit or 9-bit character length
• Receiver wakeup by idle-line or address-mark
• Optional 13-bit break character
• Selectable transmitter output polarity
14.1.2
Modes of Operation
See Section 14.3, “Functional Description,” for a detailed description of SCI operation in the different
modes.
• 8- and 9- bit data modes
• Stop modes — SCI is halted during all stop modes
• Loop mode
• Single-wire mode
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
194
Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
14.1.3
Block Diagram
Figure 14-3 shows the transmitter portion of the SCI. (Figure 14-4 shows the receiver portion of the SCI.)
INTERNAL BUS
(WRITE-ONLY)
LOOPS
SCID – Tx BUFFER
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
PT
PREAMBLE (ALL 1s)
PARITY
GENERATION
SHIFT ENABLE
PE
LOAD FROM SCID
SHIFT DIRECTION
T8
0
START
L
TO RECEIVE
DATA IN
TO TxD PIN
LSB
H
1 × BAUD
RATE CLOCK
11-BIT TRANSMIT SHIFT REGISTER
LOOP
CONTROL
TXINV
BREAK (ALL 0s)
STOP
M
RSRC
SCI CONTROLS TxD
TE
SBK
TRANSMIT CONTROL
TXDIR
TxD DIRECTION
TO TxD
PIN LOGIC
BRK13
TDRE
TIE
TC
Tx INTERRUPT
REQUEST
TCIE
Figure 14-3. SCI Transmitter Block Diagram
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
195
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
Figure 14-4 shows the receiver portion of the SCI.
INTERNAL BUS
(READ-ONLY)
STOP
M
LOOPS
RSRC
SINGLE-WIRE
LOOP CONTROL
WAKE
ILT
8
MSB
H
ALL 1s
DATA RECOVERY
FROM RxD PIN
11-BIT RECEIVE SHIFT REGISTER
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
START
SCID – Rx BUFFER
DIVIDE
BY 16
LSB
16 × BAUD
RATE CLOCK
0
L
SHIFT DIRECTION
WAKEUP
LOGIC
RWU
FROM
TRANSMITTER
RDRF
RIE
IDLE
Rx INTERRUPT
REQUEST
ILIE
OR
ORIE
FE
FEIE
NF
ERROR INTERRUPT
REQUEST
NEIE
PE
PT
PARITY
CHECKING
PF
PEIE
Figure 14-4. SCI Receiver Block Diagram
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
196
Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
14.2
Register Definition
The SCI has eight 8-bit registers to control baud rate, select SCI options, report SCI status, and for
transmit/receive data.
Refer to the direct-page register summary in the Memory chapter of this data sheet for the absolute address
assignments for all SCI registers. This section refers to registers and control bits only by their names. A
Freescale-provided equate or header file is used to translate these names into the appropriate absolute
addresses.
14.2.1
SCI Baud Rate Registers (SCIBDH, SCIBDL)
This pair of registers controls the prescale divisor for SCI baud rate generation. To update the 13-bit baud
rate setting [SBR12:SBR0], first write to SCIBDH to buffer the high half of the new value and then write
to SCIBDL. The working value in SCIBDH does not change until SCIBDL is written.
SCIBDL is reset to a non-zero value, so after reset the baud rate generator remains disabled until the first
time the receiver or transmitter is enabled (RE or TE bits in SCIC2 are written to 1).
R
7
6
5
0
0
0
4
3
2
1
0
SBR12
SBR11
SBR10
SBR9
SBR8
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 14-5. SCI Baud Rate Register (SCIBDH)
Table 14-1. SCIBDH Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
4:0
SBR[12:8]
Baud Rate Modulo Divisor — These 13 bits are referred to collectively as BR, and they set the modulo divide
rate for the SCI baud rate generator. When BR = 0, the SCI baud rate generator is disabled to reduce supply
current. When BR = 1 to 8191, the SCI baud rate = BUSCLK/(16×BR). See also BR bits in Table 14-2.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SBR7
SBR6
SBR5
SBR4
SBR3
SBR2
SBR1
SBR0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
R
W
Reset
Figure 14-6. SCI Baud Rate Register (SCIBDL)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
197
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
Table 14-2. SCIBDL Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7:0
SBR[7:0]
Baud Rate Modulo Divisor — These 13 bits are referred to collectively as BR, and they set the modulo divide
rate for the SCI baud rate generator. When BR = 0, the SCI baud rate generator is disabled to reduce supply
current. When BR = 1 to 8191, the SCI baud rate = BUSCLK/(16×BR). See also BR bits in Table 14-1.
14.2.2
SCI Control Register 1 (SCIC1)
This read/write register is used to control various optional features of the SCI system.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
LOOPS
SCISWAI
RSRC
M
WAKE
ILT
PE
PT
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset
Figure 14-7. SCI Control Register 1 (SCIC1)
Table 14-3. SCIC1 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
LOOPS
Loop Mode Select — Selects between loop back modes and normal 2-pin full-duplex modes. When LOOPS = 1,
the transmitter output is internally connected to the receiver input.
0 Normal operation — RxD and TxD use separate pins.
1 Loop mode or single-wire mode where transmitter outputs are internally connected to receiver input. (See
RSRC bit.) RxD pin is not used by SCI.
6
SCISWAI
SCI Stops in Wait Mode
0 SCI clocks continue to run in wait mode so the SCI can be the source of an interrupt that wakes up the CPU.
1 SCI clocks freeze while CPU is in wait mode.
5
RSRC
4
M
3
WAKE
2
ILT
Receiver Source Select — This bit has no meaning or effect unless the LOOPS bit is set to 1. When
LOOPS = 1, the receiver input is internally connected to the TxD pin and RSRC determines whether this
connection is also connected to the transmitter output.
0 Provided LOOPS = 1, RSRC = 0 selects internal loop back mode and the SCI does not use the RxD pins.
1 Single-wire SCI mode where the TxD pin is connected to the transmitter output and receiver input.
9-Bit or 8-Bit Mode Select
0 Normal — start + 8 data bits (LSB first) + stop.
1 Receiver and transmitter use 9-bit data characters
start + 8 data bits (LSB first) + 9th data bit + stop.
Receiver Wakeup Method Select — Refer to Section 14.3.3.2, “Receiver Wakeup Operation” for more
information.
0 Idle-line wakeup.
1 Address-mark wakeup.
Idle Line Type Select — Setting this bit to 1 ensures that the stop bit and logic 1 bits at the end of a character
do not count toward the 10 or 11 bit times of the logic high level by the idle line detection logic. Refer to
Section 14.3.3.2.1, “Idle-Line Wakeup” for more information.
0 Idle character bit count starts after start bit.
1 Idle character bit count starts after stop bit.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
198
Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
Table 14-3. SCIC1 Register Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
1
PE
Parity Enable — Enables hardware parity generation and checking. When parity is enabled, the most significant
bit (MSB) of the data character (eighth or ninth data bit) is treated as the parity bit.
0 No hardware parity generation or checking.
1 Parity enabled.
0
PT
Parity Type — Provided parity is enabled (PE = 1), this bit selects even or odd parity. Odd parity means the total
number of 1s in the data character, including the parity bit, is odd. Even parity means the total number of 1s in
the data character, including the parity bit, is even.
0 Even parity.
1 Odd parity.
14.2.3
SCI Control Register 2 (SCIC2)
This register can be read or written at any time.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TIE
TCIE
RIE
ILIE
TE
RE
RWU
SBK
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset
Figure 14-8. SCI Control Register 2 (SCIC2)
Table 14-4. SCIC2 Register Field Descriptions
Field
7
TIE
6
TCIE
Description
Transmit Interrupt Enable (for TDRE)
0 Hardware interrupts from TDRE disabled (use polling).
1 Hardware interrupt requested when TDRE flag is 1.
Transmission Complete Interrupt Enable (for TC)
0 Hardware interrupts from TC disabled (use polling).
1 Hardware interrupt requested when TC flag is 1.
5
RIE
Receiver Interrupt Enable (for RDRF)
0 Hardware interrupts from RDRF disabled (use polling).
1 Hardware interrupt requested when RDRF flag is 1.
4
ILIE
Idle Line Interrupt Enable (for IDLE)
0 Hardware interrupts from IDLE disabled (use polling).
1 Hardware interrupt requested when IDLE flag is 1.
3
TE
Transmitter Enable
0 Transmitter off.
1 Transmitter on.
TE must be 1 in order to use the SCI transmitter. When TE = 1, the SCI forces the TxD pin to act as an output
for the SCI system.
When the SCI is configured for single-wire operation (LOOPS = RSRC = 1), TXDIR controls the direction of
traffic on the single SCI communication line (TxD pin).
TE also can be used to queue an idle character by writing TE = 0 then TE = 1 while a transmission is in progress.
Refer to Section 14.3.2.1, “Send Break and Queued Idle,” for more details.
When TE is written to 0, the transmitter keeps control of the port TxD pin until any data, queued idle, or queued
break character finishes transmitting before allowing the pin to revert to a general-purpose I/O pin.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
199
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
Table 14-4. SCIC2 Register Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
2
RE
Receiver Enable — When the SCI receiver is off, the RxD pin reverts to being a general-purpose port I/O pin. If
LOOPS = 1, the RxD pin reverts to being a general-purpose I/O pin even if RE = 1.
0 Receiver off.
1 Receiver on.
1
RWU
Receiver Wakeup Control — This bit can be written to 1 to place the SCI receiver in a standby state where it
waits for automatic hardware detection of a selected wakeup condition. The wakeup condition is either an idle
line between messages (WAKE = 0, idle-line wakeup), or a logic 1 in the most significant data bit in a character
(WAKE = 1, address-mark wakeup). Application software sets RWU and (normally) a selected hardware
condition automatically clears RWU. Refer to Section 14.3.3.2, “Receiver Wakeup Operation,” for more details.
0 Normal SCI receiver operation.
1 SCI receiver in standby waiting for wakeup condition.
0
SBK
Send Break — Writing a 1 and then a 0 to SBK queues a break character in the transmit data stream. Additional
break characters of 10 or 11 bit times of logic 0 are queued as long as SBK = 1. Depending on the timing of the
set and clear of SBK relative to the information currently being transmitted, a second break character may be
queued before software clears SBK. Refer to Section 14.3.2.1, “Send Break and Queued Idle,” for more details.
0 Normal transmitter operation.
1 Queue break character(s) to be sent.
14.2.4
SCI Status Register 1 (SCIS1)
This register has eight read-only status flags. Writes have no effect. Special software sequences (which do
not involve writing to this register) are used to clear these status flags.
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TDRE
TC
RDRF
IDLE
OR
NF
FE
PF
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 14-9. SCI Status Register 1 (SCIS1)
Table 14-5. SCIS1 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
TDRE
Transmit Data Register Empty Flag — TDRE is set out of reset and when a transmit data value transfers from
the transmit data buffer to the transmit shifter, leaving room for a new character in the buffer. To clear TDRE, read
SCIS1 with TDRE = 1 and then write to the SCI data register (SCID).
0 Transmit data register (buffer) full.
1 Transmit data register (buffer) empty.
6
TC
Transmission Complete Flag — TC is set out of reset and when TDRE = 1 and no data, preamble, or break
character is being transmitted.
0 Transmitter active (sending data, a preamble, or a break).
1 Transmitter idle (transmission activity complete).
TC is cleared automatically by reading SCIS1 with TC = 1 and then doing one of the following three things:
• Write to the SCI data register (SCID) to transmit new data
• Queue a preamble by changing TE from 0 to 1
• Queue a break character by writing 1 to SBK in SCIC2
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
200
Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
Table 14-5. SCIS1 Register Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
5
RDRF
Receive Data Register Full Flag — RDRF becomes set when a character transfers from the receive shifter into
the receive data register (SCID). To clear RDRF, read SCIS1 with RDRF = 1 and then read the SCI data register
(SCID).
0 Receive data register empty.
1 Receive data register full.
4
IDLE
Idle Line Flag — IDLE is set when the SCI receive line becomes idle for a full character time after a period of
activity. When ILT = 0, the receiver starts counting idle bit times after the start bit. So if the receive character is
all 1s, these bit times and the stop bit time count toward the full character time of logic high (10 or 11 bit times
depending on the M control bit) needed for the receiver to detect an idle line. When ILT = 1, the receiver doesn’t
start counting idle bit times until after the stop bit. So the stop bit and any logic high bit times at the end of the
previous character do not count toward the full character time of logic high needed for the receiver to detect an
idle line.
To clear IDLE, read SCIS1 with IDLE = 1 and then read the SCI data register (SCID). After IDLE has been
cleared, it cannot become set again until after a new character has been received and RDRF has been set. IDLE
will get set only once even if the receive line remains idle for an extended period.
0 No idle line detected.
1 Idle line was detected.
3
OR
Receiver Overrun Flag — OR is set when a new serial character is ready to be transferred to the receive data
register (buffer), but the previously received character has not been read from SCID yet. In this case, the new
character (and all associated error information) is lost because there is no room to move it into SCID. To clear
OR, read SCIS1 with OR = 1 and then read the SCI data register (SCID).
0 No overrun.
1 Receive overrun (new SCI data lost).
2
NF
Noise Flag — The advanced sampling technique used in the receiver takes seven samples during the start bit
and three samples in each data bit and the stop bit. If any of these samples disagrees with the rest of the samples
within any bit time in the frame, the flag NF will be set at the same time as the flag RDRF gets set for the character.
To clear NF, read SCIS1 and then read the SCI data register (SCID).
0 No noise detected.
1 Noise detected in the received character in SCID.
1
FE
Framing Error Flag — FE is set at the same time as RDRF when the receiver detects a logic 0 where the stop
bit was expected. This suggests the receiver was not properly aligned to a character frame. To clear FE, read
SCIS1 with FE = 1 and then read the SCI data register (SCID).
0 No framing error detected. This does not guarantee the framing is correct.
1 Framing error.
0
PF
Parity Error Flag — PF is set at the same time as RDRF when parity is enabled (PE = 1) and the parity bit in
the received character does not agree with the expected parity value. To clear PF, read SCIS1 and then read the
SCI data register (SCID).
0 No parity error.
1 Parity error.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
201
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
14.2.5
SCI Status Register 2 (SCIS2)
This register has one read-only status flag. Writes have no effect.
R
7
6
5
4
3
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
RAF
0
0
BRK13
W
Reset
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 14-10. SCI Status Register 2 (SCIS2)
Table 14-6. SCIS2 Register Field Descriptions
Field
2
BRK13
0
RAF
14.2.6
Description
Break Character Length — BRK13 is used to select a longer break character length. Detection of a framing
error is not affected by the state of this bit.
0 Break character is 10 bit times (11 if M = 1)
1 Break character is 13 bit times (14 if M = 1)
Receiver Active Flag — RAF is set when the SCI receiver detects the beginning of a valid start bit, and RAF is
cleared automatically when the receiver detects an idle line. This status flag can be used to check whether an
SCI character is being received before instructing the MCU to go to stop mode.
0 SCI receiver idle waiting for a start bit.
1 SCI receiver active (RxD input not idle).
SCI Control Register 3 (SCIC3)
7
R
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
T8
TXDIR
TXINV
ORIE
NEIE
FEIE
PEIE
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R8
W
Reset
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 14-11. SCI Control Register 3 (SCIC3)
Table 14-7. SCIC3 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
R8
Ninth Data Bit for Receiver — When the SCI is configured for 9-bit data (M = 1), R8 can be thought of as a ninth
receive data bit to the left of the MSB of the buffered data in the SCID register. When reading 9-bit data, read R8
before reading SCID because reading SCID completes automatic flag clearing sequences which could allow R8
and SCID to be overwritten with new data.
6
T8
Ninth Data Bit for Transmitter — When the SCI is configured for 9-bit data (M = 1), T8 may be thought of as a
ninth transmit data bit to the left of the MSB of the data in the SCID register. When writing 9-bit data, the entire
9-bit value is transferred to the SCI shift register after SCID is written so T8 should be written (if it needs to change
from its previous value) before SCID is written. If T8 does not need to change in the new value (such as when it
is used to generate mark or space parity), it need not be written each time SCID is written.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
Table 14-7. SCIC3 Register Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
1
Description
5
TXDIR
TxD Pin Direction in Single-Wire Mode — When the SCI is configured for single-wire half-duplex operation
(LOOPS = RSRC = 1), this bit determines the direction of data at the TxD pin.
0 TxD pin is an input in single-wire mode.
1 TxD pin is an output in single-wire mode.
4
TXINV1
Transmit Data Inversion — Setting this bit reverses the polarity of the transmitted data output.
0 Transmit data not inverted
1 Transmit data inverted
3
ORIE
Overrun Interrupt Enable — This bit enables the overrun flag (OR) to generate hardware interrupt requests.
0 OR interrupts disabled (use polling).
1 Hardware interrupt requested when OR = 1.
2
NEIE
Noise Error Interrupt Enable — This bit enables the noise flag (NF) to generate hardware interrupt requests.
0 NF interrupts disabled (use polling).
1 Hardware interrupt requested when NF = 1.
1
FEIE
Framing Error Interrupt Enable — This bit enables the framing error flag (FE) to generate hardware interrupt
requests.
0 FE interrupts disabled (use polling).
1 Hardware interrupt requested when FE = 1.
0
PEIE
Parity Error Interrupt Enable — This bit enables the parity error flag (PF) to generate hardware interrupt
requests.
0 PF interrupts disabled (use polling).
1 Hardware interrupt requested when PF = 1.
Setting TXINV inverts the TxD output for all cases: data bits, start and stop bits, break, and idle.
14.2.7
SCI Data Register (SCID)
This register is actually two separate registers. Reads return the contents of the read-only receive data
buffer and writes go to the write-only transmit data buffer. Reads and writes of this register are also
involved in the automatic flag clearing mechanisms for the SCI status flags.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R
R7
R6
R5
R4
R3
R2
R1
R0
W
T7
T6
T5
T4
T3
T2
T1
T0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reset
Figure 14-12. SCI Data Register (SCID)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
203
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
14.3
Functional Description
The SCI allows full-duplex, asynchronous, NRZ serial communication among the MCU and remote
devices, including other MCUs. The SCI comprises a baud rate generator, transmitter, and receiver block.
The transmitter and receiver operate independently, although they use the same baud rate generator.
During normal operation, the MCU monitors the status of the SCI, writes the data to be transmitted, and
processes received data. The following describes each of the blocks of the SCI.
14.3.1
Baud Rate Generation
As shown in Figure 14-13, the clock source for the SCI baud rate generator is the bus-rate clock.
MODULO DIVIDE BY
(1 THROUGH 8191)
BUSCLK
SBR12:SBR0
BAUD RATE GENERATOR
OFF IF [SBR12:SBR0] = 0
DIVIDE BY
16
Tx BAUD RATE
Rx SAMPLING CLOCK
(16 × BAUD RATE)
BAUD RATE =
BUSCLK
[SBR12:SBR0] × 16
Figure 14-13. SCI Baud Rate Generation
SCI communications require the transmitter and receiver (which typically derive baud rates from
independent clock sources) to use the same baud rate. Allowed tolerance on this baud frequency depends
on the details of how the receiver synchronizes to the leading edge of the start bit and how bit sampling is
performed.
The MCU resynchronizes to bit boundaries on every high-to-low transition, but in the worst case, there are
no such transitions in the full 10- or 11-bit time character frame so any mismatch in baud rate is
accumulated for the whole character time. For a Freescale Semiconductor SCI system whose bus
frequency is driven by a crystal, the allowed baud rate mismatch is about ±4.5 percent for 8-bit data format
and about ±4 percent for 9-bit data format. Although baud rate modulo divider settings do not always
produce baud rates that exactly match standard rates, it is normally possible to get within a few percent,
which is acceptable for reliable communications.
14.3.2
Transmitter Functional Description
This section describes the overall block diagram for the SCI transmitter, as well as specialized functions
for sending break and idle characters. The transmitter block diagram is shown in Figure 14-3.
The transmitter output (TxD) idle state defaults to logic high (TXINV = 0 following reset). The transmitter
output is inverted by setting TXINV = 1. The transmitter is enabled by setting the TE bit in SCIC2. This
queues a preamble character that is one full character frame of the idle state. The transmitter then remains
idle until data is available in the transmit data buffer. Programs store data into the transmit data buffer by
writing to the SCI data register (SCID).
The central element of the SCI transmitter is the transmit shift register that is either 10 or 11 bits long
depending on the setting in the M control bit. For the remainder of this section, we will assume M = 0,
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
204
Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
selecting the normal 8-bit data mode. In 8-bit data mode, the shift register holds a start bit, eight data bits,
and a stop bit. When the transmit shift register is available for a new SCI character, the value waiting in
the transmit data register is transferred to the shift register (synchronized with the baud rate clock) and the
transmit data register empty (TDRE) status flag is set to indicate another character may be written to the
transmit data buffer at SCID.
If no new character is waiting in the transmit data buffer after a stop bit is shifted out the TxD1 pin, the
transmitter sets the transmit complete flag and enters an idle mode, with TxD1 high, waiting for more
characters to transmit.
Writing 0 to TE does not immediately release the pin to be a general-purpose I/O pin. Any transmit activity
that is in progress must first be completed. This includes data characters in progress, queued idle
characters, and queued break characters.
14.3.2.1
Send Break and Queued Idle
The SBK control bit in SCIC2 is used to send break characters which were originally used to gain the
attention of old teletype receivers. Break characters are a full character time of logic 0 (10 bit times
including the start and stop bits). A longer break of 13 bit times can be enabled by setting BRK13 = 1.
Normally, a program would wait for TDRE to become set to indicate the last character of a message has
moved to the transmit shifter, then write 1 and then write 0 to the SBK bit. This action queues a break
character to be sent as soon as the shifter is available. If SBK is still 1 when the queued break moves into
the shifter (synchronized to the baud rate clock), an additional break character is queued. If the receiving
device is another Freescale Semiconductor SCI, the break characters will be received as 0s in all eight data
bits and a framing error (FE = 1) occurs.
When idle-line wakeup is used, a full character time of idle (logic 1) is needed between messages to wake
up any sleeping receivers. Normally, a program would wait for TDRE to become set to indicate the last
character of a message has moved to the transmit shifter, then write 0 and then write 1 to the TE bit. This
action queues an idle character to be sent as soon as the shifter is available. As long as the character in the
shifter does not finish while TE = 0, the SCI transmitter never actually releases control of the TxD1 pin.
If there is a possibility of the shifter finishing while TE = 0, set the general-purpose I/O controls so the pin
that is shared with TxD1 is an output driving a logic 1. This ensures that the TxD1 line will look like a
normal idle line even if the SCI loses control of the port pin between writing 0 and then 1 to TE.
The length of the break character is affected by the BRK13 and M bits as shown below.
Table 14-8. Break Character Length
BRK13
M
Break Character Length
0
0
10 bit times
0
1
11 bit times
1
0
13 bit times
1
1
14 bit times
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
205
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
14.3.3
Receiver Functional Description
In this section, the receiver block diagram (Figure 14-4) is used as a guide for the overall receiver
functional description. Next, the data sampling technique used to reconstruct receiver data is described in
more detail. Finally, two variations of the receiver wakeup function are explained.
The receiver is enabled by setting the RE bit in SCIC2. Character frames consist of a start bit of logic 0,
eight (or nine) data bits (LSB first), and a stop bit of logic 1. For information about 9-bit data mode, refer
to Section 14.4.1, “8- and 9-Bit Data Modes.” For the remainder of this discussion, we assume the SCI is
configured for normal 8-bit data mode.
After receiving the stop bit into the receive shifter, and provided the receive data register is not already
full, the data character is transferred to the receive data register and the receive data register full (RDRF)
status flag is set. If RDRF was already set indicating the receive data register (buffer) was already full, the
overrun (OR) status flag is set and the new data is lost. Because the SCI receiver is double-buffered, the
program has one full character time after RDRF is set before the data in the receive data buffer must be
read to avoid a receiver overrun.
When a program detects that the receive data register is full (RDRF = 1), it gets the data from the receive
data register by reading SCID. The RDRF flag is cleared automatically by a 2-step sequence which is
normally satisfied in the course of the user’s program that handles receive data. Refer to Section 14.3.4,
“Interrupts and Status Flags,” for more details about flag clearing.
14.3.3.1
Data Sampling Technique
The SCI receiver uses a 16× baud rate clock for sampling. The receiver starts by taking logic level samples
at 16 times the baud rate to search for a falling edge on the RxD1 serial data input pin. A falling edge is
defined as a logic 0 sample after three consecutive logic 1 samples. The 16× baud rate clock is used to
divide the bit time into 16 segments labeled RT1 through RT16. When a falling edge is located, three more
samples are taken at RT3, RT5, and RT7 to make sure this was a real start bit and not merely noise. If at
least two of these three samples are 0, the receiver assumes it is synchronized to a receive character.
The receiver then samples each bit time, including the start and stop bits, at RT8, RT9, and RT10 to
determine the logic level for that bit. The logic level is interpreted to be that of the majority of the samples
taken during the bit time. In the case of the start bit, the bit is assumed to be 0 if at least two of the samples
at RT3, RT5, and RT7 are 0 even if one or all of the samples taken at RT8, RT9, and RT10 are 1s. If any
sample in any bit time (including the start and stop bits) in a character frame fails to agree with the logic
level for that bit, the noise flag (NF) will be set when the received character is transferred to the receive
data buffer.
The falling edge detection logic continuously looks for falling edges, and if an edge is detected, the sample
clock is resynchronized to bit times. This improves the reliability of the receiver in the presence of noise
or mismatched baud rates. It does not improve worst case analysis because some characters do not have
any extra falling edges anywhere in the character frame.
In the case of a framing error, provided the received character was not a break character, the sampling logic
that searches for a falling edge is filled with three logic 1 samples so that a new start bit can be detected
almost immediately.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
In the case of a framing error, the receiver is inhibited from receiving any new characters until the framing
error flag is cleared. The receive shift register continues to function, but a complete character cannot
transfer to the receive data buffer if FE is still set.
14.3.3.2
Receiver Wakeup Operation
Receiver wakeup is a hardware mechanism that allows an SCI receiver to ignore the characters in a
message that is intended for a different SCI receiver. In such a system, all receivers evaluate the first
character(s) of each message, and as soon as they determine the message is intended for a different
receiver, they write logic 1 to the receiver wake up (RWU) control bit in SCIC2. When RWU = 1, it
inhibits setting of the status flags associated with the receiver, thus eliminating the software overhead for
handling the unimportant message characters. At the end of a message, or at the beginning of the next
message, all receivers automatically force RWU to 0 so all receivers wake up in time to look at the first
character(s) of the next message.
14.3.3.2.1
Idle-Line Wakeup
When WAKE = 0, the receiver is configured for idle-line wakeup. In this mode, RWU is cleared
automatically when the receiver detects a full character time of the idle-line level. The M control bit selects
8-bit or 9-bit data mode that determines how many bit times of idle are needed to constitute a full character
time (10 or 11 bit times because of the start and stop bits).
When the RWU bit is set, the idle character that wakes a receiver does not set the receiver idle bit, IDLE,
or the receive data register full flag, RDRF. It therefore will not generate an interrupt when this idle
character occurs. The receiver will wake up and wait for the next data transmission which will set RDRF
and generate an interrupt if enabled.
The idle-line type (ILT) control bit selects one of two ways to detect an idle line. When ILT = 0, the idle
bit counter starts after the start bit so the stop bit and any logic 1s at the end of a character count toward
the full character time of idle. When ILT = 1, the idle bit counter does not start until after a stop bit time,
so the idle detection is not affected by the data in the last character of the previous message.
14.3.3.2.2
Address-Mark Wakeup
When WAKE = 1, the receiver is configured for address-mark wakeup. In this mode, RWU is cleared
automatically when the receiver detects a logic 1 in the most significant bit of a received character (eighth
bit in M = 0 mode and ninth bit in M = 1 mode).
Address-mark wakeup allows messages to contain idle characters but requires that the MSB be reserved
for use in address frames. The logic 1 MSB of an address frame clears the receivers RWU bit before the
stop bit is received and sets the RDRF flag.
14.3.4
Interrupts and Status Flags
The SCI system has three separate interrupt vectors to reduce the amount of software needed to isolate the
cause of the interrupt. One interrupt vector is associated with the transmitter for TDRE and TC events.
Another interrupt vector is associated with the receiver for RDRF and IDLE events, and a third vector is
used for OR, NF, FE, and PF error conditions. Each of these eight interrupt sources can be separately
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
207
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
masked by local interrupt enable masks. The flags can still be polled by software when the local masks are
cleared to disable generation of hardware interrupt requests.
The SCI transmitter has two status flags that optionally can generate hardware interrupt requests. Transmit
data register empty (TDRE) indicates when there is room in the transmit data buffer to write another
transmit character to SCID. If the transmit interrupt enable (TIE) bit is set, a hardware interrupt will be
requested whenever TDRE = 1. Transmit complete (TC) indicates that the transmitter is finished
transmitting all data, preamble, and break characters and is idle with TxD1 high. This flag is often used in
systems with modems to determine when it is safe to turn off the modem. If the transmit complete interrupt
enable (TCIE) bit is set, a hardware interrupt will be requested whenever TC = 1. Instead of hardware
interrupts, software polling may be used to monitor the TDRE and TC status flags if the corresponding
TIE or TCIE local interrupt masks are 0s.
When a program detects that the receive data register is full (RDRF = 1), it gets the data from the receive
data register by reading SCID. The RDRF flag is cleared by reading SCIS1 while RDRF = 1 and then
reading SCID.
When polling is used, this sequence is naturally satisfied in the normal course of the user program. If
hardware interrupts are used, SCIS1 must be read in the interrupt service routine (ISR). Normally, this is
done in the ISR anyway to check for receive errors, so the sequence is automatically satisfied.
The IDLE status flag includes logic that prevents it from getting set repeatedly when the RxD1 line
remains idle for an extended period of time. IDLE is cleared by reading SCIS1 while IDLE = 1 and then
reading SCID. After IDLE has been cleared, it cannot become set again until the receiver has received at
least one new character and has set RDRF.
If the associated error was detected in the received character that caused RDRF to be set, the error flags
— noise flag (NF), framing error (FE), and parity error flag (PF) — get set at the same time as RDRF.
These flags are not set in overrun cases.
If RDRF was already set when a new character is ready to be transferred from the receive shifter to the
receive data buffer, the overrun (OR) flag gets set instead and the data and any associated NF, FE, or PF
condition is lost.
14.4
Additional SCI Functions
The following sections describe additional SCI functions.
14.4.1
8- and 9-Bit Data Modes
The SCI system (transmitter and receiver) can be configured to operate in 9-bit data mode by setting the
M control bit in SCIC1. In 9-bit mode, there is a ninth data bit to the left of the MSB of the SCI data
register. For the transmit data buffer, this bit is stored in T8 in SCIC3. For the receiver, the ninth bit is held
in R8 in SCIC3.
For coherent writes to the transmit data buffer, write to the T8 bit before writing to SCID.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
If the bit value to be transmitted as the ninth bit of a new character is the same as for the previous character,
it is not necessary to write to T8 again. When data is transferred from the transmit data buffer to the
transmit shifter, the value in T8 is copied at the same time data is transferred from SCID to the shifter.
9-bit data mode typically is used in conjunction with parity to allow eight bits of data plus the parity in the
ninth bit. Or it is used with address-mark wakeup so the ninth data bit can serve as the wakeup bit. In
custom protocols, the ninth bit can also serve as a software-controlled marker.
14.4.2
Stop Mode Operation
During all stop modes, clocks to the SCI module are halted.
In stop1 and stop2 modes, all SCI register data is lost and must be re-initialized upon recovery from these
two stop modes.
No SCI module registers are affected in stop3 mode.
Note, because the clocks are halted, the SCI module will resume operation upon exit from stop (only in
stop3 mode). Software should ensure stop mode is not entered while there is a character being transmitted
out of or received into the SCI module.
14.4.3
Loop Mode
When LOOPS = 1, the RSRC bit in the same register chooses between loop mode (RSRC = 0) or
single-wire mode (RSRC = 1). Loop mode is sometimes used to check software, independent of
connections in the external system, to help isolate system problems. In this mode, the transmitter output is
internally connected to the receiver input and the RxD1 pin is not used by the SCI, so it reverts to a
general-purpose port I/O pin.
14.4.4
Single-Wire Operation
When LOOPS = 1, the RSRC bit in the same register chooses between loop mode (RSRC = 0) or
single-wire mode (RSRC = 1). Single-wire mode is used to implement a half-duplex serial connection.
The receiver is internally connected to the transmitter output and to the TxD1 pin. The RxD1 pin is not
used and reverts to a general-purpose port I/O pin.
In single-wire mode, the TXDIR bit in SCIC3 controls the direction of serial data on the TxD1 pin. When
TXDIR = 0, the TxD1 pin is an input to the SCI receiver and the transmitter is temporarily disconnected
from the TxD1 pin so an external device can send serial data to the receiver. When TXDIR = 1, the TxD1
pin is an output driven by the transmitter. In single-wire mode, the internal loop back connection from the
transmitter to the receiver causes the receiver to receive characters that are sent out by the transmitter.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
209
Serial Communications Interface (S08SCIV3)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
210
Freescale Semiconductor
Chapter 15
Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
15.1
Introduction
Figure 15-1 shows the MC9S08QG8/4 block diagram with the SPI highlighted.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
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Chapter 15 Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
BKGD/MS
IRQ
HCS08 CORE
DEBUG MODULE (DBG)
BDC
RESETS AND INTERRUPTS
MODES OF OPERATION
POWER MANAGEMENT
RTI
COP
IRQ
LVD
USER FLASH
(MC9S08QG8 = 8192 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 4096 BYTES)
USER RAM
(MC9S08QG8 = 512 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 256 BYTES)
16-MHz INTERNAL CLOCK
SOURCE (ICS)
LOW-POWER OSCILLATOR
31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz
1 MHz to 16 MHz
(XOSC)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD
VDDA
VSSA
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
SCL
IIC MODULE (IIC)
SDA
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
4
8-BIT KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT MODULE (KBI)
ANALOG COMPARATOR
(ACMP)
4
ACMPO
ACMP–
ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
4
10-BIT
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC)
16-BIT TIMER/PWM
MODULE (TPM)
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
4
TPMCH0
TPMCH1
SS
MISO
MOSI
SPSCK
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE MODULE (SPI)
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
INTERFACE MODULE (SCI)
VSS
PTA5//IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PORT A
HCS08 SYSTEM CONTROL
TCLK
8-BIT MODULO TIMER
MODULE (MTIM)
TxD
RxD
PORT B
CPU
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
EXTAL
XTAL
VREFH
VREFL
NOTES:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Not all pins or pin functions are available on all devices, see Table 1-1 for available functions on each device.
Port pins are software configurable with pullup device if input port.
Port pins are software configurable for output drive strength.
Port pins are software configurable for output slew rate control.
IRQ contains a software configurable (IRQPDD) pullup device if PTA5 enabled as IRQ pin function (IRQPE = 1).
RESET contains integrated pullup device if PTA5 enabled as reset pin function (RSTPE = 1).
PTA4 contains integrated pullup device if BKGD enabled (BKGDPE = 1).
SDA and SCL pin locations can be repositioned under software control (IICPS), defaults on PTA2 and PTA3.
When pin functions as KBI (KBIPEn = 1) and associated pin is configured to enable the pullup device, KBEDGn can be used to reconfigure
the pullup as a pulldown device.
Figure 15-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Block Diagram Highlighting SPI Block and Pins
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
15.1.1
Features
Features of the SPI module include:
• Master or slave mode operation
• Full-duplex or single-wire bidirectional option
• Programmable transmit bit rate
• Double-buffered transmit and receive
• Serial clock phase and polarity options
• Slave select output
• Selectable MSB-first or LSB-first shifting
15.1.2
Block Diagrams
This section includes block diagrams showing SPI system connections, the internal organization of the SPI
module, and the SPI clock dividers that control the master mode bit rate.
15.1.2.1
SPI System Block Diagram
Figure 15-2 shows the SPI modules of two MCUs connected in a master-slave arrangement. The master
device initiates all SPI data transfers. During a transfer, the master shifts data out (on the MOSI pin) to the
slave while simultaneously shifting data in (on the MISO pin) from the slave. The transfer effectively
exchanges the data that was in the SPI shift registers of the two SPI systems. The SPSCK signal is a clock
output from the master and an input to the slave. The slave device must be selected by a low level on the
slave select input (SS pin). In this system, the master device has configured its SS pin as an optional slave
select output.
SLAVE
MASTER
MOSI
MOSI
SPI SHIFTER
7
6
5
4
3
2
SPI SHIFTER
1
0
MISO
SPSCK
CLOCK
GENERATOR
SS
MISO
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPSCK
SS
Figure 15-2. SPI System Connections
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
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Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
The most common uses of the SPI system include connecting simple shift registers for adding input or
output ports or connecting small peripheral devices such as serial A/D or D/A converters. Although
Figure 15-2 shows a system where data is exchanged between two MCUs, many practical systems involve
simpler connections where data is unidirectionally transferred from the master MCU to a slave or from a
slave to the master MCU.
15.1.2.2
SPI Module Block Diagram
Figure 15-3 is a block diagram of the SPI module. The central element of the SPI is the SPI shift register.
Data is written to the double-buffered transmitter (write to SPID) and gets transferred to the SPI shift
register at the start of a data transfer. After shifting in a byte of data, the data is transferred into the
double-buffered receiver where it can be read (read from SPID). Pin multiplexing logic controls
connections between MCU pins and the SPI module.
When the SPI is configured as a master, the clock output is routed to the SPSCK pin, the shifter output is
routed to MOSI, and the shifter input is routed from the MISO pin.
When the SPI is configured as a slave, the SPSCK pin is routed to the clock input of the SPI, the shifter
output is routed to MISO, and the shifter input is routed from the MOSI pin.
In the external SPI system, simply connect all SPSCK pins to each other, all MISO pins together, and all
MOSI pins together. Peripheral devices often use slightly different names for these pins.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
PIN CONTROL
M
SPE
MOSI
(MOMI)
S
Tx BUFFER (WRITE SPID)
ENABLE
SPI SYSTEM
M
SHIFT
OUT
SPI SHIFT REGISTER
SHIFT
IN
MISO
(SISO)
S
SPC0
Rx BUFFER (READ SPID)
BIDIROE
SHIFT
DIRECTION
LSBFE
SHIFT
CLOCK
Rx BUFFER
FULL
Tx BUFFER
EMPTY
MASTER CLOCK
BUS RATE
CLOCK
SPIBR
CLOCK GENERATOR
MSTR
CLOCK
LOGIC
SLAVE CLOCK
MASTER/SLAVE
M
SPSCK
S
MASTER/
SLAVE
MODE SELECT
MODFEN
SSOE
MODE FAULT
DETECTION
SPRF
SS
SPTEF
SPTIE
MODF
SPIE
SPI
INTERRUPT
REQUEST
Figure 15-3. SPI Module Block Diagram
15.1.3
SPI Baud Rate Generation
As shown in Figure 15-4, the clock source for the SPI baud rate generator is the bus clock. The three
prescale bits (SPPR2:SPPR1:SPPR0) choose a prescale divisor of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8. The three rate
select bits (SPR2:SPR1:SPR0) divide the output of the prescaler stage by 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, or 256
to get the internal SPI master mode bit-rate clock.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
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Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
BUS CLOCK
PRESCALER
CLOCK RATE DIVIDER
DIVIDE BY
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8
DIVIDE BY
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, or 256
SPPR2:SPPR1:SPPR0
SPR2:SPR1:SPR0
MASTER
SPI
BIT RATE
Figure 15-4. SPI Baud Rate Generation
15.2
External Signal Description
The SPI optionally shares four port pins. The function of these pins depends on the settings of SPI control
bits. When the SPI is disabled (SPE = 0), these four pins revert to being general-purpose port I/O pins that
are not controlled by the SPI.
15.2.1
SPSCK — SPI Serial Clock
When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is the serial clock input. When the SPI is enabled as a master,
this pin is the serial clock output.
15.2.2
MOSI — Master Data Out, Slave Data In
When the SPI is enabled as a master and SPI pin control zero (SPC0) is 0 (not bidirectional mode), this
pin is the serial data output. When the SPI is enabled as a slave and SPC0 = 0, this pin is the serial data
input. If SPC0 = 1 to select single-wire bidirectional mode, and master mode is selected, this pin becomes
the bidirectional data I/O pin (MOMI). Also, the bidirectional mode output enable bit determines whether
the pin acts as an input (BIDIROE = 0) or an output (BIDIROE = 1). If SPC0 = 1 and slave mode is
selected, this pin is not used by the SPI and reverts to being a general-purpose port I/O pin.
15.2.3
MISO — Master Data In, Slave Data Out
When the SPI is enabled as a master and SPI pin control zero (SPC0) is 0 (not bidirectional mode), this
pin is the serial data input. When the SPI is enabled as a slave and SPC0 = 0, this pin is the serial data
output. If SPC0 = 1 to select single-wire bidirectional mode, and slave mode is selected, this pin becomes
the bidirectional data I/O pin (SISO) and the bidirectional mode output enable bit determines whether the
pin acts as an input (BIDIROE = 0) or an output (BIDIROE = 1). If SPC0 = 1 and master mode is selected,
this pin is not used by the SPI and reverts to being a general-purpose port I/O pin.
15.2.4
SS — Slave Select
When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is the low-true slave select input. When the SPI is enabled as
a master and mode fault enable is off (MODFEN = 0), this pin is not used by the SPI and reverts to being
a general-purpose port I/O pin. When the SPI is enabled as a master and MODFEN = 1, the slave select
output enable bit determines whether this pin acts as the mode fault input (SSOE = 0) or as the slave select
output (SSOE = 1).
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
15.3
Modes of Operation
15.3.1
SPI in Stop Modes
The SPI is disabled in all stop modes, regardless of the settings before executing the STOP instruction.
During either stop1 or stop2 mode, the SPI module will be fully powered down. Upon wake-up from stop1
or stop2 mode, the SPI module will be in the reset state. During stop3 mode, clocks to the SPI module are
halted. No registers are affected. If stop3 is exited with a reset, the SPI will be put into its reset state. If
stop3 is exited with an interrupt, the SPI continues from the state it was in when stop3 was entered.
15.4
Register Definition
The SPI has five 8-bit registers to select SPI options, control baud rate, report SPI status, and for
transmit/receive data.
Refer to the direct-page register summary in the Memory chapter of this data sheet for the absolute address
assignments for all SPI registers. This section refers to registers and control bits only by their names, and
a Freescale-provided equate or header file is used to translate these names into the appropriate absolute
addresses.
15.4.1
SPI Control Register 1 (SPIC1)
This read/write register includes the SPI enable control, interrupt enables, and configuration options.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPIE
SPE
SPTIE
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SSOE
LSBFE
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
R
W
Reset
Figure 15-5. SPI Control Register 1 (SPIC1)
Table 15-1. SPIC1 Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
SPIE
SPI Interrupt Enable (for SPRF and MODF) — This is the interrupt enable for SPI receive buffer full (SPRF)
and mode fault (MODF) events.
0 Interrupts from SPRF and MODF inhibited (use polling)
1 When SPRF or MODF is 1, request a hardware interrupt
6
SPE
SPI System Enable — Disabling the SPI halts any transfer that is in progress, clears data buffers, and initializes
internal state machines. SPRF is cleared and SPTEF is set to indicate the SPI transmit data buffer is empty.
0 SPI system inactive
1 SPI system enabled
5
SPTIE
SPI Transmit Interrupt Enable — This is the interrupt enable bit for SPI transmit buffer empty (SPTEF).
0 Interrupts from SPTEF inhibited (use polling)
1 When SPTEF is 1, hardware interrupt requested
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
Table 15-1. SPIC1 Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
4
MSTR
Master/Slave Mode Select
0 SPI module configured as a slave SPI device
1 SPI module configured as a master SPI device
3
CPOL
Clock Polarity — This bit effectively places an inverter in series with the clock signal from a master SPI or to a
slave SPI device. Refer to Section 15.5.1, “SPI Clock Formats” for more details.
0 Active-high SPI clock (idles low)
1 Active-low SPI clock (idles high)
2
CPHA
Clock Phase — This bit selects one of two clock formats for different kinds of synchronous serial peripheral
devices. Refer to Section 15.5.1, “SPI Clock Formats” for more details.
0 First edge on SPSCK occurs at the middle of the first cycle of an 8-cycle data transfer
1 First edge on SPSCK occurs at the start of the first cycle of an 8-cycle data transfer
1
SSOE
Slave Select Output Enable — This bit is used in combination with the mode fault enable (MODFEN) bit in
SPCR2 and the master/slave (MSTR) control bit to determine the function of the SS pin as shown in Table 15-2.
0
LSBFE
LSB First (Shifter Direction)
0 SPI serial data transfers start with most significant bit
1 SPI serial data transfers start with least significant bit
Table 15-2. SS Pin Function
MODFEN
SSOE
Master Mode
Slave Mode
0
0
General-purpose I/O (not SPI)
Slave select input
0
1
General-purpose I/O (not SPI)
Slave select input
1
0
SS input for mode fault
Slave select input
1
1
Automatic SS output
Slave select input
NOTE
Ensure that the SPI should not be disabled (SPE=0) at the same time as a bit change to the CPHA bit. These
changes should be performed as separate operations or unexpected behavior may occur.
15.4.2
SPI Control Register 2 (SPIC2)
This read/write register is used to control optional features of the SPI system. Bits 7, 6, 5, and 2 are not
implemented and always read 0.
R
7
6
5
0
0
0
4
3
MODFEN
BIDIROE
0
0
2
1
0
SPISWAI
SPC0
0
0
0
W
Reset
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 15-6. SPI Control Register 2 (SPIC2)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
Table 15-3. SPIC2 Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
4
MODFEN
Master Mode-Fault Function Enable — When the SPI is configured for slave mode, this bit has no meaning or
effect. (The SS pin is the slave select input.) In master mode, this bit determines how the SS pin is used (refer to
Table 15-2 for more details).
0 Mode fault function disabled, master SS pin reverts to general-purpose I/O not controlled by SPI
1 Mode fault function enabled, master SS pin acts as the mode fault input or the slave select output
3
BIDIROE
Bidirectional Mode Output Enable — When bidirectional mode is enabled by SPI pin control 0 (SPC0) = 1,
BIDIROE determines whether the SPI data output driver is enabled to the single bidirectional SPI I/O pin.
Depending on whether the SPI is configured as a master or a slave, it uses either the MOSI (MOMI) or MISO
(SISO) pin, respectively, as the single SPI data I/O pin. When SPC0 = 0, BIDIROE has no meaning or effect.
0 Output driver disabled so SPI data I/O pin acts as an input
1 SPI I/O pin enabled as an output
1
SPISWAI
SPI Stop in Wait Mode
0 SPI clocks continue to operate in wait mode
1 SPI clocks stop when the MCU enters wait mode
0
SPC0
15.4.3
SPI Pin Control 0 — The SPC0 bit chooses single-wire bidirectional mode. If MSTR = 0 (slave mode), the SPI
uses the MISO (SISO) pin for bidirectional SPI data transfers. If MSTR = 1 (master mode), the SPI uses the MOSI
(MOMI) pin for bidirectional SPI data transfers. When SPC0 = 1, BIDIROE is used to enable or disable the output
driver for the single bidirectional SPI I/O pin.
0 SPI uses separate pins for data input and data output
1 SPI configured for single-wire bidirectional operation
SPI Baud Rate Register (SPIBR)
This register is used to set the prescaler and bit rate divisor for an SPI master. This register may be read or
written at any time.
7
R
6
5
4
3
SPPR2
SPPR1
SPPR0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
SPR2
SPR1
SPR0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 15-7. SPI Baud Rate Register (SPIBR)
Table 15-4. SPIBR Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
6:4
SPPR[2:0]
SPI Baud Rate Prescale Divisor — This 3-bit field selects one of eight divisors for the SPI baud rate prescaler
as shown in Table 15-5. The input to this prescaler is the bus rate clock (BUSCLK). The output of this prescaler
drives the input of the SPI baud rate divider (see Figure 15-4).
2:0
SPR[2:0]
SPI Baud Rate Divisor — This 3-bit field selects one of eight divisors for the SPI baud rate divider as shown in
Table 15-6. The input to this divider comes from the SPI baud rate prescaler (see Figure 15-4). The output of this
divider is the SPI bit rate clock for master mode.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
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Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
Table 15-5. SPI Baud Rate Prescaler Divisor
SPPR2:SPPR1:SPPR0
Prescaler Divisor
0:0:0
1
0:0:1
2
0:1:0
3
0:1:1
4
1:0:0
5
1:0:1
6
1:1:0
7
1:1:1
8
Table 15-6. SPI Baud Rate Divisor
15.4.4
SPR2:SPR1:SPR0
Rate Divisor
0:0:0
2
0:0:1
4
0:1:0
8
0:1:1
16
1:0:0
32
1:0:1
64
1:1:0
128
1:1:1
256
SPI Status Register (SPIS)
This register has three read-only status bits. Bits 6, 3, 2, 1, and 0 are not implemented and always read 0.
Writes have no meaning or effect.
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SPRF
0
SPTEF
MODF
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 15-8. SPI Status Register (SPIS)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Freescale Semiconductor
Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
Table 15-7. SPIS Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
SPRF
SPI Read Buffer Full Flag — SPRF is set at the completion of an SPI transfer to indicate that received data may
be read from the SPI data register (SPID). SPRF is cleared by reading SPRF while it is set, then reading the SPI
data register.
0 No data available in the receive data buffer
1 Data available in the receive data buffer
5
SPTEF
SPI Transmit Buffer Empty Flag — This bit is set when there is room in the transmit data buffer. It is cleared by
reading SPIS with SPTEF set, followed by writing a data value to the transmit buffer at SPID. SPIS must be read
with SPTEF = 1 before writing data to SPID or the SPID write will be ignored. SPTEF generates an SPTEF CPU
interrupt request if the SPTIE bit in the SPIC1 is also set. SPTEF is automatically set when a data byte transfers
from the transmit buffer into the transmit shift register. For an idle SPI (no data in the transmit buffer or the shift
register and no transfer in progress), data written to SPID is transferred to the shifter almost immediately so
SPTEF is set within two bus cycles allowing a second 8-bit data value to be queued into the transmit buffer. After
completion of the transfer of the value in the shift register, the queued value from the transmit buffer will
automatically move to the shifter and SPTEF will be set to indicate there is room for new data in the transmit
buffer. If no new data is waiting in the transmit buffer, SPTEF simply remains set and no data moves from the
buffer to the shifter.
0 SPI transmit buffer not empty
1 SPI transmit buffer empty
4
MODF
Master Mode Fault Flag — MODF is set if the SPI is configured as a master and the slave select input goes low,
indicating some other SPI device is also configured as a master. The SS pin acts as a mode fault error input only
when MSTR = 1, MODFEN = 1, and SSOE = 0; otherwise, MODF will never be set. MODF is cleared by reading
MODF while it is 1, then writing to SPI control register 1 (SPIC1).
0 No mode fault error
1 Mode fault error detected
15.4.5
SPI Data Register (SPID)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset
Figure 15-9. SPI Data Register (SPID)
Reads of this register return the data read from the receive data buffer. Writes to this register write data to
the transmit data buffer. When the SPI is configured as a master, writing data to the transmit data buffer
initiates an SPI transfer.
Data should not be written to the transmit data buffer unless the SPI transmit buffer empty flag (SPTEF)
is set, indicating there is room in the transmit buffer to queue a new transmit byte.
Data may be read from SPID any time after SPRF is set and before another transfer is finished. Failure to
read the data out of the receive data buffer before a new transfer ends causes a receive overrun condition
and the data from the new transfer is lost.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
15.5
Functional Description
An SPI transfer is initiated by checking for the SPI transmit buffer empty flag (SPTEF = 1) and then
writing a byte of data to the SPI data register (SPID) in the master SPI device. When the SPI shift register
is available, this byte of data is moved from the transmit data buffer to the shifter, SPTEF is set to indicate
there is room in the buffer to queue another transmit character if desired, and the SPI serial transfer starts.
During the SPI transfer, data is sampled (read) on the MISO pin at one SPSCK edge and shifted, changing
the bit value on the MOSI pin, one-half SPSCK cycle later. After eight SPSCK cycles, the data that was
in the shift register of the master has been shifted out the MOSI pin to the slave while eight bits of data
were shifted in the MISO pin into the master’s shift register. At the end of this transfer, the received data
byte is moved from the shifter into the receive data buffer and SPRF is set to indicate the data can be read
by reading SPID. If another byte of data is waiting in the transmit buffer at the end of a transfer, it is moved
into the shifter, SPTEF is set, and a new transfer is started.
Normally, SPI data is transferred most significant bit (MSB) first. If the least significant bit first enable
(LSBFE) bit is set, SPI data is shifted LSB first.
When the SPI is configured as a slave, its SS pin must be driven low before a transfer starts and SS must
stay low throughout the transfer. If a clock format where CPHA = 0 is selected, SS must be driven to a
logic 1 between successive transfers. If CPHA = 1, SS may remain low between successive transfers. See
Section 15.5.1, “SPI Clock Formats” for more details.
Because the transmitter and receiver are double buffered, a second byte, in addition to the byte currently
being shifted out, can be queued into the transmit data buffer, and a previously received character can be
in the receive data buffer while a new character is being shifted in. The SPTEF flag indicates when the
transmit buffer has room for a new character. The SPRF flag indicates when a received character is
available in the receive data buffer. The received character must be read out of the receive buffer (read
SPID) before the next transfer is finished or a receive overrun error results.
In the case of a receive overrun, the new data is lost because the receive buffer still held the previous
character and was not ready to accept the new data. There is no indication for such an overrun condition
so the application system designer must ensure that previous data has been read from the receive buffer
before a new transfer is initiated.
15.5.1
SPI Clock Formats
To accommodate a wide variety of synchronous serial peripherals from different manufacturers, the SPI
system has a clock polarity (CPOL) bit and a clock phase (CPHA) control bit to select one of four clock
formats for data transfers. CPOL selectively inserts an inverter in series with the clock. CPHA chooses
between two different clock phase relationships between the clock and data.
Figure 15-10 shows the clock formats when CPHA = 1. At the top of the figure, the eight bit times are
shown for reference with bit 1 starting at the first SPSCK edge and bit 8 ending one-half SPSCK cycle
after the sixteenth SPSCK edge. The MSB first and LSB first lines show the order of SPI data bits
depending on the setting in LSBFE. Both variations of SPSCK polarity are shown, but only one of these
waveforms applies for a specific transfer, depending on the value in CPOL. The SAMPLE IN waveform
applies to the MOSI input of a slave or the MISO input of a master. The MOSI waveform applies to the
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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MOSI output pin from a master and the MISO waveform applies to the MISO output from a slave. The SS
OUT waveform applies to the slave select output from a master (provided MODFEN and SSOE = 1). The
master SS output goes to active low one-half SPSCK cycle before the start of the transfer and goes back
high at the end of the eighth bit time of the transfer. The SS IN waveform applies to the slave select input
of a slave.
BIT TIME #
(REFERENCE)
1
2
...
6
7
8
BIT 7
BIT 0
BIT 6
BIT 1
...
...
BIT 2
BIT 5
BIT 1
BIT 6
BIT 0
BIT 7
SPSCK
(CPOL = 0)
SPSCK
(CPOL = 1)
SAMPLE IN
(MISO OR MOSI)
MOSI
(MASTER OUT)
MSB FIRST
LSB FIRST
MISO
(SLAVE OUT)
SS OUT
(MASTER)
SS IN
(SLAVE)
Figure 15-10. SPI Clock Formats (CPHA = 1)
When CPHA = 1, the slave begins to drive its MISO output when SS goes to active low, but the data is not
defined until the first SPSCK edge. The first SPSCK edge shifts the first bit of data from the shifter onto
the MOSI output of the master and the MISO output of the slave. The next SPSCK edge causes both the
master and the slave to sample the data bit values on their MISO and MOSI inputs, respectively. At the
third SPSCK edge, the SPI shifter shifts one bit position which shifts in the bit value that was just sampled,
and shifts the second data bit value out the other end of the shifter to the MOSI and MISO outputs of the
master and slave, respectively. When CHPA = 1, the slave’s SS input is not required to go to its inactive
high level between transfers.
Figure 15-11 shows the clock formats when CPHA = 0. At the top of the figure, the eight bit times are
shown for reference with bit 1 starting as the slave is selected (SS IN goes low), and bit 8 ends at the last
SPSCK edge. The MSB first and LSB first lines show the order of SPI data bits depending on the setting
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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in LSBFE. Both variations of SPSCK polarity are shown, but only one of these waveforms applies for a
specific transfer, depending on the value in CPOL. The SAMPLE IN waveform applies to the MOSI input
of a slave or the MISO input of a master. The MOSI waveform applies to the MOSI output pin from a
master and the MISO waveform applies to the MISO output from a slave. The SS OUT waveform applies
to the slave select output from a master (provided MODFEN and SSOE = 1). The master SS output goes
to active low at the start of the first bit time of the transfer and goes back high one-half SPSCK cycle after
the end of the eighth bit time of the transfer. The SS IN waveform applies to the slave select input of a
slave.
BIT TIME #
(REFERENCE)
1
2
BIT 7
BIT 0
BIT 6
BIT 1
...
6
7
8
BIT 2
BIT 5
BIT 1
BIT 6
BIT 0
BIT 7
SPSCK
(CPOL = 0)
SPSCK
(CPOL = 1)
SAMPLE IN
(MISO OR MOSI)
MOSI
(MASTER OUT)
MSB FIRST
LSB FIRST
...
...
MISO
(SLAVE OUT)
SS OUT
(MASTER)
SS IN
(SLAVE)
Figure 15-11. SPI Clock Formats (CPHA = 0)
When CPHA = 0, the slave begins to drive its MISO output with the first data bit value (MSB or LSB
depending on LSBFE) when SS goes to active low. The first SPSCK edge causes both the master and the
slave to sample the data bit values on their MISO and MOSI inputs, respectively. At the second SPSCK
edge, the SPI shifter shifts one bit position which shifts in the bit value that was just sampled and shifts the
second data bit value out the other end of the shifter to the MOSI and MISO outputs of the master and
slave, respectively. When CPHA = 0, the slave’s SS input must go to its inactive high level between
transfers.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
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Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
15.5.2
SPI Interrupts
There are three flag bits, two interrupt mask bits, and one interrupt vector associated with the SPI system.
The SPI interrupt enable mask (SPIE) enables interrupts from the SPI receiver full flag (SPRF) and mode
fault flag (MODF). The SPI transmit interrupt enable mask (SPTIE) enables interrupts from the SPI
transmit buffer empty flag (SPTEF). When one of the flag bits is set, and the associated interrupt mask bit
is set, a hardware interrupt request is sent to the CPU. If the interrupt mask bits are cleared, software can
poll the associated flag bits instead of using interrupts. The SPI interrupt service routine (ISR) should
check the flag bits to determine what event caused the interrupt. The service routine should also clear the
flag bit(s) before returning from the ISR (usually near the beginning of the ISR).
15.5.3
Mode Fault Detection
A mode fault occurs and the mode fault flag (MODF) becomes set when a master SPI device detects an
error on the SS pin (provided the SS pin is configured as the mode fault input signal). The SS pin is
configured to be the mode fault input signal when MSTR = 1, mode fault enable is set (MODFEN = 1),
and slave select output enable is clear (SSOE = 0).
The mode fault detection feature can be used in a system where more than one SPI device might become
a master at the same time. The error is detected when a master’s SS pin is low, indicating that some other
SPI device is trying to address this master as if it were a slave. This could indicate a harmful output driver
conflict, so the mode fault logic is designed to disable all SPI output drivers when such an error is detected.
When a mode fault is detected, MODF is set and MSTR is cleared to change the SPI configuration back
to slave mode. The output drivers on the SPSCK, MOSI, and MISO (if not bidirectional mode) are
disabled.
MODF is cleared by reading it while it is set, then writing to the SPI control register 1 (SPIC1). User
software should verify the error condition has been corrected before changing the SPI back to master
mode.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
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Serial Peripheral Interface (S08SPIV3)
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Chapter 16
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
16.1
Introduction
Figure 16-1 shows the MC9S08QG8/4 block diagram with the TPM highlighted.
16.1.1
ACMP/TPM Configuration Information
The ACMP module can be configured to connect the output of the analog comparator to TPM input capture
channel 0 by setting ACIC in SOPT2. With ACIC set, the TPMCH0 pin is not available externally
regardless of the configuration of the TPM module.
16.1.2
MTIM/TPM Configuration Information
The external clock for the TPM module, TPMCLK, is selected by setting CLKS[B:A] = 1:1 in TPMSC,
which selects the TCLK pin input. The TCLK input on PTA5 can be enabled as external clock inputs to
both the MTIM and TPM modules simultaneously.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
227
Chapter 16 Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
BKGD/MS
IRQ
HCS08 CORE
DEBUG MODULE (DBG)
BDC
RESETS AND INTERRUPTS
MODES OF OPERATION
POWER MANAGEMENT
RTI
COP
IRQ
LVD
USER FLASH
(MC9S08QG8 = 8192 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 4096 BYTES)
USER RAM
(MC9S08QG8 = 512 BYTES)
(MC9S08QG4 = 256 BYTES)
16-MHz INTERNAL CLOCK
SOURCE (ICS)
LOW-POWER OSCILLATOR
31.25 kHz to 38.4 kHz
1 MHz to 16 MHz
(XOSC)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD
VDDA
VSSA
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
SCL
IIC MODULE (IIC)
SDA
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
4
8-BIT KEYBOARD
INTERRUPT MODULE (KBI)
ANALOG COMPARATOR
(ACMP)
4
ACMPO
ACMP–
ACMP+
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMP–
PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
4
10-BIT
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC)
16-BIT TIMER/PWM
MODULE (TPM)
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
4
TPMCH0
TPMCH1
SS
MISO
MOSI
SPSCK
SERIAL PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE MODULE (SPI)
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
INTERFACE MODULE (SCI)
VSS
PTA5//IRQ/TCLK/RESET
PORT A
HCS08 SYSTEM CONTROL
TCLK
8-BIT MODULO TIMER
MODULE (MTIM)
TxD
RxD
PORT B
CPU
PTB5/TPMCH1/SS
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
PTB2/KBIP6/SPSCK/ADP6
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
EXTAL
XTAL
VREFH
VREFL
NOTES:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Not all pins or pin functions are available on all devices, see Table 1-1 for available functions on each device.
Port pins are software configurable with pullup device if input port.
Port pins are software configurable for output drive strength.
Port pins are software configurable for output slew rate control.
IRQ contains a software configurable (IRQPDD) pullup device if PTA5 enabled as IRQ pin function (IRQPE = 1).
RESET contains integrated pullup device if PTA5 enabled as reset pin function (RSTPE = 1).
PTA4 contains integrated pullup device if BKGD enabled (BKGDPE = 1).
SDA and SCL pin locations can be repositioned under software control (IICPS), defaults on PTA2 and PTA3.
When pin functions as KBI (KBIPEn = 1) and associated pin is configured to enable the pullup device, KBEDGn can be used to reconfigure
the pullup as a pulldown device.
Figure 16-1. MC9S08QG8/4 Block Diagram Highlighting TPM Block and Pins
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
228
Freescale Semiconductor
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
16.1.3
Features
The TPM has the following features:
• Each TPM may be configured for buffered, center-aligned pulse-width modulation (CPWM) on all
channels
• Clock sources independently selectable per TPM (multiple TPMs device)
• Selectable clock sources (device dependent): bus clock, fixed system clock, external pin
• Clock prescaler taps for divide by 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128
• 16-bit free-running or up/down (CPWM) count operation
• 16-bit modulus register to control counter range
• Timer system enable
• One interrupt per channel plus a terminal count interrupt for each TPM module (multiple TPMs
device)
• Channel features:
— Each channel may be input capture, output compare, or buffered edge-aligned PWM
— Rising-edge, falling-edge, or any-edge input capture trigger
— Set, clear, or toggle output compare action
— Selectable polarity on PWM outputs
16.1.4
Block Diagram
Figure 16-2 shows the structure of a TPM. Some MCUs include more than one TPM, with various
numbers of channels.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
229
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
BUSCLK
XCLK
TPMxCLK
SYNC
CLOCK SOURCE
SELECT
OFF, BUS, XCLK, EXT
CLKSB
PRESCALE AND SELECT
DIVIDE BY
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128
PS2
CLKSA
PS1
PS0
CPWMS
MAIN 16-BIT COUNTER
TOF
COUNTER RESET
INTERRUPT
LOGIC
TOIE
16-BIT COMPARATOR
TPMMODH:TPMMODL
CHANNEL 0
ELS0B
ELS0A
PORT
LOGIC
16-BIT COMPARATOR
TPMC0VH:TPMC0VL
CH0F
INTERRUPT
LOGIC
MS0B
MS0A
ELS1B
ELS1A
CH0IE
TPMC1VH:TPMC1VL
CH1F
INTERRUPT
LOGIC
16-BIT LATCH
MS1A
ELSnB
ELSnA
...
MS1B
CH1IE
...
CHANNEL n
TPMCH1
PORT
LOGIC
16-BIT COMPARATOR
...
INTERNAL BUS
16-BIT LATCH
CHANNEL 1
TPMCH0
TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL
TPMCHn
PORT
LOGIC
16-BIT COMPARATOR
CHnF
16-BIT LATCH
MSnB
MSnA
CHnIE
INTERRUPT
LOGIC
Figure 16-2. TPM Block Diagram
The central component of the TPM is the 16-bit counter that can operate as a free-running counter, a
modulo counter, or an up-/down-counter when the TPM is configured for center-aligned PWM. The TPM
counter (when operating in normal up-counting mode) provides the timing reference for the input capture,
output compare, and edge-aligned PWM functions. The timer counter modulo registers,
TPMMODH:TPMMODL, control the modulo value of the counter. (The values 0x0000 or 0xFFFF
effectively make the counter free running.) Software can read the counter value at any time without
affecting the counting sequence. Any write to either byte of the TPMCNT counter resets the counter
regardless of the data value written.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
230
Freescale Semiconductor
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
All TPM channels are programmable independently as input capture, output compare, or buffered
edge-aligned PWM channels.
16.2
External Signal Description
When any pin associated with the timer is configured as a timer input, a passive pullup can be enabled.
After reset, the TPM modules are disabled and all pins default to general-purpose inputs with the passive
pullups disabled.
16.2.1
External TPM Clock Sources
When control bits CLKSB:CLKSA in the timer status and control register are set to 1:1, the prescaler and
consequently the 16-bit counter for TPM are driven by an external clock source, TPMxCLK, connected to
an I/O pin. A synchronizer is needed between the external clock and the rest of the TPM. This synchronizer
is clocked by the bus clock so the frequency of the external source must be less than one-half the frequency
of the bus rate clock. The upper frequency limit for this external clock source is specified to be one-fourth
the bus frequency to conservatively accommodate duty cycle and phase-locked loop (PLL) or
frequency-locked loop (FLL) frequency jitter effects.
On some devices the external clock input is shared with one of the TPM channels. When a TPM channel
is shared as the external clock input, the associated TPM channel cannot use the pin. (The channel can still
be used in output compare mode as a software timer.) Also, if one of the TPM channels is used as the
external clock input, the corresponding ELSnB:ELSnA control bits must be set to 0:0 so the channel is not
trying to use the same pin.
16.2.2
TPMCHn — TPM Channel n I/O Pins
Each TPM channel is associated with an I/O pin on the MCU. The function of this pin depends on the
configuration of the channel. In some cases, no pin function is needed so the pin reverts to being controlled
by general-purpose I/O controls. When a timer has control of a port pin, the port data and data direction
registers do not affect the related pin(s). See the Pins and Connections chapter for additional information
about shared pin functions.
16.3
Register Definition
The TPM includes:
• An 8-bit status and control register (TPMSC)
• A 16-bit counter (TPMCNTH:TPMCNTL)
• A 16-bit modulo register (TPMMODH:TPMMODL)
Each timer channel has:
• An 8-bit status and control register (TPMCnSC)
• A 16-bit channel value register (TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL)
Refer to the direct-page register summary in the Memory chapter of this data sheet for the absolute address
assignments for all TPM registers. This section refers to registers and control bits only by their names. A
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
231
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
Freescale-provided equate or header file is used to translate these names into the appropriate absolute
addresses.
16.3.1
Timer Status and Control Register (TPMSC)
TPMSC contains the overflow status flag and control bits that are used to configure the interrupt enable,
TPM configuration, clock source, and prescale divisor. These controls relate to all channels within this
timer module.
7
R
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TOIE
CPWMS
CLKSB
CLKSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TOF
W
Reset
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 16-3. Timer Status and Control Register (TPMSC)
Table 16-1. TPMSC Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
TOF
Timer Overflow Flag — This flag is set when the TPM counter changes to 0x0000 after reaching the modulo
value programmed in the TPM counter modulo registers. When the TPM is configured for CPWM, TOF is set after
the counter has reached the value in the modulo register, at the transition to the next lower count value. Clear
TOF by reading the TPM status and control register when TOF is set and then writing a 0 to TOF. If another TPM
overflow occurs before the clearing sequence is complete, the sequence is reset so TOF would remain set after
the clear sequence was completed for the earlier TOF. Reset clears TOF. Writing a 1 to TOF has no effect.
0 TPM counter has not reached modulo value or overflow
1 TPM counter has overflowed
6
TOIE
Timer Overflow Interrupt Enable — This read/write bit enables TPM overflow interrupts. If TOIE is set, an
interrupt is generated when TOF equals 1. Reset clears TOIE.
0 TOF interrupts inhibited (use software polling)
1 TOF interrupts enabled
5
CPWMS
Center-Aligned PWM Select — This read/write bit selects CPWM operating mode. Reset clears this bit so the
TPM operates in up-counting mode for input capture, output compare, and edge-aligned PWM functions. Setting
CPWMS reconfigures the TPM to operate in up-/down-counting mode for CPWM functions. Reset clears
CPWMS.
0 All TPM channels operate as input capture, output compare, or edge-aligned PWM mode as selected by the
MSnB:MSnA control bits in each channel’s status and control register
1 All TPM channels operate in center-aligned PWM mode
4:3
CLKS[B:A]
Clock Source Select — As shown in Table 16-2, this 2-bit field is used to disable the TPM system or select one
of three clock sources to drive the counter prescaler. The external source and the XCLK are synchronized to the
bus clock by an on-chip synchronization circuit.
2:0
PS[2:0]
Prescale Divisor Select — This 3-bit field selects one of eight divisors for the TPM clock input as shown in
Table 16-3. This prescaler is located after any clock source synchronization or clock source selection, so it affects
whatever clock source is selected to drive the TPM system.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
232
Freescale Semiconductor
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
Table 16-2. TPM Clock Source Selection
CLKSB:CLKSA
TPM Clock Source to Prescaler Input
0:0
No clock selected (TPM disabled)
0:1
Bus rate clock (BUSCLK)
1:0
Fixed system clock (XCLK)
1:1
External source (TPMCLK)1,2
1
The maximum frequency that is allowed as an external clock is one-fourth of the bus
frequency.
2
If the external clock input is shared with channel n and is selected as the TPM clock source,
the corresponding ELSnB:ELSnA control bits should be set to 0:0 so channel n does not try
to use the same pin for a conflicting function.
Table 16-3. Prescale Divisor Selection
16.3.2
PS2:PS1:PS0
TPM Clock Source Divided-By
0:0:0
1
0:0:1
2
0:1:0
4
0:1:1
8
1:0:0
16
1:0:1
32
1:1:0
64
1:1:1
128
Timer Counter Registers (TPMCNTH:TPMCNTL)
The two read-only TPM counter registers contain the high and low bytes of the value in the TPM counter.
Reading either byte (TPMCNTH or TPMCNTL) latches the contents of both bytes into a buffer where they
remain latched until the other byte is read. This allows coherent 16-bit reads in either order. The coherency
mechanism is automatically restarted by an MCU reset, a write of any value to TPMCNTH or TPMCNTL,
or any write to the timer status/control register (TPMSC).
Reset clears the TPM counter registers.
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0
0
W
Reset
Any write to TPMCNTH clears the 16-bit counter.
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 16-4. Timer Counter Register High (TPMCNTH)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
233
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
W
Reset
Any write to TPMCNTL clears the 16-bit counter.
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 16-5. Timer Counter Register Low (TPMCNTL)
When background mode is active, the timer counter and the coherency mechanism are frozen such that the
buffer latches remain in the state they were in when the background mode became active even if one or
both bytes of the counter are read while background mode is active.
16.3.3
Timer Counter Modulo Registers (TPMMODH:TPMMODL)
The read/write TPM modulo registers contain the modulo value for the TPM counter. After the TPM
counter reaches the modulo value, the TPM counter resumes counting from 0x0000 at the next clock
(CPWMS = 0) or starts counting down (CPWMS = 1), and the overflow flag (TOF) becomes set. Writing
to TPMMODH or TPMMODL inhibits TOF and overflow interrupts until the other byte is written. Reset
sets the TPM counter modulo registers to 0x0000, which results in a free-running timer counter (modulo
disabled).
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset
Figure 16-6. Timer Counter Modulo Register High (TPMMODH)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset
Figure 16-7. Timer Counter Modulo Register Low (TPMMODL)
It is good practice to wait for an overflow interrupt so both bytes of the modulo register can be written well
before a new overflow. An alternative approach is to reset the TPM counter before writing to the TPM
modulo registers to avoid confusion about when the first counter overflow will occur.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
234
Freescale Semiconductor
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
16.3.4
Timer Channel n Status and Control Register (TPMCnSC)
TPMCnSC contains the channel interrupt status flag and control bits that are used to configure the interrupt
enable, channel configuration, and pin function.
7
6
5
4
3
2
CHnF
CHnIE
MSnB
MSnA
ELSnB
ELSnA
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
1
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 16-8. Timer Channel n Status and Control Register (TPMCnSC)
Table 16-4. TPMCnSC Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
CHnF
Channel n Flag — When channel n is configured for input capture, this flag bit is set when an active edge occurs
on the channel n pin. When channel n is an output compare or edge-aligned PWM channel, CHnF is set when
the value in the TPM counter registers matches the value in the TPM channel n value registers. This flag is
seldom used with center-aligned PWMs because it is set every time the counter matches the channel value
register, which correspond to both edges of the active duty cycle period.
A corresponding interrupt is requested when CHnF is set and interrupts are enabled (CHnIE = 1). Clear CHnF
by reading TPMCnSC while CHnF is set and then writing a 0 to CHnF. If another interrupt request occurs before
the clearing sequence is complete, the sequence is reset so CHnF would remain set after the clear sequence
was completed for the earlier CHnF. This is done so a CHnF interrupt request cannot be lost by clearing a
previous CHnF. Reset clears CHnF. Writing a 1 to CHnF has no effect.
0 No input capture or output compare event occurred on channel n
1 Input capture or output compare event occurred on channel n
6
CHnIE
Channel n Interrupt Enable — This read/write bit enables interrupts from channel n. Reset clears CHnIE.
0 Channel n interrupt requests disabled (use software polling)
1 Channel n interrupt requests enabled
5
MSnB
Mode Select B for TPM Channel n — When CPWMS = 0, MSnB = 1 configures TPM channel n for
edge-aligned PWM mode. For a summary of channel mode and setup controls, refer to Table 16-5.
4
MSnA
Mode Select A for TPM Channel n — When CPWMS = 0 and MSnB = 0, MSnA configures TPM channel n for
input capture mode or output compare mode. Refer to Table 16-5 for a summary of channel mode and setup
controls.
3:2
ELSn[B:A]
Edge/Level Select Bits — Depending on the operating mode for the timer channel as set by
CPWMS:MSnB:MSnA and shown in Table 16-5, these bits select the polarity of the input edge that triggers an
input capture event, select the level that will be driven in response to an output compare match, or select the
polarity of the PWM output.
Setting ELSnB:ELSnA to 0:0 configures the related timer pin as a general-purpose I/O pin unrelated to any timer
channel functions. This function is typically used to temporarily disable an input capture channel or to make the
timer pin available as a general-purpose I/O pin when the associated timer channel is set up as a software timer
that does not require the use of a pin.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
235
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
Table 16-5. Mode, Edge, and Level Selection
CPWMS
MSnB:MSnA
ELSnB:ELSnA
X
XX
00
0
00
01
01
Input capture
Capture on falling edge only
11
Capture on rising or falling edge
00
Output
compare
Software compare only
Toggle output on compare
10
Clear output on compare
11
Set output on compare
10
XX
Capture on rising edge only
10
Edge-aligned
PWM
X1
1
Configuration
Pin not used for TPM channel; use as an external clock for the TPM or
revert to general-purpose I/O
01
1X
Mode
10
Center-aligned
PWM
X1
High-true pulses (clear output on compare)
Low-true pulses (set output on compare)
High-true pulses (clear output on compare-up)
Low-true pulses (set output on compare-up)
If the associated port pin is not stable for at least two bus clock cycles before changing to input capture
mode, it is possible to get an unexpected indication of an edge trigger. Typically, a program would clear
status flags after changing channel configuration bits and before enabling channel interrupts or using the
status flags to avoid any unexpected behavior.
16.3.5
Timer Channel Value Registers (TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL)
These read/write registers contain the captured TPM counter value of the input capture function or the
output compare value for the output compare or PWM functions. The channel value registers are cleared
by reset.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit 15
14
13
12
11
10
9
Bit 8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset
Figure 16-9. Timer Channel Value Register High (TPMCnVH)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Bit 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset
Figure 16-10. Timer Channel Value Register Low (TPMCnVL)
In input capture mode, reading either byte (TPMCnVH or TPMCnVL) latches the contents of both bytes
into a buffer where they remain latched until the other byte is read. This latching mechanism also resets
(becomes unlatched) when the TPMCnSC register is written.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
236
Freescale Semiconductor
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
In output compare or PWM modes, writing to either byte (TPMCnVH or TPMCnVL) latches the value
into a buffer. When both bytes have been written, they are transferred as a coherent 16-bit value into the
timer channel value registers. This latching mechanism may be manually reset by writing to the TPMCnSC
register.
This latching mechanism allows coherent 16-bit writes in either order, which is friendly to various
compiler implementations.
16.4
Functional Description
All TPM functions are associated with a main 16-bit counter that allows flexible selection of the clock
source and prescale divisor. A 16-bit modulo register also is associated with the main 16-bit counter in the
TPM. Each TPM channel is optionally associated with an MCU pin and a maskable interrupt function.
The TPM has center-aligned PWM capabilities controlled by the CPWMS control bit in TPMSC. When
CPWMS is set to 1, timer counter TPMCNT changes to an up-/down-counter and all channels in the
associated TPM act as center-aligned PWM channels. When CPWMS = 0, each channel can
independently be configured to operate in input capture, output compare, or buffered edge-aligned PWM
mode.
The following sections describe the main 16-bit counter and each of the timer operating modes (input
capture, output compare, edge-aligned PWM, and center-aligned PWM). Because details of pin operation
and interrupt activity depend on the operating mode, these topics are covered in the associated mode
sections.
16.4.1
Counter
All timer functions are based on the main 16-bit counter (TPMCNTH:TPMCNTL). This section discusses
selection of the clock source, up-counting vs. up-/down-counting, end-of-count overflow, and manual
counter reset.
After any MCU reset, CLKSB:CLKSA = 0:0 so no clock source is selected and the TPM is inactive.
Normally, CLKSB:CLKSA would be set to 0:1 so the bus clock drives the timer counter. The clock source
for the TPM can be selected to be off, the bus clock (BUSCLK), the fixed system clock (XCLK), or an
external input. The maximum frequency allowed for the external clock option is one-fourth the bus rate.
Refer to Section 16.3.1, “Timer Status and Control Register (TPMSC)” and Table 16-2 for more
information about clock source selection.
When the microcontroller is in active background mode, the TPM temporarily suspends all counting until
the microcontroller returns to normal user operating mode. During stop mode, all TPM clocks are stopped;
therefore, the TPM is effectively disabled until clocks resume. During wait mode, the TPM continues to
operate normally.
The main 16-bit counter has two counting modes. When center-aligned PWM is selected (CPWMS = 1),
the counter operates in up-/down-counting mode. Otherwise, the counter operates as a simple up-counter.
As an up-counter, the main 16-bit counter counts from 0x0000 through its terminal count and then
continues with 0x0000. The terminal count is 0xFFFF or a modulus value in TPMMODH:TPMMODL.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
237
Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
When center-aligned PWM operation is specified, the counter counts upward from 0x0000 through its
terminal count and then counts downward to 0x0000 where it returns to up-counting. Both 0x0000 and the
terminal count value (value in TPMMODH:TPMMODL) are normal length counts (one timer clock period
long).
An interrupt flag and enable are associated with the main 16-bit counter. The timer overflow flag (TOF) is
a software-accessible indication that the timer counter has overflowed. The enable signal selects between
software polling (TOIE = 0) where no hardware interrupt is generated, or interrupt-driven operation
(TOIE = 1) where a static hardware interrupt is automatically generated whenever the TOF flag is 1.
The conditions that cause TOF to become set depend on the counting mode (up or up/down). In
up-counting mode, the main 16-bit counter counts from 0x0000 through 0xFFFF and overflows to 0x0000
on the next counting clock. TOF becomes set at the transition from 0xFFFF to 0x0000. When a modulus
limit is set, TOF becomes set at the transition from the value set in the modulus register to 0x0000. When
the main 16-bit counter is operating in up-/down-counting mode, the TOF flag gets set as the counter
changes direction at the transition from the value set in the modulus register and the next lower count
value. This corresponds to the end of a PWM period. (The 0x0000 count value corresponds to the center
of a period.)
Because the HCS08 MCU is an 8-bit architecture, a coherency mechanism is built into the timer counter
for read operations. Whenever either byte of the counter is read (TPMCNTH or TPMCNTL), both bytes
are captured into a buffer so when the other byte is read, the value will represent the other byte of the count
at the time the first byte was read. The counter continues to count normally, but no new value can be read
from either byte until both bytes of the old count have been read.
The main timer counter can be reset manually at any time by writing any value to either byte of the timer
count TPMCNTH or TPMCNTL. Resetting the counter in this manner also resets the coherency
mechanism in case only one byte of the counter was read before resetting the count.
16.4.2
Channel Mode Selection
Provided CPWMS = 0 (center-aligned PWM operation is not specified), the MSnB and MSnA control bits
in the channel n status and control registers determine the basic mode of operation for the corresponding
channel. Choices include input capture, output compare, and buffered edge-aligned PWM.
16.4.2.1
Input Capture Mode
With the input capture function, the TPM can capture the time at which an external event occurs. When an
active edge occurs on the pin of an input capture channel, the TPM latches the contents of the TPM counter
into the channel value registers (TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL). Rising edges, falling edges, or any edge may be
chosen as the active edge that triggers an input capture.
When either byte of the 16-bit capture register is read, both bytes are latched into a buffer to support
coherent 16-bit accesses regardless of order. The coherency sequence can be manually reset by writing to
the channel status/control register (TPMCnSC).
An input capture event sets a flag bit (CHnF) that can optionally generate a CPU interrupt request.
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Timer/Pulse-Width Modulator (S08TPMV2)
16.4.2.2
Output Compare Mode
With the output compare function, the TPM can generate timed pulses with programmable position,
polarity, duration, and frequency. When the counter reaches the value in the channel value registers of an
output compare channel, the TPM can set, clear, or toggle the channel pin.
In output compare mode, values are transferred to the corresponding timer channel value registers only
after both 8-bit bytes of a 16-bit register have been written. This coherency sequence can be manually reset
by writing to the channel status/control register (TPMCnSC).
An output compare event sets a flag bit (CHnF) that can optionally generate a CPU interrupt request.
16.4.2.3
Edge-Aligned PWM Mode
This type of PWM output uses the normal up-counting mode of the timer counter (CPWMS = 0) and can
be used when other channels in the same TPM are configured for input capture or output compare
functions. The period of this PWM signal is determined by the setting in the modulus register
(TPMMODH:TPMMODL). The duty cycle is determined by the setting in the timer channel value register
(TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL). The polarity of this PWM signal is determined by the setting in the ELSnA
control bit. Duty cycle cases of 0 percent and 100 percent are possible.
As Figure 16-11 shows, the output compare value in the TPM channel registers determines the pulse width
(duty cycle) of the PWM signal. The time between the modulus overflow and the output compare is the
pulse width. If ELSnA = 0, the counter overflow forces the PWM signal high and the output compare
forces the PWM signal low. If ELSnA = 1, the counter overflow forces the PWM signal low and the output
compare forces the PWM signal high.
OVERFLOW
OVERFLOW
OVERFLOW
PERIOD
PULSE
WIDTH
TPMCH
OUTPUT
COMPARE
OUTPUT
COMPARE
OUTPUT
COMPARE
Figure 16-11. PWM Period and Pulse Width (ELSnA = 0)
When the channel value register is set to 0x0000, the duty cycle is 0 percent. By setting the timer channel
value register (TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL) to a value greater than the modulus setting, 100% duty cycle can
be achieved. This implies that the modulus setting must be less than 0xFFFF to get 100% duty cycle.
Because the HCS08 is a family of 8-bit MCUs, the settings in the timer channel registers are buffered to
ensure coherent 16-bit updates and to avoid unexpected PWM pulse widths. Writes to either register,
TPMCnVH or TPMCnVL, write to buffer registers. In edge-PWM mode, values are transferred to the
corresponding timer channel registers only after both 8-bit bytes of a 16-bit register have been written and
the value in the TPMCNTH:TPMCNTL counter is 0x0000. (The new duty cycle does not take effect until
the next full period.)
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16.4.3
Center-Aligned PWM Mode
This type of PWM output uses the up-/down-counting mode of the timer counter (CPWMS = 1). The
output compare value in TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL determines the pulse width (duty cycle) of the PWM
signal and the period is determined by the value in TPMMODH:TPMMODL. TPMMODH:TPMMODL
should be kept in the range of 0x0001 to 0x7FFF because values outside this range can produce ambiguous
results. ELSnA will determine the polarity of the CPWM output.
pulse width = 2 x (TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL)
Eqn. 16-1
period = 2 x (TPMMODH:TPMMODL);
for TPMMODH:TPMMODL = 0x0001–0x7FFF
Eqn. 16-2
If the channel value register TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL is zero or negative (bit 15 set), the duty cycle will be
0%. If TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL is a positive value (bit 15 clear) and is greater than the (nonzero) modulus
setting, the duty cycle will be 100% because the duty cycle compare will never occur. This implies the
usable range of periods set by the modulus register is 0x0001 through 0x7FFE (0x7FFF if generation of
100% duty cycle is not necessary). This is not a significant limitation because the resulting period is much
longer than required for normal applications.
TPMMODH:TPMMODL = 0x0000 is a special case that should not be used with center-aligned PWM
mode. When CPWMS = 0, this case corresponds to the counter running free from 0x0000 through 0xFFFF,
but when CPWMS = 1 the counter needs a valid match to the modulus register somewhere other than at
0x0000 in order to change directions from up-counting to down-counting.
Figure 16-12 shows the output compare value in the TPM channel registers (multiplied by 2), which
determines the pulse width (duty cycle) of the CPWM signal. If ELSnA = 0, the compare match while
counting up forces the CPWM output signal low and a compare match while counting down forces the
output high. The counter counts up until it reaches the modulo setting in TPMMODH:TPMMODL, then
counts down until it reaches zero. This sets the period equal to two times TPMMODH:TPMMODL.
COUNT =
TPMMODH:TPMM
OUTPUT
COMPARE
(COUNT DOWN)
COUNT = 0
OUTPUT
COMPARE
(COUNT UP)
COUNT =
TPMMODH:TPMM
TPM1C
PULSE WIDTH
2x
2x
PERIOD
Figure 16-12. CPWM Period and Pulse Width (ELSnA = 0)
Center-aligned PWM outputs typically produce less noise than edge-aligned PWMs because fewer I/O pin
transitions are lined up at the same system clock edge. This type of PWM is also required for some types
of motor drives.
Because the HCS08 is a family of 8-bit MCUs, the settings in the timer channel registers are buffered to
ensure coherent 16-bit updates and to avoid unexpected PWM pulse widths. Writes to any of the registers,
TPMMODH, TPMMODL, TPMCnVH, and TPMCnVL, actually write to buffer registers. Values are
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transferred to the corresponding timer channel registers only after both 8-bit bytes of a 16-bit register have
been written and the timer counter overflows (reverses direction from up-counting to down-counting at the
end of the terminal count in the modulus register). This TPMCNT overflow requirement only applies to
PWM channels, not output compares.
Optionally, when TPMCNTH:TPMCNTL = TPMMODH:TPMMODL, the TPM can generate a TOF
interrupt at the end of this count. The user can choose to reload any number of the PWM buffers, and they
will all update simultaneously at the start of a new period.
Writing to TPMSC cancels any values written to TPMMODH and/or TPMMODL and resets the
coherency mechanism for the modulo registers. Writing to TPMCnSC cancels any values written to the
channel value registers and resets the coherency mechanism for TPMCnVH:TPMCnVL.
16.5
TPM Interrupts
The TPM generates an optional interrupt for the main counter overflow and an interrupt for each channel.
The meaning of channel interrupts depends on the mode of operation for each channel. If the channel is
configured for input capture, the interrupt flag is set each time the selected input capture edge is
recognized. If the channel is configured for output compare or PWM modes, the interrupt flag is set each
time the main timer counter matches the value in the 16-bit channel value register. See the Resets,
Interrupts, and System Configuration chapter for absolute interrupt vector addresses, priority, and local
interrupt mask control bits.
For each interrupt source in the TPM, a flag bit is set on recognition of the interrupt condition such as timer
overflow, channel input capture, or output compare events. This flag may be read (polled) by software to
verify that the action has occurred, or an associated enable bit (TOIE or CHnIE) can be set to enable
hardware interrupt generation. While the interrupt enable bit is set, a static interrupt will be generated
whenever the associated interrupt flag equals 1. It is the responsibility of user software to perform a
sequence of steps to clear the interrupt flag before returning from the interrupt service routine.
16.5.1
Clearing Timer Interrupt Flags
TPM interrupt flags are cleared by a 2-step process that includes a read of the flag bit while it is set (1)
followed by a write of 0 to the bit. If a new event is detected between these two steps, the sequence is reset
and the interrupt flag remains set after the second step to avoid the possibility of missing the new event.
16.5.2
Timer Overflow Interrupt Description
The conditions that cause TOF to become set depend on the counting mode (up or up/down). In
up-counting mode, the 16-bit timer counter counts from 0x0000 through 0xFFFF and overflows to 0x0000
on the next counting clock. TOF becomes set at the transition from 0xFFFF to 0x0000. When a modulus
limit is set, TOF becomes set at the transition from the value set in the modulus register to 0x0000. When
the counter is operating in up-/down-counting mode, the TOF flag gets set as the counter changes direction
at the transition from the value set in the modulus register and the next lower count value. This corresponds
to the end of a PWM period. (The 0x0000 count value corresponds to the center of a period.)
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16.5.3
Channel Event Interrupt Description
The meaning of channel interrupts depends on the current mode of the channel (input capture, output
compare, edge-aligned PWM, or center-aligned PWM).
When a channel is configured as an input capture channel, the ELSnB:ELSnA control bits select rising
edges, falling edges, any edge, or no edge (off) as the edge that triggers an input capture event. When the
selected edge is detected, the interrupt flag is set. The flag is cleared by the 2-step sequence described in
Section 16.5.1, “Clearing Timer Interrupt Flags.”
When a channel is configured as an output compare channel, the interrupt flag is set each time the main
timer counter matches the 16-bit value in the channel value register. The flag is cleared by the 2-step
sequence described in Section 16.5.1, “Clearing Timer Interrupt Flags.”
16.5.4
PWM End-of-Duty-Cycle Events
For channels that are configured for PWM operation, there are two possibilities:
• When the channel is configured for edge-aligned PWM, the channel flag is set when the timer
counter matches the channel value register that marks the end of the active duty cycle period.
• When the channel is configured for center-aligned PWM, the timer count matches the channel
value register twice during each PWM cycle. In this CPWM case, the channel flag is set at the start
and at the end of the active duty cycle, which are the times when the timer counter matches the
channel value register.
The flag is cleared by the 2-step sequence described in Section 16.5.1, “Clearing Timer Interrupt Flags.”
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Chapter 17
Development Support
17.1
Introduction
Development support systems in the HCS08 include the background debug controller (BDC) and the
on-chip debug module (DBG). The BDC provides a single-wire debug interface to the target MCU that
provides a convenient interface for programming the on-chip FLASH and other nonvolatile memories. The
BDC is also the primary debug interface for development and allows non-intrusive access to memory data
and traditional debug features such as CPU register modify, breakpoints, and single instruction trace
commands.
In the HCS08 Family, address and data bus signals are not available on external pins. Debug is done
through commands fed into the target MCU via the single-wire background debug interface. The debug
module provides a means to selectively trigger and capture bus information so an external development
system can reconstruct what happened inside the MCU on a cycle-by-cycle basis without having external
access to the address and data signals.
17.1.1
Module Configuration
The alternate BDC clock source is the ICSLCLK. This clock source is selected by clearing the CLKSW
bit in the BDCSCR register. For details on ICSLCLK, see Section 10.4, “Functional Description” of the
ICS chapter.
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17.1.2
Features
Features of the BDC module include:
• Single pin for mode selection and background communications
• BDC registers are not located in the memory map
• SYNC command to determine target communications rate
• Non-intrusive commands for memory access
• Active background mode commands for CPU register access
• GO and TRACE1 commands
• BACKGROUND command can wake CPU from stop or wait modes
• One hardware address breakpoint built into BDC
• Oscillator runs in stop mode, if BDC enabled
• COP watchdog disabled while in active background mode
Features of the ICE system include:
• Two trigger comparators: Two address + read/write (R/W) or one full address + data + R/W
• Flexible 8-word by 16-bit FIFO (first-in, first-out) buffer for capture information:
— Change-of-flow addresses or
— Event-only data
• Two types of breakpoints:
— Tag breakpoints for instruction opcodes
— Force breakpoints for any address access
• Nine trigger modes:
— Basic: A-only, A OR B
— Sequence: A then B
— Full: A AND B data, A AND NOT B data
— Event (store data): Event-only B, A then event-only B
— Range: Inside range (A ≤ address ≤ B), outside range (address < A or address > B)
17.2
Background Debug Controller (BDC)
All MCUs in the HCS08 Family contain a single-wire background debug interface that supports in-circuit
programming of on-chip nonvolatile memory and sophisticated non-intrusive debug capabilities. Unlike
debug interfaces on earlier 8-bit MCUs, this system does not interfere with normal application resources.
It does not use any user memory or locations in the memory map and does not share any on-chip
peripherals.
BDC commands are divided into two groups:
• Active background mode commands require that the target MCU is in active background mode (the
user program is not running). Active background mode commands allow the CPU registers to be
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•
read or written, and allow the user to trace one user instruction at a time, or GO to the user program
from active background mode.
Non-intrusive commands can be executed at any time even while the user’s program is running.
Non-intrusive commands allow a user to read or write MCU memory locations or access status and
control registers within the background debug controller.
Typically, a relatively simple interface pod is used to translate commands from a host computer into
commands for the custom serial interface to the single-wire background debug system. Depending on the
development tool vendor, this interface pod may use a standard RS-232 serial port, a parallel printer port,
or some other type of communications such as a universal serial bus (USB) to communicate between the
host PC and the pod. The pod typically connects to the target system with ground, the BKGD pin, RESET,
and sometimes VDD. An open-drain connection to reset allows the host to force a target system reset,
which is useful to regain control of a lost target system or to control startup of a target system before the
on-chip nonvolatile memory has been programmed. Sometimes VDD can be used to allow the pod to use
power from the target system to avoid the need for a separate power supply. However, if the pod is powered
separately, it can be connected to a running target system without forcing a target system reset or otherwise
disturbing the running application program.
BKGD 1
2 GND
NO CONNECT 3
4 RESET
NO CONNECT 5
6 VDD
Figure 17-1. BDM Tool Connector
17.2.1
BKGD Pin Description
BKGD is the single-wire background debug interface pin. The primary function of this pin is for
bidirectional serial communication of active background mode commands and data. During reset, this pin
is used to select between starting in active background mode or starting the user’s application program.
This pin is also used to request a timed sync response pulse to allow a host development tool to determine
the correct clock frequency for background debug serial communications.
BDC serial communications use a custom serial protocol first introduced on the M68HC12 Family of
microcontrollers. This protocol assumes the host knows the communication clock rate that is determined
by the target BDC clock rate. All communication is initiated and controlled by the host that drives a
high-to-low edge to signal the beginning of each bit time. Commands and data are sent most significant
bit first (MSB first). For a detailed description of the communications protocol, refer to Section 17.2.2,
“Communication Details.”
If a host is attempting to communicate with a target MCU that has an unknown BDC clock rate, a SYNC
command may be sent to the target MCU to request a timed sync response signal from which the host can
determine the correct communication speed.
BKGD is a pseudo-open-drain pin and there is an on-chip pullup so no external pullup resistor is required.
Unlike typical open-drain pins, the external RC time constant on this pin, which is influenced by external
capacitance, plays almost no role in signal rise time. The custom protocol provides for brief, actively
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driven speedup pulses to force rapid rise times on this pin without risking harmful drive level conflicts.
Refer to Section 17.2.2, “Communication Details,” for more detail.
When no debugger pod is connected to the 6-pin BDM interface connector, the internal pullup on BKGD
chooses normal operating mode. When a debug pod is connected to BKGD it is possible to force the MCU
into active background mode after reset. The specific conditions for forcing active background depend
upon the HCS08 derivative (refer to the introduction to this Development Support section). It is not
necessary to reset the target MCU to communicate with it through the background debug interface.
17.2.2
Communication Details
The BDC serial interface requires the external controller to generate a falling edge on the BKGD pin to
indicate the start of each bit time. The external controller provides this falling edge whether data is
transmitted or received.
BKGD is a pseudo-open-drain pin that can be driven either by an external controller or by the MCU. Data
is transferred MSB first at 16 BDC clock cycles per bit (nominal speed). The interface times out if
512 BDC clock cycles occur between falling edges from the host. Any BDC command that was in progress
when this timeout occurs is aborted without affecting the memory or operating mode of the target MCU
system.
The custom serial protocol requires the debug pod to know the target BDC communication clock speed.
The clock switch (CLKSW) control bit in the BDC status and control register allows the user to select the
BDC clock source. The BDC clock source can either be the bus or the alternate BDC clock source.
The BKGD pin can receive a high or low level or transmit a high or low level. The following diagrams
show timing for each of these cases. Interface timing is synchronous to clocks in the target BDC, but
asynchronous to the external host. The internal BDC clock signal is shown for reference in counting
cycles.
Figure 17-2 shows an external host transmitting a logic 1 or 0 to the BKGD pin of a target HCS08 MCU.
The host is asynchronous to the target so there is a 0-to-1 cycle delay from the host-generated falling edge
to where the target perceives the beginning of the bit time. Ten target BDC clock cycles later, the target
senses the bit level on the BKGD pin. Typically, the host actively drives the pseudo-open-drain BKGD pin
during host-to-target transmissions to speed up rising edges. Because the target does not drive the BKGD
pin during the host-to-target transmission period, there is no need to treat the line as an open-drain signal
during this period.
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BDC CLOCK
(TARGET MCU)
HOST
TRANSMIT 1
HOST
TRANSMIT 0
10 CYCLES
SYNCHRONIZATION
UNCERTAINTY
EARLIEST START
OF NEXT BIT
TARGET SENSES BIT LEVEL
PERCEIVED START
OF BIT TIME
Figure 17-2. BDC Host-to-Target Serial Bit Timing
Figure 17-3 shows the host receiving a logic 1 from the target HCS08 MCU. Because the host is
asynchronous to the target MCU, there is a 0-to-1 cycle delay from the host-generated falling edge on
BKGD to the perceived start of the bit time in the target MCU. The host holds the BKGD pin low long
enough for the target to recognize it (at least two target BDC cycles). The host must release the low drive
before the target MCU drives a brief active-high speedup pulse seven cycles after the perceived start of the
bit time. The host should sample the bit level about 10 cycles after it started the bit time.
BDC CLOCK
(TARGET MCU)
HOST DRIVE
TO BKGD PIN
TARGET MCU
SPEEDUP PULSE
HIGH-IMPEDANCE
HIGH-IMPEDANCE
HIGH-IMPEDANCE
PERCEIVED START
OF BIT TIME
R-C RISE
BKGD PIN
10 CYCLES
10 CYCLES
EARLIEST START
OF NEXT BIT
HOST SAMPLES BKGD PIN
Figure 17-3. BDC Target-to-Host Serial Bit Timing (Logic 1)
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Figure 17-4 shows the host receiving a logic 0 from the target HCS08 MCU. Because the host is
asynchronous to the target MCU, there is a 0-to-1 cycle delay from the host-generated falling edge on
BKGD to the start of the bit time as perceived by the target MCU. The host initiates the bit time but the
target HCS08 finishes it. Because the target wants the host to receive a logic 0, it drives the BKGD pin low
for 13 BDC clock cycles, then briefly drives it high to speed up the rising edge. The host samples the bit
level about 10 cycles after starting the bit time.
BDC CLOCK
(TARGET MCU)
HOST DRIVE
TO BKGD PIN
HIGH-IMPEDANCE
SPEEDUP
PULSE
TARGET MCU
DRIVE AND
SPEED-UP PULSE
PERCEIVED START
OF BIT TIME
BKGD PIN
10 CYCLES
10 CYCLES
EARLIEST START
OF NEXT BIT
HOST SAMPLES BKGD PIN
Figure 17-4. BDM Target-to-Host Serial Bit Timing (Logic 0)
17.2.3
BDC Commands
BDC commands are sent serially from a host computer to the BKGD pin of the target HCS08 MCU. All
commands and data are sent MSB-first using a custom BDC communications protocol. Active background
mode commands require that the target MCU is currently in the active background mode while
non-intrusive commands may be issued at any time whether the target MCU is in active background mode
or running a user application program.
Table 17-1 shows all HCS08 BDC commands, a shorthand description of their coding structure, and the
meaning of each command.
Coding Structure Nomenclature
This nomenclature is used in Table 17-1 to describe the coding structure of the BDC commands.
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/
d
AAAA
RD
WD
RD16
WD16
SS
CC
RBKP
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
WBKP
=
Commands begin with an 8-bit hexadecimal command code in the host-to-target
direction (most significant bit first)
separates parts of the command
delay 16 target BDC clock cycles
a 16-bit address in the host-to-target direction
8 bits of read data in the target-to-host direction
8 bits of write data in the host-to-target direction
16 bits of read data in the target-to-host direction
16 bits of write data in the host-to-target direction
the contents of BDCSCR in the target-to-host direction (STATUS)
8 bits of write data for BDCSCR in the host-to-target direction (CONTROL)
16 bits of read data in the target-to-host direction (from BDCBKPT breakpoint
register)
16 bits of write data in the host-to-target direction (for BDCBKPT breakpoint register)
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Table 17-1. BDC Command Summary
Command
Mnemonic
1
Active BDM/
Non-intrusive
Coding
Structure
Description
SYNC
Non-intrusive
n/a1
Request a timed reference pulse to determine
target BDC communication speed
ACK_ENABLE
Non-intrusive
D5/d
Enable acknowledge protocol. Refer to
Freescale document order no. HCS08RMv1/D.
ACK_DISABLE
Non-intrusive
D6/d
Disable acknowledge protocol. Refer to
Freescale document order no. HCS08RMv1/D.
BACKGROUND
Non-intrusive
90/d
Enter active background mode if enabled
(ignore if ENBDM bit equals 0)
READ_STATUS
Non-intrusive
E4/SS
Read BDC status from BDCSCR
WRITE_CONTROL
Non-intrusive
C4/CC
Write BDC controls in BDCSCR
READ_BYTE
Non-intrusive
E0/AAAA/d/RD
Read a byte from target memory
READ_BYTE_WS
Non-intrusive
E1/AAAA/d/SS/RD
Read a byte and report status
READ_LAST
Non-intrusive
E8/SS/RD
Re-read byte from address just read and report
status
WRITE_BYTE
Non-intrusive
C0/AAAA/WD/d
Write a byte to target memory
WRITE_BYTE_WS
Non-intrusive
C1/AAAA/WD/d/SS
Write a byte and report status
READ_BKPT
Non-intrusive
E2/RBKP
Read BDCBKPT breakpoint register
WRITE_BKPT
Non-intrusive
C2/WBKP
Write BDCBKPT breakpoint register
GO
Active BDM
08/d
Go to execute the user application program
starting at the address currently in the PC
TRACE1
Active BDM
10/d
Trace 1 user instruction at the address in the
PC, then return to active background mode
TAGGO
Active BDM
18/d
Same as GO but enable external tagging
(HCS08 devices have no external tagging pin)
READ_A
Active BDM
68/d/RD
Read accumulator (A)
READ_CCR
Active BDM
69/d/RD
Read condition code register (CCR)
READ_PC
Active BDM
6B/d/RD16
Read program counter (PC)
READ_HX
Active BDM
6C/d/RD16
Read H and X register pair (H:X)
READ_SP
Active BDM
6F/d/RD16
Read stack pointer (SP)
READ_NEXT
Active BDM
70/d/RD
Increment H:X by one then read memory byte
located at H:X
READ_NEXT_WS
Active BDM
71/d/SS/RD
Increment H:X by one then read memory byte
located at H:X. Report status and data.
WRITE_A
Active BDM
48/WD/d
Write accumulator (A)
WRITE_CCR
Active BDM
49/WD/d
Write condition code register (CCR)
WRITE_PC
Active BDM
4B/WD16/d
Write program counter (PC)
WRITE_HX
Active BDM
4C/WD16/d
Write H and X register pair (H:X)
WRITE_SP
Active BDM
4F/WD16/d
Write stack pointer (SP)
WRITE_NEXT
Active BDM
50/WD/d
Increment H:X by one, then write memory byte
located at H:X
WRITE_NEXT_WS
Active BDM
51/WD/d/SS
Increment H:X by one, then write memory byte
located at H:X. Also report status.
The SYNC command is a special operation that does not have a command code.
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The SYNC command is unlike other BDC commands because the host does not necessarily know the
correct communications speed to use for BDC communications until after it has analyzed the response to
the SYNC command.
To issue a SYNC command, the host:
• Drives the BKGD pin low for at least 128 cycles of the slowest possible BDC clock (The slowest
clock is normally the reference oscillator/64 or the self-clocked rate/64.)
• Drives BKGD high for a brief speedup pulse to get a fast rise time (This speedup pulse is typically
one cycle of the fastest clock in the system.)
• Removes all drive to the BKGD pin so it reverts to high impedance
• Monitors the BKGD pin for the sync response pulse
The target, upon detecting the SYNC request from the host (which is a much longer low time than would
ever occur during normal BDC communications):
• Waits for BKGD to return to a logic high
• Delays 16 cycles to allow the host to stop driving the high speedup pulse
• Drives BKGD low for 128 BDC clock cycles
• Drives a 1-cycle high speedup pulse to force a fast rise time on BKGD
• Removes all drive to the BKGD pin so it reverts to high impedance
The host measures the low time of this 128-cycle sync response pulse and determines the correct speed for
subsequent BDC communications. Typically, the host can determine the correct communication speed
within a few percent of the actual target speed and the communication protocol can easily tolerate speed
errors of several percent.
17.2.4
BDC Hardware Breakpoint
The BDC includes one relatively simple hardware breakpoint that compares the CPU address bus to a
16-bit match value in the BDCBKPT register. This breakpoint can generate a forced breakpoint or a tagged
breakpoint. A forced breakpoint causes the CPU to enter active background mode at the first instruction
boundary following any access to the breakpoint address. The tagged breakpoint causes the instruction
opcode at the breakpoint address to be tagged so that the CPU will enter active background mode rather
than executing that instruction if and when it reaches the end of the instruction queue. This implies that
tagged breakpoints can only be placed at the address of an instruction opcode while forced breakpoints can
be set at any address.
The breakpoint enable (BKPTEN) control bit in the BDC status and control register (BDCSCR) is used to
enable the breakpoint logic (BKPTEN = 1). When BKPTEN = 0, its default value after reset, the
breakpoint logic is disabled and no BDC breakpoints are requested regardless of the values in other BDC
breakpoint registers and control bits. The force/tag select (FTS) control bit in BDCSCR is used to select
forced (FTS = 1) or tagged (FTS = 0) type breakpoints.
The on-chip debug module (DBG) includes circuitry for two additional hardware breakpoints that are more
flexible than the simple breakpoint in the BDC module.
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17.3
On-Chip Debug System (DBG)
Because HCS08 devices do not have external address and data buses, the most important functions of an
in-circuit emulator have been built onto the chip with the MCU. The debug system consists of an 8-stage
FIFO that can store address or data bus information, and a flexible trigger system to decide when to capture
bus information and what information to capture. The system relies on the single-wire background debug
system to access debug control registers and to read results out of the eight stage FIFO.
The debug module includes control and status registers that are accessible in the user’s memory map.
These registers are located in the high register space to avoid using valuable direct page memory space.
Most of the debug module’s functions are used during development, and user programs rarely access any
of the control and status registers for the debug module. The one exception is that the debug system can
provide the means to implement a form of ROM patching. This topic is discussed in greater detail in
Section 17.3.6, “Hardware Breakpoints.”
17.3.1
Comparators A and B
Two 16-bit comparators (A and B) can optionally be qualified with the R/W signal and an opcode tracking
circuit. Separate control bits allow you to ignore R/W for each comparator. The opcode tracking circuitry
optionally allows you to specify that a trigger will occur only if the opcode at the specified address is
actually executed as opposed to only being read from memory into the instruction queue. The comparators
are also capable of magnitude comparisons to support the inside range and outside range trigger modes.
Comparators are disabled temporarily during all BDC accesses.
The A comparator is always associated with the 16-bit CPU address. The B comparator compares to the
CPU address or the 8-bit CPU data bus, depending on the trigger mode selected. Because the CPU data
bus is separated into a read data bus and a write data bus, the RWAEN and RWA control bits have an
additional purpose, in full address plus data comparisons they are used to decide which of these buses to
use in the comparator B data bus comparisons. If RWAEN = 1 (enabled) and RWA = 0 (write), the CPU’s
write data bus is used. Otherwise, the CPU’s read data bus is used.
The currently selected trigger mode determines what the debugger logic does when a comparator detects
a qualified match condition. A match can cause:
• Generation of a breakpoint to the CPU
• Storage of data bus values into the FIFO
• Starting to store change-of-flow addresses into the FIFO (begin type trace)
• Stopping the storage of change-of-flow addresses into the FIFO (end type trace)
17.3.2
Bus Capture Information and FIFO Operation
The usual way to use the FIFO is to setup the trigger mode and other control options, then arm the
debugger. When the FIFO has filled or the debugger has stopped storing data into the FIFO, you would
read the information out of it in the order it was stored into the FIFO. Status bits indicate the number of
words of valid information that are in the FIFO as data is stored into it. If a trace run is manually halted by
writing 0 to ARM before the FIFO is full (CNT = 1:0:0:0), the information is shifted by one position and
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the host must perform ((8 – CNT) – 1) dummy reads of the FIFO to advance it to the first significant entry
in the FIFO.
In most trigger modes, the information stored in the FIFO consists of 16-bit change-of-flow addresses. In
these cases, read DBGFH then DBGFL to get one coherent word of information out of the FIFO. Reading
DBGFL (the low-order byte of the FIFO data port) causes the FIFO to shift so the next word of information
is available at the FIFO data port. In the event-only trigger modes (see Section 17.3.5, “Trigger Modes”),
8-bit data information is stored into the FIFO. In these cases, the high-order half of the FIFO (DBGFH) is
not used and data is read out of the FIFO by simply reading DBGFL. Each time DBGFL is read, the FIFO
is shifted so the next data value is available through the FIFO data port at DBGFL.
In trigger modes where the FIFO is storing change-of-flow addresses, there is a delay between CPU
addresses and the input side of the FIFO. Because of this delay, if the trigger event itself is a
change-of-flow address or a change-of-flow address appears during the next two bus cycles after a trigger
event starts the FIFO, it will not be saved into the FIFO. In the case of an end-trace, if the trigger event is
a change-of-flow, it will be saved as the last change-of-flow entry for that debug run.
The FIFO can also be used to generate a profile of executed instruction addresses when the debugger is
not armed. When ARM = 0, reading DBGFL causes the address of the most-recently fetched opcode to be
saved in the FIFO. To use the profiling feature, a host debugger would read addresses out of the FIFO by
reading DBGFH then DBGFL at regular periodic intervals. The first eight values would be discarded
because they correspond to the eight DBGFL reads needed to initially fill the FIFO. Additional periodic
reads of DBGFH and DBGFL return delayed information about executed instructions so the host debugger
can develop a profile of executed instruction addresses.
17.3.3
Change-of-Flow Information
To minimize the amount of information stored in the FIFO, only information related to instructions that
cause a change to the normal sequential execution of instructions is stored. With knowledge of the source
and object code program stored in the target system, an external debugger system can reconstruct the path
of execution through many instructions from the change-of-flow information stored in the FIFO.
For conditional branch instructions where the branch is taken (branch condition was true), the source
address is stored (the address of the conditional branch opcode). Because BRA and BRN instructions are
not conditional, these events do not cause change-of-flow information to be stored in the FIFO.
Indirect JMP and JSR instructions use the current contents of the H:X index register pair to determine the
destination address, so the debug system stores the run-time destination address for any indirect JMP or
JSR. For interrupts, RTI, or RTS, the destination address is stored in the FIFO as change-of-flow
information.
17.3.4
Tag vs. Force Breakpoints and Triggers
Tagging is a term that refers to identifying an instruction opcode as it is fetched into the instruction queue,
but not taking any other action until and unless that instruction is actually executed by the CPU. This
distinction is important because any change-of-flow from a jump, branch, subroutine call, or interrupt
causes some instructions that have been fetched into the instruction queue to be thrown away without being
executed.
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A force-type breakpoint waits for the current instruction to finish and then acts upon the breakpoint
request. The usual action in response to a breakpoint is to go to active background mode rather than
continuing to the next instruction in the user application program.
The tag vs. force terminology is used in two contexts within the debug module. The first context refers to
breakpoint requests from the debug module to the CPU. The second refers to match signals from the
comparators to the debugger control logic. When a tag-type break request is sent to the CPU, a signal is
entered into the instruction queue along with the opcode so that if/when this opcode ever executes, the
CPU will effectively replace the tagged opcode with a BGND opcode so the CPU goes to active
background mode rather than executing the tagged instruction. When the TRGSEL control bit in the DBGT
register is set to select tag-type operation, the output from comparator A or B is qualified by a block of
logic in the debug module that tracks opcodes and only produces a trigger to the debugger if the opcode at
the compare address is actually executed. There is separate opcode tracking logic for each comparator so
more than one compare event can be tracked through the instruction queue at a time.
17.3.5
Trigger Modes
The trigger mode controls the overall behavior of a debug run. The 4-bit TRG field in the DBGT register
selects one of nine trigger modes. When TRGSEL = 1 in the DBGT register, the output of the comparator
must propagate through an opcode tracking circuit before triggering FIFO actions. The BEGIN bit in
DBGT chooses whether the FIFO begins storing data when the qualified trigger is detected (begin trace),
or the FIFO stores data in a circular fashion from the time it is armed until the qualified trigger is detected
(end trigger).
A debug run is started by writing a 1 to the ARM bit in the DBGC register, which sets the ARMF flag and
clears the AF and BF flags and the CNT bits in DBGS. A begin-trace debug run ends when the FIFO gets
full. An end-trace run ends when the selected trigger event occurs. Any debug run can be stopped manually
by writing a 0 to ARM or DBGEN in DBGC.
In all trigger modes except event-only modes, the FIFO stores change-of-flow addresses. In event-only
trigger modes, the FIFO stores data in the low-order eight bits of the FIFO.
The BEGIN control bit is ignored in event-only trigger modes and all such debug runs are begin type
traces. When TRGSEL = 1 to select opcode fetch triggers, it is not necessary to use R/W in comparisons
because opcode tags would only apply to opcode fetches that are always read cycles. It would also be
unusual to specify TRGSEL = 1 while using a full mode trigger because the opcode value is normally
known at a particular address.
The following trigger mode descriptions only state the primary comparator conditions that lead to a trigger.
Either comparator can usually be further qualified with R/W by setting RWAEN (RWBEN) and the
corresponding RWA (RWB) value to be matched against R/W. The signal from the comparator with
optional R/W qualification is used to request a CPU breakpoint if BRKEN = 1 and TAG determines
whether the CPU request will be a tag request or a force request.
A-Only — Trigger when the address matches the value in comparator A
A OR B — Trigger when the address matches either the value in comparator A or the value in
comparator B
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A Then B — Trigger when the address matches the value in comparator B but only after the address for
another cycle matched the value in comparator A. There can be any number of cycles after the A match
and before the B match.
A AND B Data (Full Mode) — This is called a full mode because address, data, and R/W (optionally)
must match within the same bus cycle to cause a trigger event. Comparator A checks address, the low byte
of comparator B checks data, and R/W is checked against RWA if RWAEN = 1. The high-order half of
comparator B is not used.
In full trigger modes it is not useful to specify a tag-type CPU breakpoint (BRKEN = TAG = 1), but if you
do, the comparator B data match is ignored for the purpose of issuing the tag request to the CPU and the
CPU breakpoint is issued when the comparator A address matches.
A AND NOT B Data (Full Mode) — Address must match comparator A, data must not match the low
half of comparator B, and R/W must match RWA if RWAEN = 1. All three conditions must be met within
the same bus cycle to cause a trigger.
In full trigger modes it is not useful to specify a tag-type CPU breakpoint (BRKEN = TAG = 1), but if you
do, the comparator B data match is ignored for the purpose of issuing the tag request to the CPU and the
CPU breakpoint is issued when the comparator A address matches.
Event-Only B (Store Data) — Trigger events occur each time the address matches the value in
comparator B. Trigger events cause the data to be captured into the FIFO. The debug run ends when the
FIFO becomes full.
A Then Event-Only B (Store Data) — After the address has matched the value in comparator A, a trigger
event occurs each time the address matches the value in comparator B. Trigger events cause the data to be
captured into the FIFO. The debug run ends when the FIFO becomes full.
Inside Range (A ≤ Address ≤ B) — A trigger occurs when the address is greater than or equal to the value
in comparator A and less than or equal to the value in comparator B at the same time.
Outside Range (Address < A or Address > B) — A trigger occurs when the address is either less than
the value in comparator A or greater than the value in comparator B.
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17.3.6
Hardware Breakpoints
The BRKEN control bit in the DBGC register may be set to 1 to allow any of the trigger conditions
described in Section 17.3.5, “Trigger Modes,” to be used to generate a hardware breakpoint request to the
CPU. TAG in DBGC controls whether the breakpoint request will be treated as a tag-type breakpoint or a
force-type breakpoint. A tag breakpoint causes the current opcode to be marked as it enters the instruction
queue. If a tagged opcode reaches the end of the pipe, the CPU executes a BGND instruction to go to active
background mode rather than executing the tagged opcode. A force-type breakpoint causes the CPU to
finish the current instruction and then go to active background mode.
If the background mode has not been enabled (ENBDM = 1) by a serial WRITE_CONTROL command
through the BKGD pin, the CPU will execute an SWI instruction instead of going to active background
mode.
17.4
Register Definition
This section contains the descriptions of the BDC and DBG registers and control bits.
Refer to the high-page register summary in the device overview chapter of this data sheet for the absolute
address assignments for all DBG registers. This section refers to registers and control bits only by their
names. A Freescale-provided equate or header file is used to translate these names into the appropriate
absolute addresses.
17.4.1
BDC Registers and Control Bits
The BDC has two registers:
• The BDC status and control register (BDCSCR) is an 8-bit register containing control and status
bits for the background debug controller.
• The BDC breakpoint match register (BDCBKPT) holds a 16-bit breakpoint match address.
These registers are accessed with dedicated serial BDC commands and are not located in the memory
space of the target MCU (so they do not have addresses and cannot be accessed by user programs).
Some of the bits in the BDCSCR have write limitations; otherwise, these registers may be read or written
at any time. For example, the ENBDM control bit may not be written while the MCU is in active
background mode. (This prevents the ambiguous condition of the control bit forbidding active background
mode while the MCU is already in active background mode.) Also, the four status bits (BDMACT, WS,
WSF, and DVF) are read-only status indicators and can never be written by the WRITE_CONTROL serial
BDC command. The clock switch (CLKSW) control bit may be read or written at any time.
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17.4.1.1
BDC Status and Control Register (BDCSCR)
This register can be read or written by serial BDC commands (READ_STATUS and WRITE_CONTROL)
but is not accessible to user programs because it is not located in the normal memory map of the MCU.
7
R
6
5
4
3
BKPTEN
FTS
CLKSW
BDMACT
ENBDM
2
1
0
WS
WSF
DVF
W
Normal
Reset
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reset in
Active BDM:
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 17-5. BDC Status and Control Register (BDCSCR)
Table 17-2. BDCSCR Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
ENBDM
Enable BDM (Permit Active Background Mode) — Typically, this bit is written to 1 by the debug host shortly
after the beginning of a debug session or whenever the debug host resets the target and remains 1 until a normal
reset clears it.
0 BDM cannot be made active (non-intrusive commands still allowed)
1 BDM can be made active to allow active background mode commands
6
BDMACT
Background Mode Active Status — This is a read-only status bit.
0 BDM not active (user application program running)
1 BDM active and waiting for serial commands
5
BKPTEN
BDC Breakpoint Enable — If this bit is clear, the BDC breakpoint is disabled and the FTS (force tag select)
control bit and BDCBKPT match register are ignored.
0 BDC breakpoint disabled
1 BDC breakpoint enabled
4
FTS
Force/Tag Select — When FTS = 1, a breakpoint is requested whenever the CPU address bus matches the
BDCBKPT match register. When FTS = 0, a match between the CPU address bus and the BDCBKPT register
causes the fetched opcode to be tagged. If this tagged opcode ever reaches the end of the instruction queue,
the CPU enters active background mode rather than executing the tagged opcode.
0 Tag opcode at breakpoint address and enter active background mode if CPU attempts to execute that
instruction
1 Breakpoint match forces active background mode at next instruction boundary (address need not be an
opcode)
3
CLKSW
Select Source for BDC Communications Clock — CLKSW defaults to 0, which selects the alternate BDC clock
source.
0 Alternate BDC clock source
1 MCU bus clock
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Table 17-2. BDCSCR Register Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
2
WS
Wait or Stop Status — When the target CPU is in wait or stop mode, most BDC commands cannot function.
However, the BACKGROUND command can be used to force the target CPU out of wait or stop and into active
background mode where all BDC commands work. Whenever the host forces the target MCU into active
background mode, the host should issue a READ_STATUS command to check that BDMACT = 1 before
attempting other BDC commands.
0 Target CPU is running user application code or in active background mode (was not in wait or stop mode when
background became active)
1 Target CPU is in wait or stop mode, or a BACKGROUND command was used to change from wait or stop to
active background mode
1
WSF
Wait or Stop Failure Status — This status bit is set if a memory access command failed due to the target CPU
executing a wait or stop instruction at or about the same time. The usual recovery strategy is to issue a
BACKGROUND command to get out of wait or stop mode into active background mode, repeat the command
that failed, then return to the user program. (Typically, the host would restore CPU registers and stack values and
re-execute the wait or stop instruction.)
0 Memory access did not conflict with a wait or stop instruction
1 Memory access command failed because the CPU entered wait or stop mode
0
DVF
Data Valid Failure Status — This status bit is not used in the MC9S08QG8/4 because it does not have any slow
access memory.
0 Memory access did not conflict with a slow memory access
1 Memory access command failed because CPU was not finished with a slow memory access
17.4.1.2
BDC Breakpoint Match Register (BDCBKPT)
This 16-bit register holds the address for the hardware breakpoint in the BDC. The BKPTEN and FTS
control bits in BDCSCR are used to enable and configure the breakpoint logic. Dedicated serial BDC
commands (READ_BKPT and WRITE_BKPT) are used to read and write the BDCBKPT register but is
not accessible to user programs because it is not located in the normal memory map of the MCU.
Breakpoints are normally set while the target MCU is in active background mode before running the user
application program. For additional information about setup and use of the hardware breakpoint logic in
the BDC, refer to Section 17.2.4, “BDC Hardware Breakpoint.”
17.4.2
System Background Debug Force Reset Register (SBDFR)
This register contains a single write-only control bit. A serial background mode command such as
WRITE_BYTE must be used to write to SBDFR. Attempts to write this register from a user program are
ignored. Reads always return 0x00.
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R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BDFR1
W
Reset
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
1
BDFR is writable only through serial background mode debug commands, not from user programs.
Figure 17-6. System Background Debug Force Reset Register (SBDFR)
Table 17-3. SBDFR Register Field Description
Field
Description
0
BDFR
Background Debug Force Reset — A serial active background mode command such as WRITE_BYTE allows
an external debug host to force a target system reset. Writing 1 to this bit forces an MCU reset. This bit cannot
be written from a user program.
17.4.3
DBG Registers and Control Bits
The debug module includes nine bytes of register space for three 16-bit registers and three 8-bit control
and status registers. These registers are located in the high register space of the normal memory map so
they are accessible to normal application programs. These registers are rarely if ever accessed by normal
user application programs with the possible exception of a ROM patching mechanism that uses the
breakpoint logic.
17.4.3.1
Debug Comparator A High Register (DBGCAH)
This register contains compare value bits for the high-order eight bits of comparator A. This register is
forced to 0x00 at reset and can be read at any time or written at any time unless ARM = 1.
17.4.3.2
Debug Comparator A Low Register (DBGCAL)
This register contains compare value bits for the low-order eight bits of comparator A. This register is
forced to 0x00 at reset and can be read at any time or written at any time unless ARM = 1.
17.4.3.3
Debug Comparator B High Register (DBGCBH)
This register contains compare value bits for the high-order eight bits of comparator B. This register is
forced to 0x00 at reset and can be read at any time or written at any time unless ARM = 1.
17.4.3.4
Debug Comparator B Low Register (DBGCBL)
This register contains compare value bits for the low-order eight bits of comparator B. This register is
forced to 0x00 at reset and can be read at any time or written at any time unless ARM = 1.
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17.4.3.5
Debug FIFO High Register (DBGFH)
This register provides read-only access to the high-order eight bits of the FIFO. Writes to this register have
no meaning or effect. In the event-only trigger modes, the FIFO only stores data into the low-order byte
of each FIFO word, so this register is not used and will read 0x00.
Reading DBGFH does not cause the FIFO to shift to the next word. When reading 16-bit words out of the
FIFO, read DBGFH before reading DBGFL because reading DBGFL causes the FIFO to advance to the
next word of information.
17.4.3.6
Debug FIFO Low Register (DBGFL)
This register provides read-only access to the low-order eight bits of the FIFO. Writes to this register have
no meaning or effect.
Reading DBGFL causes the FIFO to shift to the next available word of information. When the debug
module is operating in event-only modes, only 8-bit data is stored into the FIFO (high-order half of each
FIFO word is unused). When reading 8-bit words out of the FIFO, simply read DBGFL repeatedly to get
successive bytes of data from the FIFO. It isn’t necessary to read DBGFH in this case.
Do not attempt to read data from the FIFO while it is still armed (after arming but before the FIFO is filled
or ARMF is cleared) because the FIFO is prevented from advancing during reads of DBGFL. This can
interfere with normal sequencing of reads from the FIFO.
Reading DBGFL while the debugger is not armed causes the address of the most-recently fetched opcode
to be stored to the last location in the FIFO. By reading DBGFH then DBGFL periodically, external host
software can develop a profile of program execution. After eight reads from the FIFO, the ninth read will
return the information that was stored as a result of the first read. To use the profiling feature, read the FIFO
eight times without using the data to prime the sequence and then begin using the data to get a delayed
picture of what addresses were being executed. The information stored into the FIFO on reads of DBGFL
(while the FIFO is not armed) is the address of the most-recently fetched opcode.
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17.4.3.7
Debug Control Register (DBGC)
This register can be read or written at any time.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DBGEN
ARM
TAG
BRKEN
RWA
RWAEN
RWB
RWBEN
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R
W
Reset
Figure 17-7. Debug Control Register (DBGC)
Table 17-4. DBGC Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
DBGEN
Debug Module Enable — Used to enable the debug module. DBGEN cannot be set to 1 if the MCU is secure.
0 DBG disabled
1 DBG enabled
6
ARM
Arm Control — Controls whether the debugger is comparing and storing information in the FIFO. A write is used
to set this bit (and ARMF) and completion of a debug run automatically clears it. Any debug run can be manually
stopped by writing 0 to ARM or to DBGEN.
0 Debugger not armed
1 Debugger armed
5
TAG
Tag/Force Select — Controls whether break requests to the CPU will be tag or force type requests. If
BRKEN = 0, this bit has no meaning or effect.
0 CPU breaks requested as force type requests
1 CPU breaks requested as tag type requests
4
BRKEN
Break Enable — Controls whether a trigger event will generate a break request to the CPU. Trigger events can
cause information to be stored in the FIFO without generating a break request to the CPU. For an end trace, CPU
break requests are issued to the CPU when the comparator(s) and R/W meet the trigger requirements. For a
begin trace, CPU break requests are issued when the FIFO becomes full. TRGSEL does not affect the timing of
CPU break requests.
0 CPU break requests not enabled
1 Triggers cause a break request to the CPU
3
RWA
R/W Comparison Value for Comparator A — When RWAEN = 1, this bit determines whether a read or a write
access qualifies comparator A. When RWAEN = 0, RWA and the R/W signal do not affect comparator A.
0 Comparator A can only match on a write cycle
1 Comparator A can only match on a read cycle
2
RWAEN
Enable R/W for Comparator A — Controls whether the level of R/W is considered for a comparator A match.
0 R/W is not used in comparison A
1 R/W is used in comparison A
1
RWB
R/W Comparison Value for Comparator B — When RWBEN = 1, this bit determines whether a read or a write
access qualifies comparator B. When RWBEN = 0, RWB and the R/W signal do not affect comparator B.
0 Comparator B can match only on a write cycle
1 Comparator B can match only on a read cycle
0
RWBEN
Enable R/W for Comparator B — Controls whether the level of R/W is considered for a comparator B match.
0 R/W is not used in comparison B
1 R/W is used in comparison B
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17.4.3.8
Debug Trigger Register (DBGT)
This register can be read any time, but may be written only if ARM = 0, except bits 4 and 5 are hard-wired
to 0s.
7
6
TRGSEL
BEGIN
0
0
R
5
4
0
0
3
2
1
0
TRG3
TRG2
TRG1
TRG0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset
0
0
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 17-8. Debug Trigger Register (DBGT)
Table 17-5. DBGT Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
TRGSEL
Trigger Type — Controls whether the match outputs from comparators A and B are qualified with the opcode
tracking logic in the debug module. If TRGSEL is set, a match signal from comparator A or B must propagate
through the opcode tracking logic and a trigger event is only signalled to the FIFO logic if the opcode at the match
address is actually executed.
0 Trigger on access to compare address (force)
1 Trigger if opcode at compare address is executed (tag)
6
BEGIN
Begin/End Trigger Select — Controls whether the FIFO starts filling at a trigger or fills in a circular manner until
a trigger ends the capture of information. In event-only trigger modes, this bit is ignored and all debug runs are
assumed to be begin traces.
0 Data stored in FIFO until trigger (end trace)
1 Trigger initiates data storage (begin trace)
3:0
TRG[3:0]
17.4.3.9
Select Trigger Mode — Selects one of nine triggering modes, as described below.
0000 A-only
0001 A OR B
0010 A Then B
0011 Event-only B (store data)
0100 A then event-only B (store data)
0101 A AND B data (full mode)
0110 A AND NOT B data (full mode)
0111 Inside range: A ≤ address ≤ B
1000 Outside range: address < A or address > B
1001 – 1111 (No trigger)
Debug Status Register (DBGS)
This is a read-only status register.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
262
Freescale Semiconductor
Development Support
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
AF
BF
ARMF
0
CNT3
CNT2
CNT1
CNT0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
W
Reset
= Unimplemented or Reserved
Figure 17-9. Debug Status Register (DBGS)
Table 17-6. DBGS Register Field Descriptions
Field
Description
7
AF
Trigger Match A Flag — AF is cleared at the start of a debug run and indicates whether a trigger match A
condition was met since arming.
0 Comparator A has not matched
1 Comparator A match
6
BF
Trigger Match B Flag — BF is cleared at the start of a debug run and indicates whether a trigger match B
condition was met since arming.
0 Comparator B has not matched
1 Comparator B match
5
ARMF
Arm Flag — While DBGEN = 1, this status bit is a read-only image of ARM in DBGC. This bit is set by writing 1
to the ARM control bit in DBGC (while DBGEN = 1) and is automatically cleared at the end of a debug run. A
debug run is completed when the FIFO is full (begin trace) or when a trigger event is detected (end trace). A
debug run can also be ended manually by writing 0 to ARM or DBGEN in DBGC.
0 Debugger not armed
1 Debugger armed
3:0
CNT[3:0]
FIFO Valid Count — These bits are cleared at the start of a debug run and indicate the number of words of valid
data in the FIFO at the end of a debug run. The value in CNT does not decrement as data is read out of the FIFO.
The external debug host is responsible for keeping track of the count as information is read out of the FIFO.
0000 Number of valid words in FIFO = No valid data
0001 Number of valid words in FIFO = 1
0010 Number of valid words in FIFO = 2
0011 Number of valid words in FIFO = 3
0100 Number of valid words in FIFO = 4
0101 Number of valid words in FIFO = 5
0110 Number of valid words in FIFO = 6
0111 Number of valid words in FIFO = 7
1000 Number of valid words in FIFO = 8
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
263
Development Support
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
264
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A
Electrical Characteristics
A.1
Introduction
This section contains electrical and timing specifications.
A.2
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Absolute maximum ratings are stress ratings only, and functional operation at the maxima is not
guaranteed. Stress beyond the limits specified in Table A-1 may affect device reliability or cause
permanent damage to the device. For functional operating conditions, refer to the remaining tables in this
section.
This device contains circuitry protecting against damage due to high static voltage or electrical fields;
however, it is advised that normal precautions be taken to avoid application of any voltages higher than
maximum-rated voltages to this high-impedance circuit. Reliability of operation is enhanced if unused
inputs are tied to an appropriate logic voltage level (for instance, either VSS or VDD) or the programmable
pull-up resistor associated with the pin is enabled.
Table A-1. Absolute Maximum Ratings
Rating
Symbol
Value
Unit
Supply voltage
VDD
–0.3 to +3.8
V
Maximum current into VDD
IDD
120
mA
Digital input voltage
VIn
–0.3 to VDD + 0.3
V
Instantaneous maximum current
Single pin limit (applies to all port pins)1, 2, 3
ID
± 25
mA
Tstg
–55 to 150
°C
Storage temperature range
1
Input must be current limited to the value specified. To determine the value of the required
current-limiting resistor, calculate resistance values for positive (VDD) and negative (VSS) clamp
voltages, then use the larger of the two resistance values.
2
All functional non-supply pins are internally clamped to VSS and VDD.
3 Power supply must maintain regulation within operating V
DD range during instantaneous and
operating maximum current conditions. If positive injection current (VIn > VDD) is greater than
IDD, the injection current may flow out of VDD and could result in external power supply going
out of regulation. Ensure external VDD load will shunt current greater than maximum injection
current. This will be the greatest risk when the MCU is not consuming power. Examples are: if
no system clock is present, or if the clock rate is very low (which would reduce overall power
consumption).
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
265
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
A.3
Thermal Characteristics
This section provides information about operating temperature range, power dissipation, and package
thermal resistance. Power dissipation on I/O pins is usually small compared to the power dissipation in
on-chip logic and voltage regulator circuits, and it is user-determined rather than being controlled by the
MCU design. To take PI/O into account in power calculations, determine the difference between actual pin
voltage and VSS or VDD and multiply by the pin current for each I/O pin. Except in cases of unusually high
pin current (heavy loads), the difference between pin voltage and VSS or VDD will be very small.
Table A-2. Thermal Characteristics
Rating
Symbol
Operating temperature range (packaged)
C
Value
Unit
TL to TH
TA
M
–40 to 85
°C
–40 to 125
Thermal resistance
Single-layer board
8-pin PDIP
113
8-pin NB SOIC
150
8-pin DFN
179
16-pin PDIP
θJA
78
16-pin TSSOP
133
16-pin QFN
132
24-pin QFN
125
°C/W
Thermal resistance
Four-layer board
8-pin PDIP
72
8-pin NB SOIC
87
8-pin DFN
41
16-pin PDIP
θJA
53
16-pin TSSOP
86
16-pin QFN
36
24-pin QFN
44
°C/W
The average chip-junction temperature (TJ) in °C can be obtained from:
TJ = TA + (PD × θJA)
Eqn. A-1
where:
TA = Ambient temperature, °C
θJA = Package thermal resistance, junction-to-ambient, °C/W
PD = Pint + PI/O
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
266
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
Pint = IDD × VDD, Watts — chip internal power
PI/O = Power dissipation on input and output pins — user determined
For most applications, PI/O << Pint and can be neglected. An approximate relationship between PD and TJ
(if PI/O is neglected) is:
PD = K ÷ (TJ + 273°C)
Eqn. A-2
Solving Equation A-1 and Equation A-2 for K gives:
K = PD × (TA + 273°C) + θJA × (PD)2
Eqn. A-3
where K is a constant pertaining to the particular part. K can be determined from equation 3 by measuring
PD (at equilibrium) for a known TA. Using this value of K, the values of PD and TJ can be obtained by
solving Equation A-1 and Equation A-2 iteratively for any value of TA.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
267
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
A.4
ESD Protection and Latch-Up Immunity
Although damage from electrostatic discharge (ESD) is much less common on these devices than on early
CMOS circuits, normal handling precautions should be used to avoid exposure to static discharge.
Qualification tests are performed to ensure that these devices can withstand exposure to reasonable levels
of static without suffering any permanent damage.
All ESD testing is in conformity with AEC-Q100 Stress Test Qualification for Automotive Grade
Integrated Circuits. During the device qualification ESD stresses were performed for the human body
model (HBM), the machine model (MM) and the charge device model (CDM).
A device is defined as a failure if after exposure to ESD pulses the device no longer meets the device
specification. Complete DC parametric and functional testing is performed per the applicable device
specification at room temperature followed by hot temperature, unless specified otherwise in the device
specification.
Table A-3. ESD and Latch-up Test Conditions
Model
Human
Body
Machine
Latch-up
Description
Symbol
Value
Unit
Series resistance
R1
1500
Ω
Storage capacitance
C
100
pF
Number of pulses per pin
—
3
Series resistance
R1
0
Ω
Storage capacitance
C
200
pF
Number of pulses per pin
—
3
Minimum input voltage limit
– 2.5
V
Maximum input voltage limit
7.5
V
Table A-4. ESD and Latch-Up Protection Characteristics
No.
1
Rating1
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
1
Human body model (HBM)
VHBM
± 2000
—
V
2
Machine model (MM)
VMM
± 200
—
V
3
Charge device model (CDM)
VCDM
± 500
—
V
4
Latch-up current at TA = 125°C
ILAT
± 100
—
mA
Parameter is achieved by design characterization on a small sample size from typical devices
under typical conditions unless otherwise noted.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
268
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
A.5
DC Characteristics
This section includes information about power supply requirements and I/O pin characteristics.
Table A-5. Operating Range
Parameter
Supply voltage (run, wait and stop modes.)
Symbol
Min
VDD
1.81
Typical
Max
Unit
3.6
V
85
125
°C
Temperature
C
M
1
–40
–40
—
—
As the supply voltage rises, the LVD circuit will hold the MCU in reset until the supply has risen above VLVDL.
Table A-6. DC Characteristics
Parameter
Minimum RAM retention supply voltage applied to VDD
Symbol
Min
VRAM
VPOR1, 2
VLVDH
2.08
Typical
Max
Unit
—
V
2.1
2.2
V
2.16
2.19
2.27
1.80
1.82
1.91
1.88
1.90
1.99
2.35
2.40
2.5
2.35
2.40
2.5
2.08
2.1
2.2
2.16
2.19
2.27
Low-voltage detection threshold — high range
(VDD falling)
(VDD rising)
Low-voltage detection threshold — low range
(VDD falling)
VLVDL
(VDD rising)
Low-voltage warning threshold — high range
(VDD falling)
VLVWH
(VDD rising)
Low-voltage warning threshold — low range
(VDD falling)
VLVWL
(VDD rising)
Power on reset (POR) re-arm voltage
VPOR
Bandgap Voltage Reference
VBG
Input high voltage (VDD > 2.3 V) (all digital inputs)
Input high voltage (1.8 V ≤ VDD ≤ 2.3 V) (all digital inputs)
Input low voltage (VDD > 2.3 V) (all digital inputs)
Input low voltage (1.8 V ≤ VDD ≤ 2.3 V) (all digital inputs)
VIH
VIL
1.4
1.18
1.20
V
V
V
V
1.21
V
0.70 × VDD
—
0.85 × VDD
—
—
0.35 × VDD
—
0.30 × VDD
—
V
V
V
Input hysteresis (all digital inputs)
Vhys
0.06 × VDD
Input leakage current (Per pin)
VIn = VDD or VSS, all input only pins
|IIn|
—
0.025
1.0
μA
High impedance (off-state) leakage current (per pin)
VIn = VDD or VSS, all input/output
|IOZ|
—
0.025
1.0
μA
Internal pullup resistors3,4
RPU
17.5
52.5
kΩ
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
269
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
Table A-6. DC Characteristics (continued)
Parameter
Internal pulldown resistor (KBI)
Symbol
Min
RPD
Output high voltage — low drive (PTxDSn = 0)
IOH = –2 mA (VDD ≥ 1.8 V)
Output high voltage — high drive (PTxDSn = 1)
IOH = –10 mA (VDD ≥ 2.7 V)
IOH = –6 mA (VDD ≥ 2.3 V)
IOH = –3 mA (VDD ≥ 1.8 V)
Maximum total IOH for all port pins
2
3
4
5
6
7
Max
Unit
17.5
52.5
kΩ
VDD – 0.5
—
VOH
| IOHT |
Output low voltage — low drive (PTxDSn = 0)
IOL = 2.0 mA (VDD ≥ 1.8 V)
1
Typical
V
VDD – 0.5
—
—
—
—
60
—
0.5
mA
V
Output low voltage — high drive (PTxDSn = 1)
IOL = 10.0 mA (VDD ≥ 2.7 V)
IOL = 6 mA (VDD ≥ 2.3 V)
IOL = 3 mA (VDD ≥ 1.8 V)
VOL
Maximum total IOL for all port pins
IOLT
DC injection current 2, 5, 6, 7
VIN < VSS, VIN > VDD
Single pin limit
Total MCU limit, includes sum of all stressed pins
IIC
Input capacitance (all non-supply pins)
CIn
—
—
—
0.5
0.5
0.5
—
60
mA
–0.2
–5
0.2
5
mA
mA
—
7
pF
RAM will retain data down to POR voltage. RAM data not guaranteed to be valid following a POR.
This parameter is characterized and not tested on each device.
Measurement condition for pull resistors: VIn = VSS for pullup and VIn = VDD for pulldown.
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET pullup resistor may not pullup to the specified minimum VIH. However, all ports are functionally tested
to guarantee that a logic 1 will be read on any port input when the pullup is enabled and no DC load is present on the pin.
All functional non-supply pins are internally clamped to VSS and VDD.
Input must be current limited to the value specified. To determine the value of the required current-limiting resistor, calculate
resistance values for positive and negative clamp voltages, then use the larger of the two values.
Power supply must maintain regulation within operating VDD range during instantaneous and operating maximum current
conditions. If positive injection current (VIn > VDD) is greater than IDD, the injection current may flow out of VDD and could result
in external power supply going out of regulation. Ensure external VDD load will shunt current greater than maximum injection
current. This will be the greatest risk when the MCU is not consuming power. Examples are: if no system clock is present, or if
clock rate is very low (which would reduce overall power consumption).
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
270
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
PULLUP RESISTOR TYPICALS
85°C
25°C
–40°C
35
30
25
20
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6 2.8
VDD (V)
3
3.2
3.4
PULLDOWN RESISTOR TYPICALS
40
PULLDOWN RESISTOR (kΩ)
PULLUP RESISTOR (kΩ)
40
35
30
25
20
3.6
85°C
25°C
–40°C
1.8
2.3
2.8
VDD (V)
3.3
3.6
Figure A-1. Pullup and Pulldown Typical Resistor Values (VDD = 3.0 V)
TYPICAL VOL VS IOL AT VDD = 3.0 V
1.2
1
0.15
VOL (V)
0.8
VOL (V)
TYPICAL VOL VS VDD
0.2
85°C
25°C
–40°C
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.1
85°C, IOL = 2 mA
25°C, IOL = 2 mA
–40°C, IOL = 2 mA
0.05
0
0
0
5
10
IOL (mA)
15
1
20
2
VDD (V)
3
4
Figure A-2. Typical Low-Side Driver (Sink) Characteristics — Low Drive (PTxDSn = 0)
TYPICAL VOL VS VDD
TYPICAL VOL VS IOL AT VDD = 3.0 V
1
0.4
85°C
25°C
–40°C
0.8
85°C
25°C
–40°C
0.3
VOL (V)
VOL (V)
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
IOL = 10 mA
IOL = 6 mA
0.1
IOL = 3 mA
0
0
10
20
30
1
2
IOL (mA)
3
4
VDD (V)
Figure A-3. Typical Low-Side Driver (Sink) Characteristics — High Drive (PTxDSn = 1)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
271
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
TYPICAL VDD – VOH VS IOH AT VDD = 3.0 V
1.2
85°C
25°C
–40°C
85°C, IOH = 2 mA
25°C, IOH = 2 mA
–40°C, IOH = 2 mA
0.2
VDD – VOH (V)
VDD – VOH (V)
1
TYPICAL VDD – VOH VS VDD AT SPEC IOH
0.25
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.15
0.1
0.05
0.2
0
0
0
–5
–10
IOH (mA))
–15
–20
1
2
VDD (V)
3
4
Figure A-4. Typical High-Side (Source) Characteristics — Low Drive (PTxDSn = 0)
TYPICAL VDD – VOH VS VDD AT SPEC IOH
0.4
TYPICAL VDD – VOH VS IOH AT VDD = 3.0 V
0.3
85°C
25°C
–40°C
0.6
VDD – VOH (V)
VDD – VOH (V)
0.8
0.4
0.2
0
0
–5
–10
–15
–20
IOH (mA)
85°C
25°C
–40°C
–25
0.2
IOH = –10 mA
IOH = –6 mA
0.1
–30
IOH = –3 mA
0
1
2
3
4
VDD (V)
Figure A-5. Typical High-Side (Source) Characteristics — High Drive (PTxDSn = 1)
A.6
Supply Current Characteristics
This section includes information about power supply current in various operating modes.
Table A-7. Supply Current Characteristics
Symbol
VDD (V)1
Typical2
Max
Run supply current measured in FBE mode at
fBus = 8 MHz
RIDD
3
3.5 mA
5mA
125
2
2.5 mA
—
125
Run supply current 3 measured in FBE mode at
fBus = 1 MHz
RIDD
Wait mode supply current 4 measured in FBE at 8 MHz
WIDD
Parameter
3
3
490 μA
1mA
125
2
370 μA
—
125
3
1mA
1.5mA
125
475 nA
10μA
1.2μA
125
85
470 nA
—
85
600 nA
15 μA
2 μA
125
85
3
Stop1 mode supply current
S1IDD
2
Stop2 mode supply current
3
S2IDD
2
Stop3 mode supply current
T (°C)
3
S3IDD
2
550 nA
—
85
750 nA
35 μA
6 μA
125
85
680 nA
—
85
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
272
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
Table A-7. Supply Current Characteristics
Parameter
Symbol
RTI adder to stop1, stop2 or stop3 4
—
LVD adder to stop3 (LVDE = LVDSE = 1)
—
Adder to stop3 for oscillator enabled 5
(EREFSTEN =1)
—
VDD (V)1
Typical2
Max
T (°C)
3
300 nA
—
85
2
300 nA
—
85
3
70 μA
—
85
2
60 μA
—
85
3
5 μA
—
85
2
4 μA
—
85
1
3-V values are 100% tested; 2-V values are characterized but not tested.
Typicals are measured at 25°C.
3
Does not include any DC loads on port pins.
4
Most customers are expected to find that auto-wakeup from a stop mode can be used instead of the higher current wait mode.
5
Values given under the following conditions: low range operation (RANGE = 0), Loss-of-clock disabled (LOCD = 1), low-power
oscillator (HGO = 0).
2
4
FEE 2-MHz Crystal, 8-MHz Bus
3
2
IDD (mA)
1
FEE 32-kHz Crystal, 1-MHz Bus
FBE 2-MHz Crystal, 1-MHz Bus
0
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.7
3
3.3
3.6
VDD (V)
Figure A-6. Typical Run IDD for FBE and FEE, IDD vs. VDD
(ACMP and ADC off, All Other Modules Enabled)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
273
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
A.7
External Oscillator (XOSC) and Internal Clock Source (ICS)
Characteristics
Reference Figure A-7 for crystal or resonator circuit.
Table A-8. XOSC and ICS Specifications (Temperature Range = –40 to 125°C Ambient)
Characteristic
Internal reference frequency — factory trimmed at VDD = 3.6V and
temperature = 25°C
Oscillator crystal or resonator (EREFS = 1, ERCLKEN = 1)
Low range (RANGE = 0)
High range (RANGE = 1) FEE or FBE mode 1
High range (RANGE = 1), high gain (HGO = 1), FBELP mode
High range (RANGE = 1), low power (HGO = 0), FBELP mode
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
fint_ft
—
31.25
—
kHz
flo
fhi
fhi
fhi
32
1
1
1
—
—
—
—
38.4
5
16
8
kHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
C1
C2
Load capacitors
Feedback resistor
Low range (32 kHz to 38.4 kHz)
See Note 2
RF
10
1
High range (1 MHz to 16 MHz)
Series resistor — Low range
Low Gain (HGO = 0)
High Gain (HGO = 1)
RS
Series resistor — High range
Low Gain (HGO = 0)
High Gain (HGO = 1)
≥ 8 MHz
4 MHz
1 MHz
RS
Crystal start-up time 3, 4
Low range, low power
Low range, high power
High range, low power
High range, high power
t
CSTL
t
CSTH
MΩ
MΩ
—
—
0
100
—
—
kΩ
—
—
—
0
0
0
0
10
20
—
—
—
—
200
400
5
15
—
—
—
—
ms
kΩ
Internal reference start-up time
tIRST
—
60
100
μs
Square wave input clock frequency (EREFS = 0, ERCLKEN = 1)
FEE or FBE mode 2
FBELP mode
fextal
0.03125
0
—
—
5
20
MHz
MHz
Internal reference frequency - untrimmed5
fint_ut
25
32.7
41.66
kHz
Internal reference frequency - trimmed
fint_t
31.25
—
39.06
kHz
DCO output frequency range - untrimmed5 fdco= 512 * fint_ut
fdco_ut
12.8
16.8
21.33
MHz
DCO output frequency range - trimmed
fdco_t
16
—
20
MHz
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
274
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
Table A-8. XOSC and ICS Specifications (Temperature Range = –40 to 125°C Ambient)
Characteristic
Resolution of trimmed DCO output frequency at fixed voltage and
temperature 4
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Δfdco_res_t
—
±0.1
± 0.2
%fdco
—
–1.5 to ±0.5
±3
—
–1.0 to ±0.5
±2
—
±0.5
±1
Total deviation of DCO output from trimmed frequency:3
At 8MHz over full voltage and temperature range (M Suffix)
Δfdco_t
At 8MHz over full voltage and temperature rang (C Suffix)
At 8MHz and 3.6V from 0 to 70°C
(C Suffix)
FLL acquisition time 4,6
tAcquire
Long term jitter of DCO output clock (averaged over 2-ms interval) 7
CJitter
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
—
0.02
%fdco
1.5
ms
0.2
%fdco
When ICS is configured for FEE or FBE mode, input clock source must be divisible using RDIV to within the range of 31.25 kHz
to 39.0625 kHz.
See crystal or resonator manufacturer’s recommendation.
This parameter is characterized and not tested on each device.
Proper PC board layout procedures must be followed to achieve specifications.
TRIM register at default value (0x80) and FTRIM control bit at default value (0x0).
This specification applies to any time the FLL reference source or reference divider is changed, trim value changed or changing
from FLL disabled (FBELP, FBILP) to FLL enabled (FEI, FEE, FBE, FBI). If a crystal/resonator is being used as the reference,
this specification assumes it is already running.
Jitter is the average deviation from the programmed frequency measured over the specified interval at maximum fBus.
Measurements are made with the device powered by filtered supplies and clocked by a stable external clock signal. Noise
injected into the FLL circuitry via VDD and VSS and variation in crystal oscillator frequency increase the CJitter percentage for a
given interval.
XOSC
EXTAL
XTAL
RF
C1
RS
Crystal or Resonator
C2
Figure A-7. Typical Crystal or Resonator Circuit
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
275
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
A.8
AC Characteristics
This section describes timing characteristics for each peripheral system.
A.8.1
Control Timing
Table A-9. Control Timing
Symbol
Min
Typ1
Max
Unit
Bus frequency (tcyc = 1/fBus)
fBus
0
—
10
MHz
Real-time interrupt internal oscillator period
tRTI
700
1000
1300
μs
textrst
100
—
—
ns
IRQ pulse width
Asynchronous path2
Synchronous path3
tILIH
100
1.5 tcyc
—
—
ns
KBIPx pulse width
Asynchronous path2
Synchronous path3
tILIH, tIHIL
100
1.5 tcyc
—
—
ns
Port rise and fall time (load = 50 pF)4
Slew rate control disabled (PTxSE = 0)
Slew rate control enabled (PTxSE = 1)
tRise, tFall
—
—
3
30
—
—
ns
BKGD/MS setup time after issuing background debug force
reset to enter user or BDM modes
tMSSU
500
—
—
ns
BKGD/MS hold time after issuing background debug force
reset to enter user or BDM modes 5
tMSH
100
—
—
μs
Parameter
External reset pulse
width2
1
Data in Typical column was characterized at 3.0 V, 25°C.
This is the shortest pulse that is guaranteed to be recognized.
3 This is the minimum pulse width that is guaranteed to pass through the pin synchronization circuitry. Shorter pulses may or
may not be recognized. In stop mode, the synchronizer is bypassed so shorter pulses can be recognized in that case.
4 Timing is shown with respect to 20% V
DD and 80% VDD levels. Temperature range –40°C to 85°C.
5 To enter BDM mode following a POR, BKGD/MS should be held low during the power-up and for a hold time of t
MSH after VDD
rises above VLVD.
2
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
276
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
Period (μs)
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
–40
–20
0
20
40
Temperature (°C)
60
80
100
120
140
Figure A-8. Typical RTI Clock Period vs. Temperature
textrst
RESET PIN
Figure A-9. Reset Timing
tIHIL
KBIPx
IRQ/KBIPx
tILIH
Figure A-10. IRQ/KBIPx Timing
A.8.2
TPM/MTIM Module Timing
Synchronizer circuits determine the shortest input pulses that can be recognized or the fastest clock that
can be used as the optional external source to the timer counter. These synchronizers operate from the
current bus rate clock.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
277
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
Table A-10. TPM/MTIM Input Timing
Function
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
External clock frequency
fTCLK
0
fBus/4
Hz
External clock period
tTCLK
4
—
tcyc
External clock high time
tclkh
1.5
—
tcyc
External clock low time
tclkl
1.5
—
tcyc
tICPW
1.5
—
tcyc
Input capture pulse width
tTCLK
tclkh
TCLK
tclkl
Figure A-11. Timer External Clock
tICPW
TPMCHn
TPMCHn
tICPW
Figure A-12. Timer Input Capture Pulse
A.8.3
SPI Timing
Table A-11 and Figure A-13 through Figure A-16 describe the timing requirements for the SPI system.
Table A-11. SPI Timing
No.
Function
Operating frequency
Master
Slave
1
2
3
SPSCK period
Master
Slave
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
fBus/2048
0
fBus/2
fBus/4
2
4
2048
—
tcyc
tcyc
1/2
1
—
—
tSPSCK
tcyc
1/2
1
—
—
tSPSCK
tcyc
Hz
fop
tSPSCK
Enable lead time
Master
Slave
tLead
Enable lag time
Master
Slave
tLag
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
278
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
Table A-11. SPI Timing (continued)
No.
4
5
Function
Clock (SPSCK) high or low time
Master
Slave
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
tcyc – 30
tcyc – 30
1024 tcyc
—
ns
ns
15
15
—
—
ns
ns
0
25
—
—
ns
ns
tWSPSCK
Data setup time (inputs)
Master
Slave
tSU
Data hold time (inputs)
Master
Slave
tHI
7
Slave access time
ta
—
1
tcyc
8
Slave MISO disable time
tdis
—
1
tcyc
9
Data valid (after SPSCK edge)
Master
Slave
—
—
25
25
ns
ns
0
0
—
—
ns
ns
6
10
11
12
Data hold time (outputs)
Master
Slave
tv
tHO
Rise time
Input
Output
tRI
tRO
—
—
tcyc – 25
25
ns
ns
Fall time
Input
Output
tFI
tFO
—
—
tcyc – 25
25
ns
ns
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
279
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
SS1
(OUTPUT)
11
1
2
SPSCK
(CPOL = 0)
(OUTPUT)
3
4
4
12
SPSCK
(CPOL = 1)
(OUTPUT)
5
MISO
(INPUT)
6
MSB IN2
BIT 6 . . . 1
9
LSB IN
10
9
MOSI
(OUTPUT)
BIT 6 . . . 1
MSB OUT2
LSB OUT
NOTES:
1. SS output mode (DDS7 = 1, SSOE = 1).
2. LSBF = 0. For LSBF = 1, bit order is LSB, bit 1, ..., bit 6, MSB.
Figure A-13. SPI Master Timing (CPHA = 0)
SS(1)
(OUTPUT)
1
2
12
11
11
12
3
SPSCK
(CPOL = 0)
(OUTPUT)
4
4
SPSCK
(CPOL = 1)
(OUTPUT)
5
MISO
(INPUT)
6
MSB IN(2)
LSB IN
10
9
MOSI
(OUTPUT) PORT DATA
BIT 6 . . . 1
MASTER MSB OUT(2)
BIT 6 . . . 1
MASTER LSB OUT
PORT DATA
NOTES:
1. SS output mode (DDS7 = 1, SSOE = 1).
2. LSBF = 0. For LSBF = 1, bit order is LSB, bit 1, ..., bit 6, MSB.
Figure A-14. SPI Master Timing (CPHA =1)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
280
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
SS
(INPUT)
1
12
11
11
12
3
SPSCK
(CPOL = 0)
(INPUT)
2
4
4
SPSCK
(CPOL = 1)
(INPUT)
8
7
MISO
(OUTPUT)
MSB OUT
SLAVE
BIT 6 . . . 1
SLAVE LSB OUT
SEE
NOTE
6
5
MOSI
(INPUT)
10
10
9
BIT 6 . . . 1
MSB IN
LSB IN
NOTE:
1. Not defined but normally MSB of character just received
Figure A-15. SPI Slave Timing (CPHA = 0)
SS
(INPUT)
1
3
2
12
11
11
12
SPSCK
(CPOL = 0)
(INPUT)
4
4
SPSCK
(CPOL = 1)
(INPUT)
10
9
MISO
(OUTPUT)
SEE
NOTE
7
MOSI
(INPUT)
SLAVE
MSB OUT
5
BIT 6 . . . 1
8
SLAVE LSB OUT
6
MSB IN
BIT 6 . . . 1
LSB IN
NOTE:
1. Not defined but normally LSB of character just received
Figure A-16. SPI Slave Timing (CPHA = 1)
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
281
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
A.9
Analog Comparator (ACMP) Electricals
Table A-12. Analog Comparator Electrical Specifications
Characteristic
Symbol
Min
Typical
Max
Unit
VDD
1.80
—
3.6
V
Supply current (active)
IDDAC
—
20
—
μA
Analog input voltage
VAIN
VSS – 0.3
—
VDD
V
Analog input offset voltage
VAIO
20
40
mV
Supply voltage
Analog comparator hysteresis
VH
3.0
9.0
15.0
mV
Analog input leakage current
IALKG
—
—
1.0
μA
Analog comparator initialization delay
tAINIT
—
—
1.0
μs
A.10
ADC Characteristics
Table A-13. 3 Volt 10-bit ADC Operating Conditions
Symbol
Min
Typical1
Max
Unit
VDD
1.8
—
3.6
V
Input voltage
VADIN
VSS
—
VDD
V
Input capacitance
CADIN
—
4.5
5.5
pF
Input resistance
RADIN
—
5
7
kΩ
—
—
—
—
5
10
—
—
10
0.4
—
8.0
0.4
—
4.0
Characteristic
Supply voltage
Analog source
resistance
Conditions
Absolute
10 bit mode
fADCK > 4MHz
fADCK < 4MHz
8 bit mode (all valid fADCK)
ADC conversion
clock frequency
1
kΩ
RAS
High Speed (ADLPC=0)
Low Power (ADLPC=1)
fADCK
Comment
External to
MCU
MHz
Typical values assume VDD = 3.0 V, Temp = 25°C, fADCK=1.0 MHz unless otherwise stated. Typical values are for reference only
and are not tested in production.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
282
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
SIMPLIFIED
INPUT PIN EQUIVALENT
CIRCUIT
ZADIN
SIMPLIFIED
CHANNEL SELECT
CIRCUIT
Pad
leakage
due to
input
protection
ZAS
RAS
ADC SAR
ENGINE
RADIN
+
VADIN
VAS
+
–
CAS
–
RADIN
INPUT PIN
RADIN
INPUT PIN
RADIN
INPUT PIN
CADIN
Figure A-17. ADC Input Impedance Equivalency Diagram
Table A-14. 3 Volt 10-bit ADC Characteristics
Symb
Min
Typ1
Max
Unit
Supply current
ADLPC=1
ADLSMP=1
ADCO=1
IDDAD
—
120
—
μA
Supply current
ADLPC=1
ADLSMP=0
ADCO=1
IDDAD
—
202
—
μA
Supply current
ADLPC=0
ADLSMP=1
ADCO=1
IDDAD
—
288
—
μA
Supply current
ADLPC=0
ADLSMP=0
ADCO=1
IDDAD
—
532
646
μA
fADACK
2
3.3
5
MHz
1.25
2
3.3
Characteristic
ADC asynchronous
clock source
Conditions
High speed (ADLPC=0)
Low power (ADLPC=1)
Comment
tADACK =
1/fADACK
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
283
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
Table A-14. 3 Volt 10-bit ADC Characteristics (continued)
Conditions
Symb
Min
Typ1
Max
Unit
Comment
Short sample (ADLSMP=0)
tADC
—
20
—
—
40
—
ADCK
cycles
—
3.5
—
See
Table 9-12 for
conversion
time variances
—
23.5
—
—
±1.5
±3.5
—
±0.7
±1.5
—
±0.5
±1.0
—
±0.3
±0.5
—
±0.5
±1.0
—
±0.3
±0.5
—
±1.5
±2.1
—
±0.5
±0.7
0
±1.0
±1.5
0
±0.5
±0.5
—
—
±0.5
—
—
±0.5
0
±0.2
±4
0
±0.1
±1.2
—
1.646
—
—
1.769
—
—
701.2
—
Characteristic
Conversion time
(including sample
time)
Long sample (ADLSMP=1)
Sample time
Short sample (ADLSMP=0)
tADS
Long sample (ADLSMP=1)
Total unadjusted error
10 bit mode
ETUE
8 bit mode
Differential
non-linearity
10 bit mode
Integral non-linearity
10 bit mode
DNL
8 bit mode
INL
8 bit mode
Zero-scale error
10 bit mode
EZS
8 bit mode
Full-scale error
10 bit mode
EFS
8 bit mode
Quantization error
10 bit mode
EQ
8 bit mode
Input leakage error
10 bit mode
EIL
8 bit mode
Temp sensor
slope
-40°C– 25°C
Temp sensor
voltage
25°C
m
25°C– 85°C
VTEMP25
ADCK
cycles
LSB2
Includes
quantization
LSB2
Monotonicity
and no
missing codes
guaranteed
LSB2
LSB2
VADIN = VSS
LSB2
VADIN = VDD
LSB2
LSB2
Pad leakage3 *
RAS
mV/°C
mV
1
Typical values assume VDD = 3.0 V, Temp = 25°C, fADCK = 1.0 MHz unless otherwise stated. Typical values are for reference
only and are not tested in production.
2 1 LSB = (V
N
REFH - VREFL)/2
3 Based on input pad leakage current. Refer to pad electricals.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
284
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
A.11
FLASH Specifications
This section provides details about program/erase times and program-erase endurance for the FLASH
memory.
Program and erase operations do not require any special power sources other than the normal VDD supply.
For more detailed information about program/erase operations, see the Memory section.
Table A-15. FLASH Characteristics
Characteristic
Symbol
Min
Typical
Max
Unit
Vprog/erase
1.8
—
3.6
V
2.1
—
3.6
VRead
1.8
—
3.6
V
fFCLK
150
—
200
kHz
tFcyc
5
—
6.67
μs
Supply voltage for program/erase:
T ≤ 85°C
T > 85 °C
Supply voltage for read operation
Internal FCLK
frequency1
Internal FCLK period (1/FCLK)
Byte program time (random
Byte program time (burst
location)(2)
mode)(2)
tprog
9
tFcyc
tBurst
4
tFcyc
Page erase
time2
tPage
4000
tFcyc
Mass erase
time(2)
tMass
20,000
tFcyc
endurance3
Program/erase
TL to TH = –40°C to + 125°C
T = 25°C
Data retention4
tD_ret
10,000
—
100,000
—
—
cycles
15
100
—
years
1
The frequency of this clock is controlled by a software setting.
These values are hardware state machine controlled. User code does not need to count cycles. This information supplied for
calculating approximate time to program and erase.
3 Typical endurance for FLASH was evaluated for this product family on the 9S12Dx64. For additional information on how
Motorola defines typical endurance, please refer to Engineering Bulletin EB619/D, Typical Endurance for Nonvolatile Memory.
4
Typical data retention values are based on intrinsic capability of the technology measured at high temperature and de-rated
to 25°C using the Arrhenius equation. For additional information on how Motorola defines typical data retention, please refer
to Engineering Bulletin EB618/D, Typical Data Retention for Nonvolatile Memory.
2
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
285
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
A.12
EMC Performance
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance is highly dependant on the environment in which the
MCU resides. Board design and layout, circuit topology choices, location and characteristics of external
components as well as MCU software operation all play a significant role in EMC performance. The
system designer should consult Freescale applications notes such as AN2321, AN1050, AN1263,
AN2764, and AN1259 for advice and guidance specifically targeted at optimizing EMC performance.
A.12.1
Radiated Emissions
Microcontroller radiated RF emissions are measured from 150 kHz to 1 GHz using the TEM/GTEM Cell
method in accordance with the IEC 61967-2 and SAE J1752/3 standards. The measurement is performed
with the microcontroller installed on a custom EMC evaluation board while running specialized EMC test
software. The radiated emissions from the microcontroller are measured in a TEM cell in two package
orientations (North and East).
The maximum radiated RF emissions of the tested configuration in all orientations are less than or equal
to the reported emissions levels.
Table A-16. Radiated Emissions, Electric Field
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
Frequency
fOSC/fBUS
VRE_TEM
VDD = 3.3 V
TA = +25oC
package type
16 TSSOP
0.15 – 50 MHz
4-MHz crystal
10-MHz bus
Radiated emissions,
electric field
1
50 – 150 MHz
Level1
(Max)
Unit
TBD
dBμV
TBD
150 – 500 MHz
TBD
500 – 1000 MHz
TBD
IEC Level
TBD
—
SAE Level
TBD
—
Data based on qualification test results.
A.12.2
Conducted Transient Susceptibility
Microcontroller transient conducted susceptibility is measured in accordance with an internal Freescale
test method. The measurement is performed with the microcontroller installed on a custom EMC
evaluation board and running specialized EMC test software designed in compliance with the test method.
The conducted susceptibility is determined by injecting the transient susceptibility signal on each pin of
the microcontroller. The transient waveform and injection methodology is based on IEC 61000-4-4
(EFT/B). The transient voltage required to cause performance degradation on any pin in the tested
configuration is greater than or equal to the reported levels unless otherwise indicated by footnotes below
Table A-17.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
286
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
Table A-17. Conducted Susceptibility, EFT/B
Parameter
Symbol
Conducted susceptibility, electrical
fast transient/burst (EFT/B)
1
VCS_EFT
Conditions
VDD = 3.3V
TA = +25oC
package type
TBD
fOSC/fBUS
TBD crystal
TBD bus
Result
Amplitude1
(Min)
A
TBD
B
TBD
C
TBD
D
TBD
Unit
kV
Data based on qualification test results. Not tested in production.
The susceptibility performance classification is described in Table A-18.
Table A-18. Susceptibility Performance Classification
Result
Performance Criteria
A
No failure
The MCU performs as designed during and after exposure.
B
Self-recovering
failure
C
Soft failure
The MCU does not perform as designed during exposure. The MCU does not return to
normal operation until exposure is removed and the RESET pin is asserted.
D
Hard failure
The MCU does not perform as designed during exposure. The MCU does not return to
normal operation until exposure is removed and the power to the MCU is cycled.
E
Damage
The MCU does not perform as designed during and after exposure. The MCU cannot
be returned to proper operation due to physical damage or other permanent
performance degradation.
The MCU does not perform as designed during exposure. The MCU returns
automatically to normal operation after exposure is removed.
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
287
Appendix A Electrical Characteristics
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
288
Freescale Semiconductor
Appendix B
Ordering Information and Mechanical Drawings
B.1
Ordering Information
This section contains ordering information for MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 devices.
Table B-1. Device Numbering System
1
2
Available Packages2
Memory
Device Number1
FLASH
RAM
24-Pin
16-Pin
8-Pin
MC9S08QG8
8K
512
24 QFN
16 PDIP
16 QFN
16 TSSOP
8 DFN
8 NB SOIC
MC9S08QG4
4K
256
24 QFN
16 QFN
16 TSSOP
8 DFN
8 PDIP
8 NB SOIC
See Table 1-1 for a complete description of modules included on each device.
See Table B-2 for package information.
B.1.1
Device Numbering Scheme
MC 9 S08 QG 8 (4) X XX E
RoHS compliance indicator (E = yes)
Package designator (see Table B-2)
Status
(MC = Fully Qualified)
Memory
(9 = FLASH-based)
Core
1
B.2
Family
Only maskset 4M77B has this additional number.
Temperature range (C = –40°C to +85°C)
(M = –40°C to +125°C)
4M77B1.
Memory Size (in Kbytes)
Mechanical Drawings
The following pages are mechanical specifications for MC9S08QG8/4 package options. See Table B-2 for
the document number for each package type.
Table B-2. Package Information
Pin Count
Type
Designator
Document No.
24
QFN
FK
98ARL10605D
16
PDIP
PB
98ASB42431B
16
QFN
FF
98ARE10614D
16
TSSOP
DT
98ASH70247A
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
Freescale Semiconductor
289
Appendix B Ordering Information and Mechanical Drawings
Table B-2. Package Information (continued)
Pin Count
Type
Designator
Document No.
8
DFN
FQ
98ARL10557D
8
PDIP
PA
98ASB42420B
8
NB SOIC
DN
98ASB42564B
MC9S08QG8 and MC9S08QG4 Data Sheet, Rev. 5
290
Freescale Semiconductor
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MC9S08QG8
Rev. 5, 11/2009
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