ATmega48/88/168 - Summary

Features
• High performance, low power Atmel® AVR® 8-bit microcontroller
• Advanced RISC architecture
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
– 131 powerful instructions – most single clock cycle execution
– 32 × 8 general purpose working registers
– Fully static operation
– Up to 20 MIPS throughput at 20MHz
– On-chip 2-cycle multiplier
High endurance non-volatile memory segments
– 4/8/16 Kbytes of in-system self-programmable flash program memory
– 256/512/512 bytes EEPROM
– 512/1K/1Kbytes internal SRAM
– Write/erase cyles: 10,000 flash/100,000 EEPROM
– Data retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C(1)
– Optional boot code section with independent lock bits
In-system programming by on-chip boot program
True read-while-write operation
– Programming lock for software security
QTouch® library support
– Capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels
– QTouch and QMatrix acquisition
– Up to 64 sense channels
Peripheral features
– Two 8-bit timer/counters with separate prescaler and compare mode
– One 16-bit timer/counter with separate prescaler, compare mode, and capture mode
– Real time counter with separate oscillator
– Six PWM channels
– 8-channel 10-bit ADC in TQFP and QFN/MLF package
– 6-channel 10-bit ADC in PDIP Package
– Programmable serial USART
– Master/slave SPI serial interface
– Byte-oriented 2-wire serial interface (Philips I2C compatible)
– Programmable watchdog timer with separate on-chip oscillator
– On-chip analog comparator
– Interrupt and wake-up on pin change
Special microcontroller features
– DebugWIRE on-chip debug system
– Power-on reset and programmable brown-out detection
– Internal calibrated oscillator
– External and internal interrupt sources
– Five sleep modes: Idle, ADC noise reduction, power-save, power-down, and standby
I/O and packages
– 23 programmable I/O lines
– 28-pin PDIP, 32-lead TQFP, 28-pad QFN/MLF and 32-pad QFN/MLF
Operating voltage:
– 1.8V - 5.5V for Atmel ATmega48V/88V/168V
– 2.7V - 5.5V for Atmel ATmega48/88/168
Temperature range:
– -40°C to 85°C
Speed grade:
– ATmega48V/88V/168V: 0 - 4MHz @ 1.8V - 5.5V, 0 - 10MHz @ 2.7V - 5.5V
– ATmega48/88/168: 0 - 10MHz @ 2.7V - 5.5V, 0 - 20MHz @ 4.5V - 5.5V
Low power consumption
– Active mode:
250µA at 1MHz, 1.8V
15µA at 32kHz, 1.8V (including oscillator)
– Power-down mode:
0.1µA at 1.8V
Note:
1. See “Data retention” on page 8 for details.
8-bit Atmel
Microcontroller
with 4/8/16K
Bytes In-System
Programmable
Flash
ATmega48/V
ATmega88/V
ATmega168/V
Summary
Rev. 2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
1.
Pin configurations
Figure 1-1.
Pinout Atmel ATmega48/88/168.
PDIP
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
PD2 (INT0/PCINT18)
PD1 (TXD/PCINT17)
PD0 (RXD/PCINT16)
PC6 (RESET/PCINT14)
PC5 (ADC5/SCL/PCINT13)
PC4 (ADC4/SDA/PCINT12)
PC3 (ADC3/PCINT11)
PC2 (ADC2/PCINT10)
TQFP Top View
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PC1 (ADC1/PCINT9)
PC0 (ADC0/PCINT8)
ADC7
GND
AREF
ADC6
AVCC
PB5 (SCK/PCINT5)
(PCINT21/OC0B/T1) PD5
(PCINT22/OC0A/AIN0) PD6
(PCINT23/AIN1) PD7
(PCINT0/CLKO/ICP1) PB0
(PCINT1/OC1A) PB1
(PCINT2/SS/OC1B) PB2
(PCINT3/OC2A/MOSI) PB3
(PCINT4/MISO) PB4
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
PD2 (INT0/PCINT18)
PD1 (TXD/PCINT17)
PD0 (RXD/PCINT16)
PC6 (RESET/PCINT14)
PC5 (ADC5/SCL/PCINT13)
PC4 (ADC4/SDA/PCINT12)
PC3 (ADC3/PCINT11)
PC2 (ADC2/PCINT10)
PC2 (ADC2/PCINT10)
PC1 (ADC1/PCINT9)
PC0 (ADC0/PCINT8)
GND
AREF
AVCC
PB5 (SCK/PCINT5)
(PCINT19/OC2B/INT1) PD3
(PCINT20/XCK/T0) PD4
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
(PCINT6/XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6
(PCINT7/XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PC1 (ADC1/PCINT9)
PC0 (ADC0/PCINT8)
ADC7
GND
AREF
ADC6
AVCC
PB5 (SCK/PCINT5)
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
(PCINT22/OC0A/AIN0) PD6
(PCINT23/AIN1) PD7
(PCINT0/CLKO/ICP1) PB0
(PCINT1/OC1A) PB1
(PCINT2/SS/OC1B) PB2
(PCINT3/OC2A/MOSI) PB3
(PCINT4/MISO) PB4
NOTE: Bottom pad should be soldered to ground.
PC5 (ADC5/SCL/PCINT13)
PC4 (ADC4/SDA/PCINT12)
PC3 (ADC3/PCINT11)
PC2 (ADC2/PCINT10)
PC1 (ADC1/PCINT9)
PC0 (ADC0/PCINT8)
GND
AREF
AVCC
PB5 (SCK/PCINT5)
PB4 (MISO/PCINT4)
PB3 (MOSI/OC2A/PCINT3)
PB2 (SS/OC1B/PCINT2)
PB1 (OC1A/PCINT1)
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
PD2 (INT0/PCINT18)
PD1 (TXD/PCINT17)
PD0 (RXD/PCINT16)
PC6 (RESET/PCINT14)
PC5 (ADC5/SCL/PCINT13)
PC4 (ADC4/SDA/PCINT12)
PC3 (ADC3/PCINT11)
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
32 MLF Top View
28 MLF Top View
(PCINT19/OC2B/INT1) PD3
(PCINT20/XCK/T0) PD4
VCC
GND
(PCINT6/XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6
(PCINT7/XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7
(PCINT21/OC0B/T1) PD5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
NOTE: Bottom pad should be soldered to ground.
(PCINT21/OC0B/T1) PD5
(PCINT22/OC0A/AIN0) PD6
(PCINT23/AIN1) PD7
(PCINT0/CLKO/ICP1) PB0
(PCINT1/OC1A) PB1
(PCINT2/SS/OC1B) PB2
(PCINT3/OC2A/MOSI) PB3
(PCINT4/MISO) PB4
(PCINT19/OC2B/INT1) PD3
(PCINT20/XCK/T0) PD4
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
(PCINT6/XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6
(PCINT7/XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7
(PCINT14/RESET) PC6
(PCINT16/RXD) PD0
(PCINT17/TXD) PD1
(PCINT18/INT0) PD2
(PCINT19/OC2B/INT1) PD3
(PCINT20/XCK/T0) PD4
VCC
GND
(PCINT6/XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6
(PCINT7/XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7
(PCINT21/OC0B/T1) PD5
(PCINT22/OC0A/AIN0) PD6
(PCINT23/AIN1) PD7
(PCINT0/CLKO/ICP1) PB0
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ATmega48/88/168
1.1
Pin descriptions
1.1.1
VCC
Digital supply voltage.
1.1.2
GND
Ground.
1.1.3
Port B (PB7:0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB6 can be used as input to the inverting
Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB7 can be used as output from the inverting
Oscillator amplifier.
If the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator is used as chip clock source, PB7..6 is used as TOSC2..1
input for the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 if the AS2 bit in ASSR is set.
The various special features of Port B are elaborated in “Alternate functions of port B” on page
83 and “System clock and clock options” on page 27.
1.1.4
Port C (PC5:0)
Port C is a 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
PC5..0 output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
1.1.5
PC6/RESET
If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed, PC6 is used as an I/O pin. Note that the electrical
characteristics of PC6 differ from those of the other pins of Port C.
If the RSTDISBL Fuse is unprogrammed, PC6 is used as a Reset input. A low level on this pin
for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a Reset, even if the clock is not running.
The minimum pulse length is given in Table 29-3 on page 314. Shorter pulses are not
guaranteed to generate a Reset.
The various special features of Port C are elaborated in “Alternate functions of port C” on page
86.
1.1.6
Port D (PD7:0)
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
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2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
The various special features of Port D are elaborated in “Alternate functions of port D” on page
89.
1.1.7
AVCC
AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter, PC3:0, and ADC7:6. It should be externally
connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC
through a low-pass filter. Note that PC6..4 use digital supply voltage, VCC.
1.1.8
AREF
AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.
1.1.9
ADC7:6 (TQFP and QFN/MLF package only)
In the TQFP and QFN/MLF package, ADC7:6 serve as analog inputs to the A/D converter.
These pins are powered from the analog supply and serve as 10-bit ADC channels.
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ATmega48/88/168
2.
Overview
The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR
enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the
ATmega48/88/168 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system
designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
Block diagram
Block diagram.
GND
Figure 2-1.
VCC
2.1
Watchdog
timer
Watchdog
oscillator
Oscillator
circuits /
clock
generation
Power
supervision
POR / BOD &
RESET
debugWIRE
Flash
SRAM
PROGRAM
LOGIC
CPU
EEPROM
AVCC
AREF
DATABUS
GND
8bit T/C 0
16bit T/C 1
A/D conv.
8bit T/C 2
Analog
comp.
Internal
bandgap
USART 0
SPI
TWI
PORT D (8)
PORT B (8)
PORT C (7)
2
6
RESET
XTAL[1..2]
PD[0..7]
PB[0..7]
PC[0..6]
ADC[6..7]
The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the
32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent
registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting
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2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than
conventional CISC microcontrollers.
The Atmel ATmega48/88/168 provides the following features: 4K/8K/16K bytes of In-System
Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 256/512/512 bytes EEPROM,
512/1K/1K bytes SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers,
three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, a serial
programmable USART, a byte-oriented 2-wire Serial Interface, an SPI serial port, a 6-channel
10-bit ADC (8 channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages), a programmable Watchdog Timer
with internal Oscillator, and five software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops
the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, USART, 2-wire Serial Interface, SPI port,
and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents
but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware
reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to
maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction mode
stops the CPU and all I/O modules except asynchronous timer and ADC, to minimize switching
noise during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running
while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low power
consumption.
Atmel offers the QTouch Library for embedding capacitive touch buttons, sliders and wheels
functionality into AVR microcontrollers. The patented charge-transfer signal acquisition offers
robust sensing and includes fully debounced reporting of touch keys and includes Adjacent Key
Suppression® (AKS®) technology for unambigiuous detection of key events. The easy-to-use
QTouch Suite toolchain allows you to explore, develop and debug your own touch applications.
The device is manufactured using the Atmel high density non-volatile memory technology. The
On-chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI
serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer, or by an On-chip Boot
program running on the AVR core. The Boot program can use any interface to download the
application program in the Application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will
continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write
operation. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a
monolithic chip, the Atmel ATmega48/88/168 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly
flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The ATmega48/88/168 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development
tools including: C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Program Debugger/Simulators, In-Circuit
Emulators, and Evaluation kits.
2.2
Comparison between Atmel ATmega48, Atmel ATmega88, and Atmel ATmega168
The ATmega48, ATmega88 and ATmega168 differ only in memory sizes, boot loader support,
and interrupt vector sizes. Table 2-1 summarizes the different memory and interrupt vector sizes
for the three devices.
Table 2-1.
Memory size summary.
Device
Flash
EEPROM
RAM
Interrupt vector size
ATmega48
4Kbytes
256Bytes
512Bytes
1 instruction word/vector
ATmega88
8Kbytes
512Bytes
1Kbytes
1 instruction word/vector
ATmega168
16Kbytes
512Bytes
1Kbytes
2 instruction words/vector
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2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
ATmega88 and ATmega168 support a real Read-While-Write Self-Programming mechanism.
There is a separate Boot Loader Section, and the SPM instruction can only execute from there.
In ATmega48, there is no Read-While-Write support and no separate Boot Loader Section. The
SPM instruction can execute from the entire Flash.
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2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
3.
Resources
A comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for
download on http://www.atmel.com/avr.
4.
Data retention
Reliability Qualification results show that the projected data retention failure rate is much less
than 1 PPM over 20 years at 85°C or 100 years at 25°C.
5.
About code examples
This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of
the device. These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before
compilation. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files
and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please confirm with the C compiler
documentation for more details.
For I/O Registers located in extended I/O map, “IN”, “OUT”, “SBIS”, “SBIC”, “CBI”, and “SBI”
instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically
“LDS” and “STS” combined with “SBRS”, “SBRC”, “SBR”, and “CBR”.
6.
Capacitive touch sensing
The Atmel QTouch Library provides a simple to use solution to realize touch sensitive interfaces
on most Atmel AVR microcontrollers. The QTouch Library includes support for the QTouch and
QMatrix acquisition methods.
Touch sensing can be added to any application by linking the appropriate Atmel QTouch Library
for the AVR Microcontroller. This is done by using a simple set of APIs to define the touch
channels and sensors, and then calling the touch sensing API’s to retrieve the channel
information and determine the touch sensor states.
The QTouch Library is FREE and downloadable from the Atmel website at the following location:
www.atmel.com/qtouchlibrary. For implementation details and other information, refer to the
Atmel QTouch Library User Guide - also available for download from the Atmel website.
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ATmega48/88/168
7.
Register summary
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0xFF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xFA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xF0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xED)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xEA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xE0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xDA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xD0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xCA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC6)
UDR0
(0xC5)
UBRR0H
(0xC4)
UBRR0L
(0xC3)
Reserved
–
–
USART I/O data register
194
USART baud rate register high
198
USART baud rate register low
–
Page
198
–
–
–
–
–
(0xC2)
UCSR0C
UMSEL01
UMSEL00
UPM01
UPM00
USBS0
UCSZ01 /UDORD0
UCSZ00 / UCPHA0
UCPOL0
196/211
(0xC1)
UCSR0B
RXCIE0
TXCIE0
UDRIE0
RXEN0
TXEN0
UCSZ02
RXB80
TXB80
195
(0xC0)
UCSR0A
RXC0
TXC0
UDRE0
FE0
DOR0
UPE0
U2X0
MPCM0
194
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ATmega48/88/168
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0xBF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Page
(0xBE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xBD)
TWAMR
TWAM6
TWAM5
TWAM4
TWAM3
TWAM2
TWAM1
TWAM0
–
244
(0xBC)
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
241
(0xBB)
TWDR
(0xBA)
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
244
(0xB9)
TWSR
TWS7
TWS6
TWS5
TWS4
TWS3
–
TWPS1
TWPS0
243
(0xB8)
TWBR
(0xB7)
Reserved
–
(0xB6)
ASSR
–
(0xB5)
Reserved
–
(0xB4)
OCR2B
Timer/Counter2 output compare register B
162
(0xB3)
OCR2A
Timer/Counter2 output compare register A
161
(0xB2)
TCNT2
Timer/Counter2 (8-bit)
(0xB1)
TCCR2B
FOC2A
FOC2B
–
–
WGM22
CS22
CS21
CS20
161
160
(0xB0)
TCCR2A
COM2A1
COM2A0
COM2B1
COM2B0
–
–
WGM21
WGM20
157
(0xAF)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
2-wire serial interface data register
243
2-wire serial interface bit rate register
241
–
–
–
–
–
–
EXCLK
AS2
TCN2UB
OCR2AUB
OCR2BUB
TCR2AUB
TCR2BUB
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
163
(0xAE)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAD)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAC)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAB)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xAA)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA9)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA8)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA7)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA6)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA5)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA4)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA3)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA2)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA1)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0xA0)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9B)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x9A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x99)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x98)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x97)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x96)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x95)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x94)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x93)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x92)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x91)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x90)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x8B)
OCR1BH
Timer/Counter1 - output compare register B high byte
138
(0x8A)
OCR1BL
Timer/Counter1 - output compare register B low byte
138
(0x89)
OCR1AH
Timer/Counter1 - output compare register A high byte
138
(0x88)
OCR1AL
Timer/Counter1 - output compare register A low byte
138
(0x87)
ICR1H
Timer/Counter1 - input capture register high byte
139
(0x86)
ICR1L
Timer/Counter1 - input capture register low byte
139
(0x85)
TCNT1H
Timer/Counter1 - counter register high byte
138
(0x84)
TCNT1L
Timer/Counter1 - counter register low byte
(0x83)
Reserved
–
–
–
(0x82)
TCCR1C
FOC1A
FOC1B
–
–
–
–
–
–
137
(0x81)
TCCR1B
ICNC1
ICES1
–
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
136
(0x80)
TCCR1A
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0
–
–
WGM11
WGM10
134
(0x7F)
DIDR1
–
–
–
–
–
–
AIN1D
AIN0D
248
(0x7E)
DIDR0
–
–
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
265
–
–
138
–
–
–
10
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
(0x7D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Page
(0x7C)
ADMUX
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
–
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
261
(0x7B)
ADCSRB
–
ACME
–
–
–
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
264
(0x7A)
ADCSRA
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
262
(0x79)
ADCH
ADC data register high byte
(0x78)
ADCL
ADC data register low byte
(0x77)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x76)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x75)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x74)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x73)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x72)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x71)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x70)
TIMSK2
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE2B
OCIE2A
TOIE2
162
(0x6F)
TIMSK1
–
–
ICIE1
–
–
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
139
(0x6E)
TIMSK0
–
–
–
–
–
OCIE0B
OCIE0A
TOIE0
111
(0x6D)
PCMSK2
PCINT23
PCINT22
PCINT21
PCINT20
PCINT19
PCINT18
PCINT17
PCINT16
75
(0x6C)
PCMSK1
–
PCINT14
PCINT13
PCINT12
PCINT11
PCINT10
PCINT9
PCINT8
75
(0x6B)
PCMSK0
PCINT7
PCINT6
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
75
(0x6A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x69)
EICRA
–
–
–
–
ISC11
ISC10
ISC01
ISC00
(0x68)
PCICR
–
–
–
–
–
PCIE2
PCIE1
PCIE0
(0x67)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x66)
OSCCAL
(0x65)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x64)
PRR
PRTWI
PRTIM2
PRTIM0
–
PRTIM1
PRSPI
PRUSART0
PRADC
(0x63)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x62)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
(0x61)
CLKPR
CLKPCE
–
–
–
CLKPS3
CLKPS2
CLKPS1
CLKPS0
37
(0x60)
WDTCSR
WDIF
WDIE
WDP3
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
53
0x3F (0x5F)
SREG
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
11
0x3E (0x5E)
SPH
–
–
–
–
–
(SP10) 5.
SP9
SP8
13
0x3D (0x5D)
SPL
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
13
0x3C (0x5C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x3B (0x5B)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x3A (0x5A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x39 (0x59)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x38 (0x58)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x37 (0x57)
SPMCSR
SPMIE
(RWWSB)5.
–
(RWWSRE)5.
BLBSET
PGWRT
PGERS
SELFPRGEN
0x36 (0x56)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x35 (0x55)
MCUCR
–
–
–
PUD
–
–
IVSEL
IVCE
0x34 (0x54)
MCUSR
–
–
–
–
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
264
264
Oscillator calibration register
71
37
0x33 (0x53)
SMCR
–
–
–
–
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
0x32 (0x52)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x31 (0x51)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x30 (0x50)
ACSR
ACD
ACBG
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
0x2F (0x4F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SPI data register
41
290
39
247
0x2E (0x4E)
SPDR
0x2D (0x4D)
SPSR
SPIF
WCOL
–
–
–
–
–
SPI2X
173
0x2C (0x4C)
SPCR
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
172
0x2B (0x4B)
GPIOR2
General purpose I/O register 2
0x2A (0x4A)
GPIOR1
General purpose I/O register 1
0x29 (0x49)
Reserved
0x28 (0x48)
OCR0B
Timer/Counter0 output compare register B
0x27 (0x47)
OCR0A
Timer/Counter0 output compare register A
0x26 (0x46)
TCNT0
0x25 (0x45)
TCCR0B
FOC0A
FOC0B
–
–
WGM02
CS02
CS01
CS00
0x24 (0x44)
TCCR0A
COM0A1
COM0A0
COM0B1
COM0B0
–
–
WGM01
WGM00
0x23 (0x43)
GTCCR
TSM
–
–
–
–
–
PSRASY
PSRSYNC
0x22 (0x42)
EEARH
(EEPROM address register high byte) 5.
22
0x21 (0x41)
EEARL
EEPROM address register low byte
22
0x20 (0x40)
EEDR
EEPROM data register
0x1F (0x3F)
EECR
0x1E (0x3E)
GPIOR0
0x1D (0x3D)
EIMSK
–
–
–
–
0x1C (0x3C)
EIFR
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
174
26
26
–
–
–
Timer/Counter0 (8-bit)
–
–
EEPM1
EEPM0
EERIE
143/164
22
EEMPE
EEPE
EERE
–
–
INT1
INT0
73
–
–
INTF1
INTF0
73
General purpose I/O register 0
22
26
11
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0x1B (0x3B)
PCIFR
–
–
–
–
–
PCIF2
PCIF1
PCIF0
0x1A (0x3A)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x19 (0x39)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x18 (0x38)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x17 (0x37)
TIFR2
–
–
–
–
–
OCF2B
OCF2A
TOV2
162
0x16 (0x36)
TIFR1
–
–
ICF1
–
–
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
140
0x15 (0x35)
TIFR0
–
–
–
–
–
OCF0B
OCF0A
TOV0
0x14 (0x34)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x13 (0x33)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x12 (0x32)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x11 (0x31)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x10 (0x30)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0F (0x2F)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0E (0x2E)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0D (0x2D)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0C (0x2C)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0B (0x2B)
PORTD
PORTD7
PORTD6
PORTD5
PORTD4
PORTD3
PORTD2
PORTD1
PORTD0
93
0x0A (0x2A)
DDRD
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
93
0x09 (0x29)
PIND
PIND7
PIND6
PIND5
PIND4
PIND3
PIND2
PIND1
PIND0
93
0x08 (0x28)
PORTC
–
PORTC6
PORTC5
PORTC4
PORTC3
PORTC2
PORTC1
PORTC0
92
0x07 (0x27)
DDRC
–
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
92
0x06 (0x26)
PINC
–
PINC6
PINC5
PINC4
PINC3
PINC2
PINC1
PINC0
92
0x05 (0x25)
PORTB
PORTB7
PORTB6
PORTB5
PORTB4
PORTB3
PORTB2
PORTB1
PORTB0
92
0x04 (0x24)
DDRB
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
92
0x03 (0x23)
PINB
PINB7
PINB6
PINB5
PINB4
PINB3
PINB2
PINB1
PINB0
92
0x02 (0x22)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x01 (0x21)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0x0 (0x20)
Reserved
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Note:
Page
1. For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses
should never be written.
2. I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these
registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions.
3. Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most other AVRs, the CBI and SBI
instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The
CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
4. When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O
Registers as data space using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The Atmel
ATmega48/88/168 is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location
reserved in Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM, only the
ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
5. Only valid for ATmega88/168
12
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
8.
Instruction set summary
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS
ADD
Rd, Rr
Add two registers
Rd  Rd + Rr
Z, C, N, V, H
ADC
Rd, Rr
Add with carry two registers
Rd  Rd + Rr + C
Z, C, N, V, H
1
ADIW
Rdl,K
Add immediate to word
Rdh:Rdl  Rdh:Rdl + K
Z, C, N, V, S
2
SUB
Rd, Rr
Subtract two registers
Rd  Rd - Rr
Z, C, N, V, H
1
SUBI
Rd, K
Subtract constant from register
Rd  Rd - K
Z, C, N, V, H
1
SBC
Rd, Rr
Subtract with carry two registers
Rd  Rd - Rr - C
Z, C, N, V, H
1
SBCI
Rd, K
Subtract with carry constant from reg.
Rd  Rd - K - C
Z, C, N, V, H
1
SBIW
Rdl,K
Subtract immediate from Word
Rdh:Rdl  Rdh:Rdl - K
Z, C, N, V, S
2
AND
Rd, Rr
Logical AND registers
Rd Rd  Rr
Z, N, V
1
ANDI
Rd, K
Logical AND register and constant
Rd  Rd K
Z, N, V
1
OR
Rd, Rr
Logical OR registers
Rd  Rd v Rr
Z, N, V
1
ORI
Rd, K
Logical OR register and constant
Rd Rd v K
Z, N, V
1
1
EOR
Rd, Rr
Exclusive OR registers
Rd  Rd  Rr
Z, N, V
1
COM
Rd
One’s complement
Rd  0xFF  Rd
Z, C, N, V
1
NEG
Rd
Two’s complement
Rd  0x00  Rd
Z, C, N, V, H
1
SBR
Rd,K
Set bit(s) in register
Rd  Rd v K
Z, N, V
1
CBR
Rd,K
Clear bit(s) in register
Rd  Rd  (0xFF - K)
Z, N, V
1
INC
Rd
Increment
Rd  Rd + 1
Z, N, V
1
DEC
Rd
Decrement
Rd  Rd  1
Z, N, V
1
TST
Rd
Test for zero or minus
Rd  Rd  Rd
Z, N, V
1
CLR
Rd
Clear register
Rd  Rd  Rd
Z, N, V
1
SER
Rd
Set register
Rd  0xFF
None
1
MUL
Rd, Rr
Multiply unsigned
R1:R0  Rd x Rr
Z, C
2
MULS
Rd, Rr
Multiply signed
R1:R0  Rd x Rr
Z, C
2
MULSU
Rd, Rr
Multiply signed with unsigned
R1:R0  Rd x Rr
Z, C
2
FMUL
Rd, Rr
Fractional multiply unsigned
R1:R0  (Rd x Rr) <<
Z, C
2
FMULS
Rd, Rr
Fractional multiply signed
Z, C
2
FMULSU
Rd, Rr
Fractional multiply signed with unsigned
1
R1:R0  (Rd x Rr) << 1
R1:R0  (Rd x Rr) << 1
Z, C
2
Relative jump
PC PC + k + 1
None
2
Indirect jump to (Z)
PC  Z
None
2
3
BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS
RJMP
k
IJMP
JMP(1)
k
Direct jump
PC k
None
RCALL
k
Relative subroutine call
PC  PC + k + 1
None
3
Indirect call to (Z)
PC  Z
None
3
ICALL
Direct subroutine call
PC  k
None
4
RET
Subroutine return
PC  STACK
None
4
RETI
Interrupt return
PC  STACK
I
if (Rd = Rr) PC PC + 2 or 3
None
CALL(1)
k
4
CPSE
Rd,Rr
Compare, skip if equal
CP
Rd,Rr
Compare
Rd  Rr
Z, N, V, C, H
1
CPC
Rd,Rr
Compare with carry
Rd  Rr  C
Z, N, V, C, H
1
CPI
Rd,K
Compare register with immediate
Rd  K
Z, N, V, C, H
SBRC
Rr, b
Skip if bit in register cleared
if (Rr(b)=0) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
1
1/2/3
SBRS
Rr, b
Skip if bit in register is set
if (Rr(b)=1) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIC
P, b
Skip if bit in I/O register cleared
if (P(b)=0) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
SBIS
P, b
Skip if bit in I/O register is set
if (P(b)=1) PC  PC + 2 or 3
None
1/2/3
BRBS
s, k
Branch if status flag set
if (SREG(s) = 1) then PCPC+k + 1
None
1/2
BRBC
s, k
Branch if status flag cleared
if (SREG(s) = 0) then PCPC+k + 1
None
1/2
BREQ
k
Branch if equal
if (Z = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRNE
k
Branch if not equal
if (Z = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCS
k
Branch if carry set
if (C = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRCC
k
Branch if carry cleared
if (C = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRSH
k
Branch if same or higher
if (C = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLO
k
Branch if lower
if (C = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRMI
k
Branch if minus
if (N = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRPL
k
Branch if plus
if (N = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRGE
k
Branch if greater or equal, signed
if (N  V= 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRLT
k
Branch if less than zero, signed
if (N  V= 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHS
k
Branch if half carry flag set
if (H = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRHC
k
Branch if half carry flag cleared
if (H = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTS
k
Branch if T flag set
if (T = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRTC
k
Branch if T flag cleared
if (T = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVS
k
Branch if overflow flag is set
if (V = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRVC
k
Branch if overflow flag is cleared
if (V = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
13
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
Mnemonics
Operands
Description
Operation
Flags
#Clocks
BRIE
k
Branch if interrupt enabled
if ( I = 1) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BRID
k
Branch if interrupt disabled
if ( I = 0) then PC  PC + k + 1
None
1/2
BIT AND BIT-TEST INSTRUCTIONS
SBI
P,b
Set bit in I/O register
I/O(P,b)  1
None
2
CBI
P,b
Clear bit in I/O register
I/O(P,b)  0
None
2
LSL
Rd
Logical shift left
Rd(n+1)  Rd(n), Rd(0)  0
Z, C, N, V
1
LSR
Rd
Logical shift right
Rd(n)  Rd(n+1), Rd(7)  0
Z, C, N, V
1
ROL
Rd
Rotate left through carry
Rd(0)C,Rd(n+1) Rd(n),CRd(7)
Z, C, N, V
1
1
ROR
Rd
Rotate right through carry
Rd(7)C,Rd(n) Rd(n+1),CRd(0)
Z, C, N, V
ASR
Rd
Arithmetic shift right
Rd(n)  Rd(n+1), n=0..6
Z, C, N, V
1
SWAP
Rd
Swap nibbles
Rd(3..0)Rd(7..4),Rd(7..4)Rd(3..0)
None
1
BSET
s
Flag set
SREG(s)  1
SREG(s)
1
BCLR
s
Flag clear
SREG(s)  0
SREG(s)
1
BST
Rr, b
Bit store from register to T
T  Rr(b)
T
1
BLD
Rd, b
Bit load from T to register
Rd(b)  T
None
1
SEC
Set carry
C1
C
1
CLC
Clear carry
C0
C
1
SEN
Set negative flag
N1
N
1
CLN
Clear negative flag
N0
N
1
SEZ
Set zero flag
Z1
Z
1
CLZ
Clear zero flag
Z0
Z
1
SEI
Global interrupt enable
I1
I
1
CLI
Global interrupt disable
I 0
I
1
1
SES
Set signed test flag
S1
S
CLS
Clear signed test flag
S0
S
1
SEV
Set Twos complement overflow
V1
V
1
CLV
Clear Twos complement overflow
V0
V
1
SET
Set T in SREG
T1
T
1
CLT
Clear T in SREG
T0
T
1
SEH
CLH
Set half carry flag in SREG
Clear half carry flag in SREG
H1
H0
H
H
1
1
None
1
None
1
DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS
MOV
Rd, Rr
Move between registers
MOVW
Rd, Rr
Copy register Word
Rd  Rr
Rd+1:Rd  Rr+1:Rr
LDI
Rd, K
Load immediate
Rd  K
None
1
LD
Rd, X
Load indirect
Rd  (X)
None
2
LD
Rd, X+
Load indirect and post-inc.
Rd  (X), X  X + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - X
Load indirect and pre-dec.
X  X - 1, Rd  (X)
None
2
2
LD
Rd, Y
Load indirect
Rd  (Y)
None
LD
Rd, Y+
Load indirect and post-inc.
Rd  (Y), Y  Y + 1
None
2
LD
Rd, - Y
Load indirect and pre-dec.
Y  Y - 1, Rd  (Y)
None
2
LDD
Rd,Y+q
Load indirect with displacement
Rd  (Y + q)
None
2
LD
Rd, Z
Load indirect
Rd  (Z)
None
2
2
LD
Rd, Z+
Load indirect and post-inc.
Rd  (Z), Z  Z+1
None
LD
Rd, -Z
Load indirect and pre-dec.
Z  Z - 1, Rd  (Z)
None
2
LDD
Rd, Z+q
Load indirect with displacement
Rd  (Z + q)
None
2
LDS
Rd, k
Load direct from SRAM
Rd  (k)
None
2
ST
X, Rr
Store indirect
(X) Rr
None
2
ST
X+, Rr
Store indirect and post-inc.
(X) Rr, X  X + 1
None
2
ST
- X, Rr
Store indirect and pre-dec.
X  X - 1, (X)  Rr
None
2
ST
Y, Rr
Store indirect
(Y)  Rr
None
2
ST
Y+, Rr
Store indirect and post-inc.
(Y)  Rr, Y  Y + 1
None
2
ST
- Y, Rr
Store indirect and pre-dec.
Y  Y - 1, (Y)  Rr
None
2
STD
Y+q,Rr
Store indirect with displacement
(Y + q)  Rr
None
2
ST
Z, Rr
Store indirect
(Z)  Rr
None
2
ST
Z+, Rr
Store indirect and post-inc.
(Z)  Rr, Z  Z + 1
None
2
ST
-Z, Rr
Store indirect and pre-dec.
Z  Z - 1, (Z)  Rr
None
2
STD
Z+q,Rr
Store indirect with displacement
(Z + q)  Rr
None
2
STS
k, Rr
Store direct to SRAM
(k)  Rr
None
2
Load program memory
R0  (Z)
None
3
LPM
LPM
Rd, Z
Load program memory
Rd  (Z)
None
3
LPM
Rd, Z+
Load program memory and post-inc
Rd  (Z), Z  Z+1
None
3
Store program memory
(Z)  R1:R0
None
-
In port
Rd  P
None
1
SPM
IN
Rd, P
OUT
P, Rr
Out port
P  Rr
None
1
PUSH
Rr
Push register on stack
STACK  Rr
None
2
14
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
Mnemonics
POP
Operands
Rd
Description
Pop register from stack
Operation
Rd  STACK
Flags
#Clocks
None
2
None
1
MCU CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS
NOP
No operation
SLEEP
Sleep
(See specific descr. for sleep function)
None
1
WDR
BREAK
Watchdog reset
Break
(See specific descr. for WDR/timer)
For on-chip debug only
None
None
1
N/A
Note:
1. These instructions are only available in Atmel ATmega168.
15
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
9.
Ordering information
9.1
Atmel ATmega48
Speed (MHz)
Power supply
Ordering code(2)
Package(1)
(5)
10(3)
20(3)
Note:
1.8V - 5.5V
ATmega48V-10AUR
ATmega48V-10MUR(5)
ATmega48V-10AU
ATmega48V-10MMU
ATmega48V-10MMUR(5)
ATmega48V-10MMH(4)
ATmega48V-10MMHR(4)(5)
ATmega48V-10MU
ATmega48V-10PU
32A
32M1-A
32A
28M1
28M1
28M1
28M1
32M1-A
28P3
2.7V - 5.5V
ATmega48-20AUR(5)
ATmega48-20MUR(5)
ATmega48-20AU
ATmega48-20MMU
ATmega48-20MMUR(5)
ATmega48-20MMH(4)
ATmega48-20MMHR(4)(5)
ATmega48-20MU
ATmega48-20PU
32A
32M1-A
32A
28M1
28M1
28M1
Operational range
Industrial
(-40C to 85C)
Industrial
(-40C to 85C)
28M1
32M1-A
28P3
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information
and minimum quantities.
2. Pb-free packaging alternative, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS
directive). Also Halide free and fully Green.
3. See Figure 29-1 on page 312 and Figure 29-2 on page 312.
4. NiPdAu lead finish.
5. Tape & Reel.
Package type
32A
32-lead, thin (1.0mm) plastic quad flat package (TQFP)
28M1
28-pad, 4 × 4 × 1.0 body, lead pitch 0.45mm quad flat no-lead/micro lead frame package (QFN/MLF)
32M1-A
32-pad, 5 × 5 × 1.0 body, lead pitch 0.50mm quad flat no-lead/micro lead frame package (QFN/MLF)
28P3
28-lead, 0.300” wide, plastic dual inline package (PDIP)
16
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
9.2
Atmel ATmega88
Speed (MHz)
Power supply
Ordering code(2)
Package(1)
(4)
10(3)
20(3)
Note:
Operational range
1.8V - 5.5V
ATmega88V-10AUR
ATmega88V-10MUR(4)
ATmega88V-10AU
ATmega88V-10MU
ATmega88V-10PU
32A
32M1-A
32A
32M1-A
28P3
Industrial
(-40C to 85C)
2.7V - 5.5V
ATmega88-20AUR(4)
ATmega88-20MUR(4)
ATmega88-20AU
ATmega88-20MU
ATmega88-20PU
32A
32M1-A
32A
32M1-A
28P3
Industrial
(-40C to 85C)
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information
and minimum quantities.
2. Pb-free packaging alternative, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS
directive). Also Halide free and fully Green.
3. See Figure 29-1 on page 312 and Figure 29-2 on page 312.
4. Tape & reel
Package type
32A
32-lead, thin (1.0mm) plastic quad flat package (TQFP)
32M1-A
32-pad, 5 × 5 × 1.0 body, lead pitch 0.50mm quad flat no-lead/micro lead frame package (QFN/MLF)
28P3
28-lead, 0.300” wide, plastic dual inline package (PDIP)
17
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
9.3
Atmel ATmega168
Speed (MHz)(3)
Power supply
Ordering code(2)
Package(1)
(4)
10
20
Note:
Operational range
1.8V - 5.5V
ATmega168V-10AUR
ATmega168V-10MUR(4)
ATmega168V-10AU
ATmega168V-10MU
ATmega168V-10PU
32A
32M1-A
32A
32M1-A
28P3
Industrial
(-40C to 85C)
2.7V - 5.5V
ATmega168-20AUR(4)
ATmega168-20MUR(4)
ATmega168-20AU
ATmega168-20MU
ATmega168-20PU
32A
32M1-A
32A
32M1-A
28P3
Industrial
(-40C to 85C)
1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information
and minimum quantities.
2. Pb-free packaging alternative, complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS
directive). Also Halide free and fully Green.
3. See Figure 29-1 on page 312 and Figure 29-2 on page 312.
4. Tape & reel
Package type
32A
32-lead, thin (1.0mm) plastic quad flat package (TQFP)
32M1-A
32-pad, 5 × 5 × 1.0 body, lead pitch 0.50mm quad flat no-lead/micro lead frame package (QFN/MLF)
28P3
28-lead, 0.300” wide, plastic dual inline package (PDIP)
18
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
10.
Packaging information
10.1
32A
PIN 1 IDENTIFIER
PIN 1
e
B
E1
E
D1
D
C
0°~7°
A1
A2
A
L
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of measure = mm)
Notes:
1. This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-026, Variation ABA.
2. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion.
Allowable
protrusion is 0.25mm per side. Dimensions D1 and E1 are maximum
plastic body size dimensions including mold mismatch.
3. Lead coplanarity is 0.10mm maximum.
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
–
–
1.20
A1
0.05
–
0.15
A2
0.95
1.00
1.05
D
8.75
9.00
9.25
D1
6.90
7.00
7.10
E
8.75
9.00
9.25
E1
6.90
7.00
7.10
B
0.30
–
0.45
C
0.09
–
0.20
L
0.45
–
0.75
e
NOTE
Note 2
Note 2
0.80 TYP
2010-10-20
TITLE
32A, 32-lead, 7 x 7mm body size, 1.0mm body thickness,
0.8mm lead pitch, thin profile plastic quad flat package (TQFP)
DRAWING NO.
32A
REV.
C
19
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
10.2
28M1
D
C
1
2
Pin 1 ID
3
E
SIDE VIEW
A1
TOP VIEW
A
y
D2
K
1
0.45
2
R 0.20
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
0.80
0.90
1.00
A1
0.00
0.02
0.05
b
0.17
0.22
0.27
SYMBOL
3
E2
b
C
L
e
0.4 Ref
(4x)
D
3.95
4.00
4.05
D2
2.35
2.40
2.45
E
3.95
4.00
4.05
E2
2.35
2.40
2.45
L
The terminal #1 ID is a Laser-marked Feature.
Note:
0.20 REF
e
BOTTOM VIEW
NOT E
0.45
0.35
0.40
0.45
y
0.00
–
0.08
K
0.20
–
–
10/24/08
Package Drawing Contact:
[email protected]
TITLE
28M1, 28-pad, 4 x 4 x 1.0mm Body, Lead Pitch 0.45mm,
2.4 x 2.4mm Exposed Pad, Thermally Enhanced
Plastic Very Thin Quad Flat No Lead Package (VQFN)
GPC
ZBV
DRAWING NO.
28M1
REV.
B
20
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
10.3
32M1-A
D
D1
1
2
3
0
Pin 1 ID
E1
SIDE VIEW
E
TOP VIEW
A3
A2
A1
A
K
0.08 C
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
P
D2
1
2
3
P
Pin #1 Notch
(0.20 R)
K
e
0.90
1.00
–
0.02
0.05
A2
–
0.65
1.00
A3
E2
b
0.80
A1
L
BOTTOM VIEW
0.20 REF
b
0.18
0.23
0.30
D
4.90
5.00
5.10
D1
4.70
4.75
4.80
D2
2.95
3.10
3.25
E
4.90
5.00
5.10
E1
4.70
4.75
4.80
E2
2.95
3.10
3.25
e
Note: JEDEC Standard MO-220, Fig. 2 (Anvil Singulation), VHHD-2.
NOTE
0.50 BSC
L
0.30
0.40
0.50
P
–
–
0.60
12o
0
–
–
K
0.20
–
–
03/14/2014
32M1-A , 32-pad, 5 x 5 x 1.0mm Body, Lead Pitch 0.50mm,
3.10mm Exposed Pad, Micro Lead Frame Package (MLF)
32M1-A
F
21
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
10.4
28P3
D
PIN
1
E1
A
SEATING PLANE
L
B2
B1
B
A1
(4 PLACES)
e
E
0º ~ 15º
C
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
REF
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
–
–
4.5724
A1
0.508
–
–
D
34.544
–
E
7.620
–
8.255
E1
7.112
–
7.493
B
0.381
–
0.533
B1
1.143
–
1.397
SYMBOL
eB
Note:
1. Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold Flash or Protrusion.
Mold Flash or Protrusion shall not exceed 0.25mm (0.010").
34.798 Note 1
B2
0.762
–
1.143
L
3.175
–
3.429
C
0.203
–
0.356
eB
–
–
10.160
e
NOTE
Note 1
2.540 TYP
09/28/01
2325 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
TITLE
28P3, 28-lead (0.300"/7.62mm Wide) Plastic Dual
Inline Package (PDIP)
DRAWING NO.
28P3
REV.
B
22
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
11.
Errata
11.1
Errata Atmel ATmega48
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATmega48 device.
11.1.1 Rev K
•
•
•
•
Full swing crystal oscillator not supported
Parallel programming timing modified
Write wait delay for NVM is increased
Changed device ID
1. Full swing crystal oscillator not supported
The full swing crystal oscillator functionality is not available in revision K.
Problem fix/workaround
Use alternative clock sources available in the device.
2. Parallel programming timing modified
Previous die revision
3
Symbol
Parameter
Min
tWLRH_CE
/WR Low to
RDY/BSY
High for Chip
Erase
tBVDV
/BS1 Valid to
DATA valid
tOLDV
/OE Low to
DATA Valid
Typ.
Revision K
Max
Units
Min
7.5
9
ms
0
250
ns
250
ns
Typ.
Max
Units
9.8
10.5
ms
0
335
ns
335
ns
Write wait delay for NVM is increased
The write delay for non-volatile memory (NVM) is increased as follows:
Other revisions
Revision K
Symbol
Minimum Wait Delay
Minimum Wait Delay
tWD_ERASE
9ms
10.5ms
4. Changed device ID
The device ID has been modified according to the to the following:
Any die revision
Signature byte address ID
(Unchanged)
Previous die revision
Revision K
0x000
0x001
0x002
Device ID read via
debugWIRE
Device ID read via
debugWIRE
ATmega48
0x1E
0x92
0x05
0x9205
0x920A
ATmega48V
0x1E
0x92
0x05
0x9205
0x920A
Part
23
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
11.1.2 Rev E to J
Not sampled.
11.1.3 Rev. D
• Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
11.1.4 Rev. C
• Reading EEPROM when system clock frequency is below 900kHz may not work
• Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Reading EEPROM when system clock frequency is below 900kHz may not work
Reading Data from the EEPROM at system clock frequency below 900kHz may result in
wrong data read.
Problem fix/workaround
Avoid using the EEPROM at clock frequency below 900kHz.
2. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
11.1.5 Rev. B
• Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
24
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11.1.6 Rev A
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Part may hang in reset
Wrong values read after erase only operation
Watchdog timer interrupt disabled
Start-up time with crystal oscillator is higher than expected
High power consumption in power-down with external clock
Asynchronous oscillator does not stop in power-down
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Part may hang in reset
Some parts may get stuck in a reset state when a reset signal is applied when the internal
reset state-machine is in a specific state. The internal reset state-machine is in this state
for approximately 10ns immediately before the part wakes up after a reset, and in a 10ns
window when altering the system clock prescaler. The problem is most often seen during
In-System Programming of the device. There are theoretical possibilities of this happening
also in run-mode. The following three cases can trigger the device to get stuck in a resetstate:
- Two succeeding resets are applied where the second reset occurs in the 10ns window
before the device is out of the reset-state caused by the first reset.
- A reset is applied in a 10ns window while the system clock prescaler value is updated by
software.
- Leaving SPI-programming mode generates an internal reset signal that can trigger this
case.
The two first cases can occur during normal operating mode, while the last case occurs
only during programming of the device.
Problem fix/workaround
The first case can be avoided during run-mode by ensuring that only one reset source is
active. If an external reset push button is used, the reset start-up time should be selected
such that the reset line is fully debounced during the start-up time.
The second case can be avoided by not using the system clock prescaler.
The third case occurs during In-System programming only. It is most frequently seen
when using the internal RC at maximum frequency.
If the device gets stuck in the reset-state, turn power off, then on again to get the device
out of this state.
2. Wrong values read after erase only operation
At supply voltages below 2.7V, an EEPROM location that is erased by the Erase Only
operation may read as programmed (0x00).
Problem fix/workaround
If it is necessary to read an EEPROM location after Erase Only, use an Atomic Write
operation with 0xFF as data in order to erase a location. In any case, the Write Only
operation can be used as intended. Thus no special considerations are needed as long as
the erased location is not read before it is programmed.
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3. Watchdog timer interrupt disabled
If the watchdog timer interrupt flag is not cleared before a new timeout occurs, the
watchdog will be disabled, and the interrupt flag will automatically be cleared. This is only
applicable in interrupt only mode. If the Watchdog is configured to reset the device in the
watchdog time-out following an interrupt, the device works correctly.
Problem fix/workaround
Make sure there is enough time to always service the first timeout event before a new
watchdog timeout occurs. This is done by selecting a long enough time-out period.
4. Start-up time with crystal oscillator is higher than expected
The clock counting part of the start-up time is about two times higher than expected for all
start-up periods when running on an external Crystal. This applies only when waking up
by reset. Wake-up from power down is not affected. For most settings, the clock counting
parts is a small fraction of the overall start-up time, and thus, the problem can be ignored.
The exception is when using a very low frequency crystal like for instance a 32kHz clock
crystal.
Problem fix/workaround
No known workaround.
5. High power consumption in power-down with external clock
The power consumption in power down with an active external clock is about 10 times
higher than when using internal RC or external oscillators.
Problem fix/workaround
Stop the external clock when the device is in power down.
6. Asynchronous oscillator does not stop in power-down
The Asynchronous oscillator does not stop when entering power down mode. This leads
to higher power consumption than expected.
Problem fix/workaround
Manually disable the asynchronous timer before entering power down.
7. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
26
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11.2
Errata Atmel ATmega88
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATmega88 device.
11.2.1 Rev K
•
•
•
•
•
Full swing crystal oscillator not supported
Parallel programming timing modified
Write wait delay for NVM is increased
Changed device ID
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Full swing crystal oscillator not supported
The full swing crystal oscillator functionality is not available in revision K.
Problem fix/workaround
Use alternative clock sources available in the device.
2. Parallel programming timing modified
Previous die revision
3
Symbol
Parameter
Min
tWLRH_CE
/WR Low to
RDY/BSY
High for Chip
Erase
tBVDV
/BS1 Valid to
DATA valid
tOLDV
/OE Low to
DATA Valid
Typ.
Revision K
Max
Units
Min
7.5
9
ms
0
250
ns
250
ns
Typ.
Max
Units
9.8
10.5
ms
0
335
ns
335
ns
Write wait delay for NVM is increased
The write delay for non-volatile memory (NVM) is increased as follows:
Other revisions
Revision K
Symbol
Minimum Wait Delay
Minimum Wait Delay
tWD_ERASE
9ms
10.5ms
4. Changed device ID
The device ID has been modified according to the to the following:
Any die revision
Signature byte address ID
(Unchanged)
Previous die revision
Revision K
Part
0x000
0x001
0x002
Device ID read via
debugWIRE
Device ID read via
debugWIRE
ATmega88
0x1E
0x93
0x0A
0x930A
0x930F
ATmega88V
0x1E
0x93
0x0A
0x930A
0x930F
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5. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
11.2.2 Rev E to J
Not sampled.
11.2.3 Rev. D
• Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
11.2.4 Rev. B/C
Not sampled.
11.2.5 Rev. A
• Writing to EEPROM does not work at low operating voltages
• Part may hang in reset
• Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Writing to EEPROM does not work at low operating voltages
Writing to the EEPROM does not work at low voltages.
Problem fix/workaround
Do not write the EEPROM at voltages below 4.5 Volts.
This will be corrected in rev. B.
2. Part may hang in reset
Some parts may get stuck in a reset state when a reset signal is applied when the internal
reset state-machine is in a specific state. The internal reset state-machine is in this state
for approximately 10ns immediately before the part wakes up after a reset, and in a 10ns
window when altering the system clock prescaler. The problem is most often seen during
In-System Programming of the device. There are theoretical possibilities of this happening
28
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also in run-mode. The following three cases can trigger the device to get stuck in a resetstate:
- Two succeeding resets are applied where the second reset occurs in the 10ns window
before the device is out of the reset-state caused by the first reset.
- A reset is applied in a 10ns window while the system clock prescaler value is updated by
software.
- Leaving SPI-programming mode generates an internal reset signal that can trigger this
case.
The two first cases can occur during normal operating mode, while the last case occurs
only during programming of the device.b.
Problem fix/workaround
The first case can be avoided during run-mode by ensuring that only one reset source is
active. If an external reset push button is used, the reset start-up time should be selected
such that the reset line is fully debounced during the start-up time.
The second case can be avoided by not using the system clock prescaler.
The third case occurs during In-System programming only. It is most frequently seen
when using the internal RC at maximum frequency.
If the device gets stuck in the reset-state, turn power off, then on again to get the device
out of this state.
3. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
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11.3
Errata Atmel ATmega168
The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATmega168 device.
11.3.1 Rev K
•
•
•
•
•
Full swing crystal oscillator not supported
Parallel programming timing modified
Write wait delay for NVM is increased
Changed device ID
Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Full swing crystal oscillator not supported
The full swing crystal oscillator functionality is not available in revision K.
Problem fix/workaround
Use alternative clock sources available in the device.
2. Parallel programming timing modified
Previous die revision
3
Symbol
Parameter
Min
tWLRH_CE
/WR Low to
RDY/BSY
High for Chip
Erase
tBVDV
/BS1 Valid to
DATA valid
tOLDV
/OE Low to
DATA Valid
Typ.
Revision K
Max
Units
Min
7.5
9
ms
0
250
ns
250
ns
Typ.
Max
Units
9.8
10.5
ms
0
335
ns
335
ns
Write wait delay for NVM is increased
The write delay for non-volatile memory (NVM) is increased as follows:
Other revisions
Revision K
Symbol
Minimum Wait Delay
Minimum Wait Delay
tWD_ERASE
9ms
10.5ms
4. Changed device ID
The device ID has been modified according to the to the following:
Any die revision
Signature byte address ID
(Unchanged)
Previous die revision
Revision K
Part
0x000
0x001
0x002
Device ID read via
debugWIRE
Device ID read via
debugWIRE
ATmega168
0x1E
0x94
0x06
0x9406
0x940B
ATmega168V
0x1E
0x94
0x06
0x9406
0x940B
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5. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
11.3.2 Rev D to J
Not sampled.
11.3.3 Rev C
• Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
11.3.4 Rev B
• Part may hang in reset
• Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Part may hang in reset
Some parts may get stuck in a reset state when a reset signal is applied when the internal
reset state-machine is in a specific state. The internal reset state-machine is in this state
for approximately 10ns immediately before the part wakes up after a reset, and in a 10ns
window when altering the system clock prescaler. The problem is most often seen during
In-System Programming of the device. There are theoretical possibilities of this happening
also in run-mode. The following three cases can trigger the device to get stuck in a resetstate:
- Two succeeding resets are applied where the second reset occurs in the 10ns window
before the device is out of the reset-state caused by the first reset.
- A reset is applied in a 10ns window while the system clock prescaler value is updated by
software.
- Leaving SPI-programming mode generates an internal reset signal that can trigger this
case.
The two first cases can occur during normal operating mode, while the last case occurs
only during programming of the device.
Problem fix/workaround
31
2545US–AVR–11/2015
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The first case can be avoided during run-mode by ensuring that only one reset source is
active. If an external reset push button is used, the reset start-up time should be selected
such that the reset line is fully debounced during the start-up time.
The second case can be avoided by not using the system clock prescaler.
The third case occurs during In-System programming only. It is most frequently seen
when using the internal RC at maximum frequency.
If the device gets stuck in the reset-state, turn power off, then on again to get the device
out of this state.
2. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
11.3.5 Rev A
• Wrong values read after erase only operation
• Part may hang in reset
• Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
1. Wrong values read after erase only operation
At supply voltages below 2.7V, an EEPROM location that is erased by the Erase Only
operation may read as programmed (0x00).
Problem fix/workaround
If it is necessary to read an EEPROM location after Erase Only, use an Atomic Write
operation with 0xFF as data in order to erase a location. In any case, the Write Only
operation can be used as intended. Thus no special considerations are needed as long as
the erased location is not read before it is programmed.
2. Part may hang in reset
Some parts may get stuck in a reset state when a reset signal is applied when the internal
reset state-machine is in a specific state. The internal reset state-machine is in this state
for approximately 10ns immediately before the part wakes up after a reset, and in a 10ns
window when altering the system clock prescaler. The problem is most often seen during
In-System Programming of the device. There are theoretical possibilities of this happening
also in run-mode. The following three cases can trigger the device to get stuck in a resetstate:
- Two succeeding resets are applied where the second reset occurs in the 10ns window
before the device is out of the reset-state caused by the first reset.
- A reset is applied in a 10ns window while the system clock prescaler value is updated by
software.
- Leaving SPI-programming mode generates an internal reset signal that can trigger this
case.
32
2545US–AVR–11/2015
ATmega48/88/168
The two first cases can occur during normal operating mode, while the last case occurs
only during programming of the device.
Problem fix/workaround
The first case can be avoided during run-mode by ensuring that only one reset source is
active. If an external reset push button is used, the reset start-up time should be selected
such that the reset line is fully debounced during the start-up time.
The second case can be avoided by not using the system clock prescaler.
The third case occurs during In-System programming only. It is most frequently seen
when using the internal RC at maximum frequency.
If the device gets stuck in the reset-state, turn power off, then on again to get the device
out of this state.
2. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer
The interrupt will be lost if a timer register that is synchronous timer clock is written when
the asynchronous Timer/Counter register (TCNTx) is 0x00.
Problem fix/workaround
Always check that the asynchronous Timer/Counter register neither have the value 0xFF
nor 0x00 before writing to the asynchronous Timer Control Register (TCCRx),
asynchronous Timer Counter Register (TCNTx), or asynchronous Output Compare
Register (OCRx).
33
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12.
Datasheet revision history
Please note that the referring page numbers in this section are referred to this document. The
referring revision in this section are referring to the document revision.
12.1
Rev. 2545U-11/15
Updated errata sections:
1.
12.2
2.
3.
4.
2.
l
“Errata Atmel ATmega168” on page 30: Added errata for rev D to K.
Ordering information has been updated by removing AI and MI and added AUR and
MUR (tape & reel).
Added and corrected cross references and short-cuts.
Document updated according to new Atmel standard.
QTouch Library Support Features
Note 6 and Note 7 in Table 29-5, “2-wire serial bus requirements.,” on page 315 have
been removed.
Document updated according to Atmel standard.
Rev. 2545R-07/09
1.
2.
12.5
“Errata Atmel ATmega88” on page 27: Added errata for rev E to K.
Rev. 2545S-07/10
1.
12.4
“Errata Atmel ATmega48” on page 23: Added errata for rev E to K.
l
Rev. 2545T-04/11
1.
12.3
l
Updated “Errata” on page 23.
Updated the last page with the Atmel new addresses.
Rev. 2545Q-06/09
1.
2.
Removed the heading “About”. The subsections of this sectionis now separate
sections, “Resources”, “Data Retention” and “About Code Examples”
Updated “Ordering information” on page 16.
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12.6
Rev. 2545P-02/09
1.
12.7
Rev. 2545O-02/09
1.
2.
12.8
Changed minimum Power-on Reset Threshold Voltage (falling) to 0.05V in Table 293 on page 314.
Removed section “Power-on slope rate” from “System and reset characteristics” on
page 314.
Rev. 2545N-01/09
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
12.9
Removed Power-off slope rate from Table 29-3 on page 314.
Updated “Features” on page 1 and added the note “Not recommended for new
designs”.
Merged the sections Resources, Data Retention and About Code Examples under
one common section, “Resources” on page 8.
Updated Figure 9-4 on page 35.
Updated “System clock prescaler” on page 36.
Updated “Alternate functions of port B” on page 83.
Added section “” on page 314.
Updated “Pin thresholds and hysteresis” on page 337.
Rev. 2545M-09/07
1.
2.
3.
Added “Data retention” on page 8.
Updated “ADC characteristics” on page 318.
“Preliminary“ removed through the datasheet.
12.10 Rev. 2545L-08/07
1.
2.
3.
4.
Updated “Features” on page 1.
Updated code example in “MCUCR – MCU control register” on page 67.
Updated “System and reset characteristics” on page 314.
Updated Note in Table 9-3 on page 30, Table 9-5 on page 31, Table 9-8 on page 33,
Table 9-10 on page 34.
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12.11 Rev. 2545K-04/07
1.
2.
3.
Updated “Interrupts” on page 56.
Updated“Errata Atmel ATmega48” on page 23 .
Changed description in “Analog-to-digital converter” on page 250.
12.12 Rev. 2545J-12/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
Updated “Features” on page 1.
Updated Table 1-1 on page 2.
Updated “Ordering information” on page 16.
Updated “Packaging information” on page 19.
12.13 Rev. 2545I-11/06
1.
2.
3.
Updated “Features” on page 1.
Updated Features in “2-wire serial interface” on page 213.
Fixed typos in Table 29-3 on page 314.
12.14 Rev. 2545H-10/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Updated typos.
Updated “Features” on page 1.
Updated “Calibrated internal RC oscillator” on page 33.
Updated “System control and reset” on page 45.
Updated “Brown-out detection” on page 47.
Updated “Fast PWM mode” on page 126.
Updated bit description in “TCCR1C – Timer/Counter1 control register C” on page
137.
Updated code example in “SPI – Serial peripheral interface” on page 165.
Updated Table 15-3 on page 106, Table 15-6 on page 107, Table 15-8 on page 108,
Table 16-2 on page 134, Table 16-3 on page 135, Table 16-4 on page 136, Table 183 on page 158, Table 18-6 on page 159, Table 18-8 on page 160, and Table 28-5 on
page 294.
Added Note to Table 26-1 on page 271, Table 27-5 on page 285, and Table 28-17 on
page 307.
Updated “Setting the boot loader lock bits by SPM” on page 283.
Updated “Signature bytes” on page 295
Updated “Electrical characteristics” on page 310.
Updated “Errata” on page 23.
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12.15 Rev. 2545G-06/06
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17
18.
19.
20.
Added Addresses in Registers.
Updated “Calibrated internal RC oscillator” on page 33.
Updated Table 9-12 on page 35, Table 10-1 on page 39, Table 11-1 on page 54,
Table 14-3 on page 83.
Updated “ADC noise reduction mode” on page 40.
Updated note for Table 10-2 on page 43.
Updatad “Bit 2 - PRSPI: Power reduction serial peripheral interface” on page 44.
Updated “TCCR0B – Timer/counter control register B” on page 109.
Updated “Fast PWM mode” on page 126.
Updated “Asynchronous operation of Timer/Counter2” on page 155.
Updated “SPI – Serial peripheral interface” on page 165.
Updated “UCSRnA – USART MSPIM control and status register n A” on page 210.
Updated note in “Bit rate generator unit” on page 220.
Updated “Bit 6 – ACBG: Analog comparator bandgap select” on page 247.
Updated Features in “Analog-to-digital converter” on page 250.
Updated “Prescaling and conversion timing” on page 253.
Updated “Limitations of debugWIRE” on page 267.
Added Table 29-1 on page 313.
Updated Figure 16-7 on page 127, Figure 30-45 on page 346.
Updated rev. A in “Errata Atmel ATmega48” on page 23.
Added rev. C and D in “Errata Atmel ATmega48” on page 23.
12.16 Rev. 2545F-05/05
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Added Section 3. “Resources” on page 8
Update Section 9.6 “Calibrated internal RC oscillator” on page 33.
Updated Section 28.8.3 “Serial programming instruction set” on page 307.
Table notes in Section 29.2 “DC characteristics” on page 310 updated.
Updated Section 11. “Errata” on page 23.
12.17 Rev. 2545E-02/05
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
MLF-package alternative changed to “Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame
Package QFN/MLF”.
Updated “EECR – The EEPROM control register” on page 22.
Updated “Calibrated internal RC oscillator” on page 33.
Updated “External clock” on page 35.
Updated Table 29-3 on page 314, Table 29-6 on page 316, Table 29-2 on page 313
and Table 28-16 on page 307
Added “Pin change interrupt timing” on page 70
Updated “8-bit timer/counter block diagram.” on page 95.
Updated “SPMCSR – Store program memory control and status register” on page
273.
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9.
10.
11.
12.
Updated “Enter programming mode” on page 298.
Updated “DC characteristics” on page 310.
Updated “Ordering information” on page 16.
Updated “Errata Atmel ATmega88” on page 27 and “Errata Atmel ATmega168” on
page 30.
12.18 Rev. 2545D-07/04
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Updated instructions used with WDTCSR in relevant code examples.
Updated Table 9-5 on page 31, Table 29-4 on page 314, Table 27-9 on page 288,
and Table 27-11 on page 290.
Updated “System clock prescaler” on page 36.
Moved “TIMSK2 – Timer/Counter2 interrupt mask register” on page 162 and
“TIFR2 – Timer/Counter2 interrupt flag register” on page 162 to
“Register description” on page 157.
Updated cross-reference in “Electrical interconnection” on page 214.
Updated equation in “Bit rate generator unit” on page 220.
Added “Page size” on page 296.
Updated “Serial programming algorithm” on page 306.
Updated Ordering Information for “Atmel ATmega168” on page 18.
Updated “Errata Atmel ATmega88” on page 27 and “Errata Atmel ATmega168” on
page 30.
Updated equation in “Bit rate generator unit” on page 220.
12.19 Rev. 2545C-04/04
1.
2.
3.
4.
Speed Grades changed: 12MHz to 10MHz and 24MHz to 20MHz
Updated “Speed grades” on page 312.
Updated “Ordering information” on page 16.
Updated “Errata Atmel ATmega88” on page 27.
12.20 Rev. 2545B-01/04
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Added PDIP to “I/O and Packages”, updated “Speed Grade” and Power Consumption
Estimates in 12.“Features” on page 1.
Updated “Stack pointer” on page 13 with RAMEND as recommended Stack Pointer
value.
Added section “Power reduction register” on page 41 and a note regarding the use of
the PRR bits to 2-wire, Timer/Counters, USART, Analog Comparator and ADC
sections.
Updated “Watchdog timer” on page 49.
Updated Figure 16-2 on page 134 and Table 16-3 on page 135.
Extra Compare Match Interrupt OCF2B added to features in section “8-bit
Timer/Counter2 with PWM and asynchronous operation” on page 144
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7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Updated Table 10-1 on page 39, Table 24-5 on page 265, Table 28-4 to Table 28-7
on page 293 to 295 and Table 24-1 on page 255. Added note 2 to Table 28-1 on page
292. Fixed typo in Table 13-1 on page 71.
Updated whole “Typical characteristics” on page 322.
Added item 2 to 5 in “Errata Atmel ATmega48” on page 23.
Renamed the following bits:
- SPMEN to SELFPRGEN
- PSR2 to PSRASY
- PSR10 to PSRSYNC
- Watchdog Reset to Watchdog System Reset
Updated C code examples containing old IAR syntax.
Updated BLBSET description in “SPMCSR – Store program memory control and
status register” on page 290.
39
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