ATmega128RFA1 - Preliminary

ATmega128RFA1
Features
®
• High Performance, Low Power AVR 8-Bit Microcontroller
• Advanced RISC Architecture
- 135 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
- 32x8 General Purpose Working Registers
- Fully Static Operation
- Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz and 1.8V
- On-Chip 2-cycle Multiplier
• Non-volatile Program and Data Memories
- 128K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash
• Endurance: 10’000 Write/Erase Cycles @ 125°C (25’000 Cycles @ 85°C)
- 4K Bytes EEPROM
• Endurance: 20’000 Write/Erase Cycles @ 125°C (100’000 Cycles @ 25°C)
- 16K Bytes Internal SRAM
• JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant) Interface
- Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
- Extensive On-chip Debug Support
- Programming of Flash EEPROM, Fuses and Lock Bits through the JTAG interface
• Peripheral Features
- Multiple Timer/Counter & PWM channels
- Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
- 10-bit, 330 ks/s A/D Converter; Analog Comparator; On-chip Temperature Sensor
- Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
- Two Programmable Serial USART
- Byte Oriented 2-wire Serial Interface
• Advanced Interrupt Handler
• Watchdog Timer with Separate On-Chip Oscillator
• Power-on Reset and Low Current Brown-Out Detector
• Advanced Power Save Modes
• Fully integrated Low Power Transceiver for 2.4 GHz ISM Band
- Supported Data Rates: 250 kb/s and 500 kb/s, 1 Mb/s, 2 Mb/s
- -100 dBm RX Sensitivity; TX Output Power up to 3.5 dBm
- Hardware Assisted MAC (Auto-Acknowledge, Auto-Retry)
- 32 Bit IEEE 802.15.4 Symbol Counter
- Baseband Signal Processing
- SFD-Detection, Spreading; De-Spreading; Framing ; CRC-16 Computation
- Antenna Diversity and TX/RX control
- TX/RX 128 Byte Frame Buffer
• Hardware Security (AES, True Random Generator)
• Integrated Crystal Oscillators (32.768 kHz & 16 MHz, external crystal needed)
• I/O and Package
- 38 Programmable I/O Lines
- 64-pad QFN (RoHS/Fully Green)
• Temperature Range: -40°C to 125°C Industrial
• Supply voltage range 1.8V to 3.6V with integrated voltage regulators
• Ultra Low Power consumption (1.8 to 3.6V) for Rx/Tx & AVR: <18.6 mA
- CPU Active Mode (16MHz): 4.1 mA
- 2.4GHz Transceiver: RX_ON 12.5 mA / TX 14.5 mA (maximum TX output power)
- Deep Sleep Mode: <250nA @ 25°C
• Speed Grade: 0 – 16 MHz @ 1.8 – 3.6V
8-bit
Microcontroller
with Low Power
2.4GHz
Transceiver for
ZigBee and
IEEE 802.15.4
ATmega128RFA1
PRELIMINARY
Applications
®
• ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4-2006/2003™ – Full And Reduced Function Device (FFD/RFD)
• General Purpose 2.4GHz ISM Band Transceiver with Microcontroller
• RF4CE, SP100, WirelessHART™, ISM Applications and IPv6 / 6LoWPAN
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1 Pin Configurations
[PE3:OC3A:AIN1]
[PE4:OC3B:INT4]
[PE5:OC3C:INT5]
[PE6:T3:INT6]
[PE7:ICP3:INT7:CLKO]
[DEVDD]
[DVSS]
[XTAL2]
[AVSS:ASVSS]
[XTAL1]
[EVDD]
[AVDD]
[AVSS]
[AREF]
[PF0:ADC0]
[PF1:ADC1]
Figure 1-1. Pinout ATmega128RFA1
64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49
[PF2:ADC2:DIG2] 1
48 [PE2:XCK0:AIN0]
[PF3:ADC3:DIG4] 2
47 [PE1:TXD0]
[PF4:ADC4:TCK] 3
46 [PE0:RXD0:PCINT8]
Index corner
[PF5:ADC5:TMS] 4
45 [DVSS]
[PF6:ADC6:TDO] 5
44 [DEVDD]
[PF7:ADC7:TDI] 6
43 [PB7:OC0A:OC1C:PCINT7]
ATmega128RFA1
[AVSS_RFP] 7
42 [PB6:OC1B:PCINT6]
[RFP] 8
41 [PB5:OC1A:PCINT5]
[RFN] 9
40 [PB4:OC2A:PCINT4]
39 [PB3:MISO:PDO:PCINT3]
[AVSS_RFN] 10
[TST] 11
38 [PB2:MOSI:PDI:PCINT2]
[RSTN] 12
37 [PB1:SCK:PCINT1]
[RSTON] 13
36 [PB0:SSN:PCINT0]
[PG0:DIG3] 14
35 [DVSS]
Exposed paddle: [AVSS]
[PG1:DIG1] 15
34 [DEVDD]
[PG2:AMR] 16
33 [CLKI]
Note:
[PD7:T0]
[PD6:T1]
[PD5:XCK1]
[PD4:ICP1]
[PD3:TXD1:INT3]
[PD2:RXD1:INT2]
[PD1:SDA:INT1]
[PD0:SCL:INT0]
[DVSS]
[DEVDD]
[DVDD]
[DVDD]
[DVSS:DSVSS]
[PG5:OC0B]
[PG4:TOSC1]
[PG3:TOSC2]
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
0
0
The large center pad underneath the QFN/MLF package is made of metal and internally connected
to AVSS. It should be soldered or glued to the board to ensure good mechanical stability. If the
center pad is left unconnected, the package might loosen from the board. It is not recommended to
use the exposed paddle as a replacement of the regular AVSS pins.
2 Disclaimer
Typical values contained in this datasheet are based on simulation and characterization
results of other AVR microcontrollers and radio transceivers manufactured in a similar
process technology. Minimum and Maximum values will be available after the device is
characterized.
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ATmega128RFA1
3 Overview
The ATmega128RFA1 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR
enhanced RISC architecture combined with a high data rate transceiver for the 2.4 GHz
ISM band.
By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the device achieves
throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize
power consumption versus processing speed.
The radio transceiver provides high data rates from 250 kb/s up to 2 Mb/s, frame
handling, outstanding receiver sensitivity and high transmit output power enabling a
very robust wireless communication.
3.1 Block Diagram
Figure 3-1 Block Diagram
The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working
registers. All 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). Two
independent registers can be accessed with one single instruction executed in one
clock cycle. The resulting architecture is very code efficient while achieving throughputs
up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. The system includes
internal voltage regulation and an advanced power management. Distinguished by the
small leakage current it allows an extended operation time from battery.
The radio transceiver is a fully integrated ZigBee solution using a minimum number of
external components. It combines excellent RF performance with low cost, small size
and low current consumption. The radio transceiver includes a crystal stabilized
fractional-N synthesizer, transmitter and receiver, and full Direct Sequence Spread
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Spectrum Signal (DSSS) processing with spreading and despreading. The device is
fully compatible with IEEE802.15.4-2011/2006/2003 and ZigBee standards.
The ATmega128RFA1 provides the following features: 128K Bytes of In-System
Programmable (ISP) Flash with read-while-write capabilities, 4K Bytes EEPROM, 16K
Bytes SRAM, up to 35 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers,
Real Time Counter (RTC), 6 flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes and PWM, a
32 bit Timer/Counter, 2 USART, a byte oriented 2-wire Serial Interface, a 8 channel, 10
bit analog to digital converter (ADC) with an optional differential input stage with
programmable gain, programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, a SPI
serial port, IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant JTAG test interface, also used for accessing the
On-chip Debug system and programming and 6 software selectable power saving
modes.
The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and
interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register
contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next
interrupt or hardware reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to
run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping.
The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except
asynchronous timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In
Standby mode, the RC oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This
allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption. In Extended Standby
mode, both the main RC oscillator and the asynchronous timer continue to run.
Typical supply current of the microcontroller with CPU clock set to 16MHz and the radio
transceiver for the most important states is shown in the Figure 3-2 below.
Figure 3-2 Radio transceiver and microcontroller (16MHz) supply current
20
18,6mA
I(DEVDD,EVDD) [mA]
1.8V
3.0V
3.6V
.
16,6mA
15
.
10
4,1mA
5
0
4,7mA
250nA
250nA
Deep Sleep
SLEEP
TRX_OFF
RX_ON
BUSY_TX
Radio transceiver and microcontroller (16MHz) supply current
The transmit output power is set to maximum. If the radio transceiver is in SLEEP mode
the current is dissipated by the AVR microcontroller only.
In Deep Sleep mode all major digital blocks with no data retention requirements are
disconnected from main supply providing a very small leakage current. Watchdog timer,
MAC symbol counter and 32.768kHz oscillator can be configured to continue to run.
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ATmega128RFA1
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology.
The On-chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system
trough an SPI serial interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by
on on-chip boot program running on the AVR core. The boot program can use any
interface to download the application program in the application Flash memory.
Software in the boot Flash section will continue to run while the application Flash
section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write operation. By combining an 8 bit
RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel
ATmega128RFA1 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost
effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The ATmega128RFA1 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system
development tools including: C compiler, macro assemblers, program
debugger/simulators, in-circuit emulators, and evaluation kits.
3.2 Pin Descriptions
3.2.1 EVDD
External analog supply voltage.
3.2.2 DEVDD
External digital supply voltage.
3.2.3 AVDD
Regulated analog supply voltage (internally generated).
3.2.4 DVDD
Regulated digital supply voltage (internally generated).
3.2.5 DVSS
Digital ground.
3.2.6 AVSS
Analog ground.
3.2.7 Port B (PB7...PB0)
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each
bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink
and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source
current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset
condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port B also provides functions of various special features of the ATmega128RFA1.
3.2.8 Port D (PD7...PD0)
Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each
bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink
and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source
current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset
condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port D also provides functions of various special features of the ATmega128RFA1.
3.2.9 Port E (PE7...PE0)
Port E is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each
bit). The Port E output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink
and source capability. As inputs, Port E pins that are externally pulled low will source
current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port E pins are tri-stated when a reset
condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
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Port E also provides functions of various special features of the ATmega128RFA1.
3.2.10 Port F (PF7...PF0)
Port F is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each
bit). The Port F output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink
and source capability. As inputs, Port F pins that are externally pulled low will source
current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port F pins are tri-stated when a reset
condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port F also provides functions of various special features of the ATmega128RFA1.
3.2.11 Port G (PG5…PG0)
Port G is a 6-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each
bit). The Port G output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high
sink and source capability. However the driver strength of PG3 and PG4 is reduced
compared to the other port pins. The output voltage drop (VOH, VOL) is higher while the
leakage current is smaller. As inputs, Port G pins that are externally pulled low will
source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port G pins are tri-stated when
a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
Port G also provides functions of various special features of the ATmega128RFA1.
3.2.12 AVSS_RFP
AVSS_RFP is a dedicated ground pin for the bi-directional, differential RF I/O port.
3.2.13 AVSS_RFN
AVSS_RFN is a dedicated ground pin for the bi-directional, differential RF I/O port.
3.2.14 RFP
RFP is the positive terminal for the bi-directional, differential RF I/O port.
3.2.15 RFN
RFN is the negative terminal for the bi-directional, differential RF I/O port.
3.2.16 RSTN
Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will
generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to
generate a reset.
3.2.17 RSTON
Reset output. A low level on this pin indicates a reset initiated by the internal reset
sources or the pin RSTN.
3.2.18 XTAL1
Input to the inverting 16MHz crystal oscillator amplifier. In general a crystal between
XTAL1 and XTAL2 provides the 16MHz reference clock of the radio transceiver.
3.2.19 XTAL2
Output of the inverting 16MHz crystal oscillator amplifier.
3.2.20 AREF
Reference voltage output of the A/D Converter. In general this pin is left open.
3.2.21 TST
Programming and test mode enable pin. If pin TST is not used pull it to low.
3.2.22 CLKI
Input to the clock system. If selected, it provides the operating clock of the
microcontroller.
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ATmega128RFA1
3.3 Unused Pins
Floating pins can cause power dissipation in the digital input stage. They should be
connected to an appropriate source. In normal operation modes the internal pull-up
resistors can be enabled (in Reset all GPIO are configured as input and the pull-up
resistors are still not enabled).
Bi-directional I/O pins shall not be connected to ground or power supply directly.
The digital input pins TST and CLKI must be connected. If unused pin TST can be
connected to AVSS while CLKI should be connected to DVSS.
Output pins are driven by the device and do not float. Power supply pins respective
ground supply pins are connected together internally.
XTAL1 and XTAL2 shall never be forced to supply voltage at the same time.
3.4 Compatibility to ATmega1281/2561
The basic AVR feature set of the ATmega128RFA1 is derived from the
ATmega1281/2561. Address locations and names of the implemented modules and
registers are unchanged as long as it fits the target application of a very small and
power efficient radio system. In addition, several new features were added.
Backward compatibility of the ATmega128RFA1 to the ATmega1281/2561 is provided
in most cases. However some incompatibilities between the microcontrollers exist.
3.4.1 Port A and Port C
Port A and Port C are not implemented. The associated registers are available but will
not provide any port control. Remaining ports are kept at their original address location
to not require changes of existing software packages.
3.4.2 External Memory Interface
The alternate pin function “External Memory interface” using Port A and Port C is not
implemented due to the missing ports.
The large internal data memory (SRAM) does not require an external memory and the
associated parallel interface. It keeps the system radiation (EMC) at a very small level
to provide very high sensitivity at the antenna input.
3.4.3 High Voltage Programming Mode
Alternate pin function BS2 (high voltage programming) of pin PA0 is mapped to a
different pin. Entering the parallel programming mode is controlled by the TST pin.
3.4.4 AVR Oscillators and External Clock
The AVR microcontroller can utilize the high performance crystal oscillator of the
2.4GHz transceiver connected to the pins XTAL1 and XTAL2. An external clock can be
applied to the microcontroller using the clock input CLKI.
3.4.5 Analog Frontend
The ATmega128RFA1 has a new A/D converter. Software compatibility is basically
assured. Nevertheless to benefit from the higher conversion speeds and the better
performance some changes are required.
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4 Resources
A comprehensive set of development tools and application notes, and datasheets are
available for download on http://www.atmel.com.
5 About Code Examples
This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use
various parts of the device. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit
definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please
confirm with the C compiler documentation for more details.
These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before
compilation. For I/O registers located in extended I/O map, "IN", "OUT", "SBIS", "SBIC",
"CBI", and "SBI" instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow access to
extended I/O. Typically "LDS" and "STS" combined with "SBRS", "SBRC", "SBR", and
"CBR".
6 Data Retention and Endurance
6.1 Data Retention
The data retention of the non-volatile memories is
• over 10 years at 125°C
6.2 Endurance of the Code Memory (FLASH)
ATmega128RFA1
125°C
85°C
25°C
Revision F & newer
10,000
25,000
Write/Erase cycles
Revision A to E
1,000
2,000
Write/Erase cycles
ATmega128RFA1
125°C
85°C
25°C
Revision F & newer
20,000
50,000
100,000
Write/Erase cycles
Revision A to E
1,000
2,000
5,000
Write/Erase cycles
6.3 Endurance of the Data Memory (EEPROM)
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ATmega128RFA1
7 AVR CPU Core
7.1 Introduction
This section discusses the AVR core architecture in general. The main function of the
CPU core is to ensure correct program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to
access memories, perform calculation, control peripherals, and handle interrupts.
7.2 Architectural Overview
Figure 7-1.Block Diagram of the AVR Architecture
Data Bus 8-bit
Flash
Program
Memory
Program
Counter
Status
and Control
32 x 8
General
Purpose
Registers
Control Lines
Direct Addressing
Instruction
Decoder
Indirect Addressing
Instruction
Register
Interrupt
Unit
SPI
Unit
Watchdog
Timer
ALU
Analog
Comparator
I/O Module1
Data
SRAM
I/O Module 2
I/O Module n
EEPROM
I/O Lines
In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard
architecture – with separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in
the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is
being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory. This
concept enables instructions to be executed in every clock cycle. The program memory
is In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory.
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The fast-access Register File contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with
a single clock cycle access time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
operation. In a typical ALU operation, two operands are output from the Register File,
the operation is executed, and the result is stored back in the Register File – in one
clock cycle.
Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for
Data Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations. One of these address
pointers can also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash program
memory. These added function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register, described
later in this section.
The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a
constant and a register. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU.
After an arithmetic operation, the Status Register is updated to reflect information about
the result of the operation.
Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions,
able to directly address the whole address space. Most AVR instructions have a single
16-bit word format. Every program memory address contains a 16- or 32-bit instruction.
Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot Program section and
the Application Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and
read/write protection. The SPM instruction that writes into the Application Flash memory
section must reside in the Boot Program section.
During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address Program Counter (PC) is
stored on the Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and
consequently the Stack size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the
SRAM. All user programs must initialize the SP in the Reset routine (before subroutines
or interrupts are executed). The Stack Pointer (SP) is read/write accessible in the I/O
space. The data SRAM can easily be accessed through the five different addressing
modes supported in the AVR architecture.
The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps.
A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional
Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate
Interrupt Vector in the Interrupt Vector table. The interrupts have priority in accordance
with their Interrupt Vector position. The lower the Interrupt Vector address, the higher
the priority.
The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control
Registers, SPI, and other I/O functions. The I/O Memory can be accessed directly, or as
the Data Space locations following those of the Register File, 0x20 - 0x5F. In addition,
the ATmega128RFA1 has Extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0x1FF in SRAM where only
the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
7.3 ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit
The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all the 32 general
purpose working registers. Within a single clock cycle, arithmetic operations between
general purpose registers or between a register and an immediate are executed. The
ALU operations are divided into three main categories – arithmetic, logical, and bit
functions. Some implementations of the architecture also provide a powerful multiplier
supporting both signed/unsigned multiplication and fractional format. See the
“Instruction Set” section for a detailed description.
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ATmega128RFA1
7.4 Status Register
The Status Register contains information about the result of the most recently executed
arithmetic instruction. This information can be used for altering program flow in order to
perform conditional operations. Note that the Status Register is updated after all ALU
operations, as specified in the Instruction Set Reference. This will in many cases
remove the need for using the dedicated compare instructions, resulting in faster and
more compact code. The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an
interrupt routine and restored when returning from an interrupt. This must be handled by
software.
7.4.1 SREG – Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$3F ($5F)
I
T
H
S
V
N
Z
C
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
SREG
• Bit 7 – I - Global Interrupt Enable
The global interrupt enable bit must be set (one) for the interrupts to be enabled. The
individual interrupt enable control is then performed in separate control registers. If the
global interrupt enable bit is cleared (zero), none of the interrupts are enabled
independent of the individual interrupt enable settings. The I-bit is cleared by hardware
after an interrupt has occurred, and is set by the RETI instruction to enable subsequent
interrupts.
• Bit 6 – T - Bit Copy Storage
The bit copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T bit as source
and destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the register file can be
copied into T by the BST instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register
in the register file by the BLD instruction.
• Bit 5 – H - Half Carry Flag
The half carry flag H indicates a half carry in some arithmetic operations. See the
Instruction Set Description for detailed information.
• Bit 4 – S - Sign Bit
The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the negative flag N and the two's
complement overflow flag V. See the Instruction Set Description for detailed
information.
• Bit 3 – V - Two's Complement Overflow Flag
The two's complement overflow flag V supports two's complement arithmetics. See the
Instruction Set Description for detailed information.
• Bit 2 – N - Negative Flag
The negative flag N indicates a negative result after the different arithmetic and logic
operations. See the Instruction Set Description for detailed information.
• Bit 1 – Z - Zero Flag
The zero flag Z indicates a zero result after the different arithmetic and logic operations.
See the Instruction Set Description for detailed information.
• Bit 0 – C - Carry Flag
The carry flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the Instruction
Set Description for detailed information. Note that the status register is not automatically
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stored when entering an interrupt routine and restored when returning from an interrupt
routine. This must be handled by software.
7.5 General Purpose Register File
The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to
achieve the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are
supported by the Register File:
• One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input
• Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input
• Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input
• One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input
Figure 7-1 below shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the
CPU.
Figure 7-1. AVR CPU General Purpose Working Registers
Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all
registers, and most of them are single cycle instructions.
As shown in Figure 7-1 above each register is also assigned a data memory address,
mapping them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not
being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides
great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be
set to index any register in the file.
7.5.1 The X-register, Y-register, and Z-register
The registers R26...R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage.
These registers are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space.
The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 7-2
on page 13.
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ATmega128RFA1
Figure 7-2. The X-, Y-, Z-registers
In the different addressing modes these address registers have functions as fixed
displacement, automatic increment, and automatic decrement (see the instruction set
reference for details).
7.6 Stack Pointer
The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for
storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer
Register always points to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as
growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. This implies that a
Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack Pointer.
The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and
Interrupt Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by
the program before any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The
Stack Pointer must be set to point above 0x0200. The initial value of the stack pointer is
the last address of the internal SRAM.
The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the
PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed onto
the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one
when data is popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by
two when data is popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from
interrupt RETI.
When the FLASH memory exceeds 128Kbyte one additional cycle is required. In this
case the Stack Pointer is decremented by three when the return address is pushed onto
the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt and is incremented by three when data is
popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI.
7.6.1 SPH – Stack Pointer High
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$3E ($5E)
SP15
SP14
SP13
SP12
SP11
SP10
SP9
SP8
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
SPH
The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers SPL and SPH in the I/O
space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the
data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL
is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present.
• Bit 7:0 – SP15:8 - Stack Pointer High Byte
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7.6.2 SPL – Stack Pointer Low
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$3D ($5D)
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
SPL
The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers SPL and SPH in the I/O
space. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the
data space in some implementations of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL
is needed. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present.
• Bit 7:0 – SP7:0 - Stack Pointer Low Byte
7.6.3 RAMPZ – Extended Z-pointer Register for ELPM/SPM
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
$3B ($5B)
Res5
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
1
0
RAMPZ1 RAMPZ0
RW
0
RAMPZ
RW
0
For ELPM/SPM instructions, the Z-pointer is a concatenation of RAMPZ, ZH, and ZL.
Note that LPM is not affected by the RAMPZ setting.
• Bit 7:2 – Res5:0 - Reserved
For compatibility with future devices, be sure to write these bits to zero.
• Bit 1:0 – RAMPZ1:0 - Extended Z-Pointer Value
These two bits represent the MSB's of the Z-Pointer.
Table 7-2 RAMPZ Register Bits
Register Bits
RAMPZ1:0
Value
0
Description
Default value of Z-pointer MSB's.
For ELPM/SPM instructions, the Z-pointer is a concatenation of RAMPZ, ZH, and ZL,
as shown in Figure 7-3 below. Note that LPM is not affected by the RAMPZ setting.
Figure 7-3. The Z-pointer used by ELPM and SPM
The actual number of bits is implementation dependent. Unused bits in an
implementation will always read as zero. For compatibility with future devices, be sure
to write these bits to zero.
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ATmega128RFA1
7.7 Instruction Execution Timing
Figure 7-4. The Parallel Instruction Fetches and Instruction Executions
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
1st Instruction Fetch
1st Instruction Execute
2nd Instruction Fetch
2nd Instruction Execute
3rd Instruction Fetch
3rd Instruction Execute
4th Instruction Fetch
Figure 7-5 below shows the internal timing concept for the Register File. In a single
clock cycle an ALU operation using two register operands is executed, and the result is
stored back to the destination register.
Figure 7-5. Single Cycle ALU operation
T1
T2
T3
T4
clkCPU
Total Execution Time
Register Operands Fetch
ALU Operation Execute
Result Write Back
7.8 Reset and Interrupt Handling
The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate
Reset Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory space. All
interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together
with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the
interrupt. Depending on the Program Counter value, interrupts may be automatically
disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12 are programmed. This feature improves
software security. See the section "Memory Programming" on page 470 for details.
The lowest addresses in the program memory space are by default defined as the
Reset and Interrupt Vectors. The complete list of vectors is shown in "Interrupts" on
page 214. The list also determines the priority levels of the different interrupts. The
lower the address the higher is the priority level. RESET has the highest priority, and
next is INT0 – the External Interrupt Request 0. The Interrupt Vectors can be moved to
the start of the Boot Flash section by setting the IVSEL bit in the MCU Control Register
(MCUCR). Refer to "Interrupts" on page 214 for more information. The Reset Vector
can also be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by programming the
BOOTRST Fuse, see "Memory Programming" on page 470.
When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts
are disabled. The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested
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interrupts. All enabled interrupts can then interrupt the current interrupt routine. The I-bit
is automatically set when a Return from Interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed.
There are basically two types of interrupts. The first type is triggered by an event that
sets the Interrupt Flag. For these interrupts, the Program Counter is vectored to the
actual Interrupt Vector in order to execute the interrupt handling routine, and hardware
clears the corresponding Interrupt Flag. Interrupt Flags can also be cleared by writing a
logic one to the flag bit position(s) to be cleared. If an interrupt condition occurs while
the corresponding interrupt enable bit is cleared, the Interrupt Flag will be set and
remembered until the interrupt is enabled, or the flag is cleared by software. Similarly, if
one or more interrupt conditions occur while the Global Interrupt Enable bit is cleared,
the corresponding Interrupt Flag(s) will be set and remembered until the Global
Interrupt Enable bit is set, and will then be executed by order of priority.
The second type of interrupts will trigger as long as the interrupt condition is present.
These interrupts do not necessarily have Interrupt Flags. If the interrupt condition
disappears before the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt will not be triggered.
When the AVR exits from an interrupt, it will always return to the main program and
execute one more instruction before any pending interrupt is served.
Note that the Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt
routine, nor restored when returning from an interrupt routine. This must be handled by
software.
When using the CLI instruction to disable interrupts, the interrupts will be immediately
disabled. No interrupt will be executed after the CLI instruction, even if it occurs
simultaneously with the CLI instruction. The following example shows how this can be
used to avoid interrupts during the timed EEPROM write sequence.
Assembly Code Example
in r16, SREG ; store SREG value
cli ; disable interrupts during timed sequence
sbi EECR, EEMPE ; start EEPROM write
sbi EECR, EEPE
out SREG, r16 ; restore SREG value (I-bit)
C Code Example
char cSREG;
cSREG = SREG; /* store SREG value */
/* disable interrupts during timed sequence */
__disable_interrupt();
EECR |= (1<<EEMPE); /* start EEPROM write */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
SREG = cSREG; /* restore SREG value (I-bit) */
When using the SEI instruction to enable interrupts, the instruction following SEI will be
executed before any pending interrupts, as shown in this example.
Assembly Code Example
sei ; set Global Interrupt Enable
sleep; enter sleep, waiting for interrupt
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ATmega128RFA1
Assembly Code Example
; note: will enter sleep before any pending
; interrupt(s)
C Code Example
__enable_interrupt(); /* set Global Interrupt Enable */
__sleep(); /* enter sleep, waiting for interrupt */
/* note: will enter sleep before any pending interrupt(s) */
7.8.1 Interrupt Response Time
The interrupt execution response for all the enabled AVR interrupts is five clock cycles
minimum. After five clock cycles the program vector address for the actual interrupt
handling routine is executed. During these five clock cycle period, the Program Counter
is pushed onto the Stack. The vector is normally a jump to the interrupt routine, and this
jump takes three clock cycles. If an interrupt occurs during execution of a multi-cycle
instruction, this instruction is completed before the interrupt is served. If an interrupt
occurs when the MCU is in sleep mode, the interrupt execution response time is
increased by five clock cycles. This increase comes in addition to the start-up time from
the selected sleep mode.
A return from an interrupt handling routine takes five clock cycles. During these five
clock cycles, the Program Counter (three bytes) is popped back from the Stack, the
Stack Pointer is incremented by three, and the I-bit in SREG is set.
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8 AVR Memories
This section describes the different memories in the ATmega128RFA1. The AVR
architecture has two main memory spaces, the Data Memory and the Program Memory
space. In addition, the ATmega128RFA1 features an EEPROM Memory for data
storage. All three memory spaces are linear and regular.
8.1 In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory
The ATmega128RFA1 contains 128K Bytes On-chip In-System Reprogrammable Flash
memory for program storage, see Figure 8-6 below. Since all AVR instructions are 16 or
32 bits wide, the Flash is 16 bit wide. For software security, the Flash Program memory
space is divided into two sections, Boot Program section and Application Program
section.
The Flash memory has an endurance of at least 10'000 write/erase cycles. The
ATmega128RFA1 Program Counter (PC) is 16 bits wide, thus addressing the required
program memory locations. The operation of Boot Program section and associated
Boot Lock bits for software protection are described in detail in "Boot Loader Support –
Read-While-Write Self-Programming" on page 455. "Memory Programming" on page
470 contains a detailed description on Flash data serial downloading using the SPI pins
or the JTAG interface.
Constant tables can be allocated within the entire program memory address space (see
the LPM – Load Program Memory instruction description and ELPM – Extended Load
Program Memory instruction description).
Timing diagrams for instruction fetch and execution are presented in "Instruction
Execution Timing" on page 15.
Figure 8-6. Program Flash Memory Map
Program Memory
Application Flash Section
$0000
Boot Flash Section
8.2 SRAM Data Memory
Figure 8-7 on page 19 shows how the ATmega128RFA1 SRAM Memory is organized.
The ATmega128RFA1 is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can
be supported within the 64 location reserved in the Opcode for the IN and OUT
instructions. For the Extended I/O space from $060 – $1FF in SRAM, only the
ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
The first Data Memory locations address both the Register File, the I/O Memory,
Extended I/O Memory, and the internal data SRAM. The first 32 locations address the
Register file, the next 64 location the standard I/O Memory, then 416 locations of
Extended I/O memory and the following locations address the internal data SRAM.
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ATmega128RFA1
The five different addressing modes for the data memory cover: Direct, Indirect with
Displacement, Indirect, Indirect with Pre-decrement, and Indirect with Post-increment.
In the Register file, registers R26 to R31 feature the indirect addressing pointer
registers.
The direct addressing reaches the entire data space.
The Indirect with Displacement mode reaches 63 address locations from the base
address given by the Y- or Z-register.
When using register indirect addressing modes with automatic pre-decrement and postincrement, the address registers X, Y, and Z are decremented or incremented.
The 32 general purpose working registers, 64 I/O registers, and the internal data SRAM
in the ATmega128RFA1 are all accessible through all these addressing modes. The
Register File is described in "General Purpose Register File" on page 12.
Figure 8-7. Data Memory Map
Data Memory
32 Registers
64 I/O Registers
416 Ext I/O Reg.
$0000 - $001F
$0020 - $005F
$0060 - $01FF
$0200
Internal SRAM
(16K x 8)
$41FF
$FFFF
8.2.1 Data Memory Access Times
This section describes the general access timing concepts for internal memory access.
Access to the internal data SRAM is performed in two clkCPU cycles as described in
Figure 8-8 on page 20.
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Figure 8-8. On-Chip Data SRAM Access Cycles
T1
T2
T3
clkCPU
Address
Compute Address
Address valid
Write
Data
WR
Read
Data
RD
Memory Access Instruction
Next Instruction
8.3 EEPROM Data Memory
The ATmega128RFA1 contains 4K Bytes of data EEPROM memory. It is organized as
a separate data space. Read access is byte-wise. The access between the EEPROM
and the CPU is described in the following, specifying the EEPROM Address Registers,
the EEPROM Data Register, and the EEPROM Control Register.
For a detailed description of SPI, JTAG and Parallel data downloading to the EEPROM,
see "Serial Downloading" on page 484, "Programming via the JTAG Interface" on page
488, and "Programming the EEPROM" on page 498 respectively.
8.3.1 EEPROM Read Write Access
The EEPROM Access Registers are accessible in the I/O space, see "EEPROM
Register Description" on page 24.
The write access time for the EEPROM is given in Table 8-3 below. A self-timing
function, however, lets the user software detect when the next byte can be written. If the
user code contains instructions that write the EEPROM, some precautions must be
taken. In heavily filtered power supplies, DVDD is likely to rise or fall slowly on powerup/down. This causes the device for some period of time to run at a voltage lower than
specified as minimum for the clock frequency used. See "Preventing EEPROM
Corruption" on page 24 for details on how to avoid problems in these situations.
In order to prevent unintentional EEPROM writes, a specific write procedure must be
followed. See the description of the EEPROM Control Register for details on this,
"EEPROM Register Description" on page 24.
When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four clock cycles before the next
instruction is executed. When the EEPROM is written, the CPU is halted for two clock
cycles before the next instruction is executed.
The calibrated oscillator is used to time the EEPROM accesses. The following table
lists the typical programming time for EEPROM access from the CPU.
Table 8-3. EEPROM Programming Time
Symbol
20
Typical Programming time
EEPROM write (from CPU)
4.5 ms
EEPROM erase (from CPU)
8.5 ms
ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
The subsequent code examples show assembly and C functions for programming the
EEPROM with separate and combined (atomic) erase/write operations respectively.
The examples assume that interrupts are controlled (e.g. by disabling interrupts
globally) so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions. The
examples also assume that no Flash Boot Loader is present in the software. If such
code is present, the EEPROM write function must also wait for any ongoing SPM
command to finish.
Assembly Code Example (Single Byte Programming)
EEPROM_write:
; Wait for completion of previous erase/write
sbic EECR,EEPE
rjmp EEPROM_write
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Write data (r16) to Data Register
out EEDR,r16
; Write is controlled with r20 and r21
ldi r20, (1<<EEMPE) + (2<<EEPM0)
ldi r21, (1<<EEMPE) + (1<<EEPE) + (2<<EEPM0)
; Start eeprom write
out EECR, r20
out EECR, r21
ret
EEPROM_erase:
; Wait for completion of previous erase/write
sbic EECR,EEPE
rjmp EEPROM_erase
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Set EEDR to 0xff
ser r16
out EEDR,r16
; Erase is controlled with r20 and r21
ldi r20, (1<<EEMPE) + (1<<EEPM0)
ldi r21, (1<<EEMPE) + (1<<EEPE) + (1<<EEPM0)
; Start eeprom erase
out EECR, r20
out EECR, r21
ret
; main program
…
ldi r17, addr_low
ldi r18, addr_high
call EEPROM_erase
ldi r16, ee_data
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call EEPROM_write
…
C Code Example (Single Byte Programming)
void EEPROM_write(unsigned int uiAddress, unsigned char ucData)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous erase/write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up address */
EEAR = uiAddress;
EEDR = 255;
/* Write logical one to EEMPE and enable erase only*/
EECR = (1<<EEMPE) + (1<<EEPM0);
/* Start eeprom erase by setting EEPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
/* Wait for completion of erase */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up Data Registers */
EEDR = ucData;
/* Write logical one to EEMPE and enable write only */
EECR = (1<<EEMPE) + (2<<EEPM0);
/* Start eeprom write by setting EEPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
}
Although the code for separate erase/write operations is more complex it is
recommended over the atomic operation. The erase operation can be omitted if the
target EEPROM byte already contains the value 255 (e.g. after a chip erase without the
EESAVE fuse set).
Assembly Code Example (Atomic Operation)
EEPROM_atomic_write:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic EECR,EEPE
rjmp EEPROM_atomic_write
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Write data (r16) to Data Register
out EEDR,r16
; Write logical one to EEMPE
sbi EECR,EEMPE
; Start eeprom write by setting EEPE
sbi EECR,EEPE
ret
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ATmega128RFA1
C Code Example (Atomic Operation)
void EEPROM_atomic_write(unsigned int uiAddress, unsigned char ucData)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up address and Data Registers */
EEAR = uiAddress;
EEDR = ucData;
/* Write logical one to EEMPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEMPE);
/* Start eeprom write by setting EEPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
}
The next code examples show assembly and C functions for reading the EEPROM. The
examples assume that interrupts are controlled so that no interrupts will occur during
execution of these functions.
Assembly Code Example (EEPROM Read)
EEPROM_read:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic EECR,EEPE
rjmp EEPROM_read
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Start eeprom read by writing EERE
sbi EECR,EERE
; Read data from Data Register
in r16,EEDR
ret
C Code Example (EEPROM Read)
unsigned char EEPROM_read(unsigned int uiAddress)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up address register */
EEAR = uiAddress;
/* Start eeprom read by writing EERE */
EECR |= (1<<EERE);
/* Return data from Data Register */
return EEDR;
}
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8.3.2 Preventing EEPROM Corruption
During periods of low DEVDD, the EEPROM data can be corrupted because the supply
voltage is too low for the CPU and the EEPROM to operate properly. These issues are
the same as for board level systems using EEPROM, and the same design solutions
should be applied.
An EEPROM data corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too
low. First, a regular write sequence to the EEPROM requires a minimum voltage to
operate correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly, if the
supply voltage is too low.
EEPROM data corruption can easily be avoided by following this
recommendation:
design
Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage.
This can be done by enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD). If the detection
level of the internal BOD does not match the needed detection level, an external low
DEVDD reset protection circuit can be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is
in progress, the write operation will be completed provided that the power supply
voltage is sufficient.
8.4 EEPROM Register Description
8.4.1 EEARH – EEPROM Address Register High Byte
Bit
$22 ($42)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
3
2
EEAR11 EEAR10
RW
X
RW
X
1
0
EEAR9
EEAR8
RW
X
RW
X
EEARH
The EEPROM Address Registers EEARH and EEARL specify the EEPROM address in
the 4K bytes EEPROM space. The EEPROM data bytes are addressed linearly
between 0 and 4096. The initial value of EEAR is undefined. A proper value must be
written before the EEPROM may be accessed.
• Bit 7:4 – Res3:0 - Reserved
• Bit 3:0 – EEAR11:8 - EEPROM Address
8.4.2 EEARL – EEPROM Address Register Low Byte
Bit
$21 ($41)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EEAR7
EEAR6
EEAR5
EEAR4
EEAR3
EEAR2
EEAR1
EEAR0
RW
X
RW
X
RW
X
RW
X
RW
X
RW
X
RW
X
RW
X
EEARL
The EEPROM Address Registers EEARH and EEARL specify the EEPROM address in
the 4K bytes EEPROM space. The EEPROM data bytes are addressed linearly
between 0 and 4096. The initial value of EEAR is undefined. A proper value must be
written before the EEPROM may be accessed.
• Bit 7:0 – EEAR7:0 - EEPROM Address
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ATmega128RFA1
8.4.3 EEDR – EEPROM Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
$20 ($40)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
EEDR7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
EEDR
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
For the EEPROM write operation, the EEDR Register contains the data to be written to
the EEPROM in the address given by the EEAR Register. For the EEPROM read
operation, the EEDR contains the data read out from the EEPROM at the address given
by EEAR.
• Bit 7:0 – EEDR7:0 - EEPROM Data
8.4.4 EECR – EEPROM Control Register
Bit
$1F ($3F)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
EEPM1
EEPM0
EERIE
EEMPE
EEPE
EERE
R
0
R
0
RW
X
RW
X
RW
0
RW
0
RW
X
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
EECR
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved
• Bit 5:4 – EEPM1:0 - EEPROM Programming Mode
The EEPROM Programming mode bit setting defines which programming action will be
triggered when writing EEPE. It is possible to program data in one atomic operation
(erase the old value and program the new value) or to split the Erase and Write
operations in two different operations. While EEPE is set, any write to EEPM1:0 will be
ignored. During reset, the EEPM1:0 bits will be reset to 0 unless the EEPROM is busy
programming.
Table 8-4 EEPM Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
EEPM1:0
0x00
Erase and Write in one operation (Atomic
Operation)
0x01
Erase only
0x02
Write only
0x03
Reserved for future use
• Bit 3 – EERIE - EEPROM Ready Interrupt Enable
Writing EERIE to one enables the EEPROM Ready Interrupt if the I bit in SREG is set.
Writing EERIE to zero disables the interrupt. The EEPROM Ready interrupt generates a
constant interrupt when EEPE is cleared.
• Bit 2 – EEMPE - EEPROM Master Write Enable
The EEMPE bit determines whether setting EEPE to one causes the EEPROM to be
written. When EEMPE is set, setting EEPE within four clock cycles will write data to the
EEPROM at the selected address If EEMPE is zero, setting EEPE will have no effect.
When EEMPE has been written to one by software, hardware clears the bit to zero after
four clock cycles. See the description of the EEPE bit for an EEPROM write procedure.
• Bit 1 – EEPE - EEPROM Programming Enable
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The EEPROM Write Enable Signal EEPE is the write strobe to the EEPROM. When
address and data are correctly set up, the EEPE bit must be written to one to write the
value into the EEPROM. The EEMPE bit must be written to one before a logical one is
written to EEPE, otherwise no EEPROM write takes place. The following procedure
should be adopted when writing the EEPROM (the order of steps 3 and 4 is not
essential):
1. Wait until EEPE becomes zero.
2. Wait until SPMEN in SPMCSR becomes zero.
3. Write new EEPROM address to EEAR (optional).
4. Write new EEPROM data to EEDR (optional).
5. Write a logical one to the EEMPE bit while writing a zero to EEPE in EECR.
6. Within four clock cycles after setting EEMPE, write a logical one to EEPE.
The EEPROM can not be programmed during a CPU write to the Flash memory. The
software must check that the Flash programming is completed before initiating a new
EEPROM write. Step 2 is only relevant if the software contains a Boot Loader allowing
the CPU to program the Flash. If the Flash is never being updated by the CPU, step 2
can be omitted.
Caution: an interrupt between step 5 and step 6 will make the write cycle fail, since the
EEPROM Master Write Enable will time-out. If an interrupt routine accessing the
EEPROM is interrupting another EEPROM access, the EEAR or EEDR Register will be
modified, causing the interrupted EEPROM access to fail. It is recommended to have
the Global Interrupt Flag cleared during all steps to avoid these problems.
When the write access time has elapsed, the EEPE bit is cleared by hardware. The
user software can poll this bit and wait for a zero before writing the next byte. When
EEPE has been set, the CPU is halted for two cycles before the next instruction is
executed.
• Bit 0 – EERE - EEPROM Read Enable
The EEPROM Read Enable Signal EERE is the read strobe to the EEPROM. When the
correct address is set up in the EEAR Register, the EERE bit must be written to a logic
one to trigger the EEPROM read. The EEPROM read access takes one instruction and
the requested data is available immediately. When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is
halted for four cycles before the next instruction is executed. The user should poll the
EEPE bit before starting the read operation. If a write operation is in progress, it is
neither possible to read the EEPROM nor to change the EEAR Register.
8.5 I/O Memory
The Input/Output (I/O) space definition of the ATmega128RFA1 is shown in "Register
Summary" on page 503.
All ATmega128RFA1 I/Os and peripherals are placed in the I/O space. All I/O locations
may be accessed by the LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions, transferring data
between the 32 general purpose working registers and the I/O space. I/O Registers
within the address range 0x00 – 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI
instructions. In these registers, the value of single bits can be checked by using the
SBIS and SBIC instructions. Refer to the AVR instruction set for more details. When
using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT, the I/O addresses 0x00 – 0x3F must be
used. When addressing I/O Registers as data space using LD and ST instructions,
26
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
0x20 must be added to these addresses. The ATmega128RFA1 is a complex
microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be supported within the 64 location
reserved in Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the Extended I/O space from
0x60 – 0x1FF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be
used.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits may not be modified. Reserved
registers and I/O memory addresses should never be written.
Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike
most other AVRs, the CBI and SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit,
and can therefore be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The CBI and SBI
instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only.
The control registers of I/O and peripherals are explained in later sections.
8.6 General Purpose I/O Registers
The ATmega128RFA1 contains three General Purpose I/O Registers. These registers
can be used for storing any information, and they are particularly useful for storing
global variables and Status Flags. General Purpose I/O Registers within the address
range 0x00 – 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI, CBI, SBIS, and SBIC
instructions.
8.6.1 GPIOR0 – General Purpose IO Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
$1E ($3E)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
GPIOR07:00
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
GPIOR0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The three General Purpose I/O Registers can be used for storing any information.
• Bit 7:0 – GPIOR07:00 - General Purpose I/O Register 0 Value
8.6.2 GPIOR1 – General Purpose IO Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
$2A ($4A)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
GPIOR17:10
RW
0
GPIOR1
The three General Purpose I/O Registers can be used for storing any information.
• Bit 7:0 – GPIOR17:10 - General Purpose I/O Register 1 Value
8.6.3 GPIOR2 – General Purpose I/O Register 2
Bit
7
6
5
$2B ($4B)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
GPIOR27:20
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
GPIOR2
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
27
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
The three General Purpose I/O Registers can be used for storing any information.
• Bit 7:0 – GPIOR27:20 - General Purpose I/O Register 2 Value
8.7 Other Port Registers
The inherited control registers of missing ports located in the I/O space are kept in the
ATmega128RFA1. They can be used as general purpose I/O registers for storing any
information. Registers placed in the address range 0x00 – 0x1F are directly bitaccessible using the SBI, CBI, SBIS and SBIC instructions.
8.7.1 PORTA – Port A Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
$02 ($22)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
PORTA7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PORTA
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The PORTA register can be used as a General Purpose I/O Register for storing any
information.
• Bit 7:0 – PORTA7:0 - Port A Data Register Value
8.7.2 DDRA – Port A Data Direction Register
Bit
$01 ($21)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDA7
DDA6
DDA5
DDA4
DDA3
DDA2
DDA1
DDA0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DDRA
The DDRA register can be used as a General Purpose I/O Register for storing any
information.
• Bit 7:0 – DDA7:0 - Port A Data Direction Register Value
8.7.3 PINA – Port A Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
$00 ($20)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PINA7:0
RW
0
PINA
The PINA register is reserved for internal use and cannot be used as a General
Purpose I/O Register.
• Bit 7:0 – PINA7:0 - Port A Input Pins
28
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
8.7.4 PORTC – Port C Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
$08 ($28)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
PORTC7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PORTC
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The PORTC register can be used as a General Purpose I/O Register for storing any
information.
• Bit 7:0 – PORTC7:0 - Port C Data Register Value
8.7.5 DDRC – Port C Data Direction Register
Bit
$07 ($27)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDC7
DDC6
DDC5
DDC4
DDC3
DDC2
DDC1
DDC0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DDRC
The DDRC register can be used as a General Purpose I/O Register for storing any
information.
• Bit 7:0 – DDC7:0 - Port C Data Direction Register Value
8.7.6 PINC – Port C Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
$06 ($26)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
PINC7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
PINC
R
0
R
0
R
0
The PINC register is reserved for internal use and cannot be used as a General
Purpose I/O Register.
• Bit 7:0 – PINC7:0 - Port C Input Pins
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
9 Low-Power 2.4 GHz Transceiver
9.1 Features
• High performance RF-CMOS 2.4 GHz radio transceiver targeted for IEEE
802.15.4™, ZigBee™, IPv6 / 6LoWPAN, RF4CE, SP100, WirelessHART™ and
ISM applications
• Outstanding link budget (103.5 dB):
o
Receiver sensitivity -100 dBm
o
Programmable output power from -17 dBm up to +3.5 dBm
• Ultra-low current consumption:
o
TRX_OFF
= 0.4 mA
o
RX_ON
= 12.5 mA
o
BUSY_TX
= 14.5 mA (at max. transmit power of +3.5 dBm)
• Optimized for low BoM cost and ease of production:
o
Few external components necessary (crystal, capacitors and
antenna)
o
Excellent ESD robustness
• Easy to use interface:
o
Registers and frame buffer access from software
o
Dedicated radio transceiver interrupts
• Radio transceiver features:
o
128 byte FIFO (SRAM) for data buffering
o
Integrated RX/TX switch
o
Fully integrated, fast settling PLL to support frequency hopping
o
Battery monitor
o
Fast wake-up time < 0.25 ms
• Special IEEE 802.15.4 2006 hardware support:
o
FCS computation and clear channel assessment (CCA)
o
RSSI measurement, energy detection and link quality indication
• MAC hardware accelerator:
o
Automated acknowledgement, CSMA-CA and frame
retransmission
o
Automatic address filtering
o
Automated FCS check
• Extended Feature Set Hardware Support:
o
AES 128 bit hardware accelerator
o
RX/TX indication (external RF front-end control)
o
RX antenna diversity
o
Supported PSDU data rates: 250 kb/s, 500 kb/s, 1 Mb/s and 2 Mb/s
o
True random number generation for security applications
• Compliant to IEEE 802.15.4-2006, IEEE 802.15.4-2003 and RF4CE
• Compliant to EN 300 328/440, FCC-CFR-47 Part 15, ARIB STD-66, RSS-210
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ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
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The ATmega128RFA1 features a low-power 2.4 GHz radio transceiver designed for
industrial and consumer ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4, 6LoWPAN, RF4CE and high data rate
2.4 GHz ISM band applications. The radio transceiver is a true peripheral block of the
AVR microcontroller. All RF-critical components except the antenna, crystal and decoupling capacitors are integrated on-chip. Therefore, the ATmega128RFA1 is
particularly suitable for applications like:
• 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee systems
• 6LoWPAN and RF4CE systems
• Wireless sensor networks
• Industrial control, sensing and automation (SP100, WirelessHART)
• Residential and commercial automation
• Health care
• Consumer electronics
• PC peripherals
9.2 General Circuit Description
®
This radio transceiver is part of a system-on-chip solution with an AVR microcontroller.
It comprises a complex peripheral component containing the analog radio, digital
modulation and demodulation including time and frequency synchronization and data
buffering. The number of external components for the transceiver operation is
minimized such that only the antenna, the crystal and decoupling capacitors are
required. The bidirectional differential antenna pins (RFP, RFN) are used for
transmission and reception, thus no external antenna switch is needed.
The transceiver block diagram of the ATmega128RFA1 is shown in Figure 9-9 below.
AVREG
ext. PA and Power
Control
DIG3/4
PA
XTAL2
XTAL1
Figure 9-9. Transceiver Block Diagram
DVREG
XOSC
PLL
Configuration Registers
TX Data
Data
TX BBP
µC
Interface
RFP
FTN, BATMON
Frame
Buffer
Interrupts
Address
Control
RFN
LNA
PPF
BPF
Limiter
AGC
AD
DIG1/2
Analog Domain
RX
ADC
RX BBP
AES
RSSI
Control Logic
Antenna Diversity
Digital Domain
31
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
The received RF signal at pins RFN and RFP is differentially fed through the low-noise
amplifier (LNA) to the RF filter (PPF) to generate a complex signal, driving the
integrated channel filter (BPF). The limiting amplifier provides sufficient gain to drive the
succeeding analog-to-digital converter (RX ADC) and generates a digital RSSI signal.
The RX ADC output signal is sampled by the digital base band receiver (RX BBP).
The transmit modulation scheme is offset-QPSK (O-QPSK) with half-sine pulse shaping
and 32-length block coding (spreading) according to [1] on page 102 and [2] on page
102. The modulation signal is generated in the digital transmitter (TX BBP) and applied
to the fractional-N frequency synthesis (PLL), to ensure the coherent phase modulation
required for demodulation of O-QPSK signals. The frequency-modulated signal is fed to
the power amplifier (PA).
A differential pin pair DIG3/DIG4 can be enabled to control an external RF front-end.
The two on-chip low-dropout voltage regulators (A|DVREG) provide the analog and
digital 1.8V supply.
An internal 128-byte RAM for RX and TX (Frame Buffer) buffers the data to be
transmitted or received.
The configuration of the reading and writing of the Frame Buffer is controlled via the
microcontroller interface.
The transceiver further contains comprehensive hardware-MAC support (Extended
Operating Mode) and a security engine (AES) to improve the overall system power
efficiency and timing. The 128-bit AES engine can be accessed in parallel to all PHY
operational transactions and states using the microcontroller interface, except during
transceiver power down state.
For applications not necessarily targeting IEEE 802.15.4 compliant networks, the radio
transceiver also supports alternative data rates up to 2 Mb/s.
For long-range applications or to improve the reliability of an RF connection the RF
performance can further be improved by using an external RF front-end or Antenna
Diversity. Both operation modes are supported by the radio transceiver with dedicated
control pins without the interaction of the microcontroller.
Additional features of the Extended Feature Set, see section "Radio Transceiver
Extended Feature Set" on page 88, are provided to simplify the interaction between
radio transceiver and microcontroller.
9.3 Transceiver to Microcontroller Interface
This section describes the internal Interface between the transceiver module and the
microcontroller. Unlike all other AVR I/O modules, the transceiver module can operate
asynchronously to the controller. The transceiver requires an accurate 16MHz crystal
clock for operation, but the controller can run at any frequency within its operating limits.
Note that the on-chip debug system (see section "Using the On-chip Debug System" on
page 443) must be disabled for the best RF performance of the radio transceiver.
9.3.1 Transceiver Configuration and Data Access
9.3.1.1 Register Access
All transceiver registers are mapped into I/O space of the controller. Due to the
asynchronous interface a register access can take up to three transceiver clock cycles.
Depending on the controller clock speed, program execution wait cycles are generated.
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ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
That means if the controller runs with about 16MHz or faster, at least three wait cycles
are generated, but if the controller runs with about 4MHz, no wait cycles are inserted. A
register access is only possible, if the transceiver clock is available. Otherwise it returns
0x00 regardless of the current register content. Therefore the transceiver must be
enabled (PRR1 Register) and not in SLEEP state.
It is recommended to modify the transceiver registers in the address range 0x141 0x14D and 0x155 - 0x17F only, while in TRX_OFF state. In this case, no special
procedures are required.
If registers are written while the transceiver is not in TRX_OFF state (e.g. PLL_ON,
RX_ON, TX_ACTIVE, …) a separate update request for the internal temporary registers
is needed. Read back of the registers does not necessarily reflect the state of the
internal temporary registers. The values returned show merely the previously written
content.
The update request can be forced by either these two:
1. Repeat the write to the last written register
or
2. Read and write back register PART_NUM.
9.3.1.2 Frame Buffer Access
The 128-byte Frame Buffer can hold the PHY service data unit (PSDU) data of one
IEEE 802.15.4 compliant RX or one TX frame of maximum length at a time. A detailed
description of the Frame Buffer can be found in section "Frame Buffer" on page 79. An
introduction to the IEEE 802.15.4 frame format can be found in section "Introduction –
IEEE 802.15.4-2006 Frame Format" on page 63.
The Frame Buffer is located within the controller I/O address space above of the
transceiver register set. The first byte of the Frame Buffer can be accessed with the
symbolical address TRXFBST and the last byte can be accessed with the symbolical
address TRXFBEND. Random access to single frame bytes is possible with “TRXFBST
+ byte index” or “TRXFBEND – byte index”. In contrast to the transceiver register
access, the Frame Buffer allows single cycle read/write operations for all controller
clock speeds.
The content of the Frame Buffer is only overwritten by a new received frame or a Frame
Buffer write access.
The Frame Buffer usage is different between received and transmitted frames.
Therefore it is not possible to retransmit a received frame without modifying the frame
buffer.
On received frames, the frame length byte is not stored in the Frame Buffer, but can be
accessed over the TST_RX_LENGTH register. During frame receive, the Link Quality
Indication (LQI) value (refer to "Link Quality Indication (LQI)" on page 74 ) is appended
to the frame data in the Frame Buffer.
For frame transmission, the first byte of the Frame Buffer must contain the frame length
information followed by the frame data. The TST_RX_LENGTH register does not need
to be written in this case.
A detailed description of the Frame Buffer usage for receive and transmit frames can be
found in Figure 9-31 on page 80.
Notes:
1. The Frame Buffer is shared between RX and TX; therefore, the frame data are overwritten by
new incoming frames. If the TX frame data are to be retransmitted, it must be ensured that no
frame was received in the meanwhile.
33
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
2. To avoid overwriting during receive, Dynamic Frame Buffer Protection can be enabled. For
details about this feature refer to section "Dynamic Frame Buffer Protection" on page 94.
3. It is not possible to retransmit received frames without inserting the frame length information at
the beginning of the Frame Buffer. That requires a complete read out of the received frame
and rewriting the modified frame to the Frame Buffer.
4. For exceptions, e.g. receiving acknowledgement frames in Extended Operating Mode
(TX_ARET) refer to section "TX_ARET_ON – Transmit with Automatic Retry and CSMA-CA
Retry" on page 59.
9.3.1.3 Transceiver Pin Register TRXPR
The Transceiver Pin Register TRXPR is located in the Controller clock domain and is
accessible even if the transceiver is in sleep state. This register provides access to the
pin functionality, known from the Atmel standalone transceiver devices (two chip
solution).
The register (TRXRST) can be used to reset the transceiver without resetting the
controller. After the reset bit was set, it is cleared immediately.
A second configuration bit (SLPTR) is used to control frame transmission or sleep and
wakeup of the transceiver. This bit is not cleared automatically.
The function of the SLPTR bit relates to the current state of the transceiver module and
is summarized in Table 9-1 below. The radio transceiver states are explained in detail in
section "Operating Modes" on page 36.
Table 9-1. SLPTR Multi-functional Configuration bit
Transceiver Status
Function
SLPTR Bit
Description
PLL_ON
TX start
“0”
“1”
Starts frame transmission
TX_ARET_ON
TX start
“0”
“1”
Starts TX_ARET transaction
TRX_OFF
Sleep
“0”
“1”
Takes the radio transceiver into SLEEP state
SLEEP
Wakeup
“1”
“0”
Takes the radio transceiver back into TRX_OFF state;
In states PLL_ON and TX_ARET_ON, bit SLPTR is used to initiate a TX transaction.
Here bit SLPTR is sensitive on the transition from “0” to “1” only. The bit should be
cleared before the frame transmission is finished.
After initiating a state change by a “0” to “1” transition at bit SLPTR in radio transceiver
states TRX_OFF, RX_ON or RX_AACK_ON, the radio transceiver remains in the new
state as long as the bit is logical “1” and returns to the preceding state if the bit is set to
“0”.
SLEEP state
The SLEEP state is used when radio transceiver functionality is not required, and thus
the receiver module can be powered down to reduce the overall power consumption.
When the radio transceiver is in TRX_OFF state the microcontroller forces the
transceiver to SLEEP by setting SLPTR = “1”. The transceiver awakes when the
microcontroller releases bit SLPTR.
9.3.2 Interrupt Logic
9.3.2.1 Overview
The transceiver module differentiates between eight interrupt events. Internally all
pending interrupts are stored in a separate bit of the interrupt status register
(IRQ_STATUS). Each interrupt is enabled by setting the corresponding bit in the
interrupt mask register (IRQ_MASK). If an IRQ is enabled an interrupt service routine
34
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
must be defined to handle the IRQ. A pending IRQ is cleared automatically if an
Interrupt service routine is called. It is also possible to handle IRQs manually by polling
the IRQ_STATUS register. If an IRQ occurred, the appropriate IRQ_STATUS register
bit is set. The IRQ can be cleared by writing ‘1’ to the register bit. It is recommended to
clear the corresponding status bit before enabling an interrupt.
More information about interrupt handling by the controller can be found in section
"Interrupts" on page 214.
The supported interrupts for the Basic Operating Mode are summarized in Table 9-2
below.
Table 9-2. Interrupt Description in Basic Operating Mode
IRQ Vector
Number/
(1)
Priority
IRQ Name
Description
64
TRX24_AWAKE
Indicates radio transceiver reached TRX_OFF
state RESET, or SLEEP states
63
TRX24_TX_END
Indicates the completion of a frame
transmission
62
TRX24_XAH_AMI
Indicates address matching
61
TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE
Indicates the end of a CCA or ED
measurement
60
TRX24_RX_END
Indicates the completion of a frame reception
"Frame Transmit Procedure" on page 87
59
TRX24_RX_START
Indicates the start of a PSDU reception. The
TRX_STATE changes to BUSY_RX, the PHR
is ready to be read from Frame Buffer
"Frame Receive Procedure" on page 86
58
TRX24_PLL_UNLOCK
Indicates PLL unlock. If the radio transceiver
is in BUSY_TX / BUSY_TX_ARET state, the
PA is turned off immediately, END interrupts
will not happen (see Interrupt Handling on
page 85)
"Interrupt Handling" on page 85
57
TRX24_PLL_LOCK
Indicates PLL lock
"Interrupt Handling" on page 85
Note:
Section
"TRX_OFF – Clock State" on page 37
"Frame Transmit Procedure" on page 87
"Frame Filtering" on page 56
"Energy Detection (ED)" on page 70
1. The lowest IRQ Number has the highest priority.
During startup from SLEEP or RESET, the radio transceiver issues an TRX24_AWAKE
interrupt when it enters state TRX_OFF.
If the microcontroller initiates an energy-detect (ED) or clear-channel-assessment
(CCA) measurement, the completion of the measurement is indicated by interrupt
TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE, refer to sections "Energy Detection (ED)" on page 70 and
"Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)" on page 72 for details.
After RESET all interrupts are disabled. During radio transceiver initialization it is
recommended to enable AWAKE to be notified once the TRX_OFF state is entered.
Note that the TRX24_AWAKE interrupt can usually not be seen when the transceiver
enters TRX_OFF state after RESET, because register IRQ_MASK is reset to mask all
interrupts. In this case, state TRX_OFF is normally entered before the microcontroller
could modify the register.
The interrupt handling in Extended Operating Mode is described in section "Interrupt
Handling" on page 61.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
9.3.3 Radio Transceiver Identification
The ATmega128RFA1 Transceiver module can be identified by four registers
(PART_NUM, VERSION_NUM, MAN_ID_0, MAN_ID_1). One register contains a
unique part number and one register the corresponding version number. Two additional
registers contain the JTAG manufacture ID. The transceiver identification registers are
provided for compatibility to the transceiver only device.
A unique device identification is also possible with the three AVR signature bytes. For
details about accessing this information refer to "Signature Bytes" on page 472.
9.4 Operating Modes
9.4.1 Basic Operating Mode
This section summarizes all states to provide the basic functionality of the 2.4GHz radio
transceiver, such as receiving and transmitting frames, the power up sequence and
radio transceiver sleep. The Basic Operating Mode is designed for IEEE 802.15.4 and
ISM applications; the corresponding radio transceiver states are shown in Figure 9-12
below.
Figure 9-12. Basic Operating Mode State Diagram (for timing refer to Table 9-3 on page 43)
SLEEP
( S le e p S ta te )
=
0
XO SC=O FF
( fro m a ll s ta te s )
S
=
L
1
P
T
R
3
TRXRST = 1
S
L
P
T
R
2
TRX_OFF
12
FO RCE_TR X_O FF
13
(C lo c k S ta te )
( a ll s ta te s e x c e p t S L E E P )
N
_O
T
F ram e
End
8
R X_O N
4
F
R
F
X
_O
_O
X
F
R
F
X
5
R
B U SY_R X
( R e c e iv e S ta te )
RESET
N
_O
LL
P
7
T
6
SHR
D e te c te d
TRXRST = 0
XOSC=ON
11
RX_O N
PLL_O N
( R x L is te n S ta te )
F ra m e
End
B U SY_TX
(T r a n s m it S ta te )
(P L L S ta te )
PLL_O N
10
9
SLPTR = 1
or
TX_STA RT
FO RC E_PLL_O N
14
(a ll s ta te s e x c e p t S L E E P ,
TR X _O FF)
Legend:
B lu e :
R e g is te r w r ite to T R X _ S T A T E
Red:
C o n tro l s ig n a ls v ia R e g is te r T R X P R
G re e n : E ve n t
B a s ic O p e ra tin g M o d e S ta te s
X
Note:
S ta te tra n s itio n n u m b e r
1. State transition numbers correspond to Table 9-3 on page 43.
9.4.1.1 State Control
The radio transceiver states are controlled either by writing commands to bits
TRX_CMD of register TRX_STATE, or directly by the two control bits SLPTR and
36
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
TRXRST of the TRXPR register. A successful state change can be verified by reading
the radio transceiver status from register TRX_STATUS.
If TRX_STATUS = 0x1F (STATE_TRANSITION_IN_PROGRESS) the radio transceiver
is on a state transition. Do not try to initiate a further state change while the radio
transceiver is in STATE_TRANSITION_IN_PROGRESS.
Bit SLPTR is a multifunctional bit (refer to section "Transceiver Pin Register TRXPR" on
page 34 for more details). Dependent on the radio transceiver state, a “0” to “1”
transition on SLPTR causes the following state transitions:
• TRX_OFF
SLEEP
• PLL_ON
BUSY_TX
Whereas resetting bit SLPTR to “0” causes the following state transitions:
• SLEEP
TRX_OFF
Bit TRXRST causes a reset of all radio transceiver registers and forces the radio
transceiver into TRX_OFF state.
For all states except SLEEP, the state change commands FORCE_TRX_OFF or
TRX_OFF lead to a transition into TRX_OFF state. If the radio transceiver is in active
receive or transmit states (BUSY_*), the command FORCE_TRX_OFF interrupts these
active processes, and forces an immediate transition to TRX_OFF. In contrast a
TRX_OFF command is stored until an active state (receiving or transmitting) has been
finished. After that the transition to TRX_OFF is performed.
For a fast transition from receive or active transmit states to PLL_ON state the
command FORCE_PLL_ON is provided. In contrast to FORCE_TRX_OFF this
command does not disable the PLL and the analog voltage regulator AVREG. It is not
available in states SLEEP, and RESET.
The completion of each requested state-change shall always be confirmed by reading
the bits TRX_STATUS of register TRX_STATUS.
9.4.1.2 Basic Operating Mode Description
9.4.1.2.1 SLEEP – Sleep State
In radio transceiver SLEEP state, the entire radio transceiver is disabled. No circuitry is
operating. The radio transceiver’s current consumption is reduced to leakage current
only. This state can only be entered from state TRX_OFF, by setting the bit
SLPTR = “1”.
Setting SLPTR = “0” returns the radio transceiver to the TRX_OFF state. During radio
transceiver SLEEP the register contents remains valid while the content of the Frame
Buffer and the security engine (AES) are cleared.
TRXRST = “1” in SLEEP state returns the radio transceiver to TRX_OFF state and
thereby sets all registers to their reset values.
9.4.1.2.2 TRX_OFF – Clock State
This state is reached immediately after Power On or Reset. In TRX_OFF the crystal
oscillator is running. The digital voltage regulator is enabled, thus the radio transceiver
registers, the Frame Buffer and security engine (AES) are accessible (see section
"Frame Buffer" on page 79 and "Security Module (AES)" on page 94).
37
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
SLPTR and TRXRST in register TRXPR can be used for state control (see "State
Control" on page 36 for details). The analog front-end is disabled during TRX_OFF.
Entering the TRX_OFF state from radio transceiver SLEEP, or RESET state is
indicated by the TRX24_AWAKE interrupt.
9.4.1.2.3 PLL_ON – PLL State
Entering the PLL_ON state from TRX_OFF state first enables the analog voltage
regulator (AVREG). After the voltage regulator has been settled the PLL frequency
synthesizer is enabled. When the PLL has been settled at the receive frequency to a
channel defined by bits CHANNEL of register PHY_CC_CCA a successful PLL lock is
indicated by issuing a TRX24_PLL_LOCK interrupt.
If an RX_ON command is issued in PLL_ON state, the receiver is immediately enabled.
If the PLL has not been settled before the state change nevertheless takes place. Even
if the register bits TRX_STATUS of register TRX_STATUS indicates RX_ON, actual
frame reception can only start once the PLL has locked.
The PLL_ON state corresponds to the TX_ON state in IEEE 802.15.4.
9.4.1.2.4 RX_ON and BUSY_RX – RX Listen and Receive State
In RX_ON state the receiver blocks and the PLL frequency synthesizer are enabled.
The receive mode is internally separated into the RX_ON and BUSY_RX states. There
is no difference between these states with respect to the analog radio transceiver
circuitry, which are always turned on. In both states the receiver and the PLL frequency
synthesizer are enabled.
During RX_ON state the receiver listens for incoming frames. After detecting a valid
synchronization header (SHR), the receiver automatically enters the BUSY_RX state.
The reception of a valid PHY header (PHR) generates an TRX24_RX_START interrupt
and receives and demodulates the PSDU data.
During PSDU reception the frame data are stored continuously in the Frame Buffer until
the last byte was received. The completion of the frame reception is indicated by an
TRX24_RX_END interrupt and the radio transceiver reenters the state RX_ON. At the
same time the bits RX_CRC_VALID of register PHY_RSSI are updated with the result
of the FCS check (see "Frame Check Sequence (FCS)" on page 68).
Received frames are passed to the frame filtering unit, refer to section "Frame Filtering"
on page 56. If the content of the MAC addressing fields of a frame (refer to
IEEE 802.15.4 section 7.2.1) matches to the expected addresses, which is further
dependent on the addressing mode, an address match interrupt (TRX24_XAH_AMI) is
issued, refer to "Interrupt Logic" on page 34. The expected address values are to be
stored in the registers Short-Address, PAN-ID and IEEE-address. Frame filtering is
available in Basic and Extended Operating Mode, refer to section "Frame Filtering" on
page 56.
Leaving state RX_ON is only possible by writing a state change command to bits
TRX_CMD of register TRX_STATE.
9.4.1.2.5 BUSY_TX – Transmit State
A transmission can only be initiated in state PLL_ON. There are two ways to start a
transmission:
38
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
• Setting Bit SLPTR of register TRXPR to ‘1’. The bit should be cleared before the
frame has been transmitted. This mode is for legacy operation and should be
replaced by the TX_START command below.
• TX_START command to bits TRX_CMD of register TRX_STATE.
Either of these causes the radio transceiver into the BUSY_TX state.
During the transition to BUSY_TX state, the PLL frequency shifts to the transmit
frequency. The actual transmission of the first data chip of the SHR starts after 16 µs to
allow PLL settling and PA ramp-up, see Figure 9-16 on page 42. After transmission of
the SHR, the Frame Buffer content is transmitted. In case the PHR indicates a frame
length of zero, the transmission is aborted.
After the frame transmission has completed, the radio transceiver automatically turns
off the power amplifier, generates a TRX24_TX_END interrupt and returns into PLL_ON
state.
9.4.1.2.6 RESET State
The RESET state is used to set back the state machine and to reset all registers of the
radio transceiver to their default values.
A reset forces the radio transceiver into the TRX_OFF state.
A reset is initiated by a ATmega128RFA1 main reset (see "Resetting the AVR" on page
180) or a radio transceiver reset (see "Transceiver Pin Register TRXPR" on page 34).
During radio transceiver reset the TRXPR register is not cleared and therefore the
application software has to set the SLPTR bit to “0”.
9.4.1.3 Interrupt Handling
All interrupts provided by the radio transceiver are supported in Basic Operating Mode
(see Table 9-2 on page 35).
Required interrupts must be enabled by writing to register IRQ_MASK and the global
interrupt enable flag must be set. For a general explanation of the interrupt handling
refer to "Reset and Interrupt Handling" on page 15 and "Interrupt Logic" on page 34.
For example, interrupts are provided to observe the status of the RX and TX operations.
On receive the TRX24_RX_START interrupt indicates the detection of a valid PHR, the
TRX24_XAH_AMI interrupt an address match and the TRX24_RX_END interrupt the
completion of the frame reception.
On transmit the TRX24_TX_END interrupt indicates the completion of the frame
transmission.
Figure 9-13 on page 40 shows an example for a transmit/receive transaction between
two devices and the related interrupt events in Basic Operating Mode. Device 1
transmits a frame containing a MAC header (in this example of length 7), payload and
valid FCS. The frame is received by Device 2 which generates the interrupts during the
processing of the incoming frame. The received frame is stored in the Frame Buffer.
If the received frame passes the address filter (refer to section "Frame Filtering" on
page 56) an address match TRX24_XAH_AMI interrupt is issued after the reception of
the MAC header (MHR).
In Basic Operating Mode the TRX24_RX_END interrupt is issued at the end of the
received frame. In Extended Operating Mode (refer to "Extended Operating Mode" on
page 44) the interrupt is only issued if the received frame passes the address filter and
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
the FCS is valid. Further exceptions are explained in "Extended Operating Mode" on
page 44.
Processing delay tIRQ is a typical value (see chapter "Digital Interface Timing
Characteristics" on page 522).
Figure 9-13. Timing of TRX24_RX_START, TRX24_XAH_AMI, TRX24_TX_END and TRX24_RX_END Interrupts in
Basic Operating Mode
TRX _STATE
0
128
160
P LL_O N
192
1 9 2 + (9 + m )*3 2
BU SY _TX
T im e [µ s ]
PLL_O N
TX
SLPTR
IR Q
T R X 24_TX _E N D
TRX _STATE
4
1
1
7
m
2
P r e a m b le
SFD
PHR
MHR
MSDU
FC S
R X_O N
B U S Y_R X
IR Q
T R X 24_R X _S TA R T
I n te r r u p t la te n c y
t IR Q
on Air
F r a m e C o n te n t
Frame
N u m b e r o f O c te ts
RX
16 µs
(Device 2)
T y p . P ro c e s s in g D e la y
(Device1)
-1 6
RX_O N
T R X 24_
R X_EN D
T R X 24_XA H _AM I
t IR Q
t IR Q
9.4.1.4 Basic Operating Mode Timing
The following paragraphs depict state transitions and their timing properties. Timing
figures are explained in Table 9-3 on page 43 and section "Digital Interface Timing
Characteristics" on page 522.
9.4.1.4.1 Wake-up Procedure
The wake-up procedure from radio transceiver SLEEP state is shown in Figure 9-14
below. This figure implies, that the microcontroller is already running and hence, the
digital voltage regulator is enabled. If the microcontroller clock source is set to
Transceiver Clock, the crystal oscillator is also running, which reduces the radio
transceiver wake-up time further. For information about the wake-up timing of the
microcontroller, depending on the different clock source options, refer to "System Clock
and Clock Options" on page 150.
In order to calculate the total wake-up delay from microcontroller sleep mode (see
"Power Management and Sleep Modes" on page 159), the microcontroller wake-up
time, including the voltage regulator ramp-up and the radio transceiver wake-up time
has to be added.
Figure 9-14. Wake-up Procedure from Transceiver SLEEP State
0
Tim e
Time [µs]
TRX24_AW AKE IRQ
TRX_OFF
SLEEP
Block
40
400
200
SLPTR = 0
Event
State
100
XOSC startup
FTN
XOSC enabled
t TR2
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
The radio transceiver SLEEP state is left by releasing bit SLPTR to “0”. This restarts the
XOSC if it is not already running. After tTR2 = 215 µs + 25 µs = 240 µs (see Table 9-3 on
page 43) the radio transceiver enters TRX_OFF state. If the XOSC is already running,
the radio transceiver enters TRX_OFF state after 25 µs.
During this wake-up procedure the calibration of the filter-tuning network (FTN) is
performed. Entering TRX_OFF state is signaled by the TRX24_AWAKE interrupt, if
enabled.
9.4.1.4.2 PLL_ON and RX_ON States
The transition from TRX_OFF to PLL_ON and RX_ON mode is shown in Figure 9-15
below.
Figure 9-15. Transition from TRX_OFF to PLL_ON and RX_ON State
0
TRX24_PLL_LOCK IRQ
Event
State
PLL_ON
TRX_OFF
Block
AVREG
Command
PLL_ON
Time
Note:
Time [µs]
100
PLL
RX_ON
RX
RX_ON
tTR4
tTR8
1. If TRX_CMD = RX_ON in TRX_OFF state RX_ON state is entered immediately,
even if the PLL has not settled.
2. If the AVR ADC module is enabled, the AVREG is already started and thus the
state transition time tTR4 is reduced.
Entering the commands PLL_ON or RX_ON in TRX_OFF state initiates a ramp-up
sequence of the internal 1.8V voltage regulator for the analog domain (AVREG), if
AVREG is not already enabled by the AVR ADC module. RX_ON state can be entered
any time from PLL_ON state regardless whether the PLL has already locked as
indicated by the TRX24_PLL_LOCK interrupt.
9.4.1.4.3 BUSY_TX and RX_ON States
The transition from PLL_ON to BUSY_TX state and subsequent to RX_ON state is
shown in Figure 9-16 on page 42.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Figure 9-16. PLL_ON to BUSY_TX to RX_ON Timing
0
Event
16
x
x + 32
Tim e [µ s]
SLPTR
PLL_O N
State
Block
BUSY_TX
PLL
Com m and
PA
or com m and
RX_O N
PA, TX
TX_START
Tim e
PLL
RX
R X_O N
t TR 10
t TR 11
Starting from PLL_ON state it is assumed that the PLL is already locked. A
transmission is initiated either by writing “1” to bit SLPTR or by command TX_START.
The PLL settles to the transmit frequency and the PA is enabled.
tTR10 = 16 µs after initiating the transmission, the radio transceiver changes into
BUSY_TX state and the internally generated SHR is transmitted. After that the PSDU
data are transmitted from the Frame Buffer.
After completing the frame transmission, indicated by the TRX24_TX_END interrupt,
the PLL settles back to the receive frequency within tTR11 = 32 µs in state PLL_ON.
If during TX_BUSY the radio transmitter is programmed to change to a receive state it
automatically proceeds the state change to RX_ON state after finishing the
transmission.
9.4.1.4.4 Reset Procedure
The radio transceiver reset procedure is shown in Figure 9-17 below.
Figure 9-17. Reset Procedure
0
x
x + 10
T im e [µ s ]
x + 40
E vent
[T R X 2 4 _ A W A K E IR Q ]
S ta te
v a rio u s
B lo c k
TR X_O FF
X O S C , D V R E G e n a b le d
FTN
X O S C , D V R E G e n a b le d
TRXRST
> t1 1
T im e
Note:
3 x A V R c lo c k
tTR13
1. Timing parameter tTR13 = 37 µs refers to Table 9-3 on page 43; t11 refers to "Digital
Interface Timing Characteristics" on page 522.
2. If TRXRST is set during radio transceiver SLEEP state, the XOSC startup delay is
extended by the XOSC startup time.
TRXRST = “1” resets all radio transceiver registers to their default values.
The radio transceiver reset is released automatically after 3 AVR clock cycles and the
wake-up sequence without restarting XOSC and DVREG, nevertheless an FTN
calibration cycle is performed, refer to "Automatic Filter Tuning (FTN)" on page 85. After
that the TRX_OFF state is entered.
Figure 9-17 above illustrates the radio transceiver reset procedure if the radio
transceiver is in any state but not in SLEEP state.
42
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
If the radio transceiver was in SLEEP state, the SLPTR bit in the TRXPR register must
be cleared prior to clearing the TRXRST bit in order to enter the TRX_OFF state.
Otherwise the radio transceiver enters the SLEEP state immediately.
If the radio transceiver was in SLEEP state and the Transceiver Clock is not selected as
the microcontroller clock source, the XOSC is enabled before entering TRX_OFF state.
If register TRX_STATUS indicates STATE_TRANSITION_IN_PROGRESS during
system initialization until the radio transceiver reaches TRX_OFF, do not try to initiate a
further state change while the radio transceiver is in this state.
Note that before accessing the radio transceiver module the TRX24_AWAKE event
should be checked.
9.4.1.4.5 State Transition Timing Summary
The transition numbers correspond to Table 9-3 below. See measurement setup in
"Basic Application Schematic" on page 500.
Table 9-3. Radio Transceiver State Transition Timing
No
Symbol
1
tTR2
SLEEP
TRX_OFF
2
tTR3
TRX_OFF
SLEEP
3
tTR4
TRX_OFF
PLL_ON
4
tTR5
PLL_ON
TRX_OFF
5
tTR6
TRX_OFF
RX_ON
6
tTR7
RX_ON
TRX_OFF
7
tTR8
PLL_ON
RX_ON
1
8
tTR9
RX_ON
PLL_ON
1
Transition time is also valid for TX_ARET_ON, RX_AACK_ON
9
tTR10
PLL_ON
BUSY_TX
16
When setting bit SLPTR or TRX_CMD = TX_START, the first
symbol transmission is delayed by 16 µs (PLL settling and
PA ramp up).
10
tTR11
BUSY_TX
PLL_ON
32
PLL settling time from TX_BUSY to PLL_ON state
11
tTR12
All modes
TRX_OFF
1
Using TRX_CMD = FORCE_TRX_OFF (see register
TRX_STATE),
Not valid for SLEEP state
12
tTR13
RESET
TRX_OFF
37
Not valid for SLEEP state
13
tTR14
Various
states
PLL_ON
1
Using TRX_CMD = FORCE_PLL_ON (see register
TRX_STATE),
Not valid for SLEEP, RESET and TRX_OFF
Transition
Time [µs], (typ)
240
35 · 1 / fCLKM
110
Comments
Depends on crystal oscillator setup (CL = 10 pf)
TRX_OFF state indicated by TRX24_AWAKE interrupt
For fCLKM > 250 kHz
Depends on external capacitor at AVDD (1 µF nom)
1
110
Depends on external capacitor at AVDD (1 µF nom)
1
The state transition timing is calculated based on the timing of the individual blocks
shown in Table 9-8 on page 53. The worst case values include maximum operating
temperature, minimum supply voltage, and device parameter variations.
Table 9-8. Analog Block Initialization and Settling Time
No
Symbol Block
15
tTR15
XOSC
16
tTR16
FTN
Time [µs], (typ)
215
Time [µs], (max) Comments
1000
25
Leaving SLEEP state, depends on crystal Q factor and load
capacitor
FTN tuning time, fixed
43
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
No
Symbol Block
Time [µs], (typ)
Time [µs], (max) Comments
17
tTR17
DVREG
60
1000
Depends on external bypass capacitor at DVDD
(CB3 = 1 µF nom., 10 µF worst case), depends on VDEVDD
18
tTR18
AVREG
60
1000
Depends on external bypass capacitor at AVDD
(CB1 = 1 µF nom., 10 µF worst case) , depends on VEVDD
19
tTR19
PLL, initial
110
155
PLL settling time TRX_OFF
AVREG settling time
20
tTR20
PLL, settling
11
24
Settling time between channel switch
21
tTR21
PLL, CF cal
35
22
tTR22
PLL, DCU cal
6
PLL DCU calibration, refer to "Calibration Loops" on
page 84
23
tTR23
PLL, RX
TX
16
Maximum PLL settling time RX
TX
24
tTR24
PLL, TX
RX
32
Maximum PLL settling time TX
RX
2
RSSI update period in receive states, refer to "Reading
RSSI" on page 70
140
ED measurement period, refer to "Measurement
Description" on page 71
25
tTR25
RSSI, update
26
tTR26
ED
27
tTR27
SHR, sync
28
tTR28
CCA
29
tTR29
Random value
PLL_ON, including 60 µs
PLL center frequency calibration, refer to "Calibration
Loops" on page 84
Typical SHR synchronization period,
"Measurement Description" on page 71
96
refer
to
140
CCA measurement period, refer to "Configuration and
CCA Request" on page 73
1
Random value update period, refer to "Random
Number Generator" on page 88
9.4.2 Extended Operating Mode
The Extended Operating Mode is a hardware MAC accelerator and goes beyond the
basic radio transceiver functionality provided by the Basic Operating Mode. It handles
time critical MAC tasks requested by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard or by hardware such
as automatic acknowledgement, automatic CSMA-CA and retransmission. This results
in a more efficient IEEE 802.15.4 software MAC implementation including reduced code
size and may allow operating at lower microcontroller clock rates.
The Extended Operating Mode is designed to support IEEE 802.15.4-2006 compliant
frames; the mode is backward compatible to IEEE 802.15.4-2003 and supports non
IEEE 802.15.4 compliant frames. This mode comprises the following procedures:
Automatic acknowledgement (RX_AACK) divides into the tasks:
• Frame reception and automatic FCS check;
• Configurable addressing fields check;
• Interrupt indicating address match;
• Interrupt indicating frame reception, if it passes address filtering and FCS check;
• Automatic ACK frame transmission (if the received frame passed the address filter
and FCS check and if an ACK is required by the frame type and ACK request);
• Support of slotted acknowledgment using SLPTR bit for frame start.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Automatic CSMA-CA and Retransmission (TX_ARET) divides into the tasks:
• CSMA-CA including automatic CCA retry and random back-off;
• Frame transmission and automatic FCS field generation;
• Reception of ACK frame (if an ACK was requested);
• Automatic frame retry if ACK was expected but not received;
• Interrupt signaling with transaction status.
Automatic FCS check and generation (refer to "Frame Check Sequence (FCS)" on
page 68) is used by the RX_AACK and TX_ARET modes. In RX_AACK mode an
automatic FCS check is always performed for incoming frames.
An ACK received in TX_ARET mode within the time required by IEEE 802.15.4 is
accepted if the FCS is valid and if the sequence number of the ACK matches the
sequence number of the previously transmitted frame. Dependent on the value of the
frame pending subfield in the received acknowledgement frame the transaction status is
set according to Table 9-16 on page 60.
The state diagram including the Extended Operating Mode states is shown in Figure 918 on page 46. Yellow marked states represent the Basic Operating Mode; blue marked
states represent the Extended Operating Mode.
45
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Figure 9-18. Extended Operating Mode State Diagram
SLEEP
(S le e p S ta te )
0
XOSC=OFF
(fro m a ll s ta te s )
TRXRST = 1
LP
S
T
R
LP
=
1
TR
=
3
S
2
TRX_O FF
12
FORCE_TRX_OFF
13
(C lo c k S ta te )
( a ll m o d e s e x c e p t S L E E P )
TRXRST = 0
RESET
7
FF
_O
R
X
TR
X
(R x L is te n S ta te )
N
F ra m e
End
8
RX_O N
O
(R e c e iv e S ta te )
FF
_O
B U SY_R X
SHR
D e te c te d
5
X
TR
6
_
LL
P
_O
N
XO SC =ON
RX_ON
PLL_ON
4
SLPTR = 1
or
TX_START
PLL_O N
11
B U SY_TX
(P L L S ta te )
10
(T r a n s m it S ta te )
9
F ro m / T o
TR X_O FF
RE
T_
TR
ON
X_
OF
F
TX_ARET_ON
PLL_ON
N
AA
CK
_O
s e e n o te s
SHR
D e te c te d
R X_A A C K _O N
B U S Y_R X _A A C K
T ra n s a c tio n
F in is h e d
F ra m e
End
FORCE_PLL_ON
TX
_A
TR
X
RX
_A
AC
K_
ON
_O
FF
F ro m / T o
T R X _O F F
RX
_
PL
L_
O
N
14
SLPTR = 1
or
T X _S TA R T
TX_A R E T_O N
BU SY_TX_ARET
F ra m e
End
Legend:
B lu e : R e g is te r W rite to T R X _ S T A T E
Red:
C o n tro l s ig n a ls v ia R e g is te r T R X P R
G re e n : E ve n t
B a s ic O p e ra tin g M o d e S ta te s
E x te n d e d O p e ra tin g M o d e S ta te s
Note:
1. State transition numbers correspond to Table 9-3 on page 43.
9.4.2.1 State Control
The Extended Operating Mode states RX_AACK and TX_ARET are controlled via the
bits TRX_CMD of register TRX_STATE, which receives the state transition commands.
The states are entered from TRX_OFF or PLL_ON state as illustrated in Figure 9-18
above. The completion of each state change command shall always be confirmed by
reading the TRX_STATUS register.
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ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
RX_AACK - Receive with Automatic ACK
A state transition to RX_AACK_ON from PLL_ON or TRX_OFF is initiated by writing the
command RX_AACK_ON to the register bits TRX_CMD. The state change can be
confirmed by reading register TRX_STATUS, those changes to RX_AACK_ON or
BUSY_RX_AACK on success. BUSY_RX_AACK is returned if a frame is currently
being received.
The RX_AACK state is left by writing command TRX_OFF or PLL_ON to the register
bits TRX_CMD. If the radio transceiver is within a frame receive or acknowledgment
procedure (BUSY_RX_AACK) the state change is executed after finish. Alternatively,
the commands FORCE_TRX_OFF or FORCE_PLL_ON can be used to cancel the
RX_AACK transaction and change into radio transceiver state TRX_OFF or PLL_ON
respectively.
TX_ARET - Transmit with Automatic Retry and CSMA-CA Retry
Similarly, a state transition to TX_ARET_ON from PLL_ON or TRX_OFF is initiated by
writing command TX_ARET_ON to register bits TRX_CMD. The radio transceiver is in
the TX_ARET_ON state after TRX_STATUS register changes to TX_ARET_ON. The
TX_ARET transaction is started with writing ‘1’ to the SLPTR bit of the TRXPR register
or writing the command TX_START to register bits TRX_CMD.
TX_ARET state is left by writing the command TRX_OFF or PLL_ON to the register bits
TRX_CMD. If the radio transceiver is within a CSMA-CA, a frame-transmit or an
acknowledgment procedure (BUSY_TX_ARET) the state change is executed after
finish. Alternatively, the command FORCE_TRX_OFF or FORCE_PLL_ON can be
used to instantly terminate the TX_ARET transaction and change into radio transceiver
states TRX_OFF or PLL_ON, respectively.
Note that a state change request from TRX_OFF to RX_AACK_ON or TX_ARET_ON
internally passes the state PLL_ON to initiate the radio transceiver. Thus the readiness
to receive or transmit data is delayed accordingly. It is recommended to use interrupt
TRX24_PLL_LOCK as an indicator.
9.4.2.2 Configuration
The use of the Extended Operating Mode is based on Basic Operating Mode
functionality. Only features beyond the basic radio transceiver functionality are
described in the following sections. For details on the Basic Operating Mode refer to
section "Basic Operating Mode" on page 36.
When using the RX_AACK or TX_ARET modes, the following registers needs to be
configured.
RX_AACK configuration steps:
• Short address, PAN-ID and IEEE address (register SHORT_AADR_0,
SHORT_ADDR_1, PAN_ID_0, PAN_ID_1, IEEE_ADDR_0 … IEEE_ADDR_7)
• Configure RX_AACK properties (register XAH_CTRL_0, CSMA_SEED_1)
o
Handling of Frame Version Subfield
o
Handling of Pending Data Indicator
o
Characterize as PAN coordinator
o
Handling of Slotted Acknowledgement
• Additional Frame Filtering Properties (register XAH_CTRL_1, CSMA_SEED_1)
o
Promiscuous Mode
o
Enable or disable automatic ACK generation
47
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
o
Handling of reserved frame types
The addresses for the address match algorithm are to be stored in the appropriate
address registers. Additional control of the RX_AACK mode is done with registers
XAH_CTRL_1 and CSMA_SEED_1.
As long as a short address has not been set, only broadcast frames and frames
matching the IEEE address can be received.
Configuration examples for different device operating modes and handling of various
frame types can be found in section "Description of RX_AACK Configuration Bits" on
page 51.
TX_ARET configuration steps:
• Leave register bit TX_AUTO_CRC_ON = 1
register TRX_CTRL_1
• Configure CSMA-CA
o
MAX_FRAME_RETRIES
register XAH_CTRL_0
o
MAX_CSMA_RETRIES
register XAH_CTRL_0
o
CSMA_SEED
registers CSMA_SEED_0, CSMA_SEED_1
o
MAX_BE, MIN_BE
register CSMA_BE
• Configure CCA (see section "Configuration and CCA Request" on page 73)
MAX_FRAME_RETRIES (register XAH_CTRL_0) defines the maximum number of
frame retransmissions.
The register bits MAX_CSMA_RETRIES (register XAH_CTRL_0) configure the number
of CSMA-CA retries after a busy channel is detected.
The CSMA_SEED_0 and CSMA_SEED_1 registers define a random seed for the backoff-time random-number generator of the radio transceiver.
The MAX_BE and MIN_BE register bits (register CSMA_BE) set the maximum and
minimum CSMA back-off exponent (according to [1] on page 102).
9.4.2.3 RX_AACK_ON – Receive with Automatic ACK
The general functionality of the RX_AACK procedure is shown in Figure 9-19 on page
50.
The gray shaded area is the standard flow of a RX_AACK transaction for
IEEE 802.15.4 compliant frames (refer to section "Configuration of IEEE Scenarios" on
page 52). All other procedures are exceptions for specific operating modes or frame
formats (refer to section "Configuration of non IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant Scenarios" on
page 54).
The frame filtering operation is described in detail in section "Frame Filtering" on page
56.
In RX_AACK_ON state, the radio transceiver listens for incoming frames. After
detecting SHR and a valid PHR, the radio transceiver parses the frame content of the
MAC header (MHR) as described in section "PHY Header (PHR)" on page 63.
Generally, at nodes, configured as a normal device or PAN coordinator, a frame is not
indicated if the frame filter does not match and the FCS is invalid. Otherwise, the
TRX_24_RX_END interrupt is issued after the completion of the frame reception. The
microcontroller can then read the frame. An exception applies if promiscuous mode is
enabled (see section "Configuration of IEEE Scenarios" on page 52). In that case a
TRX_24_RX_END interrupt is issued even if the FCS fails.
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If the content of the MAC addressing fields of the received frame (refer to
IEEE 802.15.4 section 7.2.1) matches one of the configured addresses, dependent on
the addressing mode, an address match interrupt (TRX24_XAH_AMI) is issued (refer to
section "Frame Filtering" on page 56). The expected address values are to be stored in
registers Short-address, PAN-ID and IEEE-address. Frame filtering as described in
section "Frame Filtering" on page 56 is also valid for Basic Operating Mode.
During reception the radio transceiver parses bit[5] (ACK Request) of the frame control
field of the received data or the MAC command frame to check if an ACK reply is
expected. In that case and if the frame passes the third level of filtering (see
IEEE 802.15.4-2006, section 7.5.6.2), the radio transceiver automatically generates and
transmits an ACK frame. After the ACK transmission is finished, a TRX24_TX_END
interrupt is generated.
The content of the frame pending subfield of the ACK response is set by bit
AACK_SET_PD of register CSMA_SEED_1 when the ACK frame is sent in response to
a data request MAC command frame, otherwise this subfield is set to “0”. The
sequence number is copied from the received frame.
Optionally, the start of the transmission of the acknowledgement frame can be
influenced by register bit AACK_ACK_TIME. Default value (according to standard
IEEE 802.15.4, page 54) is 12 symbol times after the reception of the last symbol of a
data or MAC command frame.
If the bit AACK_DIS_ACK of register CSMA_SEED_1 is set, no acknowledgement
frame is sent even if an acknowledgment frame was requested. This is useful for
operating the MAC hardware accelerator in promiscuous mode (see section
"Configuration of non IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant Scenarios" on page 54).
The status of the RX_AACK operation is indicated by the bits TRAC_STATUS of
register TRAC_STATUS.
During the operations
BUSY_RX_AACK state.
described
above
the
radio
transceiver
remains
in
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Figure 9-19. Flow Diagram of RX_AACK
TRX_STATE = RX_AACK_ON
SHR detected
N
Y
TRX_STATE = BUSY_RX_AACK
Generate TRX24_RX_START
interrupt
Scanning MHR
(see Note 1)
Y
Reserved Frames
N
Frame
Filtering
Note 1: Fram e Filtering, Prom iscuous Mode and
Reserved Fram es:
- A radio transceiver in Prom iscuous
M ode, or configured to receive Reserved
Fram es handles received fram es passing
the third level of filtering
- For details refer to the description of
Promiscuous M ode and Reserved
Fram e Types
Promiscuous Mode
Frame reception
Generate TRX24_XAH_AMI
interrupt
AACK_PROM_MODE
== 1
Frame reception
N
Y
N
FCS valid
N
(see Note 2)
Note 2: FCS check is omitted for Promiscous M ode
FCF[2:0]
>3
Y
Generate TRX24_RX_END
interrupt
Y
N
N
ACK requested
AACK_UPLD_RES_FT
== 1
(see Note 3)
Note 3: Additional conditions:
- ACK requested &
- ACK_DIS_ACK==0 &
- fram e_version<=AACK_FVN_M ODE
Y
Y
N
FCS valid
N
Slotted Operation
== 0
Y
Y
N
AACK_ACK_TIME
== 0
AACK_ACK_TIME
== 0
W ait 6 symbol
periods
SLPTR bit
=1
Generate
TRX24_RX_END
interrupt
Y
Y
W ait 2 symbol
periods
Generate
TRX24_RX_END
interrupt
N
W ait 12 symbol
periods
W ait 2 symbol
periods
N
Y
Transmit ACK
GenerateTRX24_TX_END
interrupt
TRX_STATE = RX_AACK_ON
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9.4.2.3.1 Description of RX_AACK Configuration Bits
Overview
The following table summarizes all register bits which affect the behavior of a
RX_AACK transaction. For address filtering it is further required to setup address
registers to match to the expected address.
Configuration and address bits are to be set in TRX_OFF or PLL_ON state prior to
switching to RX_AACK mode.
A graphical representation of various operating modes is illustrated in Figure 9-19 on
page 50.
Table 9-5. Overview of RX_AACK Configuration Bits
Register Name
Register Bits
SHORT_ADDR_0/1
PAN_ADDR_0/1
IEEE_ADDR_0
…
IEEE_ADDR_7
Description
Set node addresses
RX_SAFE_MODE
7
Protect buffer after frame receive
AACK_PROM_MODE
1
Support promiscuous mode
AACK_ACK_TIME
2
Change auto acknowledge start time
AACK_UPLD_RES_FT
4
Enable reserved frame type reception, needed to
receive non-standard compliant frames
AACK_FLTR_RES_FT
5
Filter reserved frame types like data frame type,
needed for filtering of non-standard compliant
frames
SLOTTED_OPERATION
0
If set, acknowledgment transmission has to be
triggered by register bit SLPTR
AACK_I_AM_COORD
3
If set, the device is a PAN coordinator
AACK_DIS_ACK
4
Disable generation of acknowledgment
AACK_SET_PD
5
Set frame pending subfield in Frame Control Field
(FCF), refer to section "Overview" on page 68
AACK_FVN_MODE
7:6
Controls the ACK behavior, depending on FCF
frame version number
The usage of the RX_AACK configuration bits for various operating modes of a node is
explained in the following sections. Configuration bits not mentioned in the following two
sections should be set to their reset values.
All registers mentioned in Table 9-5 above are described in section "Register Summary"
on page 62.
Note, that the general behavior of the Extended Feature Set settings:
• OQPSK_DATA_RATE
(PSDU data rate)
• SFD_VALUE
(alternative SFD value)
• ANT_DIV
(Antenna Diversity)
• RX_PDT_LEVEL
(blocking frame reception of lower power signals)
are completely independent from RX_AACK mode (see "Radio Transceiver Extended
Feature Set" on page 88). Each of these operating modes can be combined with the
RX_AACK mode.
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9.4.2.3.2 Configuration of IEEE Scenarios
Normal Device
The Table 9-6 below shows a typical RX_AACK configuration of an IEEE 802.15.4
device operated as a normal device rather than a PAN coordinator or router.
Table 9-6. Configuration of IEEE 802.15.4 Devices
Register Name
Register Bits
SHORT_ADDR_0/1
PAN_ADDR_0/1
IEEE_ADDR_0
…
IEEE_ADDR_7
Description
Set node addresses
RX_SAFE_MODE
7
0: disable frame protection
1: enable frame protection
SLOTTED_OPERATION
0
0: if transceiver works in unslotted mode
1: if transceiver works in slotted mode
AACK_FVN_MODE
7:6
Notes:
Controls the ACK behavior, depending on FCF
frame version number
0x00 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0, i.e. according to IEEE 802.15.4-2003
frames
0x01 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0 or 1, i.e. frames according to
IEEE 802.15.4-2006
0x10 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0 or 1 or 2
0x11 : acknowledges all frames, independent of
the FCF frame version number
1. If no short address has been configured before the device has been assigned one
by the PAN-coordinator, only frames directed to either the broadcast address or
the IEEE address are received.
2. In IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard the frame version subfield did not yet exist but
was marked as reserved. According to this standard, reserved fields have to be set
to zero. On the other hand, IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard requires ignoring
reserved bits upon reception. Thus, there is a contradiction in the standard which
can be interpreted in two ways:
a) If a network should only allow access to nodes which
IEEE 802.15.4-2003, then AACK_FVN_MODE should be set to 0.
use
the
b) If a device should acknowledge all frames independent of its frame version,
AACK_FVN_MODE should be set to 3. However, this can result in conflicts with
co-existing IEEE 802.15.4-2006 standard compliant networks.
The same holds for PAN coordinators as described below.
PAN-Coordinator
Table 9-7 on page 53 shows the RX_AACK configuration for a PAN coordinator.
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Table 9-7. Configuration of a PAN Coordinator
Register Name
Register Bits
SHORT_ADDR_0/1
PAN_ADDR_0/1
IEEE_ADDR_0
…
IEEE_ADDR_7
Description
Set node addresses
RX_SAFE_MODE
7
0: disable frame protection
1: enable frame protection
SLOTTED_OPERATION
0
0: if transceiver works in unslotted mode
1: if transceiver works in slotted mode
AACK_I_AM_COORD
3
1: device is PAN coordinator
AACK_SET_PD
5
0: frame pending subfield is not set in FCF
1: frame pending subfield is set in FCF
AACK_FVN_MODE
7:6
Controls the ACK behavior, depends on FCF
frame version number
0x00 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0, i.e. according to IEEE 802.15.4-2003
frames
0x01 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0 or 1, i.e. frames according to
IEEE 802.15.4-2006
0x10 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0 or 1 or 2
0x11 : acknowledges all frames, independent of
the FCF frame version number
Promiscuous Mode
The promiscuous mode is described in IEEE 802.15.4-2006, section 7.5.6.5. This mode
is further illustrated in Radio Transceiver Extended Feature Set on page 88. According
to IEEE 802.15.4-2006 when in promiscuous mode, the MAC sub layer shall pass
received frames with correct FCS to the next higher layer without further processing.
That implies that frames should never be acknowledged.
Only second level filter rules as defined by IEEE 802.15.4-2006, section 7.5.6.2, are
applied to the received frame.
Table 9-8 below shows the typical configuration of a device operating in promiscuous
mode.
Table 9-8. Configuration of Promiscuous Mode
Register Name
Register Bits
SHORT_ADDR_0/1
PAN_ADDR_0/1
IEEE_ADDR_0
…
IEEE_ADDR_7
Description
Each address shall be set: 0x00
AACK_PROM_MODE
1
1: Enable promiscuous mode
AACK_DIS_ACK
4
1: Disable generation of acknowledgment
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Register Name
Register Bits
AACK_FVN_MODE
7:6
Description
Controls the ACK behavior, depends on FCF frame
version number
0x00 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0, i.e. according to IEEE 802.15.4-2003
frames
0x01 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0 or 1, i.e. frames according to
IEEE 802.15.4-2006
0x10 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0 or 1 or 2
0x11 : acknowledges all frames, independent of the
FCF frame version number
Second level of filtering according to IEEE 802.15.4-2006, section 7.5.6.2, is applied
a received frame if the radio transceiver is in promiscuous mode. However,
TRX24_RX_END interrupt is issued even if the FCS is invalid. Thus it is necessary
read bit RX_CRC_VALID of register PHY_RSSI after the TRX24_RX_END interrupt
order to verify the reception of a frame with a valid FCS.
to
a
to
in
If a device, operating in promiscuous mode, receives a frame with a valid FCS which in
addition passed the third level filtering according to IEEE 802.15.4-2006, section
7.5.6.2, an acknowledgement frame would be transmitted. According to the definition of
the promiscuous mode a received frame shall not be acknowledged even if it is
requested. Thus bit AACK_DIS_ACK of register CSMA_SEED_1 has to be set to 1.
In all receive modes a TRX24_AMI interrupt is issued, when the received frame
matches the node’s address according to the filter rules described in section "Frame
Filtering" on page 56.
Alternatively, in RX_ON state of the Basic Operating Mode when a valid PHR is
detected a TRX24_RX_START interrupt is generated and the frame is received. The
end of the frame reception is signalized with a TRX24_RX_END interrupt. At the same
time the bit RX_CRC_VALID of register PHY_RSSI is updated with the result of the
FCS check (see "Overview" on page 68). The RX_CRC_VALID bit must be checked in
order to dismiss corrupted frames according to the definition of the promiscuous mode.
9.4.2.3.3 Configuration of non IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant Scenarios
Sniffer
Table 9-9 below shows a RX_AACK configuration to setup a sniffer device. Other
RX_AACK configuration bits should be set to their reset values (see Table 9-5 on page
51). All frames received are indicated by a TRX24_RX_START and TRX24_RX_END
interrupt. Bit RX_CRC_VALID of register PHY_RSSI is updated after frame reception
with the result of the FCS check (see "Overview" on page 68). The RX_CRC_VALID bit
needs to be checked in order to dismiss corrupted frames.
Table 9-9. Configuration of a Sniffer Device
Register Name
Register Bits
Description
AACK_PROM_MODE
1
1: Enable promiscuous mode
AACK_DIS_ACK
4
1: Disable generation of acknowledgment
This operating mode is similar to the promiscuous mode.
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Reception of Reserved Frames
Frames with reserved frame types (see section Table 9-16 on page 65) can also be
handled in RX_AACK mode. This might be required when implementing proprietary,
non-standard compliant protocols. It is an extension of the address filtering in
RX_AACK mode. Received frames are either handled similar to data frames or may be
allowed to completely bypass the address filter.
Table 9-10 below shows the required configuration for a node to receive reserved
frames and Figure 9-19 on page 50 shows the corresponding flow chart.
Table 9-10. RX_AACK Configuration to Receive Reserved Frame Types
Register Name
Register Bits
SHORT_ADDR_0/1
PAN_ADDR_0/1
IEEE_ADDR_0
…
IEEE_ADDR_7
Description
Set node addresses
RX_SAFE_MODE
7
0: disable frame protection
1: enable frame protection
AACK_UPLD_RES_FT
4
1 : Enable reserved frame type reception
AACK_FLTR_RES_FT
5
Filter reserved frame types like data frame type,
see note below
0 : disable
1 : enable
SLOTTED_OPERATION
0
0: if transceiver works in un-slotted mode
1: if transceiver works in slotted mode
AACK_I_AM_COORD
3
0: device is not PAN coordinator
1: device is PAN coordinator
AACK_DIS_ACK
4
0: Enable generation of acknowledgment
1: Disable generation of acknowledgment
AACK_FVN_MODE
7:6
Controls the ACK behavior, depends on FCF
frame version number
0x00 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0, i.e. according to IEEE 802.15.4-2003
frames
0x01 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0 or 1, i.e. frames according to
IEEE 802.15.4-2006
0x10 : acknowledges only frames with version
number 0 or 1 or 2
0x11 : acknowledges all frames, independent of
the FCF frame version number
There are two different options for handling reserved frame types.
3. AACK_UPLD_RES_FT = 1, AACK_FLT_RES_FT = 0:
Any non-corrupted frame with a reserved frame type is indicated by a
TRX24_RX_END interrupt. No further address filtering is applied on those frames.
A TRX24_AMI interrupt is never generated and the acknowledgment subfield is
ignored.
4. AACK_UPLD_RES_FT = 1, AACK_FLT_RES_FT = 1:
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If AACK_FLT_RES_FT = 1 any frame with a reserved frame type is filtered by the
address filter similar to a data frame as described in the standard. Consequently, a
TRX24_AMI interrupt is generated upon address match. A TRX24_RX_END
interrupt is only generated if the address matched and the frame was not
corrupted. An acknowledgment is only send, when the ACK request subfield was
set in the received frame and a TRX24_RX_END interrupt occurred.
Note that It is not allowed to set AACK_FLTR_RES_FT = 1 and have register bit
AACK_FLTR_RES_FT set to 0.
Short Acknowledgment Frame (ACK) Start Timing
The bit AACK_ACK_TIME of register XAH_CTRL_1 defines the symbol time between
frame reception and transmission of an acknowledgment frame.
Table 9-11. Overview of RX_AACK Configuration Bits
Register Name
Register Bit
AACK_ACK_TIME
2
Description
0: Standard compliant acknowledgement timing of 12
symbol periods. In slotted acknowledgement operation
mode, the acknowledgment frame transmission can be
triggered 6 symbol periods after reception of the frame
earliest.
1: Reduced acknowledgment timing of 2 symbol periods
(32 µs).
Note that this feature can be used in all scenarios, independent of other configurations.
However, shorter acknowledgment timing is especially useful when using High Data
Rate Modes to increase battery lifetime and to improve the overall data throughput; see
"High Data Rate Modes" on page 88 for details.
9.4.2.4 Frame Filtering
Frame Filtering is an evaluation whether or not a received frame is dedicated for this
node. To accept a received frame and to generate an address match interrupt
(TRX24_AMI) a filtering procedure as described in IEEE 802.15.4-2006 chapter 7.5.6.2.
(Third level of filtering) is applied to the frame. The radio transceiver’s RX_AACK mode
accepts only frames that satisfy all of the following requirements (quote from
IEEE 802.15.4-2006, 7.5.6.2):
1. The Frame Type subfield shall not contain a reserved frame type.
2. The Frame Version subfield shall not contain a reserved value.
3. If a destination PAN identifier is included in the frame, it shall match macPANId or
shall be the broadcast PAN identifier (0xFFFF).
4. If a short destination address is included in the frame, it shall match either
macShortAddress or the broadcast address (0xFFFF). Otherwise, if an extended
destination address is included in the frame, it shall match aExtendedAddress.
5. If the frame type indicates that the frame is a beacon frame, the source PAN
identifier shall match macPANId unless macPANId is equal to 0xFFFF, in which
case the beacon frame shall be accepted regardless of the source PAN identifier.
6. If only source addressing fields are included in a data or MAC command frame, the
frame shall be accepted only if the device is the PAN coordinator and the source
PAN identifier matches macPANId.
The radio transceiver requires two additional rules:
1. The frame type indicates that the frame is not an ACK frame (refer toTable 9-6 on
page 52).
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2. At least one address field must be configured.
Address match, indicated by the TRX24_AMI interrupt is further controlled by the
content of subfields of the frame control field of a received frame according to the
following rule:
If (Destination Addressing Mode = 0 OR 1) AND (Source Addressing Mode = 0) no
TRX24_AMI interrupt is generated, refer to Figure 9-26 on page 65. This effectively
causes all acknowledgement frames not to be announced which otherwise always pass
the filter regardless of whether they are intended for this device or not.
For backward compatibility to IEEE 802.15.4-2003 third level filter rule 2 (Frame
Version) can be disabled by the bits AACK_FVN_MODE of register CSMA_SEED_1.
Frame filtering is available in Extended and Basic Operating Mode (see section "Basic
Operating Mode" on page 36); a frame passing the frame filtering generates an
TRX24_AMI interrupt, if enabled.
Note:
1. Filter rule 1 is affected by register bits AACK_FLTR_RES_FT and
AACK_UPLD_RES_FT
(see
register
"XAH_CTRL_1
–
Transceiver
Acknowledgment Frame Control Register 1" on page 122).
2. Filter rule 2 is affected by register bits AACK_FVN_MODE (see register
"CSMA_SEED_1 – Transceiver Acknowledgment Frame Control Register 2" on
page 131).
9.4.2.4.1 RX_AACK Slotted Operation – Slotted Acknowledgement
The radio transceiver supports slotted acknowledgement operation according to
IEEE 802.15.4-2006, section 5.5.4.1.
In RX_AACK mode with bit SLOTTED_OPERATION of register XAH_CTRL_0 set, the
transmission of an acknowledgement frame has to be controlled by the microcontroller.
If an ACK frame has to be transmitted the radio transceiver expects writing SLPTR=1 to
actually start the transmission. This waiting state is signaled 6 symbol periods after the
reception of the last symbol of a data or MAC command frame by bits TRAC_STATUS
of register XAH_CTRL_0, which are set to SUCCESS_WAIT_FOR_ACK in that case. In
networks using slotted operation the start of the acknowledgment frame and thus the
exact timing must be provided by the microcontroller.
A timing example of an RX_AACK transaction with bit SLOTTED_OPERATION of
register XAH_CTRL_0 set is shown in the next figure. The acknowledgement frame is
ready to transmit 6 symbol times after the reception of the last symbol of a data or MAC
command frame. The transmission of the acknowledgement frame is initiated by the
microcontroller by writing SLPTR=1 and starts 16µs (tTR10) later. The interrupt latency
tIRQ is specified in section "Digital Interface Timing Characteristics" on page 522.
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Figure 9-10. Example Timing of an RX_AACK Transaction for Slotted Operation
F ram e T ype
SFD
T R X_ ST AT E
7 04
D ata Fram e (Length = 10, A C K = 1)
1 026
A C K F ram e
R X _A A C K _O N
B U S Y _R X _AA C K
R X _A AC K_O N
RX
R X/TX
TTX
X
IR Q
RX
T R X 24_T X _E N D
T R X 24_R X _E N D
t IR Q
T yp . Processing D elay
tim e [µ s]
Frame
on Air
51 2
64
t IR Q
96 µ s
(6 sym bols)
RX/TX
0
A C K transm ission initiated by m icrocontroller
S LP T R
w aiting period signaled by register bits T R A C _S T A T U S
S LP TR
tT R 1 0
If bit AACK_ACK_TIME of register XAH_CTRL_1 is set, an acknowledgment frame can
be sent already 2 symbol times after the reception of the last symbol of a data or MAC
command frame.
9.4.2.4.2 RX_AACK Mode Timing
A timing example of an RX_AACK transaction is shown in the next figure. In this
example a data frame of length 10 with an ACK request is received. The radio
transceiver changes to state BUSY_RX_AACK after SFD detection. The completion of
the frame reception is indicated by a TRX24_RX_END interrupt. Interrupts
TRX24_RX_START and TRX24_AMI are disabled in this example. The ACK frame is
automatically transmitted after a default wait period of 12 symbols (192 µs), bit
AACK_ACK_TIME = 0 (reset value). The interrupt latency tIRQ is specified in section
"Digital Interface Timing Characteristics" on page 522.
Figure 9-11. Example Timing of an RX_AACK Transaction
F ram e T ype
512
SFD
T R X _S T A T E
D ata F ram e (Length = 10, A C K = 1)
1 088
B U S Y _R X _A A C K
RX
R X _A A C K _O N
TX
IR Q
RX
TR X 24_ TX _E N D
TR X 24 _R X _E N D
t IR Q
T yp. P rocessing D elay
tim e [µ s]
A C K F ram e
R X _A A C K _O N
R X /T X
7 04
Frame
on Air
64
RX/TX
0
t IR Q
192 µ s
(12 sym bols)
If bit AACK_ACK_TIME of register XAH_CTRL_1 is set, an acknowledgment frame is
sent already 2 symbol times after the reception of the last symbol of a data or MAC
command frame.
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9.4.2.5 TX_ARET_ON – Transmit with Automatic Retry and CSMA-CA Retry
Figure 9-12. Flow Diagram of TX_ARET
TRX_STATE = TX_AR ET_O N
fra m e _ rctr = 0
N
S ta rt T X
Y
TR X _S TA TE = B U S Y _TX _A R E T
T R A C _ S T A T U S = IN V A L ID
(s e e N o te 1 )
N
N o te 1 : If M A X _ C S M A _ R E T R IE S = 7 n o re try is
p e rfo rm e d
MAX_CSM A_RETRIES
<7
Y
cs m a _ rctr = 0
R a n d o m B a c k -O ff
c sm a _ rc tr = c sm a _ rctr + 1
CCA
N
CCA
R e su lt
F a ilu re
c sm a _ rctr >
MAX_CSMA_RETRIES
Y
S u c ce ss
T ra n s m it F ra m e
fra m e _ rc tr = fra m e _ rctr + 1
A C K re q u e ste d
N
Y
N
R e c e iv e A C K
u n til tim e o u t
Y
A C K va lid
Y
N
N
fra m e _ rc tr >
M A X _ F R A M E _ R E T R IE S
Y
TR A C _S TA TU S =
N O _AC K
D a ta P e n d in g
N
Y
TRAC_STATU S =
S U C C E S S _ D A T A _ P E N D IN G
TR A C _S TA TU S =
SUCCESS
TR AC _STATU S =
C H A N N E L _ A C C E S S _ F A IL U R E
Is su e T R X 2 4 _ T X _ E N D in te rru p t
TRX_STATE = TX_AR ET_O N
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Overview
The implemented TX_ARET algorithm is shown in Figure 9-12 on page 59.
In TX_ARET mode, the radio transceiver first executes the CSMA-CA algorithm, as
defined by IEEE 802.15.4–2006, section 7.5.1.4, initiated by a transmit start event. If
the channel is IDLE a frame is transmitted from the Frame Buffer. If the
acknowledgement frame is requested the radio transceiver additionally checks for an
ACK reply.
A TRX24_TX_END interrupt indicates the completion of the TX_ARET transmit
transaction.
Description
Configuration and address bits are to be set in TRX_OFF or PLL_ON state prior to
switching to TX_ARET mode. It is further recommended to transfer the PSDU data to
the Frame Buffer in advance. The transaction is started by either writing SLPTR=1 as
described in section "Transceiver Pin Register TRXPR" on page 34 or writing a
TX_START command to register TRX_STATE.
If the CSMA-CA detects a busy channel, it is retried as specified by bits
MAX_CSMA_RETRIES of register XAH_CTRL_0. In case that CSMA-CA does not
detect a clear channel after MAX_CSMA_RETRIES it aborts the TX_ARET transaction,
issues a TRX24_TX_END interrupt and sets the value of the TRAC_STATUS register
bits to CHANNEL_ACCESS_FAILURE.
During transmission of a frame the radio transceiver parses bit 5 (ACK Request) of the
MAC header (MHR) frame control field of the PSDU data (PSDU octet #1) to be
transmitted to check if an ACK reply is expected.
If an ACK is expected the radio transceiver automatically switches into receive mode to
wait for a valid ACK reply. After receiving an ACK frame the Frame Pending subfield of
that frame is parsed and the status register bits TRAC_STATUS are updated
accordingly (see Table 9-16 below). This receive procedure does not overwrite the
Frame Buffer content. Transmit data in the Frame Buffer is not changed during the
entire TX_ARET transaction. Received frames other than the expected ACK frame are
discarded.
If no valid ACK is received or after timeout of 54 symbol periods (864 µs), the radio
transceiver retries the entire transaction (including CSMA-CA) until the maximum
number of retransmissions as set by the bits MAX_FRAME_RETRIES in register
XAH_CTRL_0 is exceeded.
After that, the microcontroller may read the value of the bits TRAC_STATUS of register
TRX_STATE to verify whether the transaction was successful or not. The register bits
are set according to the following cases:
Table 9-16. Interpretation of the TRAC_STATUS register bits
Value
60
Name
Description
0
SUCCESS
The transaction was responded by a valid
ACK, or, if no ACK is requested, after a
successful frame transmission
1
SUCCESS_DATA_PENDING
Equivalent to SUCCESS; indicates pending
frame data according to the MHR frame
control field of the received ACK response
3
CHANNEL_ACCESS_FAILURE
Channel is still busy after
MAX_CSMA_RETRIES of CSMA-CA
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Value
Name
Description
5
NO_ACK
No acknowledgement frames were received
during all retry attempts
7
INVALID
Entering TX_ARET mode sets
TRAC_STATUS = 7
Note that if no ACK is expected (according to the content of the received frame in the
Frame Buffer), the radio transceiver issues a TRX24_TX_END interrupt directly after
the frame transmission has been completed. The value of the bits TRAC_STATUS of
register TRX_STATE is set to SUCCESS.
A value of MAX_CSMA_RETRIES = 7 initiates an immediate TX_ARET transaction
without performing CSMA-CA. This is required to support slotted acknowledgement
operation. Further the value MAX_FRAME_RETRIES is ignored and the TX_ARET
transaction is performed only once.
A timing example of a TX_ARET transaction is shown in Figure 9-13 below .
Figure 9-13. Example Timing of a TX_ARET Transaction
128
FrameType
x
Data Frame (Length = 10, ACK=1)
TX_ARET_ON
RX/TX
ACK Frame
BUSY_TX_ARET
TX_ARET_ON
RX
TX
CSMA-CA
time [µs]
x+352
RX/TX
TRX_STATE
672
Frame
on Air
0
SLPTR
IRQ
Typ. Processing Delay
RX_END
tCSM A-CA
16 µs
Note:
32 µs
tIRQ
1. tCSMA-CA defines the random CSMA-CA processing time.
Here an example data frame of length 10 with an ACK request is transmitted, see Table
9-13 on page 62. After the transmission the radio transceiver switches to receive mode
and expects an acknowledgement response. During the whole transaction including
frame transmit, wait for ACK and ACK receive the radio transceiver status register
TRX_STATUS signals BUSY_TX_ARET.
A successful reception of the acknowledgment frame is indicated by the
TRX24_TX_END interrupt. The status register TRX_STATUS changes back to
TX_ARET_ON. The TX_ARET status register TRAC_STATUS changes as well to
TRAC_STATUS = SUCCESS or TRAC_STATUS = SUCCESS_DATA_PENDING if the
frame pending subfield of the received ACK frame was set to 1.
9.4.2.6 Interrupt Handling
The interrupt handling in the Extended Operating Mode is similar to the Basic Operating
Mode (see section "Interrupt Handling" on page 39). The microcontroller enables
interrupts by setting the appropriate bit in register IRQ_MASK.
For RX_AACK and TX_ARET the following interrupts (Table 9-13 on page 62) inform
about the status of a frame reception and transmission:
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Table 9-13. Interrupt Handling in Extended Operating Mode
Mode
Interrupt
Description
RX_AACK
TRX24_RX_START
Indicates a PHR reception
TRX24_AMI
Issued at address match
TRX24_RX_END
Signals completion of RX_AACK transaction if
successful
- A received frame must pass the address filter;
- The FCS is valid
TX_ARET
TRX24_TX_END
Signals completion of TX_ARET transaction
Both
TRX24_PLL_LOCK
Entering RX_AACK_ON or TX_ARET_ON state from
TRX_OFF state, the TRX24_PLL_LOCK interrupt
signals that the transaction can be started
RX_AACK
For RX_AACK it is recommended to enable the TRX24_RX_END interrupt. This
interrupt is issued only if a frame passes the frame filtering (see section "Frame
Filtering" on page 56) and has a valid FCS. This is different to Basic Operating Mode
(see section "Basic Operating Mode" on page 36). The use of the other interrupts is
optional.
On reception of a valid PHR a TRX24_RX_START interrupt is issued. The TRX24_AMI
interrupt indicates an address match (see filter rules in section "Frame Filtering" on
page 56). The completion of a frame reception with a valid FCS is indicated by the
TRX24_RX_END interrupt.
Thus it can happen that a TRX24_RX_START and/or a TRX24_AMI interrupt are
issued, but no TRX24_RX_END interrupt.
The end of an acknowledgment transmission is confirmed by a TRX24_TX_END
interrupt.
TX_ARET
In TX_ARET interrupt TRX24_TX_END is only issued after completing the entire
TX_ARET transaction.
Acknowledgement frames do not issue a TRX24_RX_START, TRX24_AMI or a
TRX24_RX_END interrupt.
All other interrupts as described in section Table 9-2 on page 35 are also available in
Extended Operating Mode.
9.4.2.7 Register Summary
The following registers (Table 9-14 below) are to be configured to control the Extended
Operating Mode:
Table 9-14. Register Summary
62
Register Name
Description
TRX_STATUS
Radio transceiver status, CCA result
TRX_STATE
Radio transceiver state control, TX_ARET status
TRX_CTRL_1
TX_AUTO_CRC_ON
PHY_CC_CCA
CCA mode control, Table 9-21 on page 72
CCA_THRES
CCA threshold settings, see "Overview" on page 72
XAH_CTRL_1
RX_AACK control
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Register Name
Description
IEEE_ADDR_7
….
IEEE_ADDR_0
PAN_ID_1
PAN_ID_0
SHORT_ADDR_1
SHORT_ADDR_0
Address filter configuration
Short address, PAN-ID and IEEE address
XAH_CTRL_0
TX_ARET control, retries value control
CSMA_SEED_0
CSMA-CA seed value
CSMA_SEED_1
CSMA-CA seed value, RX_AACK control
CSMA_BE
CSMA-CA back-off exponent control
9.5 Functional Description
9.5.1 Introduction – IEEE 802.15.4-2006 Frame Format
Figure 9-14 below provides an overview of the physical layer (PHY) frame structure as
defined by IEEE 802.15.4. Figure 9-15 on page 64 shows the frame structure of the
medium access control (MAC) layer.
Figure 9-14. IEEE 802.15.4 Frame Format - PHY-Layer Frame Structure (PPDU)
9.5.1.1 PHY Protocol Layer Data Unit (PPDU)
9.5.1.1.1 Synchronization Header (SHR)
The SHR consists of a four-octet preamble field (all zero), followed by a single byte
start-of-frame delimiter (SFD) which has the predefined value 0xA7. During transmit,
the SHR is automatically generated by the radio transceiver, thus the Frame Buffer
shall contain PHR and PSDU only.
The transmission of the SHR requires 160 µs (10 symbols). As the frame buffer access
is normally faster than the over-air data rate, this allows the application software to
initiate a transmission without having transferred the full frame data already. Instead it is
possible to subsequently write the frame content.
During frame reception, the SHR is used for synchronization purposes. The matching
SFD determines the beginning of the PHR and the following PSDU payload data.
9.5.1.1.2 PHY Header (PHR)
The PHY header is a single octet following the SHR. The least significant 7 bits denote
the frame length of the following PSDU, while the most significant bit of that octet is
reserved, and shall be set to 0 for IEEE 802.15.4 compliant frames.
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On receive the PHR is returned as the first octet during Frame Buffer read access, the
most significant bit always set to 0. For IEEE 802.15.4 compliant operation bit 8 has to
be masked by software. The reception of a valid PHR is signaled by a
TRX24_RX_START interrupt.
On transmit the PHR has to be written first to the Frame Buffer.
9.5.1.1.3 PHY Payload (PHY Service Data Unit, PSDU)
The PSDU has a variable length between 0 and aMaxPHYPacketSize (127, maximum
PSDU size in octets) whereas the last two octets are used for the Frame Check
Sequence (FCS). The length of the PSDU is signaled by the frame length field (PHR)
as described in Table 9-15 below. The PSDU contains the MAC Protocol Layer Data
Unit (MPDU).
Received frames with a frame length field set to 0x00 (invalid PHR) are not by an
interrupt.
Table 9-15 below summarizes the type of payload versus the frame length value.
Table 9-15. Frame Length Field - PHR
Frame Length Value
Payload
0-4
Reserved
5
6–8
9 - aMaxPHYPacketSize
MPDU (Acknowledgement)
Reserved
MPDU
9.5.1.2 MAC Protocol Layer Data Unit (MPDU)
Figure 9-15 below shows the frame structure of the MAC layer.
Figure 9-15. IEEE 802.15.4 Frame Format - MAC-Layer Frame Structure (MPDU)
9.5.1.2.1 MAC Header (MHR) Fields
The MAC header consists of the Frame Control Field (FCF), a sequence number, and
the addressing fields (which are of variable length and can even be empty in certain
situations).
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9.5.1.2.2 Frame Control Field (FCF)
The FCF consists of 16 bits, and occupies the first two octets of either the MPDU or the
PSDU, respectively.
Figure 9-26. IEEE 802.15.4-2006 Frame Control Field (FCF)
Bit [2:0]: describe the frame type. Table 9-16 below summarizes frame types defined
by IEEE 802.15.4, section 7.2.1.1.1.
Table 9-16. Frame Control Field – Frame Type Subfield
Frame Control Field Bit Assignments
Description
Frame Type Value
b2 b1 b0
Value
000
0
Beacon
001
1
Data
010
2
Acknowledge
011
3
MAC command
100 – 111
4–7
Reserved
This subfield is used for address filtering by the third level filter rules. Only frame types
0 – 3 pass the third level filter rules (refer to section "Frame Filtering" on page 56).
Automatic address filtering of the radio transceiver is enabled when using the
RX_AACK mode (refer to "RX_AACK_ON – Receive with Automatic ACK" on page 48).
A reserved frame (frame type value > 3) can be received if bit AACK_UPLD_RES_FT of
register XAH_CTRL_1 is set. For details refer to chapter "Configuration of non IEEE
802.15.4 Compliant Scenarios" on page 54. Address filtering is also provided in Basic
Operating Mode as explained in "Basic Operating Mode" on page 36.
Bit 3: indicates whether security processing applies to this frame.
Bit 4: is the “Frame Pending” subfield. This field can be set in an acknowledgment
frame (ACK) in response to a data request MAC command frame. This bit indicates that
the node, which transmitted the ACK, has more data to send to the node receiving the
ACK.
For acknowledgment frames automatically generated by the radio transceiver, this bit is
set according to the content of bit AACK_SET_PD of register CSMA_SEED_1 if the
received frame was a data request MAC command frame.
Bit 5: forms the “Acknowledgment Request” subfield. If this bit is set within a data or
MAC command frame that is not broadcast, the recipient shall acknowledge the
reception of the frame within the time specified by IEEE 802.15.4 (i.e. within 192 µs for
non beacon-enabled networks).
The radio transceiver parses this bit during RX_AACK mode and transmits an
acknowledgment frame if necessary.
In TX_ARET mode this bit indicates if an acknowledgement frame is expected after
transmitting a frame. If this is the case, the receiver waits for the acknowledgment
frame, otherwise the TX_ARET transaction is finished.
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Bit 6: the “Intra-PAN” subfield indicates that in a frame, where both, the destination and
source addresses are present, the PAN-ID of the source address filed is omitted. In
RX_AACK mode this bit is evaluated by the address filter logic of the radio transceiver.
Bit [11:10]: the “Destination Addressing Mode” subfield describes the format of the
destination address of the frame. The values of the address modes are summarized in
Table 9-17 below according to IEEE 802.15.4:
Table 9-17. Frame Control Field – Destination and Source Addressing Mode
Frame Control Field Bit Assignments
Description
Addressing Mode
b11 b10
b15 b14
Value
00
0
PAN identifier and address fields are not present
01
1
Reserved
10
2
Address field contains a 16-bit short address
11
3
Address field contains a 64-bit extended address
If the destination address mode is either 2 or 3 (i.e. if the destination address is
present), it always consists of a 16-bit PAN-ID first followed by either the 16-bit or 64-bit
address as defined by the mode.
Bit [13:12]: the “Frame Version” subfield specifies the version number corresponding to
the frame. These register bits are reserved in IEEE-802.15.4-2003.
This subfield shall be set to 0 to indicate a frame compatible with IEEE 802.15.4-2003
and 1 to indicate an IEEE 802.15.4-2006 frame. All other subfield values shall be
reserved for future use.
The bit AACK_FVN_MODE of register CSMA_SEED_1 controls the RX_AACK
behavior of frame acknowledgements. This register determines if, depending on the
Frame Version Number, a frame is acknowledged or not. This is necessary for
backward compatibility to IEEE 802.15.4-2003 and for future use. Even if frame version
numbers 2 and 3 are reserved, it can be handled by the radio transceiver. For details
refer to "CSMA_SEED_1 – Transceiver Acknowledgment Frame Control Register 2" on
page 131.
See IEEE 802.15.4-2006, section 7.2.3 for details on frame compatibility.
Table 9-18. Frame Control Field – Frame Version Subfield
Frame Control Field Bit Assignments
Description
Frame Version
b13 b12
Value
00
0
Frames are compatible with IEEE 802.15.4-2003
01
1
Frames are compatible with IEEE 802.15.4-2006
10
2
Reserved
11
3
Reserved
Bit [15:14]: the “Source Addressing Mode” subfield, with similar meaning as
“Destination Addressing Mode” (refer to Table 9-17 above).
The subfields of the FCF (Bits 0–2, 3, 6, 10–15) affect the address filter logic of the
radio transceiver while executing a RX_AACK operation (see "RX_AACK_ON –
Receive with Automatic ACK" on page 48).
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9.5.1.2.3 Frame Compatibility between IEEE 802.15.4-2003 and IEEE 802.15.4-2006
All unsecured frames according to IEEE 802.15.4-2006 are compatible with unsecured
frames compliant with IEEE 802.15.4-2003 with two exceptions: a coordinator
realignment command frame with the “Channel Page” field present (see IEEE 802.15.42006 7.3.8) and any frame with a MAC Payload field larger than
aMaxMACSafePayloadSize octets.
Compatibility for secured frames is shown in the following table, which identifies the
security operating modes for IEEE 802.15.4-2006.
Table 9-19. Frame Control Field – Security and Frame Version
Frame Control Field Bit Assignments
Description
Security Enabled
b3
Frame Version
b13 b12
0
00
No security. Frames are compatible between
IEEE 802.15.4-2003 and IEEE 802.15.4-2006.
0
01
No security. Frames are not compatible between
IEEE 802.15.4-2003 and IEEE 802.15.4-2006.
1
00
Secured frame formatted according to
IEEE 802.15.4-2003. This frame type is not
supported in IEEE 802.15.4-2006.
1
01
Secured frame formatted according to
IEEE 802.15.4-2006
9.5.1.2.4 Sequence Number
The one-octet sequence number following the FCF identifies a particular frame, so that
duplicated frame transmissions can be detected. While operating in RX_AACK mode,
the content of this field is copied from the frame to be acknowledged into the
acknowledgment frame.
9.5.1.2.5 Addressing Fields
The addressing fields of the MPDU are used by the radio transceiver for address
matching indication. The destination address (if present) is always first, followed by the
source address (if present). Each address field consists of the Intra PAN-ID and a
device address. If both addresses are present and the “Intra PAN-ID compression”
subfield in the FCF is set to one, the source Intra PAN-ID is omitted.
Note that in addition to these general rules IEEE 802.15.4 further restricts the valid
address combinations for the individual possible MAC frame types. For example the
situation where both addresses are omitted (source addressing mode = 0 and
destination addressing mode = 0) is only allowed for acknowledgment frames. The
address filter in the radio transceiver has been designed to apply to IEEE 802.15.4
compliant frames. It can be configured to handle other frame formats and exceptions.
9.5.1.2.6 Auxiliary Security Header Field
The Auxiliary Security Header specifies information required for security processing and
has a variable length. This field determines how the frame is actually protected (security
level) and which keying material from the MAC security PIB is used (see
IEEE 802.15.4-2006, 7.6.1). This field shall be present only if the Security Enabled
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subfield b3 is set to one (see section "Frame Compatibility between IEEE 802.15.42003 and IEEE 802.15.4-2006" on page 67). For details of its structure see
IEEE 802.15.4-2006, 7.6.2 Auxiliary security header.
9.5.1.2.7 MAC Service Data Unit (MSDU)
This is the actual MAC payload. It is usually structured according to the individual frame
type. A description can be found in IEEE 802.15.4-2006, chapter 5.5.3.2.
9.5.1.2.8 MAC Footer (MFR) Fields
The MAC footer consists of a two-octet Frame Checksum (FCS). For details refer to the
following section "Frame Check Sequence (FCS)" below.
9.5.2 Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
The Frame Check Sequence (FCS) is characterized by:
• Indicate bit errors based on a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) of 16 bit length;
• Uses International Telecommunication Union (ITU) CRC polynomial;
• Automatically evaluated during reception;
• Can be automatically generated during transmission.
9.5.2.1 Overview
The FCS is intended for use at the MAC layer to detect corrupted frames at a first level
of filtering. It is computed by applying an ITU CRC polynomial to all transferred bytes
following the length field (MHR and MSDU fields). The frame check sequence has a
length of 16 bit and is located in the last two bytes of a frame (MAC footer, see Figure
9-15 on page 64).
The radio transceiver applies an FCS check on each received frame. The result of the
FCS check is stored in bit RX_CRC_VALID of register PHY_RSSI.
On transmit the radio transceiver generates and appends the FCS bytes during the
frame transmission. This behavior can be disabled by setting the bit
TX_AUTO_CRC_ON = 0 in register TRX_CTRL_1.
9.5.2.2 CRC calculation
The CRC polynomial used in IEEE 802.15.4 networks is defined by
G16 ( x ) = x 16 + x 12 + x 5 + 1
The FCS shall be calculated for transmission using the following algorithm:
Let
M ( x) = b0 x k −1 + b1 x k − 2 + K + bk − 2 x + bk −1
be the polynomial representing the sequence of bits for which the checksum is to be
16
computed. Multiply M(x) by x giving the polynomial
N ( x) = M ( x) ⋅ x16
Divide N (x ) modulo 2 by the generator polynomial G16(x) to obtain the remainder
polynomial
R ( x ) = r0 x 15 + r1 x 14 + ... + r14 x + r15
The FCS field is given by the coefficients of the remainder polynomial, R(x).
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Example:
Consider a 5 octet ACK frame. The MHR field consists of
0100 0000 0000 0000 0101 0110.
The leftmost bit (b0) is transmitted first in time. The FCS is in this case
0010 0111 1001 1110.
The leftmost bit (r0) is transmitted first in time.
9.5.2.3 Automatic FCS generation
The automatic FCS generation is performed with register bit TX_AUTO_CRC_ON = 1
(reset value). This allows the radio transceiver to autonomously compute the FCS. For
a frame with a frame length specified as N (3 ≤ N ≤ 127), the FCS is calculated on the
first N-2 octets in the Frame Buffer and the resulting FCS field is transmitted in place of
the last two octets from the Frame Buffer.
If the automatic FCS generation of the radio transceivers is enabled, the Frame Buffer
write access can be stopped right after MAC payload. There is no need to write FCS
dummy bytes.
In RX_AACK mode, when a received frame needs to be acknowledged, the FCS of the
ACK frame is always automatically generated by the radio transceiver, independent of
the TX_AUTO_CRC_ON setting.
Example:
A frame transmission of length five with TX_AUTO_CRC_ON set, is started with a
Frame Buffer write access of five bytes (the last two bytes can be omitted). The first
three bytes are used for FCS generation; the last two bytes are replaced by the
internally calculated FCS.
9.5.2.4 Automatic FCS check
An automatic FCS check is applied on each received frame with a frame length N ≥ 2.
The bit RX_CRC_VALID of register PHY_RSSI is set if the FCS of a received frame is
valid. The register bit is updated when issuing a TRX24_RX_END interrupt and remains
valid until a new frame reception causes the next TRX24_RX_END interrupt.
In RX_AACK mode, the radio transceiver rejects the frame and the TRX24_RX_END
interrupt is not issued if the FCS of the received frame is not valid.
In TX_ARET mode, the FCS and the sequence number of an ACK are automatically
checked. The ACK is not accepted if one of those is not correct.
9.5.3 Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)
The Received Signal Strength Indicator is characterized by:
• Minimum RSSI level is -90 dBm (RSSI_BASE_VAL);
• Dynamic range is 81 dB;
• Minimum RSSI value is 0;
• Maximum RSSI value is 28.
9.5.3.1 Overview
The RSSI is a 5-bit value indicating the receive power in the selected channel in steps
of 3 dB. No attempt is made to distinguish IEEE 802.15.4 signals from others. Only the
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received signal strength is evaluated. The RSSI provides the basis for an ED
measurement. See section "Energy Detection (ED)" below for details.
9.5.3.2 Reading RSSI
In Basic Operating Mode the RSSI value is valid in any receive state, and is updated
every tTR25 = 2 µs to register PHY_RSSI.
It is not recommended to read the RSSI value when using the Extended Operating
Mode. The automatically generated ED value should then be used (see section "Energy
Detection (ED)" below).
9.5.3.3 Data Interpretation
The RSSI value is a 5-bit value indicating the receive power in steps of 3 dB and with a
range of 0- 28.
An RSSI value of 0 indicates a receiver RF input power of PRF < -90 dBm. For an RSSI
value in the range of 1 to 28, the RF input power can be calculated as follows:
PRF = RSSI_BASE_VAL + 3 • (RSSI - 1) [dBm]
Figure 9-17. Mapping between RSSI Value and Received Input Power
10
Receiver Input Power P
RF
[dBm]
0
Measured
-10
Ideal
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
RSSI
9.5.4 Energy Detection (ED)
The Energy Detection (ED) module is characterized by:
• 85 unique energy levels defined;
• 1 dB resolution.
9.5.4.1 Overview
The receiver ED measurement is used by the network layer as part of a channel
selection algorithm. It is an estimation of the received signal power within the bandwidth
of an IEEE 802.15.4 channel. No attempt is made to identify or decode signals on the
channel. The ED value is calculated by averaging RSSI values over eight symbols
(128 µs).
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For High Data Rate Modes the automated ED measurement duration is reduced to
32 µs as described in "High Data Rate Modes" on page 88. The measurement period in
these modes is still 128 µs for manually initiated ED measurements as long as the
receiver is in RX_ON state.
9.5.4.2 Measurement Description
There are two ways to initiate an ED measurement:
• Manually, by writing an arbitrary value to register PHY_ED_LEVEL, or
• Automatically, after detection of a valid SHR of an incoming frame.
For manually initiated ED measurements the radio transceiver needs to be in one of the
states RX_ON or BUSY_RX. The end of the ED measurement is indicated by a
TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE interrupt.
The automatic ED measurement is started if a SHR is detected. The end of the
automatic measurement is not signaled by an interrupt.
The measurement result is stored after tTR26 = 140 µs (128 µs measurement duration
and processing delay) in register PHY_ED_LEVEL.
Thus by using Basic Operating Mode a valid ED value from the currently received frame
is accessible 108 µs after the TRX24_RX_START interrupt and remains valid until the
next incoming frame generates a new TRX24_RX_START interrupt or until another ED
measurement is initiated.
When using the Extended Operating Mode it is recommended to mask the
TRX24_RX_START interrupt. Hence the interrupt cannot be used as timing reference.
A successful frame reception is signalized by the TRX24_RX_END interrupt. The
minimum time span between a TRX24_RX_END interrupt and a following SFD
detection is tTR27 = 96 µs due to the length of the SHR. The ED value needs to be read
within 224 µs including the ED measurement time after the TRX24_RX_END interrupt.
Otherwise it could be overwritten by the result of the next measurement cycle. This is
important for time critical applications or if the TRX24_RX_START interrupt is not used
to indicate the reception of a frame.
The values of the register PHY_ED_LEVEL are:
Table 9-20. Register Bit PHY_ED_LEVEL Interpretation
PHY_ED_LEVEL
Description
0xFF
Reset value
0x00 … 0x53
Note:
ED measurement result of the last ED measurement
1. It is not recommended to manually initiate an ED measurement when using the
Extended Operating Mode.
9.5.4.3 Data Interpretation
The PHY_ED_LEVEL is an 8-bit register. The ED value of the radio transceiver has a
valid range from 0x00 to 0x53 with a resolution of 1 dB. All other values do not occur. A
value of 0xFF indicates the reset value. A value of PHY_ED_LEVEL = 0 indicates that
the measured energy is less than -90 dBm (see parameter RSSI_BASE_VAL in section
"Receiver Characteristics" on page 524). Due to environmental conditions (temperature,
voltage, semiconductor parameters etc.) the calculated ED value has a maximum
tolerance of ±5 dB, this is to be considered as constant offset over the measurement
range.
An ED value of 0 indicates an RF input power of PRF ≤ -90 dBm. For an ED value in the
range of 0 to 83, the RF input power can be calculated as follows:
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PRF = -90 + ED [dBm]
Figure 9-18. Mapping between values in PHY_ED_LEVEL and Received Input Power
10
Measured
-10
Ideal
-20
Receiver Input Power P
RF
[dBm]
0
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Register PHY_ED_LEVEL Value
9.5.4.4 Interrupt Handling
The TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE interrupt is issued at the end of a manually initiated ED
measurement.
Note that an ED request should only be initiated in one of the receive states. Otherwise
the radio transceiver generates a TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE interrupt but no ED
measurement was performed.
9.5.5 Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)
The main features of the Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) module are:
• All 4 modes are available as defined by IEEE 802.15.4-2006 in section 6.9.9;
• Adjustable threshold for energy detection algorithm.
9.5.5.1 Overview
A CCA measurement is used to detect a clear channel. Four modes are specified by
IEEE 802.15.4-2006:
Table 9-21. CCA Mode Overview
CCA Mode
72
Description
1
Energy above threshold.
CCA shall report a busy medium upon detecting any energy above the ED
threshold.
2
Carrier sense only.
CCA shall report a busy medium only upon the detection of a signal with the
modulation and spreading characteristics of an IEEE 802.15.4 compliant signal.
The signal strength may be above or below the ED threshold.
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CCA Mode
0, 3
Description
Carrier sense with energy above threshold.
CCA shall report a busy medium using a logical combination of
- Detection of a signal with the modulation and spreading characteristics of
this standard and
- Energy above the ED threshold.
Where the logical operator may be configured as either OR (mode 0) or
AND (mode 3).
9.5.5.2 Configuration and CCA Request
The CCA modes are configurable via register PHY_CC_CCA.
Usimg the Basic Operating Mode, a CCA request can be initiated manually by setting
CCA_REQUEST = 1 of register PHY_CC_CCA, if the radio transceiver is in any RX
state. The current channel status (CCA_STATUS) and the CCA completion status
(CCA_DONE) are accessible in register TRX_STATUS.
The CCA evaluation is done over eight symbol periods and the result is accessible
tTR28 = 140 µs (128 µs measurement duration and processing delay) after the request.
The end of a manually initiated CCA measurement is indicated by a
TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE interrupt.
The sub-register CCA_ED_THRES of register CCA_THRES defines the received power
threshold of the “energy above threshold” algorithm. The threshold is calculated by
RSSI_BASE_VAL + 2 • CCA_ED_THRES [dBm]. Any received power above this level
is interpreted as a busy channel.
Note that it is not recommended to manually initiate a CCA measurement when using
the Extended Operating Mode.
9.5.5.3 Data Interpretation
The current channel status (CCA_STATUS) and the CCA completion status
(CCA_DONE) are accessible in register TRX_STATUS. Note, register bits CCA_DONE
and CCA_STATUS are cleared in response to a CCA_REQUEST.
The completion of a measurement cycle is indicated by CCA_DONE = 1. If the radio
transceiver detected no signal (idle channel) during the measurement cycle, the
CCA_STATUS bit is set to 1.
When using the “energy above threshold” algorithm, any received power above
CCA_ED_THRES level is interpreted as a busy channel. The “carrier sense” algorithm
reports a busy channel when detecting an IEEE 802.15.4 signal above the
RSSI_BASE_VAL (see parameter RSSI_BASE_VAL in "Transceiver Electrical
Characteristics" on page 522). The radio transceiver is also able to detect signals below
this value, but the detection probability decreases with the signal power.
9.5.5.4 Interrupt Handling
The TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE interrupt is issued at the end of a manually initiated CCA
measurement.
Note:
A CCA request should only be initiated in the receive states of Basic Operating Mode.
Otherwise the radio transceiver generates a TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE interrupt and
sets the register bit CCA_DONE = 1 even if no CCA measurement was performed.
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9.5.5.5 Measurement Time
The response time for a manually initiated CCA measurement depends on the receiver
state.
In RX_ON state the CCA measurement is done over eight symbol periods and the
result is accessible 140 µs after the request (see section "Configuration and CCA
Request" on page 73).
In BUSY_RX state the CCA measurement duration depends on the CCA Mode and the
CCA request relative to the reception of an SHR. The end of the CCA measurement is
indicated by a TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE interrupt. The variation of a CCA measurement
period in BUSY_RX state is described in Table 9-22 below.
Table 9-22. CCA Measurement Period and Access in BUSY_RX state
CCA Mode
1
Request within ED measurement
(1)
Request after ED measurement
Energy above threshold.
CCA result is available after finishing
automated ED measurement period.
2
CCA result is immediately available
after request.
Carrier sense only.
CCA result is immediately available after request.
3
Carrier sense with Energy above threshold (AND).
CCA result is available after finishing
automated ED measurement period.
0
Carrier sense with Energy above threshold (OR).
CCA result is available after finishing
automated ED measurement period.
Note:
CCA result is immediately available
after request.
CCA result is immediately available
after request.
1. After receiving the SHR an automated ED measurement is started with a length of
8 symbol periods (PSDU rate 250 kb/s), refer to section "Energy Detection (ED)"
on page 70. This automated ED measurement must be finished to provide a result
for the CCA measurement. Only one automated ED measurement per frame is
performed.
It is recommended to perform CCA measurements in RX_ON state only. To avoid
accidental switching to BUSY_RX state the SHR detection can be disabled by setting
bit RX_PDT_DIS of register RX_SYN. Refer to section "Receiver (RX)" on page 76 for
details. The receiver remains in RX_ON state to perform a CCA measurement until the
register bit RX_PDT_DIS is set back to continue the frame reception. In this case the
CCA measurement duration is 8 symbol periods.
9.5.6 Link Quality Indication (LQI)
According to IEEE 802.15.4 the LQI measurement is a characterization of the strength
and/or quality of a received packet. The measurement may be implemented using
receiver ED, a signal-to-noise ratio estimation or a combination of these methods. The
use of the LQI result by the network or application layers is not specified in this
standard. LQI values shall be an integer ranging from 0x00 to 0xFF. The minimum and
maximum LQI values (0x00 and 0xFF) should be associated with the lowest and
highest quality compliant signals, respectively, and LQI values in between should be
uniformly distributed between these two limits.
9.5.6.1 Overview
The LQI measurement of the radio transceiver is implemented as a measure of the link
quality which can be described with the packet error rate (PER) of this link. A LQI value
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can be associated with an expected packet error rate. The PER is the ratio of erroneous
received frames to the total number of received frames. A PER of zero indicates no
frame error whereas at a PER of one no frame was received correctly.
The radio transceiver uses correlation results of multiple symbols within a frame to
determine the LQI value. This is done for each received frame. The minimum frame
length for a valid LQI value is two octets PSDU. LQI values are integers ranging from 0
to 255.
The following figure shows an example of a conditional packet error rate when receiving
a certain LQI value.
Figure 9-19. Conditional Packet Error Rate versus LQI
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
PER
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
LQI
The values are taken from received frames of PSDU length of 20 octets on
transmission channels with reasonable low multipath delay spreads. If the transmission
channel characteristic has a higher multipath delay spread than assumed in the
example, the PER is slightly higher for a certain LQI value. Since the packet error rate
is a statistical value, the PER shown in Figure 9-19 above is based on a huge number
of transactions. A reliable estimation of the packet error rate cannot be based on a
single or a small number of LQI values.
9.5.6.2 Request a LQI Measurement
The LQI byte can be obtained after a frame has been received by the radio transceiver.
One additional byte is automatically attached to the received frame containing the LQI
value. This information can also be read via Frame Buffer read access, see "User
accessible Frame Content" on page 80. The LQI byte can be read after the
TRX24_RX_END interrupt.
9.5.6.3 Data Interpretation
According to IEEE 802.15.4 a low LQI value is associated with low signal strength
and/or high signal distortions. Signal distortions are mainly caused by interference
signals and/or multipath propagation. High LQI values indicate a sufficient high signal
power and low signal distortions.
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Note that the received signal power as indicated by the received signal strength
indication (RSSI) value or energy detection (ED) value of the radio transceiver do not
characterize the signal quality and the ability to decode a signal.
As an example, a received signal with an input power of about 6 dB above the receiver
sensitivity likely results in a LQI value close to 255 for radio channels with very low
signal distortions. For higher signal power the LQI value becomes independent of the
actual signal strength. This is because the packet error rate for these scenarios tends
towards zero and further increased signal strength i.e. increasing the transmission
power does not decrease the error rate any further. In this case RSSI or ED can be
used to evaluate the signal strength and the link margin.
ZigBee networks often require the identification of the “best” routing between two
nodes. Both the LQI and the RSSI/ED can be used for this, dependent on the
optimization criteria. If a low packet error rate (corresponding to high throughput) is the
optimization criteria then the LQI value should be taken into consideration. If a low
transmission power or the link margin is the optimization criteria then the RSSI/ED
value is also helpful.
Combinations of LQI, RSSI and ED are possible for routing decisions. As a rule of
thumb RSSI and ED values are useful to differentiate between links with high LQI
values. Transmission links with low LQI values should be discarded for routing
decisions even if the RSSI/ED values are high. This is because RSSI and ED do not
say anything about the possibility to decode a signal. It is only an information about the
received signal strength whereas the source can be an interferer.
9.6 Module Description
9.6.1 Receiver (RX)
9.6.1.1 Overview
The receiver is split into an analog radio front-end and a digital base band processor
(RX BBP) according to the following figure. The digital base band processor and the
control engine are connected to the Frame Buffer and control registers which are
located in the microcontroller I/O memory space (see "I/O Memory" on page 26 and
"Transceiver to Microcontroller Interface" on page 32 ).
Figure 9-20. Receiver Block Diagram
Analog D om ain
LO
D igital D om ain
I/O
M em ory
Space
R FP
LN A
PPF
BPF
Lim iter
RX
ADC
µC
I/F
$01FF
RX BBP
R FN
Fram e
Buffer
$0180
$017F
AG C
R SSI
C ontrol
Registers
$0140
The differential RF signal is amplified by a low noise amplifier (LNA), filtered (PPF) and
down converted to an intermediate frequency by a mixer. Channel selectivity is
performed using an integrated band pass filter (BPF). A limiting amplifier (Limiter)
provides sufficient gain to overcome the DC offset of the succeeding analog-to-digital
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converter (RX ADC) and generates a digital RSSI signal. The ADC output signal is
sampled and processed further by the digital base band receiver (RX BBP).
The RX BBP performs additional signal filtering and signal synchronization. The
frequency offset of each frame is calculated by the synchronization unit and is used
during the remaining receive process to correct the offset. The receiver is designed to
handle frequency and symbol rate deviations up to ±120 ppm caused by combined
receiver and transmitter deviations. For details refer to chapter "General RF
Specifications" on page 523. Finally the signal is demodulated and the data are stored
in the Frame Buffer.
In Basic Operating Mode (see "Basic Operating Mode" on page 36), the reception of a
frame is indicated by a TRX24_RX_START interrupt. Accordingly its end is signalized
by a TRX24_RX_END interrupt. Based on the quality of the received signal a link
quality indicator (LQI) is calculated and appended to the frame. For details refer to.
Additional signal processing is applied to the frame data to provide further status
information like ED value (register PHY_ED_LEVEL) and FCS correctness (register
PHY_RSSI).
Beyond these features the Extended Operating Mode of the radio transceiver supports
address filtering and pending data indication. For details refer to "Extended Operating
Mode" on page 44.
9.6.1.2 Frame Receive Procedure
The frame receive procedure including the radio s setup for reception and reading
PSDU data from the Frame Buffer is described in "Frame Receive Procedure" on page
86.
9.6.1.3 Configuration
In Basic Operating Mode the receiver is enabled by writing command RX_ON to the
TRX_CMD bits of register TRX_STATE in the states TRX_OFF or PLL_ON. Similarly in
Extended Operating Mode the receiver is enabled for RX_AACK operation from the
states TRX_OFF or PLL_ON by writing the command RX_AACK_ON. There is no
additional configuration required to receive IEEE 802.15.4 compliant frames when using
the Basic Operating Mode. However, the frame reception in the Extended Operating
Mode requires further register configurations. For details refer to "Extended Operating
Mode" on page 44.
The receiver has an outstanding sensitivity performance of -100 dBm. At certain
environmental conditions or for High Data Rate Modes (see "High Data Rate Modes" on
page 88) it may be useful to manually decrease this sensitivity. This is achieved by
adjusting the detector threshold of the synchronization header using the
RX_PDT_LEVEL bits of register RX_SYN. Received signals with a RSSI value below
the threshold do not activate the demodulation process.
Furthermore, it may be useful to protect a received frame against overwriting by
subsequent received frames.
A Dynamic Frame Buffer Protection is enabled with register bit RX_SAFE_MODE
(TRX_CTRL_2) set (refer to "Dynamic Frame Buffer Protection" on page 94). After a
frame has been received, the buffer is protected for new incoming frames and the
receiver remains in RX_ON or RX_AACK_ON state until the RX_SAFE_MODE bit is
cleared by the controller. The Frame Buffer content is only protected if the FCS is valid.
A Static Frame Buffer Protection is enabled with bit RX_PDT_DIS of register RX_SYN
set. The receiver remains in RX_ON or RX_AACK_ON state and no further SHR is
detected until the register bit RX_PDT_DIS is set back.
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9.6.2 Transmitter (TX)
9.6.2.1 Overview
The transmitter consists of a digital base band processor (TX BBP) and an analog front
end as shown in the following figure.
Figure 9-21. Transmitter Block Diagram
$0140
Ext. R F front-end and
Output Power C ontrol
D IG3/4
Control
R egisters
$017F
$0180
R FP
PA
Buf
PLL – TX M odulation
R FN
TX D ata
Analog D om ain
TX BBP
Fram e
Buffer
D igital Dom ain
I/O
M em ory
Space
$01FF
µC
I/F
The TX BBP reads the frame data from the Frame Buffer and performs the bit-tosymbol and symbol-to-chip mapping as specified by IEEE 802.15.4 in section 6.5.2.
The O-QPSK modulation signal is generated and fed into the analog radio front end.
The fractional-N frequency synthesizer (PLL) converts the baseband transmit signal to
the RF signal which is amplified by the power amplifier (PA). The PA output is internally
connected to bidirectional differential antenna pins (RFP, RFN) so that no external
antenna switch is needed.
9.6.2.2 Frame Transmit Procedure
The frame transmit procedure including writing PSDU data in the Frame Buffer and
initiating a transmission is described in section "Frame Transmit Procedure" on page
87. The controller must ensure to provide valid frame data before starting the frame
transmission. For save operation, it is recommended to write the complete frame into
the Frame Buffer before starting the frame transmission.
9.6.2.3 Configuration
The maximum output power of the transmitter is typically +3.5 dBm. The output power
can be configured via the TX_PWR bits of register PHY_TX_PWR. The output power of
the transmitter can be controlled over a 20 dB range.
A transmission can be started from PLL_ON or TX_ARET_ON state by writing ‘1’ to bit
SLPTR of the TRXPR register or by writing TX_START command to the TRX_CMD bits
of register TRX_STATE.
9.6.2.4 TX Power Ramping
The PA buffer and PA are enabled sequentially to optimize the output power spectral
density (PSD). A timing example using default settings illustrates the sequence in the
next figure. In this example the transmission is initiated with the rising edge of the
SLPTR bit. The radio transceiver state changes from PLL_ON to BUSY_TX. The
modulation starts 16 µs after SLPTR.
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Figure 9-22. TX Power Ramping
0
TRX_STATE
PLL_O N
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Length [µ s]
BU SY_TX
SLPTR
PA buffer
PA_BUF_LT
PA_LT
PA
1
M odulation
1 0
1
1 0 0 1
1
When using an external RF front-end (refer to "RX/TX Indicator" on page 92) it may be
required to adjust the startup time of the external PA relative to the internal building
blocks to optimize the overall PSD. This can be achieved using register bits
PA_BUF_LT and PA_LT of register PHY_TX_PWR.
9.6.3 Frame Buffer
The radio transceiver contains a 128 byte dual port SRAM. One port of the frame buffer
is directly connected to the controller I/O space. Therefore random access to single
frame bytes is possible. The other port connects to the internal transmitter and receiver
modules. Both ports are independent and simultaneously accessible for data
communication.
The Frame Buffer uses the controller I/O address space 0x180 to 0x1FF for RX and TX
operation of the radio transceiver and can keep one IEEE 802.15.4 RX or one TX frame
of maximum length at a time.
Frame Buffer access is only possible if the radio transceiver is enabled (PRTRX24 bit in
the Power Reduction Register PRR1 is not set) and not in SLEEP state.
9.6.3.1 Data Management
Data in the Frame Buffer (received data or data to be transmitted) remain valid as long
as:
• No new frame or other data are written into the buffer;
• No new frame is received (in any BUSY_RX state);
• No state change into radio transceiver SLEEP state is made;
• No radio transceiver RESET (see bit TRXRST in "TRXPR – Transceiver Pin
Register" on page 173) or system reset took place;
• Bit PRTRX24 in register "PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1" on page 172 is not
set;
By default there is no protection of the Frame Buffer against overwriting. If a frame is
received during a Frame Buffer read access of a previously received frame, the stored
data might be overwritten.
Finally the application software should check the transferred frame data integrity by a
FCS check.
The state of the radio transceiver should be changed to PLL_ON state after reception to
protect the Frame Buffer content against overwriting with new, incoming frames. This
can be achieved by writing immediately the command PLL_ON to the TRX_CMD bits of
register TRX_STATE after receiving the frame indicated by a TRX24_RX_END
interrupt.
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Alternatively Dynamic Frame Buffer Protection can be used to protect received frames
against overwriting. For details refer to "Dynamic Frame Buffer Protection" on page 94.
Both procedures do not protect the Frame Buffer from overwriting by the application
software.
In Extended Operating Mode during TX_ARET operation (see "TX_ARET_ON –
Transmit with Automatic Retry and CSMA-CA Retry" on page 59) the radio transceiver
switches to receive if an acknowledgement of a previously transmitted frame was
requested. During this period received frames are evaluated but not stored in the Frame
Buffer. This allows the radio transceiver to wait for an acknowledgement frame and
retry the frame transmission without writing the frame data to the Frame Buffer again.
A radio transceiver state change except a transition to radio transceiver SLEEP state or
a radio transceiver RESET does not affect the Frame Buffer content. The Frame Buffer
is powered off and the stored data gets lost if the radio transceiver is forced into radio
transceiver SLEEP state.
Access conflicts may occur when reading and writing data simultaneously at the two
independent ports of the Frame Buffer TX/RX BBP and Controller interface.
9.6.3.2 User accessible Frame Content
The radio transceiver supports an IEEE 802.15.4 compliant frame format as shown in
the following figure.
Figure 9-31. Transceiver Frame Structure
0
Frame
Duration
Access
Length [octets]
4
5
Preamble Sequence
SFD
4 octets / 128 µs
1
6
PHR (1)
y+3
Payload
y+5
FCS
y octets / y • 32 µs (y <= 128)
y+6
LQI(2)
1
TX: Frame Buffer content
SHR not accesible
PHY generated
RX: Frame Buffer content
Notes:
1. Stored into Frame Buffer for TX operation
2. Stored into Frame Buffer during frame reception.
A frame comprises two sections. The radio transceiver internally generated SHR field
and the user accessible part are stored in the Frame Buffer. The SHR contains the
preamble and the SFD field. The variable frame section contains the PHR and the
PSDU including the FCS (see "Overview" on page 68).
The Frame Buffer content differs depending on the direction of the communication
(receive or transmit). To access the data follow the procedures described in "Radio
Transceiver Usage" on page 86.
During frame reception, the payload and the link quality indicator (LQI) value of a
successfully received frame are stored in the Frame Buffer. The radio transceiver
appends the LQI value to the frame data after the last received octet. Information of the
frame length is not stored in the Frame Buffer. The frame length information is located
in register TST_RX_LENGTH.
The SHR (except the SFD used to generate the last octet of the SHR) can generally not
be read by the application software.
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The PHR and the PSDU need to be stored in the Frame Buffer for frame transmission.
The PHR byte is the first byte in the Frame Buffer (address 0x180) and must be
calculated based on the PHR and the PSDU. The maximum frame size supported by
the radio transceiver is 128 bytes. If the TX_AUTO_CRC_ON bit is set in the register
TRX_CTRL_1 – Transceiver Control Register 1, the FCS field of the PSDU is replaced
by the automatically calculated FCS during frame transmission. There is no need to
write the FCS field when using the automatic FCS generation.
Manipulating individual bytes of the Frame Buffer is simply possible by accessing the
appropriate buffer address.
The minimum frame length supported by the radio transceiver for non IEEE 802.15.4
compliant frames is one byte (Frame Length Field + 1 byte of data).
9.6.4 Battery Monitor (BATMON)
The main features of the battery monitor are:
• Configurable voltage threshold range from 1.7V to 3.675V
• Generates an interrupt when supply voltage drops below the threshold
9.6.4.1 Overview
The battery monitor (BATMON) detects and indicates a low supply voltage of EVDD.
This is done by comparing the voltage of EVDD with a configurable, internal threshold
voltage. A simplified schematic of the BATMON with the most important input and
output signals is shown in the following figure.
Figure 9-24. Simplified Schematic of BATMON
EVDD
BATMON_HR
+
DAC
4
BATMON_VTH
Threshold
Voltage
For input-to-output mapping
see BATMON register
BATMON_OK
-
„1“
clear
D
Q
BATMON_IRQ
9.6.4.2 Configuration
The Battery Monitor can be configured using the BATMON register. Register subfield
BATMON_VTH sets the threshold voltage. It is configurable with a resolution of 75 mV
in the upper voltage range (BATMON_HR = 1) and with a resolution of 50 mV in the
lower voltage range (BATMON_HR = 0).
9.6.4.3 Data Interpretation
The bit BATMON_OK of register BATMON monitors the current value of the battery
voltage:
• If BATMON_OK = 0 then the battery voltage is lower than the threshold voltage;
• If BATMON_OK = 1 then the battery voltage is higher than the threshold voltage;
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The value BATMON_OK should be read out to verify the current supply voltage value
after setting a new threshold.
Note:
The battery monitor is inactive during SLEEP states. Refer to status register
TRX_STATUS for details.
9.6.4.4 Interrupt Handling
A supply voltage drop below the configured threshold value is indicated by the
BAT_LOW interrupt. The BAT_LOW status bit as well as the BATLOW_EN bit is
located in the BATMON register. If BATLOW_EN =0, no IRQ is issued, but the status
flag is set if the battery low event occurs.
The interrupt is only issued if BATMON_OK changes from 1 to 0 and the event is stored
until the IRQ handler is called or the BAT_LOW IRQ is cleared manually by writing ‘1’ to
the BAT_LOW status flag.
No interrupt is generated when:
• The battery voltage is below the default 1.8V threshold at power up (BATMON_OK
was never 1) or
• A new threshold is set which is still above the current supply voltage (BATMON_OK
remains 0).
Noise or temporary voltage drops may generate unwanted interrupts when the battery
voltage is close to the programmed threshold voltage. To avoid this:
• Disable the BAT_LOW interrupt with the BATLOW_EN Bit in the BATMON register
and treat the battery as empty or
• Set a lower threshold value.
9.6.5 Crystal Oscillator (XOSC)
The main features of the crystal oscillator are:
• Amplitude controlled 16 MHz generation;
• 215 µs typical settling time after leaving SLEEP state;
• Configurable trimming with a capacitance array;
9.6.5.1 Overview
The crystal oscillator generates the reference frequency for the radio transceiver. All
other internally generated frequencies of the radio transceiver are derived from this
unique frequency. The overall system performance is therefore critically determined by
the accuracy of the crystal reference frequency. The external components of the crystal
oscillator should be selected carefully and the related board layout should be done with
caution as described in section "Application Circuits" on page 500.
The register XOSC_CTRL provides access to the control signals of the oscillator. Two
operating modes are supported. It is recommended to use the integrated oscillator
setup as described in Figure 9-25 on page 83. Nevertheless a reference frequency can
be fed to the internal circuitry by using an external clock reference as shown in Figure
9-26 on page 84.
9.6.5.2 Integrated Oscillator Setup
The output frequency of the internal oscillator depends on the load capacitance
between the crystal pins XTAL1 and XTAL2. The total load capacitance CL must be
equal to the specified load capacitance of the crystal itself. It consists of the external
capacitors CX and parasitic capacitances connected to the XTAL nodes.
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The following figure shows all parasitic capacitances, such as PCB stray capacitances
and the pin input capacitance summarized to CPAR.
Figure 9-25. Simplified XOSC Schematic with External Components
CPAR
CX
CX
CPAR
V EVDD
XTAL1
EVDD
16MHz
XTAL2
PCB
IC internal
CTRIM
CTRIM
XTAL_TRIM[3:0]
XTAL_TRIM[3:0]
EVDD
Additional internal trimming capacitors CTRIM are available. Any value in the range from
0 pF to 4.5 pF with a 0.3 pF resolution is selectable using XTAL_TRIM of register
XOSC_CTRL. To calculate the total load capacitance, the following formula can be
used
CL = 0.5 • (CX + CTRIM + CPAR).
The trimming capacitors provide the possibility to reduce frequency deviations caused
by variations of the production process or by tolerances of external components. Note
that the oscillation frequency can only be reduced by increasing the trimming
capacitance. The frequency deviation caused by one step of CTRIM decreases with
increasing values of the crystal load capacitor.
An amplitude control circuit is included to ensure stable operation under different
operating conditions and for different crystal types. Enabling the crystal oscillator after
leaving SLEEP state causes a slightly higher current during the amplitude build-up
phase to guarantee a short start-up time. The current is reduced to the amount
necessary for a robust oscillation during stable operation. This also keeps the drive
level of the crystal low.
Crystals with a higher load capacitance are generally less sensitive to parasitic pulling
effects caused by variations of external components or board and circuit parasitics. On
the other hand a larger crystal load capacitance results in a longer start-up time and a
higher steady state current consumption.
9.6.5.3 External Reference Frequency Setup
When using an external reference frequency, the signal must be connected to
pin XTAL1 as indicated in Figure 9-26 on page 84 and the bits XTAL_MODE of register
XOSC_CTRL need to be set to the external oscillator mode. The oscillation peak-topeak amplitude shall between 100 mV and 500 mV, the optimum range is between
400 mV and 500 mV. Pin XTAL2 should not be wired
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Figure 9-26. Setup for Using an External Frequency Reference
16 MHz
XTAL1
XTAL2
PCB
IC internal
9.6.6 Frequency Synthesizer (PLL)
The main features of the phase-locked loop are:
• Generate RX/TX frequencies for all 2.4 GHz channels of IEEE 802.15.4;
• Autonomous calibration loops for stable operation within the operating range;
• Two PLL-interrupts for status indication;
• Fast PLL settling to support frequency hopping;
9.6.6.1 Overview
The PLL generates the RF frequencies for the radio transceiver. During receive
operation the frequency synthesizer works as a local oscillator for the receive frequency
of the radio transceiver. During transmit operation the voltage-controlled oscillator
(VCO) is directly modulated to generate the RF transmit signal. The frequency
synthesizer is implemented as a fractional-N PLL.
Two calibration loops ensure correct PLL functionality within the specified operating
limits.
9.6.6.2 Frequency Agility
When the PLL is enabled during state transition from TRX_OFF to PLL_ON the settling
time is typically tTR4 = 110 µs including the settling time of the analog voltage regulator
(AVREG) and the PLL self calibration (refer to Table 9-8 on page 43Table 9-8). A lock
of the PLL is indicated with a TRX24_PLL_LOCK interrupt.
Switching between 2.4 GHz ISM band channels in PLL_ON or RX_ON states is
typically done within tTR20 = 11 µs. This makes the radio transceiver highly suitable for
frequency hopping applications.
The PLL frequency is changed to the transmit frequency within tTR23 = 16 µs after
starting the transmit procedure and before starting the transmission. After the
transmission the PLL settles back to the receive frequency within tTR24 = 32 µs. This
frequency step does not generate a TRX24_PLL_LOCK or TRX24_PLL_UNLOCK
interrupt within these time spans.
9.6.6.3 Calibration Loops
Due to temperature, supply voltage and part-to-part variations of the radio transceiver
the VCO characteristics diverge. Two automated control loops are implemented to
ensure a stable operation: center frequency (CF) tuning and delay cell (DCU)
calibration. Both calibration loops are initiated automatically when the PLL is enabled
during state transition from TRX_OFF to PLL_ON. The center frequency calibration is
additionally initiated when the PLL changes to a center frequency of another channel.
It is recommended to initiate the calibration loops manually if the PLL operates for a
long time on the same channel e.g. more than 5 min or the operating temperature
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changes significantly. Both calibration loops can be initiated manually by setting
PLL_CF_START = 1 of register PLL_CF and PLL_DCU_START = 1 of register
PLL_DCU. The device must be in PLL_ON or RX_ON state to start the calibration. The
completion of the center frequency tuning is indicated by a TRX24_PLL_LOCK
interrupt.
Both calibration loops may be run simultaneously.
9.6.6.4 Interrupt Handling
Two different interrupts indicate the PLL status. The TRX24_PLL_LOCK interrupt
indicates that the PLL has locked. The TRX24_PLL_UNLOCK interrupt indicates an
unexpected unlock condition.
A TRX24_PLL_LOCK interrupt is supposed to occur in the following situations:
• State change from TRX_OFF to PLL_ON / RX_ON/ RX_AACK_ON/
TX_ARET_ON;
• Channel change in states PLL_ON / RX_ON/ RX_AACK_ON/ TX_ARET_ON;
Any other occurrences of PLL interrupts indicate erroneous behavior and require
checking of the actual device status.
The state transition from BUSY_TX to PLL_ON after successful transmission does not
generate a TRX24_PLL_LOCK interrupt within the settling period.
If a TRX24_PLL_UNLOCK interrupt occurs while the device is receiving/transmitting a
frame the associated interrupts (TRX24_RX_END, TRX24_TX_END) will no happen.
9.6.6.5 RF Channel Selection
The PLL is designed to support 16 channels in the 2.4 GHz ISM band with channel
spacing of 5 MHz according to IEEE 802.15.4. The center frequency of these channels
is defined as follows:
Fc = 2405 + 5 (k – 11) in [MHz], for k = 11, 12 ... 26
where k is the channel number.
The channel k is selected by the CHANNEL bits of register PHY_CC_CCA (see
"PHY_CC_CCA – Transceiver Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) Control Register" on
page 111).
9.6.7 Automatic Filter Tuning (FTN)
The FTN is incorporated to compensate device tolerances for temperature, supply
voltage variations as well as part-to-part variations of the radio transceiver. The filtertuning result is used to correct the transfer function of the analog baseband filter and
the time constant of the PLL loop-filter (refer to "General Circuit Description" on page
31).
An FTN calibration cycle is initiated automatically when entering the radio transceiver
TRX_OFF state from the SLEEP or RESET state.
Although receiver and transmitter are very robust against these variations, it is
recommended to initiate the FTN manually if the radio transceiver does not use the
SLEEP state. A calibration cycle is to be initiated in states TRX_OFF, PLL_ON or
RX_ON if necessary. This applies in particular to the High Data Rate Modes with a
much higher sensitivity to variations of the BPF transfer function. The recommended
calibration interval is 5 min or less.
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9.7 Radio Transceiver Usage
This section describes the basic procedures to receive and transmit frames with the
radio transceiver.
9.7.1 Frame Receive Procedure
A frame reception comprises of two actions: The PHY listens for a frame, receives and
demodulates the frame to the Frame Buffer and signalizes its reception to the
application software. The application software reads the available frame data from the
Frame Buffer after or during the progress of the frame reception.
While in state RX_ON or RX_AACK_ON the radio transceiver searches for incoming
frames on the selected channel. First a TRX24_RX_START interrupt indicates the
detection of an IEEE 802.15.4 compliant frame assuming the appropriate interrupts are
enabled. The frame reception is completed when issuing the TRX24_RX_END
interrupt.
Different Frame Buffer read access scenarios are recommended for:
• Non-time critical applications: read access starts after the TRX24_RX_END interrupt;
• Time-critical applications: read access starts after the TRX24_RX_START interrupt;
The controller must ensure to read valid Frame Buffer contents. Reading frame data
before frame reception is finished can lead to invalid data, if buffer regions are
accessed which are not yet updated with the new frame.
While receiving a frame the data needs to be primarily stored in the Frame Buffer
before reading it. This is ensured by accessing the first Frame Buffer byte at least 32 µs
after the TRX24_RX_START interrupt.
It is recommended for operations considered to be not time-critical to wait for the
TRX24_RX_END interrupt before starting a Frame Buffer read access. The following
figure illustrates the frame receive procedure using the TRX24_RX_END interrupt.
Figure 9-27. Transactions between radio transceiver and microcontroller during receive
IRQ issued (TRX 24_RX_END)
Read TST_RX_LENG TH register
(Register access)
Microcontroller
Transceiver
IRQ issued (TRX24_RX_START)
Read fram e data (Fram e Buffer access)
Critical protocol timing could require starting the Frame Buffer read access after the
TRX24_RX_START interrupt. The first byte of the frame data can be read 32 µs after
the TRX24_RX_START interrupt. The application software must ensure to read slower
than the frame is received. Otherwise a Frame Buffer under-run occurs and the frame
data may be not valid.
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9.7.2 Frame Transmit Procedure
A frame transmission comprises of the two actions Frame Buffer write access and
transmission of the Frame Buffer content. Both actions can be run in parallel if required
by critical protocol timing.
Figure 9-28 below illustrates the frame transmit procedure by consecutively writing and
transmitting the frame. The frame transmission is initiated writing SLPTR or writing
command TX_START to register TRX_STATE after a Frame Buffer write access and
while the radio transceiver is in state PLL_ON or TX_ARET_ON. The TRX24_TX_END
interrupt indicates the completion of the transaction.
Figure 9-28. Transaction between radio transceiver and microcontroller during transmit
Write TRX_CMD = TX_START, or write SLPTR
(Register access)
Microcontroller
Transceiver
Write frame data (Frame Buffer access)
IRQ issued (TX_END)
Alternatively a frame transmission can be started first, followed by the Frame Buffer
write access (PSDU data) as shown in Figure 9-29 below. This is applicable for time
critical applications.
A transmission is initiated either by writing SLPTR or by writing the TX_START
command to the TRX_CMD bits of register TRX_STATE. The radio transceiver then
starts transmitting the SHR which is internally generated.
This first phase requires 16 µs for PLL settling and 160 µs for SHR transmission. The
PHR must be available in the Frame Buffer before this time elapses. Furthermore the
Frame Buffer must be filled faster than the frame is transmitted to prevent a buffer
under-run.
Figure 9-29. Time Optimized Frame Transmit Procedure
Write frame data (Frame Buffer access)
Microcontroller
Transceiver
Write TRX_CMD = TX_START, or write SLPTR
(Register access)
IRQ issued (TX_END)
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9.8 Radio Transceiver Extended Feature Set
9.8.1 Random Number Generator
The radio transceiver incorporates a 2-bit, noise observing, true random number
generator to be used to:
• Generate random seeds for CSMA-CA algorithm (see"Extended Operating Mode" on
page 44);
• Generate random values for AES key generation (see "Security Module (AES)" on
page 94);
The values are stored in bits RND_VALUE of register PHY_RSSI. The random number
is updated every tTR29 = 1 µs in Basic Operation Mode receive states with locked PLL.
Note, if the PLL is not locked or unlocks in receive states, the RND_VALUE is zero.
9.8.2 High Data Rate Modes
The main features of the High Data Rate Modes are:
• High Data Rate Communication up to 2 Mb/s;
• Support of Basic and Extended Operating Mode;
• Support of other features of the Extended Feature Set;
9.8.2.1 Overview
The radio transceiver also supports alternative data rates higher than 250 kb/s for
applications beyond IEEE 802.15.4 compliant networks.
The selection of a data rate does not affect the remaining functionality. Thus it is
possible to run all features and operating modes of the radio transceiver in various
combinations.
The data rate can be selected by writing bits OQPSK_DATA_RATE of register
TRX_CTRL_2.
The High Data Rate Modes occupy the same RF channel bandwidth as the
IEEE 802.15.4 – 2.4 GHz 250 kb/s standard mode. The sensitivity of the receiver is
reduced due to the decreased spreading factor. The following table shows typical
values of the sensitivity for different data rates.
Table 9-23. High Data Rate Sensitivity
High Data Rate
Sensitivity
Comment
250 kb/s
-100 dBm
PER ≤ 1%, PSDU length of 20 octets
500 kb/s
-96 dBm
PER ≤ 1%, PSDU length of 20 octets
1000 kb/s
-94 dBm
PER ≤ 1%, PSDU length of 20 octets
2000 kb/s
-86 dBm
PER ≤ 1%, PSDU length of 20 octets
By default there is no header based signaling of the data rate within a transmitted
frame. Thus nodes using a data rate other than the default IEEE 802.15.4 data rate of
250 kb/s are to be consistently configured in advance. The configurable start of frame
delimiter (SFD) could be alternatively used as an indicator of the PHY data rate (see
"Configurable Start-Of-Frame Delimiter (SFD)" on page 93).
9.8.2.2 High Data Rate Packet Structure
Higher data rate modulation is restricted to only the payload octets in order to allow
appropriate frame synchronization. The SHR and the PHR field are transmitted with the
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IEEE 802.15.4 compliant data rate of 250 kb/s (refer to "Introduction – IEEE 802.15.42006 Frame Format" on page 63).
A comparison of the general packet structure for different data rates with an example
PSDU length of 80 octets is shown in Figure 9-30 below.
Figure 9-30. High Data Rate Frame Structure
500 kb/s
PSDU: 80 octets
1000 kb/s
PSDU: 80 octets
2000 kb/s
PSDU: 80 octets
1472
2752 time [µs]
FCS
SFD
PHR
PSDU: 80 octets
832
FCS
250 kb/s
SFD
PHR
512
SFD
PHR
192
SFD
PHR
0
The effective data rate is smaller than the selected data rate due to the overhead
caused by the SHR, the PHR and the FCS. The overhead depends further on the
length of the PSDU. A graphical representation of the effective data rate is shown in the
following figure:
Figure 9-31. Effective Data Rate “B” for High Data Rate Mode
1600
2000
1000
500
250
1400
1200
B [kbps]
1000
2000 kbps
800
1000 kbps
600
500 kbps
400
250 kbps
200
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
PSDU length in octets
Therefore High Data Rate transmission and reception is useful for large PSDU lengths
due to the higher effective data rate or to reduce the power consumption of the system.
Furthermore the active on-air time using High Data Rate Modes is significantly reduced.
9.8.2.3 High Data Rate Frame Buffer Access
The Frame Buffer access to read or write frames for High Data Rate communication is
similar to the procedure described in "Frame Buffer" on page 79. However the last byte
in the Frame Buffer after the PSDU data is the ED value rather than the LQI value.
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9.8.2.4 High Data Rate Energy Detection
According to IEEE 802.15.4 the ED measurement duration is 8 symbol periods. For
frames operated at higher data rates the automated ED measurement duration is
reduced to 32 µs to take the reduced frame length into account ("Energy Detection
(ED)" on page 70).
9.8.2.5 High Data Rate Mode Options
Receiver Sensitivity Control
The different data rates between PPDU header (SHR and PHR) and PHY payload
(PSDU) cause a different sensitivity between header and payload. This can be adjusted
by defining sensitivity threshold levels of the receiver. The receiver does not receive
frames with an RSSI level below the defined sensitivity threshold level (register bits
RX_PDT_LEVEL > 0). Under these operating conditions the receiver current
consumption is reduced by 500 µA (refer to chapter "Current Consumption
Specifications" on page 525).
A description of the settings to control the sensitivity threshold with register RX_SYN
can be found in section "RX_SYN – Transceiver Receiver Sensitivity Control Register"
on page 121.
Reduced Acknowledgment Timing
On higher data rates the IEEE 802.15.4 compliant acknowledgment frame response
time of 192 µs significantly reduces the effective data rate of the network. To minimize
this influence in Extended Operating Mode RX_AACK (see section "RX_AACK_ON –
Receive with Automatic ACK" on page 48), the acknowledgment frame response time
can be reduced to 32 µs. Figure 9-32 below illustrates an example for a reception and
acknowledgement of a frame with a data rate of 2000 kb/s and a PSDU length of 80
symbols. The PSDU length of the acknowledgment frame is 5 octets according to
IEEE 802.15.4.
Figure 9-32. High Data Rate AACK Timing
704
916
SFD
192 µs
PHR
544
SFD
PSDU: 80 octets
512
PHR
SFD
PHR
AACK_ACK_TIME = 1
PSDU: 80 octets
SFD
AACK_ACK_TIME = 0
192
PHR
0
time [µs]
ACK
ACK
32 µs
The acknowledgment time is reduced from 192 µs to 32 µs if bit AACK_ACK_TIME of
register XAH_CTRL_1 is set.
9.8.3 Antenna Diversity
The main features of the Antenna Diversity implementation are:
• Improves signal path robustness between nodes;
• Self-contained antenna diversity algorithm of the radio transceiver;
• Direct register based antenna selection;
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9.8.3.1 Overview
The receive signal strength may vary and affect the link quality even for small changes
of the antenna location due to multipath propagation effects between network nodes.
These fading effects can result in an increased error floor or loss of the connection
between devices.
Antenna Diversity can be applied to reduce the effects of multipath propagation and
fading hence improving the reliability of a RF connection between network nodes.
Antenna Diversity uses two antennas to switch to the most reliable RF signal path. This
is done by the radio transceiver during RX_ON and RX_AACK_ON state without
interaction of the application software. Both antennas should be carefully separated
from each other to ensure highly independent receive signals.
Antenna Diversity can be used in Basic and Extended Operating Modes and can also
be combined with other features and operating modes like High Data Rate Mode and
RX/TX Indication.
9.8.3.2 Antenna Diversity Application Example
A block diagram for an application using an antenna switch is shown in the following
figure.
Figure 9-33. External Antenna Diversity – Block Diagram
ANT0
1
DIG2
2
DIG4
7
AVSS
8
RFP
9
RFN
10 AVSS
...
DIG1
B1
DIG3
RFSwitch
SW 1
Balun
...
14
15
ANT1
Generally, the Antenna Diversity algorithm is enabled with bit ANT_DIV_EN=1 in
register ANT_DIV. For the External Antenna Diversity the control of the antenna switch
(SW1) must be enabled by bit ANT_EXT_SW_EN of register ANT_DIV. Under this
condition the control pins DIG1 and DIG2 are configured as outputs. DIG1 and DIG2
are used to feed the antenna switch signal and its inverse to the differential inputs of the
RF Switch (SW1). See also "Alternate Functions of Port F" on page 203 and "Alternate
Functions of Port G" on page 205.
The selected antenna is indicated by bit ANT_SEL of register ANT_DIV. The antenna
selection continues searching for new frames on both antennas after the frame
reception is completed. However the register bit ANT_SEL maintains its previous value
(from the last received frame) until a new SHR has been found and the selection
algorithm locked into one antenna again. Then the register bit ANT_SEL is updated.
The antenna defined by the ANT_CTRL bits of register ANT_DIV is selected for
transmission. If for example the same antenna as selected for reception is to be used
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for transmission, the antenna must be set using the ANT_CTRL bits based on the value
read from the ANT_SEL bit. It is recommended to read bit ANT_SEL after the
TRX24_RX_START interrupt.
The autonomous search and selection allows the use of Antenna Diversity during
reception even if the application software currently does not control the radio
transceiver for instance in Extended Operating Mode.
An application software defined selection of a certain antenna can be done by disabling
the automatic Antenna Diversity algorithm (ANT_DIV_EN = 0) and selecting one
antenna using register bit ANT_CTRL.
If the radio transceiver is not in a receive or transmit state, it is recommended to disable
register bit ANT_EXT_SW_EN and to set the port pins DIG1 and DIG2 to output low via
the I/O port control register (DDG1 = 1, PORTG1 = 0, DDF2 = 1, PORTF2 = 0). In this
way the power consumption of the external RF switch is reduced and leakage currents
are avoided especially during sleep modes.
9.8.3.3 Antenna Diversity with Extended Operation Modes
A combination of Extended Operation Mode and antenna diversity is allowed.
While the radio transceiver is in RX_AACK_ON state, it switches to an antenna with a
reliable signal. The receive antenna selection is also used for transmission of an
automatic acknowledge frame.
While the radio transceiver is in TX_ARET state, the selected antenna is automatically
changed for every frame transmission retry.
9.8.3.4 Antenna Diversity Sensitivity Control
The detection threshold of the receiver has to be adjusted due to a different receive
algorithm used by the Antenna Diversity algorithm. It is recommended to set bits
PDT_THRES of register RX_CTRL to 3.
9.8.4 RX/TX Indicator
The main features are:
• RX/TX Indicator to control an external RF Front-End;
• Application software independent RF Front-End Control;
• Provide TX Timing Information;
9.8.4.1 Overview
While IEEE 802.15.4 is a low-cost, low-power standard, solutions supporting higher
transmit output power are occasionally desirable. A differential control pin pair can
indicate that the radio transceiver is currently in transmit mode to simplify the control of
an optional external RF front-end.
The control of an external RF front-end is done via the digital control pins DIG3/DIG4.
The function of this pin pair is enabled with bit PA_EXT_EN of register TRX_CTRL_1.
Pin DIG3 is set to low level and DIG4 to high level while the transmitter is turned off.
The two pins change the polarity when the radio transceiver starts transmitting. This
differential pin pair can be used to control PA, LNA and RF switches. See also
"Alternate Functions of Port F" on page 203 and "Alternate Functions of Port G" on
page 205.
If the radio transceiver is not in a receive or transmit state, it is recommended to disable
register bit PA_EXT_EN and to set the port pins DIG3 and DIG4 to output low via the
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I/O port control register (DDG0 = 1, PORTG0 = 0, DDF3 = 1, PORTF3 = 0). In this way
the power consumption of external RF switches and other building blocks is reduced
and leakage currents are avoided especially during sleep modes.
9.8.4.2 External RF-Front End Control
The setup time of the external power amplifier (PA) relative to the internal building
blocks should be adjusted when using an external RF front-end including a power
amplifier to optimize the overall power spectral density (PSD) mask.
Figure 9-34. TX Power Ramping Control for RF Front-Ends
0
TRX_STATE
2
4
6
PLL_O N
8
10
12
14
16
18
Length [µs]
BU SY_TX
SLPTR
PA_BUF_LT
PA buffer
PA_LT
PA
1
M odulation
1 0
1
1 0 0 1
1
DIG 3
DIG 4
The start-up sequence of the individual building blocks of the internal transmitter is
shown in the previous figure. The transmission is actually initiated by writing ‘1’ to
SLPTR. The radio transceiver state changes from PLL_ON to BUSY_TX and the PLL
settles to the transmit frequency within 16 µs (parameter tTR23 at page 44). The
modulation starts 16 µs (parameter tTR10 at page 43) after the SLPTR=1. The PA buffer
and the internal PA are enabled during this time.
The control of an external PA is done via the differential pin pair DIG3 and DIG4.
DIG3 = H / DIG4 = L indicates that the transmission starts and can be used to enable
an external PA. The timing of pins DIG3/DIG4 can be adjusted relative to the start of the
frame and the activation of the internal PA buffer. This is controlled using the register
bits PA_BUF_LT and PA_LT. For details refer to Figure 9-22 on page 79 and chapter
"Transmitter (TX)" on page 78.
9.8.5 RX Frame Time Stamping
To determine the exact timing of an incoming frame e.g. for beaconing networks, the
Symbol Counter should be used. SFD Time Stamping is enabled by setting bit SCTSE
of the Symbol Counter Control Register SCCR0. The actual 32 Bit Symbol Counter
value is captured in the SFD Time Stamp register SCTSR at the time, the SFD has
been received. For details see section "SFD and Beacon Timestamp Generation" on
page 139.
9.8.6 Configurable Start-Of-Frame Delimiter (SFD)
The SFD is a field indicating the end of the SHR and the start of the packet data. The
length of the SFD is 1 octet (2 symbols). This octet is used for byte synchronization only
and is not included in the Frame Buffer.
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The value of the SFD could be changed if it is needed to operate non IEEE 802.15.4
compliant networks. An IEEE 802.15.4 compliant network node does not synchronize to
frames with a different SFD value.
The register SFD_VALUE contains the one octet start-of-frame delimiter (SFD) to
synchronize to a received frame. It is not recommended to set the low-order 4 bits to 0
due to the way the SHR is formed.
9.8.7 Dynamic Frame Buffer Protection
The ATmega128RFA1 continues the reception of incoming frames as long as it is in
any receive state. When a frame was successfully received and stored into the Frame
Buffer, the following frame will overwrite the Frame Buffer content again. To relax the
timing requirements for a Frame Buffer read access the Dynamic Frame Buffer
Protection prevents that a new valid frame passes to the Frame Buffer until the buffer
protection bit is cleared (RX_SAFE_MODE = 0).
A received frame is automatically protected against overwriting:
• in Basic Operating Mode, if its FCS is valid
• in Extended Operating Mode, if an TRX24_RX_END interrupt is generated
The Dynamic Frame Buffer Protection is enabled, if register bit RX_SAFE_MODE
(register TRX_CTRL_2, see "TRX_CTRL_2 – Transceiver Control Register 2" on page
114) is set and the radio transceiver state is RX_ON or RX_AACK_ON.
Note that Dynamic Frame Buffer Protection only prevents write accesses from the air
interface not from the application software. The application software may still modify the
Frame Buffer content.
9.8.8 Security Module (AES)
The security module (AES) is characterized by:
• Hardware accelerated encryption and decryption;
• Compatible with AES-128 standard (128 bit key and data block size);
• ECB (encryption/decryption) mode and CBC (encryption) mode support;
• Stand-alone operation, independent of other blocks;
• Uses 16MHz crystal clock of the transceiver;
9.8.8.1 Overview
The security module is based on an AES-128 core according to the FIPS197 standard
[6]. and provides two modes, the Electronic Code Book (ECB) and the Cipher Block
Chaining (CBC). The security module works independent of other building blocks of the
radio transceiver. Encryption and decryption can be performed in parallel to a frame
transmission or reception.
During radio transceiver SLEEP the registers of the security engine (AES) are cleared
(see section "SLEEP – Sleep State" on page 37).
The ECB and CBC modules including the AES core are clocked with the 16 MHz Radio
Transceiver Crystal Oscillator.
Controlling the security block is possible over 5 Registers within AVR I/O space:
Table 9-24. Security Module Address Space Overview
94
Register Name
Description
AES_STATUS
AES status register
AES_CTRL
AES control register
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Register Name
Description
AES_KEY
Access to 16 Byte key buffer
AES_STATE
Access to 16 Byte data buffer
9.8.8.2 Security Module Preparation
The use of the security module requires a configuration of the security engine before
starting a security operation. The following steps are required:
Table 9-25. AES Engine Configuration Steps
Step
Description
Description
1
Key Setup
Write encryption or decryption key to KEY
buffer
(16 consecutive byte writes to AES_KEY)
2
AES configuration
Select AES mode: ECB or CBC
Select encryption or decryption
Enable the AES Encryption Ready Interrupt
AES_READY
3
Write Data
Write plain text or cipher text to DATA buffer
(16 consecutive byte writes to AES_STATE)
4
Start operation
Start AES operation
5
Wait for AES finished:
1. AES_READY IRQ or
2. polling AES_DONE bit
(register AES_STATUS) or
3. wait for 24 µs
Wait until AES encryption/decryption is finished
successfully
6
Read Data
Read cipher text or plain text from DATA buffer
(16 consecutive byte reads from AES_STATE)
Before starting any security operation a 16 Byte key must be written to the security
engine (refer to section "Security Key Setup" on page 96). This can be done by 16
consecutive write accesses to the I/O register AES_KEY. An internal address counter is
incremented automatically with every read/ write operation. An AES encryption/
decryption run resets the internal byte counter. If the key and data buffer has not been
read or written completely (all 16 Bytes), the following encryption/ decryption operation
will finish with an error.
The following step selects either Electronic Code Book (ECB) or Cipher Block Chaining
(CBC) as the AES_MODE. These modes are explained in more detail in section
"Security Operation Modes" on page 96. Encryption or decryption must be further
selected with bit AES_DIR of register AES_CTRL.
If the AES Error or AES Ready IRQ is used, the interrupt must be enabled with bit
AES_IM.
Next the 128-bit plain text or cipher text data has to be provided to the AES hardware
engine. The 16 data bytes must be consecutively written to the AES_STATE register.
The AES_STATE register can be accessed in the same way as the key register (refer to
"Security Key Setup" on page 96).
The encryption or decryption is initiated with bit AES_REQUEST = 1.
The operation takes 24 µs and the completed encryption/ decryption is indicated by the
AES_READY IRQ and the AES_DONE bit. The internal byte counter of the key and
data buffer is cleared and the resulting data can be read out.
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For additional information about the key and data buffer please refer to section
"AES_KEY – AES Encryption and Decryption Key Buffer Register" on page 104 and
"AES_STATE – AES Plain and Cipher Text Buffer Register" on page 104.
Notes:
1. Access to the security block is not possible while the radio transceiver is in state
SLEEP.
2. All configurations of the security module, the SRAM content and keys are reset
during SLEEP or RESET states.
9.8.8.3 Security Key Setup
The key is stored in a 16 Byte sequential buffer. To read or write the contents of the
buffer, 16 consecutive read or write operations to the AES_KEY register are required.
A 16-folded read access to registers AES_KEY returns the last round key of the
preceding security operation. This is the key required for the corresponding ECB
decryption operation after an ECB encryption operation. However the initial AES key
written to the security module in advance of an AES run (see step 1 in Table 9-25 on
page 95) is not modified during an AES operation. This initial key is used for the next
AES run although it cannot be read from AES_KEY.
Before accessing the Key Buffer it must be ensured, that the internal address counter is
initialized correctly. This is the cases after Radio Transceiver Reset (see TRXPR –
Transceiver Pin Register on page 173) or a completed AES Encryption/ Decryption
operation. After an interrupted buffer read or write access, Address pointer
reinitialization is recommended by a simple read access to the AES_CTRL register.
Note:
1. ECB decryption is not required for IEEE 802.15.4 or ZigBee security processing.
The radio transceiver provides this functionality as an additional feature.
9.8.8.4 Security Operation Modes
9.8.8.4.1 Electronic Code Book (ECB)
ECB is the basic operating mode of the security module and is configured by the
AES_CTRL register. The bit AES_MODE = 0 defines the ECB mode and bit AES_DIR
selects the direction to either encryption or decryption. The data to be processed has to
be written to registers AES_STATE.
A security operation can be started by writing the start command AES_REQUEST = 1
(AES_CTRL register).
The ECB encryption operation is illustrated in Figure 9-35 below. Figure 9-36 on page
97 shows the ECB decryption mode which is supported in a similar way.
Figure 9-35. ECB Mode - Encryption
Plaintext
Encryption
Key
Block Cipher
Encryption
Ciphertext
96
Plaintext
Encryption
Key
Block Cipher
Encryption
Ciphertext
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ATmega128RFA1
Figure 9-36. ECB Mode - Decryption
Ciphertext
Decryption
Key
Block Cipher
Decryption
Ciphertext
Decryption
Key
Plaintext
Block Cipher
Decryption
Plaintext
Due to the nature of AES algorithm the initial key to be used when decrypting is not the
same as the one used for encryption. Instead it is the last round key. This last round
key is the content of the key address space stored after running one full encryption
cycle and must be saved for decryption. If the decryption key has not been saved, it has
to be recomputed by first running a dummy encryption (of an arbitrary plain text) using
the original encryption key. Then the resulting round key must be fetched from the key
memory and written back into the key memory as the decryption key.
ECB decryption is not used by either IEEE 802.15.4 or ZigBee frame security. Both of
these standards do not directly encrypt the payload. Instead they protect the payload by
applying a XOR operation between the original payload and the resulting (AES-) cipher
text with a nonce (number used once). As the nonce is the same for encryption and
decryption only ECB encryption is required. Decryption is performed by a XOR
operation between the received cipher text and its own encryption result concluding in
the original plain text payload upon success.
9.8.8.4.2 Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)
In CBC mode the result of a previous AES operation is XOR-combined with the new
incoming vector forming the new plain text to encrypt as shown in the next figure. This
mode is used for the computation of a cryptographic checksum (message integrity
code, MIC).
Figure 9-37. CBC Mode - Encryption
Plaintext
Encryption
Key
Initialization Vector (IV)
Block Cipher
Encryption
Encryption
Key
Plaintext
Block Cipher
Encryption
Ciphertext
Ciphertext
ECB
mode
CBC
mode
After preparing the AES key and defining the AES operation direction register bit
AES_DIR, the data has to be provided to the AES engine and the CBC operation can
be started.
The first CBC run has to be configured as ECB to process the initial data (plain text
XOR with an initialization vector provided by the application software). All succeeding
AES runs are to be configured as CBC by setting bit AES_MODE = 1 (AES_CTRL
register). Bit AES_DIR (AES_CTRL register) must be set to AES_DIR = 0 to enable
AES encryption. The data to be processed has to be transferred to the AES_STATE
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register. Setting bit AES_REQUEST = 1 (AES_CTRL register) as described in section
"Security Operation Modes" on page 96 starts the first encryption. This causes the next
128 bits of plain text data to be XORed with the previous cipher text data, see Figure 937 on page 97.
According to IEEE 802.15.4 the input for the
prepared by a XOR operation of the plain text
value of the initialization vector is 0. However
applied for non-compliant usage. This operation
software.
very first CBC operation has to be
with the initialization vector (IV). The
any other initialization vector can be
has to be prepared by the application
Note that the MIC algorithm of the IEEE 802.15.4-2006 standard requires CBC mode
encryption only because it implements a one-way hash function.
The status of the security processing is indicated by register AES_STATUS. After a
AES processing time of 24 µs the register bit AES_DONE changes to 1 (register
AES_STATUS) indicating that the security operation has finished (see "Digital Interface
Timing Characteristics" on page 522).
The end of the AES processing can also be indicated by the AES_READY Interrupt.
The bit AES_ER of register AES_STATUS is set if the operation has finished with an
error. Otherwise this bit is zero but AES_DONE is ‘1’.
9.8.8.5 AES Interrupt Handling
The AES Interrupt handling is slightly different from all other IRQ’s. If the AES_IM Bit
(AES_CTRL Register) and the global interrupt enable flag is set, the AES core can
generate an AES Ready Interrupt (AES_READY). If the IRQ is issued, the
AES_STATUS register must be read to check the finish status of the last operation. If
AES_DONE is set, the last AES operation finished successfully. If AES_ER is set, an
error occurred during the last operation. The AES_ER flag is cleared automatically
during the read access to the AES_STATUS register. The AES_DONE flag is cleared
during the next read or write access to the AES_STATE (AES data) register.
The two status flags must be cleared before a new Interrupt can be issued.
If AES_IM is not set, the processing status can be polled by software (AES_STATUS
register), but no Interrupt occurs.
9.9 Continuous Transmission Test Mode
9.9.1 Overview
The 2.4GHz transceiver offers a Continuous Transmission Test Mode to support final
application / production tests as well as certification tests. In this test mode the radio
transceiver transmits continuously a previously transferred frame (PRBS mode) or a
continuous wave signal (CW mode).
In CW mode two different signal frequencies per channel can be transmitted:
• f1 = fCH + 0.5 MHz
• f2 = fCH - 0.5 MHz
Here fCH is the channel center frequency programmed by register PHY_CC_CCA.
Note that in CW mode it is not possible to transmit a RF signal directly on the channel
center frequency. PSDU data in the Frame Buffer must contain at least a valid PHR
(see section "Introduction – IEEE 802.15.4-2006 Frame Format" on page 63). It is
recommended to use a frame of maximum length (127 bytes) and arbitrary PSDU data
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for the PRBS mode. The SHR and the PHR are not transmitted. The transmission starts
with the PSDU data and is repeated continuously.
9.9.2 Configuration
All register configurations shall be setup as follows before enabling Continuous
Transmission Test Mode:
• TX channel setting (optional);
• TX output power setting (optional);
• Mode selection (PRBS / CW);
An access to the registers TST_CTRL_DIGI and PART_NUM enables the Continuous
Transmission Test Mode.
The transmission is started by enabling the PLL (TRX_CMD = PLL_ON) and writing the
TX_START command to register TRX_STATE.
Even for CW signal transmission it is required to write valid PSDU data (see chapter
"Frame Buffer Access " on page 33) to the Frame Buffer. The first byte defines the
frame length information. The frame length has to match to the length of the pattern
stored in the frame buffer. For PRBS mode it is recommended to use a frame of
maximum length.
The detailed programming sequence is shown in Table 9-26 below. The column R/W
informs about writing (W) or reading (R) a register or the Frame Buffer.
Table 9-26. Continuous Transmission Programming Sequence
Step
Action
1
RESET
2
Register Access
IRQ_MASK
W
0x01
Set IRQ mask register, enable
PLL_LOCK interrupt and set
global AVR IRQ enable
3
Register Access
TRX_CTRL_1
W
0x00
Disable TX_AUTO_CRC_ON
4
Register Access
TRX_STATE
W
0x03
Set radio transceiver state
TRX_OFF
5
Register Access
PHY_CC_CCA
W
0x33
Set IEEE 802.15.4 CHANNEL,
e.g. 19
6
Register Access
PHY_TX_PWR
W
0x00
Set TX output power, e.g. to Pmax
7
Register Access
TRX_STATUS
R
0x08
Verify TRX_OFF state
8
Register Access
TST_CTRL_DIGI
W
0x0F
Enable Continuous Transmission
Test Mode – step # 1
(1)
Register Access
TRX_CTRL_2
W
0x03
Enable High Data Rate Mode, 2
Mb/s
RX_CTRL
W
0xA7
Configure High Data Rate Mode
9
10
(1)
Register Access
11
(2)
Frame Buffer
Write Access
Register
R/
W
Value
Description
Reset the transceiver
W
Write PSDU data (even for CW
mode), refer to Table 9-27 on
page 100
12
Register Access
PART_NUM
W
0x54
Enable Continuous Transmission
Test Mode – step # 2
13
Register Access
PART_NUM
W
0x46
Enable Continuous Transmission
Test Mode – step # 3
14
Register Access
TRX_STATE
W
0x09
Enable PLL_ON state
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Step
Action
Register
15
Interrupt event
16
Register Access
17
Measurement
18
Register Access
19
RESET
Notes:
TRX_STATE
R/
W
Value
Description
R
0x01
Wait for PLL_LOCK interrupt
W
0x02
Initiate Transmission,
enter BUSY_TX state
Perform measurement
PART_NUM
W
0x00
Disable Continuous
Transmission Test Mode
Reset the transceiver
1. Only required for CW mode, do not configure for PRBS mode.
2. Frame Buffer content varies for different modulation schemes.
The content of the Frame Buffer has to be defined for Continuous Transmission PRBS
mode or CW mode. To measure the power spectral density (PSD) mask of the
transmitter it is recommended to use a random sequence of maximum length for the
PSDU data.
To measure CW signals it is necessary to write either 0x00 or 0xFF to each byte of the
Frame Buffer according to the given frame length. For details refer to Table 9-27 below.
Table 9-27. Frame Buffer Content (after frame length information) for various
Continuous Transmission Modulation Schemes
Step
Action
Frame Content
Comment
11
Frame Buffer
Write Access
Random Sequence
modulated RF signal
0x00 (each byte)
fCH – 0.5 MHz, CW signal
0xFF (each byte)
fCH + 0.5 MHz, CW signal
9.10 Abbreviations
100
AACK
-
Automatic acknowledgement
ACK
-
Acknowledgement
ADC
-
Analog-to-digital converter
AD
-
Antenna diversity
AGC
-
Automated gain control
AES
-
Advanced encryption standard
ARET
-
Automatic retransmission
AVREG
-
Voltage regulator for analog building blocks
AWGN
-
Additive White Gaussian Noise
BATMON
-
Battery monitor
BBP
-
Base band processor
BPF
-
Band pass filter
CBC
-
Cipher block chaining
CRC
-
Cyclic redundancy check
CCA
-
Clear channel assessment
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CSMA-CA
-
Carrier sense multiple access/Collision avoidance
CW
-
Continuous wave
DVREG
-
Voltage regulator for digital building blocks
ECB
-
Electronic code book
ED
-
Energy detection
ESD
-
Electro static discharge
EVM
-
Error vector magnitude
FCF
-
Frame control field
FCS
-
Frame check sequence
FIFO
-
First in first out
FTN
-
Filter tuning network
GPIO
-
General purpose input output
ISM
-
Industrial, scientific, and medical
LDO
-
Low-drop output
LNA
-
Low-noise amplifier
LO
-
Local oscillator
LQI
-
Link quality indicator
LSB
-
Least significant bit
MAC
-
Medium access control
MFR
-
MAC footer
MHR
-
MAC header
MSB
-
Most significant bit
MSDU
-
MAC service data unit
MPDU
-
MAC protocol data unit
MSK
-
Minimum shift keying
O-QPSK
-
Offset - quadrature phase shift keying
PA
-
Power amplifier
PAN
-
Personal area network
PCB
-
Printed circuit board
PER
-
Packet error rate
PHR
-
PHY header
PHY
-
Physical layer
PLL
-
Phase locked loop
POR
-
Power-on reset
PPF
-
Poly-phase filter
PRBS
-
Pseudo random bit sequence
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PSDU
-
PHY service data unit
PSD
-
Power spectral mask
QFN
-
Quad flat no-lead package
RF
-
Radio frequency
RSSI
-
Received signal strength indicator
RX
-
Receiver
SFD
-
Start-of-frame delimiter
SHR
-
Synchronization header
SPI
-
Serial peripheral interface
SRAM
-
Static random access memory
SSBF
-
Single side band filter
TX
-
Transmitter
VCO
-
Voltage controlled oscillator
VREG
-
Voltage regulator
XOSC
-
Crystal oscillator
9.11 Reference Documents
102
[1]
IEEE Std 802.15.4™-2006: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and
Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area
Networks (LR-WPANs)
[2]
IEEE Std 802.15.4™-2003: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and
Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area
Networks (LR-WPANs)
[3]
IEEE Std 802.15.4™-2011: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks
(WPANs)
[4]
ANSI / ESD-STM5.1-2001: ESD Association Standard Test Method for
electrostatic discharge sensitivity testing – Human Body Model (HBM).
[5]
ESD-STM5.3.1-1999: ESD Association Standard Test Method for electrostatic
discharge sensitivity testing – Charged Device Model (CDM).
[6]
NIST FIPS PUB 197: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Federal
Information Processing Standards Publication 197, US Department of
Commerce/NIST, November 26, 2001
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9.12 Register Description
9.12.1 AES_CTRL – AES Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
NA ($13C)
AES_REQUEST
Res
AES_MODE
Res
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
2
AES_DIR AES_IM
RW
0
RW
0
1
0
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
AES_CTRL
This register controls the operation of the security module. Do not access this register
during AES operation to read the AES core status. A read or write access to the register
stops the ongoing processing. To read the AES status use bit AES_DONE of register
AES_STATUS. Note that the AES_CTRL register is cleared when entering the radio
transceiver SLEEP state.
• Bit 7 – AES_REQUEST - Request AES Operation.
A write access with AES_REQUEST = 1 initiates the AES operation.
• Bit 6 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. The result of a read access is undefined. The register
bit must always be written with the reset value.
• Bit 5 – AES_MODE - Set AES Operation Mode
This register bit sets the AES operation mode (ECB/CBC Mode).
Table 9-28 AES_MODE Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
AES_MODE
Description
0
AES Mode is ECB (Electronic Code Book).
1
AES Mode is CBC (Cipher Block Chaining).
• Bit 4 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. The result of a read access is undefined. The register
bit must always be written with the reset value.
• Bit 3 – AES_DIR - Set AES Operation Direction
This register bit sets the AES operation direction to either encryption or decryption.
Table 9-29 AES_DIR Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
AES_DIR
Description
0
AES operation is encryption.
1
AES operation is decryption.
• Bit 2 – AES_IM - AES Interrupt Enable
This register bit is used to enable the AES interrupt.
• Bit 1:0 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
These bits are reserved for future use. The result of a read access is undefined. The
register bits must always be written with the reset value.
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9.12.2 AES_STATUS – AES Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
NA ($13D)
AES_ER
Res5
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
0
AES_DONE AES_STATUS
R
0
This read-only register signals the status of the security module and operation. Note
that the AES_STATUS register is cleared when entering the radio transceiver SLEEP
state.
• Bit 7 – AES_ER - AES Operation Finished with Error
This register bit indicates an error during AES module run. An error occurs if accessing
AES_CTRL while an AES operation is running or if AES_KEY or AES_STATE Memory
is not loaded completely or less than 16 Byte read from AES_STATE.
• Bit 6:1 – Res5:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bit 0 – AES_DONE - AES Operation Finished with Success
This register bit indicates a successfully finished operation of the AES module.
9.12.3 AES_STATE – AES Plain and Cipher Text Buffer Register
Bit
7
6
5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($13E)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
AES_STATE7:0
RW
0
RW
0
AES_STATE
The AES_STATE register accesses a 16 byte internal data buffer. The buffer is
accessed by reading or writing 16 times to the same address location (AES_STATE). If
the buffer is not completely read or written an error occurs when an AES operation is
started. Note that the AES_STATE register is cleared when entering the radio
transceiver SLEEP state.
• Bit 7:0 – AES_STATE7:0 - AES Plain and Cipher Text Buffer
These bits represent the data buffer for the AES operation.
9.12.4 AES_KEY – AES Encryption and Decryption Key Buffer Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($13F)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
AES_KEY7:0
RW
0
AES_KEY
The AES key register accesses a 128 Bit internal buffer that holds the Encryption or
Decryption Key. The AES_KEY buffer is a 16 Byte buffer. The buffer is accessed by
reading or writing 16 fold to the same address location (AES_KEY). A read access to
registers AES_KEY returns the last round key of the preceding security operation. This
is the key that is required for the corresponding ECB decryption operation after an ECB
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encryption operation. However, the initial AES key written to the security module in
advance of an AES run is not modified during an AES operation. This initial key is used
for the next AES run even if it cannot be read from AES_KEY register. Note that the
AES_KEY register is cleared when entering the radio transceiver SLEEP state.
• Bit 7:0 – AES_KEY7:0 - AES Encryption/Decryption Key Buffer
These bits represent the data buffer for the AES Encryption/Decryption key.
9.12.5 TRX_STATUS – Transceiver Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
CCA_DONE
CCA_STATUS
TST_STATUS
TRX_STATUS4
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
Bit
3
2
1
0
TRX_STATUS3
TRX_STATUS2
TRX_STATUS1
TRX_STATUS0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
NA ($141)
NA ($141)
Read/Write
Initial Value
TRX_STATUS
TRX_STATUS
This read-only register signals the present state of the radio transceiver as well as the
status of the CCA operation. A state change is initiated by writing a state transition
command to the TRX_CMD bits of register TRX_STATE. The register is not accessible
in SLEEP state.
• Bit 7 – CCA_DONE - CCA Algorithm Status
This bit indicates if a CCA request is completed. This is also indicated by a
TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE interrupt. Note that register bit CCA_DONE is cleared in
response to a CCA_REQUEST.
Table 9-30 CCA_DONE Register Bits
Register Bits
CCA_DONE
Value
Description
0
CCA calculation not finished
1
CCA calculation finished
• Bit 6 – CCA_STATUS - CCA Status Result
The result of the CCA measurement is available in register bit CCA_STATUS after a
CCA request is completed. Note that register bit CCA_STATUS is cleared in response
to a CCA_REQUEST.
Table 9-31 CCA_STATUS Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
CCA_STATUS
0
Channel indicated as busy.
1
Channel indicated as idle.
• Bit 5 – TST_STATUS - Test mode status
This bit is reserved for internal use. It indicates the status of the test mode.
Table 9-32 TST_STATUS Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
TST_STATUS
0
Test mode is disabled.
1
Test mode is active.
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• Bit 4:0 – TRX_STATUS4:0 - Transceiver Main Status
The register bits TRX_STATUS signal the current radio transceiver status. Do not try to
initiate a further state change
while the
radio transceiver is in
STATE_TRANSITION_IN_PROGRESS state. Values not listed in the following table
are reserved.
Table 9-33 TRX_STATUS Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
0x01
BUSY_RX
0x02
BUSY_TX
0x06
RX_ON
0x08
TRX_OFF
TRX_STATUS4:0
0x09
PLL_ON
0x0F
SLEEP
0x11
BUSY_RX_AACK
0x12
BUSY_TX_ARET
0x16
RX_AACK_ON
0x19
TX_ARET_ON
0x1F
STATE_TRANSITION_IN_PROGRESS
9.12.6 TRX_STATE – Transceiver State Control Register
Bit
NA ($142)
7
6
5
TRAC_STATUS2 TRAC_STATUS1 TRAC_STATUS0
4
TRX_CMD4
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
Bit
3
2
1
0
TRX_CMD3
TRX_CMD2
TRX_CMD1
TRX_CMD0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($142)
Read/Write
Initial Value
TRX_STATE
TRX_STATE
The states of the radio transceiver are controlled via register TRX_STATE using
register bits TRX_CMD. The read-only register bits TRAC_STATUS indicate the status
or result of an Extended Operating Mode transaction. A successful state transition shall
be confirmed by reading register bits TRX_STATUS. This register is used for both Basic
and Extended Operating Mode.
• Bit 7:5 – TRAC_STATUS2:0 - Transaction Status
The status of the RX_AACK and TX_ARET procedure is indicated by register bits
TRAC_STATUS. TRAC_STATUS is only valid in Extended Operating Modes (note,
TRAC_STATUS is valid 2us after the respective procedure is finished by TX_END or
RX_END IRQ). Details of the algorithm and a description of the status information are
given in the RX_AACK_ON and TX_ARET_ON sections of the data-sheet. Even though
the reset value for register bits TRAC_STATUS is 0, the RX_AACK and TX_ARET
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procedures set the register bits to TRAC_STATUS = 7 (INVALID) when it is started. Not
all status values are used in both RX_AACK and TX_ARET transactions. In TX_ARET
the status SUCCESS_DATA_PENDING indicates a successful reception of an ACK
frame with frame pending bit set to 1. In RX_AACK the status
SUCCESS_WAIT_FOR_ACK indicates an ACK frame is about to sent in RX_AACK
slotted acknowledgment. Slotted acknowledgment operation must be enabled with the
SLOTTED_OPERATION bit of register XAH_CTRL_0. The application software must
set the SLPTR bit of register TRXPWR at the next back-off slot boundary in order to
initiate a transmission of the ACK frame. For details refer to IEEE 802.15.4-2006,
chapter 5.5.4.1. Values not listed in the following table are reserved.
Table 9-34 TRAC_STATUS Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
TRAC_STATUS2:0
Description
0
SUCCESS (RX_AACK, TX_ARET)
1
SUCCESS_DATA_PENDING (TX_ARET)
2
SUCCESS_WAIT_FOR_ACK (RX_AACK)
3
CHANNEL_ACCESS_FAILURE (TX_ARET)
5
NO_ACK (TX_ARET)
7
INVALID (RX_AACK, TX_ARET)
• Bit 4:0 – TRX_CMD4:0 - State Control Command
A write access to register bits TRX_CMD initiates a state transition of the radio
transceiver towards the new state as defined by the write access. Do not try to initiate a
further
state
change
while
the
radio
transceiver
is
in
STATE_TRANSITION_IN_PROGRESS
state
(see
TRX_STATUS
register).
FORCE_PLL_ON is not valid for the SLEEP state as well as during
STATE_TRANSITION_IN_PROGRESS towards the SLEEP state. Values not listed in
the following table are reserved and mapped to NOP.
Table 9-35 TRX_CMD Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
TRX_CMD4:0
0x00
NOP
0x02
TX_START
0x03
FORCE_TRX_OFF
0x04
FORCE_PLL_ON
0x06
RX_ON
0x08
TRX_OFF
0x09
PLL_ON (TX_ON)
0x16
RX_AACK_ON
0x19
TX_ARET_ON
9.12.7 TRX_CTRL_0 – Reserved
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
NA ($143)
Res7
Res6
Res5
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
TRX_CTRL_0
This register is reserved for future use.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
• Bit 7:0 – Res7:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved for future use.
9.12.8 TRX_CTRL_1 – Transceiver Control Register 1
Bit
NA ($144)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($144)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
PA_EXT_EN
IRQ_2_EXT_EN
TX_AUTO_CRC_ON
Res4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
R
0
3
2
1
0
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
TRX_CTRL_1
TRX_CTRL_1
The TRX_CTRL_1 register is a multi purpose register to control various operating
modes and settings of the radio transceiver.
• Bit 7 – PA_EXT_EN - External PA support enable
This register bit enables pin DIG3 and pin DIG4 to indicate the transmit state of the
radio transceiver. The control of the external RF front-end is disabled when this bit is 0.
Both pins DIG3 and DIG4 are then defined by the register of I/O ports F and G (PORTF,
DDRF, PORTG, DDRG). The control of the external front-end is enabled when this bit is
1. DIG3 and DIG4 then indicate the state of the radio transceiver. Pin DIG3 is high and
pin DIG4 is low in the state TX_BUSY. In all other states pin DIG3 is low and pin DIG4
is high. It is recommended to set PA_EXT_EN=1 only in receive or transmit states to
reduce the power consumption or avoid leakage current of external RF switches or
other building blocks especially during SLEEP state.
• Bit 6 – IRQ_2_EXT_EN - Connect Frame Start IRQ to TC1
When this bit is set to one the capture input of Timer/Counter 1 is connected to the RX
frame start signal and pin DIG2 becomes an output, driving the RX frame start signal.
Antenna Diversity RF switch control (ANT_EXT_SW_EN=1) shall not be used at the
same time, because it shares the same device pin. The function IRQ_2_EXT_EN is
available for alternate frame time stamping using Timer/Counter 1. In general the
preferred method for frame time stamping is using the symbol counter.
• Bit 5 – TX_AUTO_CRC_ON - Enable Automatic CRC Calculation
This register bit controls the automatic FCS generation for TX operations. The
automatic FCS algorithm is performed autonomously by the radio transceiver if register
bit TX_AUTO_CRC_ON=1.
• Bit 4:0 – Res4:0 - Reserved
9.12.9 PHY_TX_PWR – Transceiver Transmit Power Control Register
Bit
NA ($145)
Read/Write
Initial Value
108
7
6
5
4
PA_BUF_LT1
PA_BUF_LT0
PA_LT1
PA_LT0
RW
1
RW
1
RW
0
RW
0
PHY_TX_PWR
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Bit
NA ($145)
3
2
1
0
TX_PWR3
TX_PWR2
TX_PWR1
TX_PWR0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
PHY_TX_PWR
This register controls the output power of the transmitter.
• Bit 7:6 – PA_BUF_LT1:0 - Power Amplifier Buffer Lead Time
These register bits control the enable lead time of the internal PA buffer relative to the
enable time of the internal PA. This time is further used to derive a control signal for an
external RF front-end to switch between receive and transmit.
Table 9-36 PA_BUF_LT Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
PA_BUF_LT1:0
Description
0
0 µs
1
2 µs
2
4 µs
3
6 µs
• Bit 5:4 – PA_LT1:0 - Power Amplifier Lead Time
These register bits control the enable lead time of the internal power amplifier relative to
the beginning of the transmitted frame (SHR).
Table 9-37 PA_LT Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
PA_LT1:0
Description
0
2 µs
1
4 µs
2
6 µs
3
8 µs
• Bit 3:0 – TX_PWR3:0 - Transmit Power Setting
These register bits determine the TX output power of the radio transceiver.
Table 9-38 TX_PWR Register Bits
Register Bits
TX_PWR3:0
Value
Description
0
3.5 dBm
1
3.3 dBm
2
2.8 dBm
3
2.3 dBm
4
1.8 dBm
5
1.2 dBm
6
0.5 dBm
7
-0.5 dBm
8
-1.5 dBm
9
-2.5 dBm
10
-3.5 dBm
11
-4.5 dBm
12
-6.5 dBm
13
-8.5 dBm
109
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Register Bits
Value
Description
14
-11.5 dBm
15
-16.5 dBm
9.12.10 PHY_RSSI – Receiver Signal Strength Indicator Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
RX_CRC_VALID
RND_VALUE1
RND_VALUE0
RSSI4
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
Bit
3
2
1
0
RSSI3
RSSI2
RSSI1
RSSI0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
NA ($146)
NA ($146)
Read/Write
Initial Value
PHY_RSSI
PHY_RSSI
The PHY_RSSI register is a multi purpose register that indicates FCS validity, provides
random numbers and shows the current RSSI value.
• Bit 7 – RX_CRC_VALID - Received Frame CRC Status
Reading this register bit indicates whether the last received frame has a valid FCS or
not. The register bit is updated when issuing a TRX24_RX_END interrupt and remains
valid until the next TRX24_RX_END interrupt is issued, caused by a new frame
reception.
Table 9-39 RX_CRC_VALID Register Bits
Register Bits
RX_CRC_VALID
Value
Description
0
CRC (FCS) not valid
1
CRC (FCS) valid
• Bit 6:5 – RND_VALUE1:0 - Random Value
A 2-bit random value can be retrieved by
reading register bits RND_VALUE. The value can be used for random numbers for
security applications. Note that the radio transceiver shall be in Basic Operating Mode
receive state. The values are updated every 1 µs.
• Bit 4:0 – RSSI4:0 - Receiver Signal Strength Indicator
The result of the automated RSSI measurement is stored in these register bits. The
value is updated every 2µs in receive states. The read value is a number between 0
and 28 indicating the received signal strength as a linear curve on a logarithmic input
power scale (dBm) with a resolution of 3 dB. A RSSI value of 0 indicates a RF input
power lower than RSSI_BASE_VAL (-90 dBm). A value of 28 marks a power higher or
equal to -10 dBm.
Table 9-40 RSSI Register Bits
Register Bits
RSSI4:0
110
Value
Description
0
Minimum RSSI value: P(RF) < -90 dBm
1
P(RF) = RSSI_BASE_VAL+3 · (RSSI-1)
[dBm]
2
...
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Register Bits
Value
28
Description
Maximum RSSI value: P(RF) ≥ -10 dBm
9.12.11 PHY_ED_LEVEL – Transceiver Energy Detection Level Register
Bit
NA ($147)
7
6
5
4
ED_LEVEL7
ED_LEVEL6
ED_LEVEL5
ED_LEVEL4
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
Bit
3
2
1
0
ED_LEVEL3
ED_LEVEL2
ED_LEVEL1
ED_LEVEL0
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
NA ($147)
Read/Write
Initial Value
PHY_ED_LEVEL
PHY_ED_LEVEL
This register contains the result of an Energy Detection measurement.
• Bit 7:0 – ED_LEVEL7:0 - Energy Detection Level
The minimum ED value (ED_LEVEL = 0) indicates a receiver power less than or equal
to RSSI_BASE_VAL. The range is 83 dB with a resolution of 1 dB and an absolute
accuracy of ±5 dB. A manual ED measurement can be initiated by a write access to this
register. A value of 0xFF signals that no measurement has yet been started (reset
value). The measurement duration is 8 symbol periods (128 µs) for a data rate of 250
kb/s. For High Data Rate Modes the automated measurement duration is reduced to 32
µs. For manually initiated ED measurements in these modes the measurement period is
still 128 µs as long as the receiver is in RX_ON state. A value other than 0xFF indicates
the result of the last ED measurement.
Table 9-41 ED_LEVEL Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ED_LEVEL7:0
0x00
Minimum result of last ED measurement
0x01
P(RF) = RSSI_BASE_VAL+ED [dBm]
0x02
...
0x53
Maximum result of last ED measurement
0xFF
Reset value
9.12.12 PHY_CC_CCA – Transceiver Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) Control Register
Bit
NA ($148)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($148)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
CCA_REQUEST
CCA_MODE1
CCA_MODE0
CHANNEL4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
3
2
1
0
CHANNEL3
CHANNEL2
CHANNEL1
CHANNEL0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
1
RW
1
PHY_CC_CCA
PHY_CC_CCA
This register is provided to initiate and control a CCA measurement.
111
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
• Bit 7 – CCA_REQUEST - Manual CCA Measurement Request
A manual CCA measurement is initiated with setting CCA_REQUEST=1. The end of
the CCA measurement is indicated by the TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE interrupt. Register
bits CCA_DONE and CCA_STATUS of register TRX_STATUS are updated after a
CCA_REQUEST. The register bit is automatically cleared after requesting a CCA
measurement with CCA_REQUEST=1.
• Bit 6:5 – CCA_MODE1:0 - Select CCA Measurement Mode
The CCA mode can be selected using these register bits. Note that IEEE 802.15.42006 CCA Mode 3 defines the logical combination of CCA Mode 1 and 2 with the
logical operators AND or OR. This can be selected with CCA_MODE=0 for logical
operation OR and CCA_MODE=3 for logical operation AND.
Table 9-42 CCA_MODE Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
CCA_MODE1:0
Description
0
Mode 3a, Carrier sense OR energy above
threshold
1
Mode 1, Energy above threshold
2
Mode 2, Carrier sense only
3
Mode 3b, Carrier sense AND energy above
threshold
• Bit 4:0 – CHANNEL4:0 - RX/TX Channel Selection
These register bits define the RX/TX channel. The channel assignment is according to
IEEE 802.15.4.
Table 9-43 CHANNEL Register Bits
112
Register Bits
Value
Description
CHANNEL4:0
11
2405 MHz
12
2410 MHz
13
2415 MHz
14
2420 MHz
15
2425 MHz
16
2430 MHz
17
2435 MHz
18
2440 MHz
19
2445 MHz
20
2450 MHz
21
2455 MHz
22
2460 MHz
23
2465 MHz
24
2470 MHz
25
2475 MHz
26
2480 MHz
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
9.12.13 CCA_THRES – Transceiver CCA Threshold Setting Register
Bit
NA ($149)
7
6
CCA_CS_THRES3
CCA_CS_THRES2
RW
1
RW
1
5
4
CCA_CS_THRES1
CCA_CS_THRES0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
CCA_ED_THRES3
CCA_ED_THRES2
RW
0
RW
1
1
0
CCA_ED_THRES1
CCA_ED_THRES0
RW
1
RW
1
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($149)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($149)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($149)
Read/Write
Initial Value
CCA_THRES
CCA_THRES
CCA_THRES
CCA_THRES
This register sets the threshold level for the Energy Detection (ED) of the Clear Channel
Assessment (CCA).
• Bit 7:4 – CCA_CS_THRES3:0 - CS Threshold Level for CCA Measurement
These bits are reserved for internal use.
• Bit 3:0 – CCA_ED_THRES3:0 - ED Threshold Level for CCA Measurement
These bits define the received power threshold of the Energy above threshold
algorithm. The threshold is calculated by RSSI_BASE_VAL + 2CCA_ED_THRES
[dBm]. Any received power above this level is interpreted as a busy channel.
9.12.14 RX_CTRL – Transceiver Receive Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($14A)
Resx7
Resx6
Resx5
Resx4
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
1
RW
0
RW
1
RW
1
3
2
1
0
NA ($14A)
PDT_THRES3
PDT_THRES2
PDT_THRES1
PDT_THRES0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
Bit
RX_CTRL
RX_CTRL
The register controls the sensitivity of the Antenna Diversity Mode. Note that in High
Data Rate modes the ACR module will always be disabled.
• Bit 7:4 – Resx7:4 - Reserved
• Bit 3:0 – PDT_THRES3:0 - Receiver Sensitivity Control
These register bits control the sensitivity of the receiver correlation unit. If the Antenna
Diversity algorithm is enabled the value shall be set to PDT_THRES = 3. Otherwise it
shall be set back to the reset value. Values not listed in the following table are reserved.
113
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Table 9-44 PDT_THRES Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
PDT_THRES3:0
Description
0x7
Reset value, to be used if Antenna Diversity
algorithm is disabled
0x3
Recommended correlator threshold for
Antenna Diversity operation
9.12.15 SFD_VALUE – Start of Frame Delimiter Value Register
Bit
7
6
5
RW
1
RW
0
RW
1
4
NA ($14B)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
SFD_VALUE7:0
RW
0
SFD_VALUE
RW
0
This register contains the one octet start-of-frame delimiter (SFD) to synchronize to a
received frame. The lower 4 bits must not be all zero to avoid decoding conflicts.
• Bit 7:0 – SFD_VALUE7:0 - Start of Frame Delimiter Value
For compliant IEEE 802.15.4 networks set SFD_VALUE = 0xA7. This is the default
value of the register. To establish non IEEE 802.15.4 compliant networks the SFD value
can be changed to any other value. If enabled a RX_START interrupt is issued only if
the received SFD matches the register content of SFD_VALUE and a valid PHR is
received.
Table 9-45 SFD_VALUE Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
SFD_VALUE7:0
0xA7
IEEE 802.15.4 compliant value of the SFD
9.12.16 TRX_CTRL_2 – Transceiver Control Register 2
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($14C)
RX_SAFE_MODE
Res4
Res3
Res2
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
Bit
3
2
NA ($14C)
Res1
Res0
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
1
TRX_CTRL_2
0
OQPSK_DATA_RATE1 OQPSK_DATA_RATE0
RW
0
TRX_CTRL_2
RW
0
This register controls the data rate setting of the radio transceiver.
• Bit 7 – RX_SAFE_MODE - RX Safe Mode
If this bit is set, the next received frame will be protected and not overwritten by
following frames. Set this bit to 0 to release the buffer (and set it again for further
protection).
• Bit 6:2 – Res4:0 - Reserved
• Bit 1:0 – OQPSK_DATA_RATE1:0 - Data Rate Selection
114
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
A write access to these register bits sets the OQPSK PSDU data rate used by the radio
transceiver. The reset value OQPSK_DATA_RATE = 0 is the PSDU data rate according
to IEEE 802.15.4. All other values are used in High Data Rate Modes.
Table 9-46 OQPSK_DATA_RATE Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
OQPSK_DATA_RATE1:0
Description
0
250 kb/s (IEEE 802.15.4 compliant)
1
500 kb/s
2
1000 kb/s
3
2000 kb/s
9.12.17 ANT_DIV – Antenna Diversity Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($14D)
ANT_SEL
Res2
Res1
Res0
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
Bit
3
2
1
0
NA ($14D)
ANT_DIV_EN
ANT_EXT_SW_EN
ANT_CTRL1
ANT_CTRL0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
1
ANT_DIV
ANT_DIV
This register controls the Antenna Diversity.
• Bit 7 – ANT_SEL - Antenna Diversity Antenna Status
This register bit signals the currently selected antenna path. The selection may be
based either on the last antenna diversity cycle (ANT_DIV_EN = 1) or on the content of
register bits ANT_CTRL.
Table 9-47 ANT_SEL Register Bits
Register Bits
ANT_SEL
Value
Description
0
Antenna 0
1
Antenna 1
• Bit 6:4 – Res2:0 - Reserved
• Bit 3 – ANT_DIV_EN - Enable Antenna Diversity
If this register bit is set the Antenna Diversity algorithm is enabled. On reception of a
frame the algorithm selects an antenna autonomously during SHR search. This
selection is kept until
1. A new SHR search starts or
2. Receive states are left or
3. A manually programming of bits ANT_CTRL occurred. If ANT_DIV_EN = 1 the bit
ANT_EXT_SW_EN shall also be set to 1.
Table 9-48 ANT_DIV_EN Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ANT_DIV_EN
0
Antenna Diversity algorithm disabled
1
Antenna Diversity algorithm enabled
• Bit 2 – ANT_EXT_SW_EN - Enable External Antenna Switch Control
115
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
If enabled, pin DIG1 and pin DIG2 become output pins and provide a differential control
signal for an external Antenna Diversity switch. The selection of a specific antenna is
done either by the automatic Antenna Diversity algorithm (ANT_DIV_EN = 1) or
according to bits ANT_CTRL if the Antenna Diversity algorithm is disabled. Do not
enable Antenna Diversity RF switch control (ANT_EXT_SW_EN = 1) and RX Frame
Time Stamping (IRQ_2_EXT_EN = 1, see register TRX_CTRL_1) at the same time. If
this bit is set the control pins DIG1/DIG2 are activated in all radio transceiver states as
long as bit ANT_EXT_SW_EN is also set. If the radio transceiver is not in a receive or
transmit state, it is recommended to disable bit ANT_EXT_SW_EN to reduce the power
consumption or avoid leakage current of an external RF switch especially during
SLEEP state. If bit ANT_EXT_SW_EN = 0, the output pins DIG1 and DIG2 are
controlled by the register of I/O ports F and G (PORTF, DDRF, PORTG, DDRG).
Table 9-49 ANT_EXT_SW_EN Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
ANT_EXT_SW_EN
Description
0
Antenna Diversity RF switch control disabled
1
Antenna Diversity RF switch control enabled
• Bit 1:0 – ANT_CTRL1:0 - Static Antenna Diversity Switch Control
These bits provide a static control of an Antenna Diversity switch. This register setting
defines the selected antenna if ANT_DIV_EN is set to 0 (Antenna Diversity disabled).
Register values 1 and 2 are valid for ANT_EXT_SW_EN = 1.
Table 9-50 ANT_CTRL Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ANT_CTRL1:0
0
Reserved
1
Antenna 1: DIG1=L, DIG2=H
2
Antenna 0: DIG1=H, DIG2=L
3
Default value for ANT_EXT_SW_EN=0;
Mandatory setting for applications not using
Antenna Diversity
9.12.18 IRQ_MASK – Transceiver Interrupt Enable Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($14E)
AWAKE_EN
TX_END_EN
AMI_EN
CCA_ED_DONE_EN
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
NA ($14E)
RX_END_EN
RX_START_EN
PLL_UNLOCK_EN
PLL_LOCK_EN
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Bit
IRQ_MASK
IRQ_MASK
This register is used to enable or disable individual interrupts of the radio transceiver.
An interrupt is enabled if the corresponding bit is set to 1. All interrupts are disabled
after the power up sequence or reset. If an interrupt is enabled it is recommended to
read the interrupt status register IRQ_STATUS first to clear the history.
• Bit 7 – AWAKE_EN - Awake Interrupt Enable
• Bit 6 – TX_END_EN - TX_END Interrupt Enable
• Bit 5 – AMI_EN - Address Match Interrupt Enable
116
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
• Bit 4 – CCA_ED_DONE_EN - End of ED Measurement Interrupt Enable
• Bit 3 – RX_END_EN - RX_END Interrupt Enable
• Bit 2 – RX_START_EN - RX_START Interrupt Enable
• Bit 1 – PLL_UNLOCK_EN - PLL Unlock Interrupt Enable
• Bit 0 – PLL_LOCK_EN - PLL Lock Interrupt Enable
9.12.19 IRQ_STATUS – Transceiver Interrupt Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($14F)
AWAKE
TX_END
AMI
CCA_ED_DONE
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
NA ($14F)
RX_END
RX_START
PLL_UNLOCK
PLL_LOCK
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Bit
IRQ_STATUS
IRQ_STATUS
This register contains the status of the pending interrupt requests. An interrupt is
pending if the associated bit has a value of one. Such a pending interrupts can be
manually cleared by writing a 1 to that register bit. Interrupts are automatically cleared
when the corresponding interrupt service routine is being executed.
• Bit 7 – AWAKE - Awake Interrupt Status
• Bit 6 – TX_END - TX_END Interrupt Status
• Bit 5 – AMI - Address Match Interrupt Status
• Bit 4 – CCA_ED_DONE - End of ED Measurement Interrupt Status
• Bit 3 – RX_END - RX_END Interrupt Status
• Bit 2 – RX_START - RX_START Interrupt Status
• Bit 1 – PLL_UNLOCK - PLL Unlock Interrupt Status
• Bit 0 – PLL_LOCK - PLL Lock Interrupt Status
9.12.20 VREG_CTRL – Voltage Regulator Control and Status Register
Bit
NA ($150)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($150)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
AVREG_EXT
AVDD_OK
AVREG_TRIM1
AVREG_TRIM0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
DVREG_EXT
DVDD_OK
DVREG_TRIM1
DVREG_TRIM0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
VREG_CTRL
VREG_CTRL
This register controls the use of the voltage regulators and indicates their status.
• Bit 7 – AVREG_EXT - Use External AVDD Regulator
117
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
This bit is reserved for IC test and should not be modified by the application firmware. If
set, this register bit disables the internal analog voltage regulator to apply an external
regulated 1.8V supply for the analog building blocks.
Table 9-51 AVREG_EXT Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
AVREG_EXT
0
Internal AVDD voltage regulator for the
analog section is enabled.
1
Internal AVDD voltage regulator is disabled.
• Bit 6 – AVDD_OK - AVDD Supply Voltage Valid
This register bit indicates if the internal 1.8V regulated voltage supply AVDD has
settled. The bit is set to logic high if AVREG_EXT = 1.
Table 9-52 AVDD_OK Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
AVDD_OK
Description
0
Analog voltage regulator disabled or supply
voltage not stable
1
Analog supply voltage has settled
• Bit 5:4 – AVREG_TRIM1:0 - Adjust AVDD Supply Voltage
These bits are reserved for internal use. They allow adjusting the value of the analog
supply voltage (AVDD).
Table 9-53 AVREG_TRIM Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
AVREG_TRIM1:0
Description
0
1.80V
1
1.75V
2
1.84V
3
1.88V
• Bit 3 – DVREG_EXT - Use External DVDD Regulator
This bit may be set in the Register, but is deactivated in the design. The DVREG_EXT
functionality to deactivate the digital voltage regulator is no implemented anymore
Table 9-54 DVREG_EXT Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
DVREG_EXT
0
Internal DVDD voltage regulator for the
digital section is enabled.
1
Internal DVDD voltage regulator is disabled;
use external regulated 1.8V supply voltage
for the digital section.
• Bit 2 – DVDD_OK - DVDD Supply Voltage Valid
This register bit indicates if the internal 1.8V regulated voltage supply DVDD has
settled. The bit is set to logic high if DVREG_EXT = 1.
Table 9-55 DVDD_OK Register Bits
Register Bits
DVDD_OK
Value
Description
0
Digital voltage regulator disabled or supply
voltage not stable
1
Digital supply voltage has settled
• Bit 1:0 – DVREG_TRIM1:0 - Adjust DVDD Supply Voltage
118
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
These bits are reserved for internal use. They allow adjusting the value of the digital
supply voltage (DVDD).
Table 9-56 DVREG_TRIM Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
DVREG_TRIM1:0
Description
0
1.80V
1
1.75V
2
1.84V
3
1.88V
9.12.21 BATMON – Battery Monitor Control and Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
BAT_LOW
BAT_LOW_EN
BATMON_OK
BATMON_HR
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
BATMON_VTH3
BATMON_VTH2
BATMON_VTH1
BATMON_VTH0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
NA ($151)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($151)
Read/Write
Initial Value
BATMON
BATMON
This register configures the battery monitor to observe the supply voltage at EVDD. The
status of the EVDD supply voltage is accessible by reading bit BATMON_OK with
respect to the actual BATMON settings. Furthermore the Battery Monitor Interrupt can
be controlled with the bits BAT_LOW and BAT_LOW_EN similar to the function of the
IRQ_STATUS and IRQ_MASK register for other radio transceiver interrupts.
• Bit 7 – BAT_LOW - Battery Monitor Interrupt Status
A BATMON Interrupt is pending if this bit is set. Writing one to this bit if it has been at
one will clear the interrupt.
• Bit 6 – BAT_LOW_EN - Battery Monitor Interrupt Enable
The Battery Monitor Interrupt is enabled if this bit is set to one. The Battery Monitor will
not generate an interrupt if this bit is zero.
• Bit 5 – BATMON_OK - Battery Monitor Status
The register bit BATMON_OK indicates the level of the external supply voltage with
respect to the programmed threshold BATMON_VTH.
Table 9-57 BATMON_OK Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
BATMON_OK
0
The battery voltage is below the threshold.
1
The battery voltage is above the threshold.
• Bit 4 – BATMON_HR - Battery Monitor Voltage Range
This bit sets the range and resolution of the battery monitor.
Table 9-58 BATMON_HR Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
BATMON_HR
0
Enables the low range, see BATMON_VTH
1
Enables the high range, see BATMON_VTH
119
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
• Bit 3:0 – BATMON_VTH3:0 - Battery Monitor Threshold Voltage
The threshold values for the battery monitor are set by these register bits according to
the following table.
Table 9-59 BATMON_VTH Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
BATMON_VTH3:0
Description
0x0
2.550V / 1.70V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0x1
2.625V / 1.75V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0x2
2.700V / 1.80V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0x3
2.775V / 1.85V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0x4
2.850V / 1.90V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0x5
2.925V / 1.95V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0x6
3.000V / 2.00V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0x7
3.075V / 2.05V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0x8
3.150V / 2.10V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0x9
3.225V / 2.15V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0xA
3.300V / 2.20V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0xB
3.375V / 2.25V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0xC
3.450V / 2.30V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0xD
3.525V / 2.35V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0xE
3.600V / 2.40V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
0xF
3.675V / 2.45V (BATMON_HR=1/0)
9.12.22 XOSC_CTRL – Crystal Oscillator Control Register
Bit
NA ($152)
7
6
5
4
XTAL_MODE3
XTAL_MODE2
XTAL_MODE1
XTAL_MODE0
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
3
2
1
0
XTAL_TRIM3
XTAL_TRIM2
XTAL_TRIM1
XTAL_TRIM0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($152)
Read/Write
Initial Value
XOSC_CTRL
XOSC_CTRL
This register controls the operation of the 16MHz crystal oscillator.
• Bit 7:4 – XTAL_MODE3:0 - Crystal Oscillator Operating Mode
These register bits set the operating mode of the 16 MHz crystal oscillator. For normal
operation the default value is set to XTAL_MODE = 0xF after reset. For use with an
external clock source it is recommended to set XTAL_MODE = 0x4.
Table 9-60 XTAL_MODE Register Bits
Register Bits
XTAL_MODE3:0
120
Value
Description
0x4
Internal crystal oscillator disabled; use
external reference frequency.
0xF
Internal crystal oscillator enabled; amplitude
regulation of oscillation enabled.
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
• Bit 3:0 – XTAL_TRIM3:0 - Crystal Oscillator Load Capacitance Trimming
These register bits control two internal capacitance arrays connected to pins XTAL1
and XTAL2. A capacitance value in the range from 0 pF to 4.5 pF is selectable with a
resolution of 0.3 pF.
Table 9-61 XTAL_TRIM Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
XTAL_TRIM3:0
Description
0x0
0.0 pF, trimming capacitors disconnected
0x1
0.3 pF, trimming capacitor switched on
0x2
...
0xF
4.5 pF, trimming capacitor switched on
9.12.23 RX_SYN – Transceiver Receiver Sensitivity Control Register
Bit
7
6
RX_PDT_DIS
Res2
RW
0
R
0
5
4
Res1
Res0
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
Bit
3
2
RX_PDT_LEVEL3
RX_PDT_LEVEL2
RW
0
RW
0
1
0
RX_PDT_LEVEL1
RX_PDT_LEVEL0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($155)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($155)
NA ($155)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($155)
Read/Write
Initial Value
RX_SYN
RX_SYN
RX_SYN
RX_SYN
This register controls the sensitivity threshold of the receiver.
• Bit 7 – RX_PDT_DIS - Prevent Frame Reception
RX_PDT_DIS = 1 prevents the reception of a frame even if the radio transceiver is in
receive modes. An ongoing frame reception is not affected. This operation mode is
independent of the setting of register bits RX_PDT_LEVEL.
• Bit 6:4 – Res2:0 - Reserved
• Bit 3:0 – RX_PDT_LEVEL3:0 - Reduce Receiver Sensitivity
These register bits reduce the receiver sensitivity such that frames with a RSSI level
below the RX_PDT_LEVEL threshold level are not received (RX_PDT_LEVEL>0). The
threshold level can be calculated according to the following formula: RX_THRES >
RSSI_BASE_VAL+3·(RX_PDT_LEVEL-1), for RX_PDT_LEVEL>0. If register bits
RX_PDT_LEVEL>0 the current consumption of the receiver in states RX_ON and
RX_AACK_ON is reduced by 500 µA. If register bits RX_PDT_LEVEL=0 (reset value)
all frames with a valid SHR and PHR are received, independently of their signal
strength. Examples for certain register settings are given in the following table.
121
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Table 9-62 RX_PDT_LEVEL Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
RX_PDT_LEVEL3:0
Description
0x0
RX_THRES ≤ RSSI_BASE_VAL (Reset
value); RSSI value not considered
0x1
RX_THRES > RSSI_BASE_VAL + 0 · 3;
RSSI > -90 dBm
0x2
...
0xE
RX_THRES > RSSI_BASE_VAL + 13 · 3;
RSSI > -51 dBm
0xF
RX_THRES > RSSI_BASE_VAL + 14 · 3;
RSSI > -48 dBm
9.12.24 XAH_CTRL_1 – Transceiver Acknowledgment Frame Control Register 1
Bit
NA ($157)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($157)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
3
Res
5
4
AACK_FLTR_RES_FT AACK_UPLD_RES_FT
RW
0
2
1
AACK_ACK_TIME AACK_PROM_MODE
R
0
RW
0
XAH_CTRL_1
RW
0
RW
0
0
Res
XAH_CTRL_1
R
0
This register is a multi-purpose control register for various RX_AACK settings.
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. The result of a read access is undefined. The register
bit must always be written with the reset value.
• Bit 5 – AACK_FLTR_RES_FT - Filter Reserved Frames
This register bit shall only be set if AACK_UPLD_RES_FT = 1. If
AACK_FLTR_RES_FT = 1 reserved frame types are filtered similar to data frames as
specified in IEEE 802.15.4-2006. Reserved frame types are explained in IEEE 802.15.4
section 7.2.1.1.1. If AACK_FLTR_RES_FT = 0 a received, reserved frame is only
checked for a valid FCS.
• Bit 4 – AACK_UPLD_RES_FT - Process Reserved Frames
If AACK_UPLD_RES_FT = 1 received frames indicated as reserved are further
processed. A RX_END interrupt is generated if the FCS of those frames is valid. In
conjunction with the configuration bit AACK_FLTR_RES_FT set, these frames are
handled like IEEE 802.15.4 compliant data frames during RX_AACK transaction. An
AMI interrupt is issued if the address in the received frame matches the node address.
That means if a reserved frame passes the third level filter rules, an acknowledgment
frame is generated and transmitted if it was requested by the received frame. If this is
not wanted bit AACK_DIS_ACK in register CSMA_SEED_1 has to be set.
• Bit 3 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. The result of a read access is undefined. The register
bit must always be written with the reset value.
• Bit 2 – AACK_ACK_TIME - Reduce Acknowledgment Time
122
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
According to IEEE 802.15.4, section 7.5.6.4.2 the transmission of an acknowledgment
frame shall commence 12 symbols (aTurnaroundTime) after the reception of the last
symbol of a data or MAC command frame. This is achieved with the reset value of the
register bit AACK_ACK_TIME. If AACK_ACK_TIME = 1 an acknowledgment frame is
alternatively sent already 2 symbol periods (32 µs) after the reception of the last symbol
of a data or MAC command frame. This may be applied to proprietary networks or
networks using the High Data Rate Modes to increase battery lifetime and to improve
the overall data throughput. This setting affects also to acknowledgment frame
response time for slotted acknowledgment operation.
Table 9-63 AACK_ACK_TIME Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
AACK_ACK_TIME
Description
0
12 symbols acknowledgment time
1
2 symbols acknowledgment time
• Bit 1 – AACK_PROM_MODE - Enable Promiscuous Mode
This register bit enables the promiscuous mode within the RX_AACK mode; refer to
IEEE 802.15.4-2006 chapter 7.5.6.5. If this bit is set, every incoming frame with a valid
PHR finishes with a RX_END interrupt even if the third level filter rules do not match or
the FCS is not valid. The bit RX_CRC_VALID of register PHY_RSSI is set accordingly.
If this bit is set and a frame passes the third level filter rules, an acknowledgment frame
is generated and transmitted unless disabled by bit AACK_DIS_ACK of register
CSMA_SEED_1.
• Bit 0 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. The result of a read access is undefined. The register
bit must always be written with the reset value.
9.12.25 FTN_CTRL – Transceiver Filter Tuning Control Register
Bit
NA ($158)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($158)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
FTN_START
Resx6
Resx5
Resx4
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
1
3
2
1
0
Resx3
Resx2
Resx1
Resx0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
FTN_CTRL
FTN_CTRL
This register controls the operation of the calibration loop of the filter tuning network.
• Bit 7 – FTN_START - Start Calibration Loop of Filter Tuning Network
FTN_START = 1 initiates the calibration of the filter tuning network. When the
calibration cycle has finished after at most 25 µs the register bit is automatically reset to
0.
• Bit 6:0 – Resx6:0 - Reserved
123
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
9.12.26 PLL_CF – Transceiver Center Frequency Calibration Control Register
Bit
7
6
NA ($15A)
PLL_CF_START
Resx6
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
1
5
4
NA ($15A)
Resx5
Resx4
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
1
3
2
NA ($15A)
Resx3
Resx2
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
1
1
0
NA ($15A)
Resx1
Resx0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
1
RW
1
Bit
Bit
Bit
PLL_CF
PLL_CF
PLL_CF
PLL_CF
This register controls the operation of the center frequency calibration loop.
• Bit 7 – PLL_CF_START - Start Center Frequency Calibration
PLL_CF_START = 1 initiates the center frequency calibration. The calibration cycle has
finished after 35 µs (typical). The register bit is cleared immediately after finishing the
calibration.
• Bit 6:0 – Resx6:0 - Reserved
9.12.27 PLL_DCU – Transceiver Delay Cell Calibration Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($15B)
PLL_DCU_START
Resx6
Resx5
Resx4
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
R
0
RW
1
RW
0
Bit
3
2
1
0
NA ($15B)
Resx3
Resx2
Resx1
Resx0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PLL_DCU
PLL_DCU
This register controls the operation of the calibration loop of the delay cell.
• Bit 7 – PLL_DCU_START - Start Delay Cell Calibration
PLL_DCU_START = 1 initiates the delay cell calibration. The calibration cycle has
finished after at most 6 µs. The register bit is cleared immediately after finishing the
calibration.
• Bit 6:0 – Resx6:0 - Reserved
124
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
9.12.28 PART_NUM – Device Identification Register (Part Number)
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($15C)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
PART_NUM7:0
R
1
R
0
R
0
R
0
PART_NUM
R
0
R
0
R
1
R
1
This register contains the part number of the device.
• Bit 7:0 – PART_NUM7:0 - Part Number
These bits decode the part number of the device according to the following table.
Table 9-64 PART_NUM Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
PART_NUM7:0
0x83
ATmega128RFA1 part number
9.12.29 VERSION_NUM – Device Identification Register (Version Number)
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($15D)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
VERSION_NUM7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
VERSION_NUM
R
1
R
1
R
1
This register contains the version number of the device.
• Bit 7:0 – VERSION_NUM7:0 - Version Number
These bits decode the version number of the device according to the following table.
Table 9-65 VERSION_NUM Register Bits
Register Bits
VERSION_NUM7:0
Value
Description
2
Revision AB
3
Revision C
4
Revision D
7
Revision F
9.12.30 MAN_ID_0 – Device Identification Register (Manufacture ID Low Byte)
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($15E)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
MAN_ID_07:00
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
1
R
1
MAN_ID_0
R
1
R
1
R
1
Bits [7:0] of the 32-bit JEDEC manufacturer ID are stored in this register. Bits [15:8] are
stored in register MAN_ID_1. The highest 16 bits of the JEDEC ID are not stored in
registers.
• Bit 7:0 – MAN_ID_07:00 - Manufacturer ID (Low Byte)
These bits contain bits [7:0] of the 32-bit JEDEC manufacturer ID.
125
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Table 9-66 MAN_ID_0 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
MAN_ID_07:00
Description
0x1f
Atmel JEDEC manufacturer ID, bits [7:0] of
32 bit manufacturer ID: 00 00 00 1F
9.12.31 MAN_ID_1 – Device Identification Register (Manufacture ID High Byte)
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($15F)
4
3
2
1
0
MAN_ID_17:10
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
MAN_ID_1
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
Bits [15:8] of the 32-bit JEDEC manufacturer ID are stored in this register. Bits [7:0] are
stored in register MAN_ID_0. The highest 16 bits of the JEDEC ID are not stored in
registers.
• Bit 7:0 – MAN_ID_17:10 - Manufacturer ID (High Byte)
These bits contain bits [15:8] of the 32-bit JEDEC manufacturer ID.
Table 9-67 MAN_ID_1 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
MAN_ID_17:10
0x00
Atmel JEDEC manufacturer ID, bits [15:8] of
32 bit manufacturer ID: 00 00 00 1F
9.12.32 SHORT_ADDR_0 – Transceiver MAC Short Address Register (Low Byte)
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($160)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SHORT_ADDR_07:00
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
SHORT_ADDR_0
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
This register contains the lower 8 bits of the MAC short address for Frame Filter
address recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – SHORT_ADDR_07:00 - MAC Short Address
These bits contain the bits [7:0] of the MAC short address.
9.12.33 SHORT_ADDR_1 – Transceiver MAC Short Address Register (High Byte)
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($161)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SHORT_ADDR_17:10
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
SHORT_ADDR_1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
This register contains the upper 8 bits of the MAC short address for Frame Filter
address recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – SHORT_ADDR_17:10 - MAC Short Address
These bits contain the bits [15:8] of the MAC short address.
126
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
9.12.34 PAN_ID_0 – Transceiver Personal Area Network ID Register (Low Byte)
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($162)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
PAN_ID_07:00
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
PAN_ID_0
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
This register contains the lower 8 bits of the MAC PAN ID for Frame Filter address
recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – PAN_ID_07:00 - MAC Personal Area Network ID
These bits contain the bits [7:0] of the MAC PAN ID.
9.12.35 PAN_ID_1 – Transceiver Personal Area Network ID Register (High Byte)
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($163)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
PAN_ID_17:10
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
PAN_ID_1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
This register contains the upper 8 bits of the MAC PAN ID for Frame Filter address
recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – PAN_ID_17:10 - MAC Personal Area Network ID
These bits contain the bits [15:8] of the MAC PAN ID.
9.12.36 IEEE_ADDR_0 – Transceiver MAC IEEE Address Register 0
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($164)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
IEEE_ADDR_07:00
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
IEEE_ADDR_0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the bits [7:0] of the MAC IEEE address for Frame Filter address
recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – IEEE_ADDR_07:00 - MAC IEEE Address
These bits map to the bits [7:0] of the 64 bit MAC IEEE address.
9.12.37 IEEE_ADDR_1 – Transceiver MAC IEEE Address Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($165)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
IEEE_ADDR_17:10
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
IEEE_ADDR_1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
127
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
This register contains the bits [15:8] of the MAC IEEE address for Frame Filter address
recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – IEEE_ADDR_17:10 - MAC IEEE Address
These bits map to the bits [15:8] of the 64 bit MAC IEEE address.
9.12.38 IEEE_ADDR_2 – Transceiver MAC IEEE Address Register 2
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($166)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
IEEE_ADDR_27:20
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
IEEE_ADDR_2
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the bits [23:16] of the MAC IEEE address for Frame Filter
address recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – IEEE_ADDR_27:20 - MAC IEEE Address
These bits map to the bits [23:16] of the 64 bit MAC IEEE address.
9.12.39 IEEE_ADDR_3 – Transceiver MAC IEEE Address Register 3
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($167)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
IEEE_ADDR_37:30
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
IEEE_ADDR_3
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the bits [31:24] of the MAC IEEE address for Frame Filter
address recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – IEEE_ADDR_37:30 - MAC IEEE Address
These bits map to the bits [31:24] of the 64 bit MAC IEEE address.
9.12.40 IEEE_ADDR_4 – Transceiver MAC IEEE Address Register 4
Bit
7
6
5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($168)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
IEEE_ADDR_47:40
RW
0
RW
0
IEEE_ADDR_4
This register contains the bits [39:32] of the MAC IEEE address for Frame Filter
address recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – IEEE_ADDR_47:40 - MAC IEEE Address
These bits map to the bits [39:32] of the 64 bit MAC IEEE address.
128
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
9.12.41 IEEE_ADDR_5 – Transceiver MAC IEEE Address Register 5
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($169)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
IEEE_ADDR_57:50
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
IEEE_ADDR_5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the bits [47:40] of the MAC IEEE address for Frame Filter
address recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – IEEE_ADDR_57:50 - MAC IEEE Address
These bits map to the bits [47:40] of the 64 bit MAC IEEE address.
9.12.42 IEEE_ADDR_6 – Transceiver MAC IEEE Address Register 6
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($16A)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
IEEE_ADDR_67:60
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
IEEE_ADDR_6
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the bits [55:48] of the MAC IEEE address for Frame Filter
address recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – IEEE_ADDR_67:60 - MAC IEEE Address
These bits map to the bits [55:48] of the 64 bit MAC IEEE address.
9.12.43 IEEE_ADDR_7 – Transceiver MAC IEEE Address Register 7
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($16B)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
IEEE_ADDR_77:70
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
IEEE_ADDR_7
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the bits [63:56] of the MAC IEEE address for Frame Filter
address recognition.
• Bit 7:0 – IEEE_ADDR_77:70 - MAC IEEE Address
These bits map to the bits [63:56] of the 64 bit MAC IEEE address.
9.12.44 XAH_CTRL_0 – Transceiver Extended Operating Mode Control Register
Bit
7
6
NA ($16C)
MAX_FRAME_RETRIES3
MAX_FRAME_RETRIES2
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
XAH_CTRL_0
129
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Bit
5
4
NA ($16C)
MAX_FRAME_RETRIES1
MAX_FRAME_RETRIES0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
1
RW
1
3
2
NA ($16C)
MAX_CSMA_RETRIES2
MAX_CSMA_RETRIES1
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
1
RW
0
1
0
NA ($16C)
MAX_CSMA_RETRIES0
SLOTTED_OPERATION
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
Bit
Bit
XAH_CTRL_0
XAH_CTRL_0
XAH_CTRL_0
This register is used to control various settings of the Extended Operating Mode.
• Bit 7:4 – MAX_FRAME_RETRIES3:0 - Maximum Number of Frame Retransmission Attempts
The setting of MAX_FRAME_RETRIES in TX_ARET mode specifies the number of
attempts to retransmit a frame when it was not acknowledged by the recipient. The
transaction gets canceled if the number of attempts exceeds MAX_FRAME_RETRIES.
Table 9-68 MAX_FRAME_RETRIES Register Bits
Register Bits
MAX_FRAME_RETRIES3:0
Value
Description
0x0
Retransmission of frame is not attempted.
0x1
Retransmission of frame is attempted once.
0x2
...
0xF
Retransmission of frame is attempted 15
times.
• Bit 3:1 – MAX_CSMA_RETRIES2:0 - Maximum Number of CSMA-CA Procedure
Repetition Attempts
MAX_CSMA_RETRIES specifies the number of retries in TX_ARET mode to repeat the
CSMA-CA procedure before the transaction gets canceled. According to IEEE 802.15.4
the valid range of MAX_CSMA_RETRIES is 0 to 5. A value of MAX_CSMA_RETRIES =
7 initiates an immediate frame transmission without performing CSMA-CA. This may
especially be required for slotted acknowledgment operation. MAX_CSMA_RETRIES =
6 is reserved.
Table 9-69 MAX_CSMA_RETRIES Register Bits
Register Bits
MAX_CSMA_RETRIES2:0
Value
Description
0x0
No repetition of CSMA-CA procedure
0x1
One repetition of CSMA-CA procedure
0x2
...
0x5
Five repetitions (highest IEEE 802.15.4
compliant value)
0x6
Reserved
0x7
Immediate frame re-transmission without
performing CSMA-CA
• Bit 0 – SLOTTED_OPERATION - Set Slotted Acknowledgment
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When using RX_AACK mode in networks operating in beacon or slotted mode
according
to
IEEE
802.15.4-2006,
chapter
5.5.1
the
register
bit
SLOTTED_OPERATION indicates that acknowledgment frames are to be sent on backoff slot boundaries (slotted acknowledgment). If this register bit is set the
acknowledgment frame transmission has to be initiated by the application software
using bit SLPTR of register TRXPR. This waiting state is signaled in sub register
TRAC_STATUS of register TRX_STATE with value SUCCESS_WAIT_FOR_ACK.
Table 9-70 SLOTTED_OPERATION Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
SLOTTED_OPERATION
Description
0
The radio transceiver operates in unslotted
mode. An acknowledgment frame is
automatically sent if requested.
1
The transmission of an acknowledgment
frame has to be controlled by the
microcontroller.
9.12.45 CSMA_SEED_0 – Transceiver CSMA-CA Random Number Generator Seed Register
Bit
7
6
5
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
NA ($16D)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
CSMA_SEED_07:00
RW
0
RW
1
CSMA_SEED_0
This register contains the lower 8 bits of the CSMA_SEED. The upper 3 bits are part of
register CSMA_SEED_1. CSMA_SEED is the seed for the random number generation
that determines the length of the back-off period in the CSMA-CA algorithm. It is
recommended to initialize registers CSMA_SEED by random values. This can be done
using the bits RND_VALUE of register PHY_RSSI.
• Bit 7:0 – CSMA_SEED_07:00 - Seed Value for CSMA Random Number
Generator
These bits contain the bits [7:0] of the CSMA_SEED.
9.12.46 CSMA_SEED_1 – Transceiver Acknowledgment Frame Control Register 2
Bit
7
6
NA ($16E)
AACK_FVN_MODE1
AACK_FVN_MODE0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
1
5
4
NA ($16E)
AACK_SET_PD
AACK_DIS_ACK
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
NA ($16E)
AACK_I_AM_COORD
CSMA_SEED_12
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
Bit
Bit
CSMA_SEED_1
CSMA_SEED_1
CSMA_SEED_1
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Bit
1
0
NA ($16E)
CSMA_SEED_11
CSMA_SEED_10
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
1
RW
0
CSMA_SEED_1
This register is a control register for RX_AACK and contains a part of the CSMA_SEED
for the CSMA-CA algorithm.
• Bit 7:6 – AACK_FVN_MODE1:0 - Acknowledgment Frame Filter Mode
The frame control field of the MAC header (MHR) contains a frame version subfield.
The setting of AACK_FVN_MODE specifies the frame filtering behavior of the radio
transceiver. According to the content of these register bits the radio transceiver passes
frames with a specific frame version number, number group or independent of the
frame version number. Thus the register bits AACK_FVN_MODE define the maximum
acceptable frame version. Received frames with a higher frame version number than
configured do not pass the address filter and are not acknowledged.
Table 9-71 AACK_FVN_MODE Register Bits
Register Bits
AACK_FVN_MODE1:0
Value
Description
0
Acknowledge frames with version number 0
1
Acknowledge frames with version number 0
or 1
2
Acknowledge frames with version number 0
or 1 or 2
3
Acknowledge frames independent of frame
version number
• Bit 5 – AACK_SET_PD - Set Frame Pending Sub-field
The content of AACK_SET_PD bit is copied into the frame pending subfield of the
acknowledgment frame if the acknowledgment is the answer to a data request MAC
command frame. If in addition the bits AACK_FVN_MODE of this register are
configured to accept frames with a frame version other than 0 or 1, the content of
register bit AACK_SET_PD is also copied into the frame pending subfield of the
acknowledgment frame for any MAC command frame with a frame version of 2 or 3 that
have the security enabled subfield set to 1. This is done in the assumption that a future
version of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard might change the length or structure of the
auxiliary security header, so that it is not possible to safely detect whether the MAC
command frame is actually a data request command or not.
• Bit 4 – AACK_DIS_ACK - Disable Acknowledgment Frame Transmission
If this bit is set no acknowledgment frames are transmitted in RX_AACK Extended
Operating Mode even if requested.
• Bit 3 – AACK_I_AM_COORD - Set Personal Area Network Coordinator
This register bit has to be set if the node is a PAN coordinator. It is used for address
filtering in RX_AACK.
• Bit 2:0 – CSMA_SEED_12:10 - Seed Value for CSMA Random Number
Generator
These bits contain the bits [10:8] of the CSMA_SEED. The lower part is defined in
register CSMA_SEED_0. See register CSMA_SEED_0 for details.
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9.12.47 CSMA_BE – Transceiver CSMA-CA Back-off Exponent Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($16F)
MAX_BE3
MAX_BE2
MAX_BE1
MAX_BE0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
1
3
2
1
0
NA ($16F)
MIN_BE3
MIN_BE2
MIN_BE1
MIN_BE0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
1
Bit
CSMA_BE
CSMA_BE
This register controls the back-off exponent for the CSMA-CA procedure.
• Bit 7:4 – MAX_BE3:0 - Maximum Back-off Exponent
These register bits define the maximum back-off exponent used in the CSMA-CA
algorithm to generate a pseudo random number for back off the CCA. For details refer
to IEEE 802.15.4-2006, section 7.5.1.4. Valid values are 3 to 8.
Table 9-72 MAX_BE Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
MAX_BE3:0
Description
1
This value is not valid for the maximum
back-off exponent.
2
This value is not valid for the maximum
back-off exponent.
3
Minimum, IEEE compliant value for the
maximum back-off exponent.
4
...
8
Maximum, IEEE compliant value for the
maximum back-off exponent.
• Bit 3:0 – MIN_BE3:0 - Minimum Back-off Exponent
These register bits define the minimum back-off exponent used in the CSMA-CA
algorithm to generate a pseudo random number for back off the CCA. For details refer
to IEEE 802.15.4-2006, section 7.5.1.4. Valid values are MAX_BE, MAX_BE-1), ..., 0.
If MIN_BE = 0 and MAX_BE = 0 the CCA back off period is always set to 0.
Table 9-73 MIN_BE Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
MIN_BE3:0
Description
0
Minimum value of minimum back-off
exponent.
1
...
8
Maximum value of minimum back-off
exponent. MIN_BE must be smaller or equal
to MAX_BE.
9.12.48 TST_CTRL_DIGI – Transceiver Digital Test Control Register
Bit
NA ($176)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
Resx7
Resx6
RW
0
RW
0
TST_CTRL_DIGI
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Bit
NA ($176)
5
4
Resx5
Resx4
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
TST_CTRL_DIG3
TST_CTRL_DIG2
RW
0
RW
0
1
0
TST_CTRL_DIG1
TST_CTRL_DIG0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($176)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($176)
Read/Write
Initial Value
TST_CTRL_DIGI
TST_CTRL_DIGI
TST_CTRL_DIGI
This register takes part in the activation sequence of the continuous transmission test
mode. Other functionality of this register is reserved for internal use.
• Bit 7:4 – Resx7:4 - Reserved
• Bit 3:0 – TST_CTRL_DIG3:0 - Digital Test Controller Register
This sub-register selects a test controller function. All values not listed int the following
table are reserved for internal use.
Table 9-74 TST_CTRL_DIG Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
TST_CTRL_DIG3:0
Description
0
NORMAL (no test is active)
15
TST_CONT_TX (continuous transmit)
9.12.49 TST_RX_LENGTH – Transceiver Received Frame Length Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($17B)
RX_LENGTH7
RX_LENGTH6
RX_LENGTH5
RX_LENGTH4
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
Bit
3
2
1
0
NA ($17B)
RX_LENGTH3
RX_LENGTH2
RX_LENGTH1
RX_LENGTH0
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
TST_RX_LENGTH
TST_RX_LENGTH
This register contains the frame length information of a received frame. This information
is not stored in the frame buffer. The frame length information is written to this register
after the last received octet.
• Bit 7:0 – RX_LENGTH7:0 - Received Frame Length
These bits contain the length of the last received frame.
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9.12.50 TRXFBST – Start of frame buffer
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($180)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
TRXFBST7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TRXFBST
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
First byte of the 128 byte long frame buffer of the TRX24.
• Bit 7:0 – TRXFBST7:0 - Frame Buffer Start Byte
9.12.51 TRXFBEND – End of frame buffer
Bit
7
6
5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($1FF)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TRXFBEND7:0
RW
0
RW
0
TRXFBEND
This register is the last byte of the 128 byte long frame buffer of the radio transceiver.
• Bit 7:0 – TRXFBEND7:0 - Frame Buffer End Byte
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10 MAC Symbol Counter
32kHz
RTC
16MHz
xtal
Figure 10-1. Symbol Counter Overview
clock
prescaler
configuration
register
clock
select
320µs
backoff slot
counter
AVR I/O Bus
32Bit Symbol Counter
compare
unit 1
SFD
timestamp
Beacon
timestamp
interrupt
generation
compare
unit 2
compare
unit 3
10.1 Main Features
The MAC symbol counter provides symbol timing information for IEEE 802.15.4
wireless networks. The counter time base can be derived from the 16 MHz crystal or
the RTC (32.768 kHz crystal on TOSC) during operation. In deep-sleep mode the
counter operates from the RTC clock. The module provides the following features:
• Backoff slot counter with interrupt generation
• Counter clock source selection between XTAL1 (16 MHz) and TOSC1 (RTC)
• Automatic RTC clock selection for sleep mode operation and automatic
fallback
• 3 independent compare units with relative and absolute compare mode and
interrupt generation (support for slotted operation and superframe handling)
• Low-power, deep-sleep mode operation and system wake up with all symbol
counter interrupt events
• Automatic SFD and incoming beacon timestamping
• Manual beacon timestamping
• Manual timer synchronization within a 16 µs symbol period by resetting clock
prescaler and backoff slot counter
• Atomic read/write access for 32 bit registers
10.2 Clock source selection and Sleep/Active mode operation
The symbol counter can be sourced by the transceiver clock or by the asynchronous
Real Time Clock (RTC) oscillator. If the transceiver goes from active mode into sleep
mode, the symbol counter clock source is switched to the RTC clock automatically. A
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clock source change is indicated in the bit SCCKSEL of Register "SCCR0 – Symbol
Counter Control Register 0" on page 146 . The bit SCCKSEL can not be written if the
radio transceiver is in SLEEP mode.
After wake up, the counter switches back to the clock source which was selected before
going to sleep mode. Switching the clock source from RTC to 16 MHz resets the 16
MHz clock prescaler. This makes sure, that after switching back the clock source, the
symbol counter starts counting with a full 16 µs symbol period.
The clock source can be selected with bit SCCKSEL in the SCCR0 Register
Note: The AVR system clock has to be at least 4 times the symbol counter clock
frequency. The symbol counter clock frequency is usually 62.5kHz, which would require
a minimum of 250kHz AVR system clock frequency.
10.3 32 bit Register Access (Atomic Read/Write)
All 32 bit registers support atomic read or write operation. That means reading or writing
the least significant xxxLL byte (the register name ends in LL) updates or captures the
complete 32 bit value.
Read Access: 1. Reading the LL-Byte captures the 32 bit value in a temporary register
2. Read the upper 3 bytes
Write Access: 1. Write the upper 3 byte
2. Writing the LL-Byte stores the 32 bit value in the counter registers
The same temporary register is used for all 32 bit register of the MAC symbol counter.
10.4 Symbol Counter (32 bit, SCCNT)
The symbol counter is a 32 bit counter which can be sourced by a 62.5 kHz clock,
derived from the 16 MHz system clock or from the RTC (32.768 kHz). If sourced by the
RTC, a special control circuitry ensures that the counter error does not exceed one
symbol period.
The symbol counter can be set or read from the controller. Reading must start with the
least significant byte. If the least significant byte is accessed, all 32 bit of the counter
are captured. A read access to SCCNTLL requires a maximum of three AVR clocks.
Reading the upper three bytes of the counter requires two CPU clock cycles for each
byte.
Writing to the counter should start with the most significant byte. Writing the least
significant byte initiates the counter update and the new 32 bit counter value is loaded
into the counter with the next available counter clock edge. This can take up to 16 µs
beginning from the low byte write operation, if the counter is sourced by the RTC.
If the counter clock is derived from the 16 MHz clock system, the new counter value is
stored immediately.
During the counter update cycle, the counter busy flag SCBSY in the SCSR register is
set to “1”. As long as this bit is “1”, no further read/write access to the counter should be
initiated. The same applies if the AVR is forced to any sleep mode with disabled AVR
clock, right after writing to the SCCNT register. If the counter busy flag is not checked
before going to sleep, it is possible that the counter register is not updated correctly.
The symbol counter overflow is indicated by a overflow interrupt. The interrupt is
generated when the counter turns from 0xFFFFFFFF to 0x00000000.
10.5 Symbol Counter SFD Timestamp Register (32 bit, SCTSR, Read Only)
The SFD timestamp register stores the symbol counter value at the time, the SFD has
been detected. The Register value becomes valid if a valid frame length byte (frame
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
length > 0) has been detected, but it is not checked if the received frame is valid (CRC
check). Timestamping must be enabled in the control register (Bit SCTSE of Register
SCCR0). A read access to SCTSRLL requires a maximum of three AVR clocks.
Reading the upper three bytes of the timestamp requires two CPU clock cycles for each
byte.
Note that there is no separate interrupt provided for timestamping. Instead the
TRX24_RX_START interrupt can be used (see "Interrupt Vectors in ATmega128RFA1"
on page 214).
10.6 Symbol Counter Beacon Timestamp Register (32 bit, SCBTSR)
If timestamping is enabled in the SCCR register, the beacon timestamp register is
updated with the SFD timestamp at the end of the received frame, if the received frame
was a beacon frame with valid FCS and:
•
Source PAN identifier == {PAN_ID_1, PAN_ID_0}
•
{PAN_ID_1, PAN_ID_0} == 0xFFFF
or
PAN_ID_0 and PAN_ID_1 are register of the radio transceiver, see "PAN_ID_0 –
Transceiver Personal Area Network ID Register (Low Byte)" on page 127.
Beacon timestamps can also be generated manually. Writing “1” to SCMBTS of
Register SCCR0 captures the current symbol counter value and stores it in the beacon
timestamp register. The bit is cleared automatically afterwards.
It is also possible to manually set the register in order to provide a distinct starting value
for the relative compare modes (see next section).
10.7 Compare Unit (3x 32 bit, SCOCR1, SCOCR2, SCOCR3)
The compare unit contains 3 independent 32 bit compare modules and is used to
compare the current counter value with the value stored in the compare register, and
optionally the beacon timestamp register. There are two possible modes available
which can be selected separately for all three compare modules:
1. Absolute Compare: In this mode the value stored in the compare register is
compared directly with the symbol counter value (SCCNT == SCOCRx). If the values
are equal an interrupt is generated.
2. Relative Compare: This mode allows the compare between the current symbol
counter value and the compare value plus the beacon timestamp value (SCCNT ==
SCBTSR + SCOCRx). This mode can be used to generate an interrupt at a time offset
relative to the value stored in the beacon timestamp register.
Note that a beacon timestamp is valid after a valid FCS. The relative compare must
exceed the beacon length, otherwise no relative compare interrupt will occur.
10.8 Interrupt Control Registers
The interrupt status and mask registers control the interrupt generation. Each interrupt
can be enabled in SCIRQM (Symbol Counter IRQ Mask Register). If an interrupt
occurs, the appropriate interrupt flag within the interrupt status register is set regardless
of the interrupt mask register setting. If the appropriate interrupt is enabled, an interrupt
is generated.
The interrupt flags can be cleared either by:
1. Entering the respective interrupt handler, or
2. Writing “one” to the according interrupt flag in the interrupt status register.
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All Interrupts can be used to wakeup the controller from any sleep state.
10.9 Backoff Slot Counter
The backoff slot counter can be used to provide accurate MAC protocol timing. The
counter is sourced by the transceiver clock and works only if the transceiver clock is
running. If the transceiver is disabled or in sleep mode the counter is also disabled.
The counter generates periodic Interrupts every 20 symbols, i.e. every 320 µs.
10.10 Symbol Counter Usage
10.10.1 SFD and Beacon Timestamp Generation
The SFD timestamp register is updated with the symbol counter value at the time the
SFD value has been received completely. For an incoming frame, the register is valid
after the RX_START IRQ was issued until the next RX_START IRQ. SFD timestamps
are generated for all incoming frames with valid SFD and length field even if the PSDU
is corrupted (invalid FCS).
Figure 10-2. SFD and Beacon Timestamp Generation
Note that Figure 10-2 contains no exact timing information; it is for visualization only.
The beacon timestamp register is updated with the SFD timestamp value at the end of
the frame (RX_END IRQ), if the received frame was a beacon frame with valid FCS and
expected source PAN identifier or { PAN_ID_1, PAN_ID_0} = 0xFFFF.
The register value is valid until a new beacon frame has been received or the beacon
timestamp is updated manually. A manual beacon timestamp can be generated by
writing “1” to SCMBTS of the SCCR0 register.
10.10.2 Relative Compare Mode for Superframe Access Timing
The IEEE 802.15.4 describes a superframe structure which contains different time slots
where a device can access the channel.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
The Symbol Counter together with the three compare units provide support for waking
up the device at the right time to receive the beacon for superframe synchronization
and at certain times within the superframe.
A typical superframe timing scenario using the symbol counter relative compare mode
is shown in Figure 10-3 below. The Symbol Counter values in the figure do not reflect
realistic time intervals but demonstrate the principle of operation.
Beacon
Activation
635
636
637
638
640
641
480
481
482
483
484
485
402
403
404
405
406
407
Beacon
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
Activation
Figure 10-3. Relative Compare Mode
The compare match registers are programmed with symbol intervals relative to the
beacon frame SFD timestamp. For instance the SCCMP1 is programmed to 80,
because the first Granted Time Slot (GTS1) is expected 80 symbols after the beacon
frame. Register SCCMP2 is programmed to 156 to meet GTS3 156 symbols after the
beacon frame. SCCMP3 is programmed to 312. This is the time interval where the
beacon of the next superframe is expected. Because it requires some time to activate
the transceiver and there is also some timing drift possible, the compare interrupt must
be programmed to wake up some symbols in advance to make sure the next beacon is
not missed.
If the controller receives a compare match wake up event it is activating the transceiver.
After the frame operations are finished, the system can go back to sleep until the next
compare match event occurs.
10.11 Register Description
10.11.1 SCCNTHH – Symbol Counter Register HH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($E4)
Read/Write
Initial Value
140
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCCNTHH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
SCCNTHH
ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
This register contains the most significant byte of the 32 bit Symbol Counter.
• Bit 7:0 – SCCNTHH7:0 - Symbol Counter Register HH-Byte
10.11.2 SCCNTHL – Symbol Counter Register HL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($E3)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCCNTHL7:0
RW
0
SCCNTHL
This register contains the second most significant byte of the 32 bit Symbol Counter.
• Bit 7:0 – SCCNTHL7:0 - Symbol Counter Register HL-Byte
10.11.3 SCCNTLH – Symbol Counter Register LH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($E2)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCCNTLH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCCNTLH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the second least significant byte of the 32 bit Symbol Counter.
• Bit 7:0 – SCCNTLH7:0 - Symbol Counter Register LH-Byte
10.11.4 SCCNTLL – Symbol Counter Register LL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($E1)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCCNTLL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCCNTLL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the least significant byte of the 32 bit Symbol Counter.
• Bit 7:0 – SCCNTLL7:0 - Symbol Counter Register LL-Byte
10.11.5 SCTSRHH – Symbol Counter Frame Timestamp Register HH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
R
0
R
0
R
0
NA ($EC)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
SCTSRHH7:0
R
0
R
0
SCTSRHH
This register contains the most significant byte of the 32 bit frame (SFD) timestamp
register
• Bit 7:0 – SCTSRHH7:0 - Symbol Counter Frame Timestamp Register HH-Byte
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10.11.6 SCTSRHL – Symbol Counter Frame Timestamp Register HL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($EB)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCTSRHL7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
SCTSRHL
R
0
R
0
R
0
This register contains the second most significant byte of the 32 bit Frame (SFD)
Timestamp Register
• Bit 7:0 – SCTSRHL7:0 - Symbol Counter Frame Timestamp Register HL-Byte
10.11.7 SCTSRLH – Symbol Counter Frame Timestamp Register LH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
R
0
R
0
R
0
NA ($EA)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
SCTSRLH7:0
R
0
R
0
SCTSRLH
This register contains the second least significant byte of the 32 bit Frame (SFD)
Timestamp Register
• Bit 7:0 – SCTSRLH7:0 - Symbol Counter Frame Timestamp Register LH-Byte
10.11.8 SCTSRLL – Symbol Counter Frame Timestamp Register LL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($E9)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCTSRLL7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
SCTSRLL
R
0
R
0
R
0
This register contains the least significant byte of the 32 bit Frame (SFD) Timestamp
Register
• Bit 7:0 – SCTSRLL7:0 - Symbol Counter Frame Timestamp Register LL-Byte
10.11.9 SCBTSRHH – Symbol Counter Beacon Timestamp Register HH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($E8)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCBTSRHH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
SCBTSRHH
This register contains the most significant byte of the 32 bit Beacon Timestamp
Register. The Beacon Timestamp Register is updated with the contents of the Frame
Timestamp Register if the received frame was a valid beacon frame with matching
source PAN identifier or register {PAN_ID_1, PAN_ID_0} = 0xFFFF.
• Bit 7:0 – SCBTSRHH7:0 - Symbol Counter Beacon Timestamp Register HHByte
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10.11.10 SCBTSRHL – Symbol Counter Beacon Timestamp Register HL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($E7)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCBTSRHL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCBTSRHL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the second most significant byte of the 32 bit Beacon Timestamp
Register.
• Bit 7:0 – SCBTSRHL7:0 - Symbol Counter Beacon Timestamp Register HLByte
10.11.11 SCBTSRLH – Symbol Counter Beacon Timestamp Register LH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($E6)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCBTSRLH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
SCBTSRLH
This register contains the second least significant byte of the 32 bit Beacon Timestamp
Register.
• Bit 7:0 – SCBTSRLH7:0 - Symbol Counter Beacon Timestamp Register LHByte
10.11.12 SCBTSRLL – Symbol Counter Beacon Timestamp Register LL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($E5)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCBTSRLL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCBTSRLL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the least significant byte of the 32 bit Beacon Timestamp
Register.
• Bit 7:0 – SCBTSRLL7:0 - Symbol Counter Beacon Timestamp Register LL-Byte
10.11.13 SCOCR1HH – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 1 HH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($F8)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR1HH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR1HH
This register contains the most significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for the first
compare unit
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• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR1HH7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 1 HH-Byte
10.11.14 SCOCR1HL – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 1 HL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($F7)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCOCR1HL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR1HL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the second most significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for
the first compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR1HL7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 1 HL-Byte
10.11.15 SCOCR1LH – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 1 LH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($F6)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCOCR1LH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR1LH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the second least significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for
the first compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR1LH7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 1 LH-Byte
10.11.16 SCOCR1LL – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 1 LL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($F5)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR1LL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR1LL
This register contains the least significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for the first
compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR1LL7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 1 LL-Byte
10.11.17 SCOCR2HH – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 2 HH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($F4)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCOCR2HH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR2HH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the most significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for the
second compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR2HH7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 2 HH-Byte
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10.11.18 SCOCR2HL – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 2 HL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($F3)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCOCR2HL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR2HL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the second most significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for
the second compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR2HL7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 2 HL-Byte
10.11.19 SCOCR2LH – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 2 LH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($F2)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR2LH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR2LH
This register contains the second least significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for
the second compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR2LH7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 2 LH-Byte
10.11.20 SCOCR2LL – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 2 LL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($F1)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SCOCR2LL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR2LL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the least significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for the
second compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR2LL7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 2 LL-Byte
10.11.21 SCOCR3HH – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 3 HH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($F0)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR3HH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR3HH
This register contains the most significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for the third
compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR3HH7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 3 HH-Byte
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10.11.22 SCOCR3HL – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 3 HL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($EF)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
SCOCR3HL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR3HL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the second most significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for
the third compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR3HL7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 3 HL-Byte
10.11.23 SCOCR3LH – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 3 LH-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($EE)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR3LH7:0
RW
0
SCOCR3LH
RW
0
This register contains the second least significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for
the third compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR3LH7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 3 LH-Byte
10.11.24 SCOCR3LL – Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 3 LL-Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($ED)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
SCOCR3LL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCOCR3LL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
This register contains the least significant byte of the 32 bit compare value for the third
compare unit
• Bit 7:0 – SCOCR3LL7:0 - Symbol Counter Output Compare Register 3 LL-Byte
10.11.25 SCCR0 – Symbol Counter Control Register 0
Bit
NA ($DC)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
SCRES
SCMBTS
SCEN
SCCKSEL
SCTSE
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
2
1
0
SCCMP3 SCCMP2 SCCMP1
RW
0
RW
0
SCCR0
RW
0
The Control Register 0 is used to setup the operating mode of the symbol counter and
the compare units
• Bit 7 – SCRES - Symbol Counter Synchronization
If this bit is set to 1, the 16 MHz clock prescaler as well as the backoff slot counter is
cleared. This function can be used to align the symbol timing within one 16 µs symbol
period and to restart the backoff slot counter with a complete 320 µs period. This
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feature works only if the symbol counter module operates with the 16 MHz clock from
XTAL1. After switching to RTC clock source, the symbol period synchronization is lost.
This bit is cleared automatically.
• Bit 6 – SCMBTS - Manual Beacon Timestamp
With this bit a manual beacon timestamp can be generated. If set to 1, the current
symbol counter value is stored into the beacon timestamp register. The bit is cleared
afterwards. The manual beacon timestamping can be used in conjunction with the
relative compare mode of the three compare units to generate compare match
interrupts without having a beacon frame received.
• Bit 5 – SCEN - Symbol Counter enable
This bit activates the symbol counter module. If the bit is not set, the counter, backoff
slot counter and the compare unit are disabled and disconnected from the clock. In this
way the power consumption can be reduced. All registers can be accessed, but write
access to the counter register SCCNT is not possible.
• Bit 4 – SCCKSEL - Symbol Counter Clock Source select
With this bit the clock source for the symbol counter can be selected. If the bit is one,
the RTC clock from TOSC1 is selected, otherwise the symbol counter operates with the
clock from XTAL1. During transceiver sleep modes the clock falls back to the RTC clock
source, regardless of the selected clock. After wakeup, it switches back to the previosly
selected clock source.
• Bit 3 – SCTSE - Symbol Counter Automatic Timestamping enable
This bit enables automatic SFD and Beacon Timestamping. If the bit is zero, no
automatic timestamp capturing is possible. Only manual beacon timestamping can be
used.
• Bit 2 – SCCMP3 - Symbol Counter Compare Unit 3 Mode select
This bit enables the relative compare mode for compare unit 3. If enabled, the counter
value is compared against the content of the beacon timestamp register plus the
content of the compare register 3 (SCCNT == SCBTS+SCOCR3). Otherwise, the
counter is compared against the copare register 3 (SCCNT == SCOCR3).
• Bit 1 – SCCMP2 - Symbol Counter Compare Unit 2 Mode select
This bit enables the relative compare mode for compare unit 2. If enabled, the counter
value is compared against the content of the beacon timestamp register plus the
content of the compare register 2 (SCCNT == SCBTS+SCOCR2). Otherwise, the
counter is compared against the copare register 2 (SCCNT == SCOCR2).
• Bit 0 – SCCMP1 - Symbol Counter Compare Unit 1 Mode select
This bit enables the relative compare mode for compare unit 1. If enabled, the counter
value is compared against the content of the beacon timestamp register plus the
content of the compare register 1 (SCCNT == SCBTS+SCOCR1). Otherwise, the
counter is compared against the copare register 1 (SCCNT == SCOCR1).
10.11.26 SCCR1 – Symbol Counter Control Register 1
Bit
NA ($DD)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res6
Res5
Res4
Resx4
Resx3
Resx2
Resx1
SCENBO
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCCR1
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This register is used to enable the backoff slot counter.
• Bit 7:5 – Res6:4 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. The result of a read access is undefined. The register
bit must always be written with the reset value.
• Bit 4:1 – Resx4:1 - Reserved
• Bit 0 – SCENBO - Backoff Slot Counter enable
If this bit is set, the backoff slot counter starts working. To enable the corresponding
IRQ the SCIRQM register must be updated.
10.11.27 SCSR – Symbol Counter Status Register
Bit
NA ($DE)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res6
Res5
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
SCBSY
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
SCSR
• Bit 7:1 – Res6:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. The result of a read access is undefined. The register
bit must always be written with the reset value.
• Bit 0 – SCBSY - Symbol Counter busy
This bit is set if a write operation to the symbol counter register is pending. This bit is
set after writing the counter low byte (SCCNTLL) until the symbol counter is updated
with the new value. This update process can take up to 16 µs and during this time no
read or write access to the 32 bit counter register should occure.
10.11.28 SCIRQS – Symbol Counter Interrupt Status Register
Bit
NA ($E0)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
Res2
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
R
0
4
3
2
1
0
IRQSBO IRQSOF IRQSCP3 IRQSCP2 IRQSCP1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCIRQS
RW
0
The Interrupt Status Register indicates pending interrupt requests. If the corresponding
interrupt mask bit is set, an interrupt service routine is called and the status bit is
cleared automatically. It is also possible to clear the status bit by writing "1" to the
selected bit.
• Bit 7:5 – Res2:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. The result of a read access is undefined. The register
bit must always be written with the reset value.
• Bit 4 – IRQSBO - Backoff Slot Counter IRQ
This interrupt is generated every 320 µs, that means every 20 symbols.
• Bit 3 – IRQSOF - Symbol Counter Overflow IRQ
This interrupt is generated when the 32 bit counter turns from 0xFFFFFFF to
0x00000000.
• Bit 2 – IRQSCP3 - Compare Unit 3 Compare Match IRQ
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This interrupt indicates a compare match on compare unit 3.
• Bit 1 – IRQSCP2 - Compare Unit 2 Compare Match IRQ
This interrupt indicates a compare match on compare unit 2.
• Bit 0 – IRQSCP1 - Compare Unit 1 Compare Match IRQ
This interrupt indicates a compare match on compare unit 1.
10.11.29 SCIRQM – Symbol Counter Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
NA ($DF)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
Res2
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
R
0
4
3
2
1
0
IRQMBO IRQMOF IRQMCP3 IRQMCP2 IRQMCP1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SCIRQM
RW
0
The Interrupt Mask Register is used to enable corresponding interrupts. After reset all
interrupts are disabled. Disabled interrupts are still captured in the interrupt status
register SCIRQS, but no interrupt is requested. Before enabling an interrupt, the
corresponding interrupt status bit should be cleared by writing a 1. If the status bit is set
and the IRQ gets enabled, the IRQ handler is called immediatly.
• Bit 7:5 – Res2:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. The result of a read access is undefined. The register
bit must always be written with the reset value.
• Bit 4 – IRQMBO - Backoff Slot Counter IRQ enable
This bit enables the SCNT_BACKOFF interrupt.
• Bit 3 – IRQMOF - Symbol Counter Overflow IRQ enable
This bit enables the SCNT_OVFL interrupt.
• Bit 2 – IRQMCP3 - Symbol Counter Compare Match 3 IRQ enable
This bit enables the SCNT_CMP3 interrupt.
• Bit 1 – IRQMCP2 - Symbol Counter Compare Match 2 IRQ enable
This bit enables the SCNT_CMP2 interrupt.
• Bit 0 – IRQMCP1 - Symbol Counter Compare Match 1 IRQ enable
This bit enables the SCNT_CMP1 interrupt.
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11 System Clock and Clock Options
This section describes the clock options for the AVR microcontroller.
11.1 Overview
Figure 11-1 below presents the principal clock systems in the AVR and their
distribution. All of the clocks need not be active at a given time. In order to reduce
power consumption, the clocks to modules not being used can be halted by using
different sleep modes, as described in chapter "Power Management and Sleep Modes"
on page 159. The clock systems are detailed below.
Figure 11-1. Clock Distribution
Asynchronous
Timer
General I/O
Modules
ADC
CPU Core
Flash and
EEPROM
RAM
clkASY
Symbol
Counter
Radio
Transceiver
clkADC
clk RAMREGF
Clock
Multiplexer
Clock
Multiplexer
clk CPU
clk I/O
AVR Clock
Control Unit
clk CALIB
clkFLASH
Source clock
Reset Logic
Watchdog Timer
1/8 Clock Prescaler
System Clock
Prescaler
Clock
Multiplexer
clkTRX
clk RCOSC
clk W DT
1:2
Prescaler
Calibrated RC
Oscillator (16MHz)
W atchdog Oscillator
(128kHz)
XTAL2
Transceiver Crystal
Oscillator
(16MHz)
XTAL1
CLKI
External Clock
AMR
TOSC2
TOSC1
Timer/Counter
Oscillator
(32.768kHz)
11.2 Clock Systems and their Distribution
The AVR Clock Control Unit distributes the pre-scaled system clock to the various
functional blocks of the device. The radio transceiver always runs with the 16 MHz
crystal oscillator clock.
11.2.1 CPU Clock – clkCPU
The CPU clock is routed to parts of the system concerned with operation of the AVR
core. Examples of such modules are the General Purpose Register File, the Status
Register and the data memory holding the Stack Pointer. Halting the CPU clock inhibits
the core from performing general operations and calculations.
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11.2.2 I/O Clock – clkI/O
The I/O clock is used by the majority of the I/O modules, like Timer/Counters, SPI, and
USART. The I/O clock is also used by the External Interrupt module, but note that some
external interrupts are detected by asynchronous logic, allowing such interrupts to be
detected even if the I/O clock is halted. Also note that start condition detection in the 2wire serial interface (TWI) module is carried out asynchronously when clkI/O is halted.
Similar the TWI address recognition in all sleep modes also occurs asynchronously.
11.2.3 Flash Clock – clkFLASH
The Flash clock controls operation of the Flash interface. The Flash clock is usually
active simultaneously with the CPU clock.
11.2.4 Asynchronous Timer Clock – clkASY
The Asynchronous Timer clock allows the Asynchronous Timer/Counter to be clocked
directly from an external clock or an external 32 kHz clock crystal. The dedicated clock
domain allows using this Timer/Counter as a real-time counter even if the device is in
sleep mode.
11.2.5 ADC Clock – clkADC
The ADC is provided with a dedicated clock domain. This allows halting the CPU and
I/O clocks in order to reduce noise generated by digital circuitry. This gives more
accurate ADC conversion results.
11.3 Clock Sources
The device has the following clock source options, selectable by Flash Fuse bits as
shown below. The clock from the selected source is input to the AVR clock generator,
and routed to the appropriate modules.
(1)
Table 11-1. Device Clocking Options Select
Device Clocking Option
CKSEL3:0
Transceiver clock
1111 – 0110
Reserved
0101 - 0100
Internal 128 kHz RC Oscillator
0011
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
0010
External Clock
0000
Reserved
0001
Notes:
1. For all fuses “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
11.3.1 Default Clock Source
The device is shipped with internal RC oscillator at 16.0 MHz, the 1:2 prescaler enabled
and with the fuse CKDIV8 programmed, resulting in 1.0 MHz system clock. The startup
time is set to maximum time. (CKSEL = "0010", SUT = "10", CKDIV8 = "0"). The default
setting ensures that all users can make their desired clock source setting using any
available programming interface.
11.3.2 Clock Start-up Sequence
Any clock source needs a minimum number of oscillating cycles before it can be
considered stable.
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To ensure sufficient startup time, the device issues an internal reset with a time-out
delay (tTOUT) after the device reset is released by all other reset sources. Section
"Power-on Reset" on page 181 describes the start conditions for the internal reset. The
delay (tTOUT) is timed from the Watchdog Oscillator and the number of cycles in the
delay is set by the SUTx and CKSELx fuse bits. The selectable delays are shown in
Table 11-2 below. The frequency of the Watchdog Oscillator is voltage dependent as
shown in section "Typical Characteristics" on page 526.
Table 11-2. Number of Watchdog Oscillator Cycles
Typ Time-out
Number of Cycles
0 ms
0
4.0 ms
512
64 ms
8K (8,192)
Main purpose of the delay is to keep the AVR in reset until it is supplied with a stable
VDEVDD. The delay will not monitor the actual voltage and it will be required to select a
delay longer than the DEVDD rise time. If this is not possible, an internal or external
Brown-Out Detection (BOD) circuit should be used. A BOD circuit will ensure sufficient
VDEVDD before it releases the reset, and the time-out delay can be disabled. Disabling
the time-out delay without utilizing a Brown-Out Detection circuit is not recommended.
The oscillator is required to oscillate for a minimum number of cycles before the clock is
considered stable. An internal ripple counter monitors the oscillator output clock, and
keeps the internal reset active for a given number of clock cycles. The reset is then
released and the device will start to execute. The recommended oscillator start-up time
is dependent on the clock type, and varies from 6 cycles for an externally applied clock
to 32K cycles for a low frequency crystal.
The start-up sequence for the clock includes both the time-out delay and the start-up
time when the device starts up from reset. When starting up from Power-save or Powerdown mode, DEVDD is assumed to be at a sufficient level and only the start-up time is
included.
11.4 Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
By default, the Internal RC Oscillator provides an approximate 16 MHz clock. The RC
oscillator is voltage and temperature dependent, but can be very accurately calibrated
by the user. See chapter "Clock Characteristics" on page 514 and "Internal Oscillator
Speed" on page 548 for more details. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse and
the 1:2 system clock prescaler programmed. See section "System Clock Prescaler" on
page 155 for more details.
This clock may be selected as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses as
shown in Table 11-3 on page 153. If selected, it will operate with no external
components. During reset, hardware loads the pre-programmed calibration value into
the OSCCAL Register and thereby automatically calibrates the RC Oscillator. The
accuracy of this calibration is shown as Factory calibration in section "Clock
Characteristics" on page 514.
By changing the OSCCAL register (see "OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Value" on
page 156) from Software, it is possible to get a higher calibration accuracy than by
using the factory calibration. The accuracy of this calibration is shown as User
calibration in section "Clock Characteristics" on page 514.
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When this Oscillator is used as the chip clock, the Watchdog Oscillator will still be used
for the Watchdog Timer and for the Reset Time-out. For more information on the preprogrammed calibration value, see the section "Calibration Byte" on page 473.
Table 11-3. Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Operating Modes
Frequency Range (MHz)
CKSEL3:0
9.6 ... 22.4
0010
Notes:
(1)(2)
1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
When this Oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as
shown in the following table.
Table 11-4. Start-up times for the internal calibrated RC Oscillator clock selection
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from Powerdown and Power-save
Additional Delay from
Reset
SUT1:0
BOD enabled
6 CK
14CK
00
Fast rising power
6 CK
14CK + 4.0 ms
Slowly rising power
6 CK
14CK + 64 ms
(1)
Reserved
Notes:
01
10
11
1. The device is shipped with this option selected
11.5 128 kHz Internal Oscillator
The 128 kHz Internal Oscillator is an ultra-low power RC oscillator providing a clock of
approximate 128 kHz nominal frequency. This clock may be selected as the system
clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses to “0011” as shown in the following table.
Table 11-5. 128 kHz Internal Oscillator Operating Modes
Nominal Frequency
CKSEL3:0
128 kHz
0011
Notes:
(1)
1. Note that the 128 kHz oscillator is a very low power clock source, and is not
designed for high accuracy
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as
shown in the following table.
Table 11-6. Start-up Times for the 128 kHz Internal Oscillator
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from Power-down
and Power-save
Additional Delay from
Reset
SUT1:0
BOD enabled
6 CK
14CK
00
Fast rising power
6 CK
14CK + 4.1 ms
01
Slowly rising power
6 CK
14CK + 64 ms
10
Reserved
11
11.6 External Clock
To drive the device from an external clock source, CLKI should be used as shown in
Figure 11-2 on page 154. To run the device on an external clock, the CKSEL Fuses
must be programmed to “0000”.
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Figure 11-2. External Clock Drive Configuration
external clock
CLKI
VSS
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as
shown in Table 11-8 below.
Table 11-7. External Clock Frequency
Nominal Frequency
CKSEL3:0
0 – 16 MHz
0000
Table 11-8. Start-up Times for the External Clock Selection
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from Power-down
and Power-save
Additional Delay from
Reset
SUT1:0
BOD enabled
6 CK
14 CK
00
Fast rising power
6 CK
14 CK + 4.0 ms
01
Slowly rising power
6 CK
14 CK + 64 ms
10
Reserved
11
When applying an external clock, it is required to avoid sudden changes in the applied
clock frequency to ensure stable operation of the microcontroller unit (MCU). A variation
in frequency of more than 2% from one clock cycle to the next can lead to unpredictable
behavior. If changes of more than 2% are required, ensure that the MCU is kept in
Reset during the changes.
Note that the System Clock Prescaler can be used to implement run-time changes of
the internal clock frequency while still ensuring stable operation. Refer to section
"System Clock Prescaler" on page 155 for details.
11.7 Transceiver Crystal Oscillator
The integrated crystal oscillator for the radio transceiver generates a low-jitter 16MHz
clock frequency. See section "Crystal Oscillator (XOSC)" on page 82 for details about
the operation of this oscillator. The AVR core and the radio transceiver operate
synchronously on the same clock if this oscillator is selected. If the transceiver crystal
oscillator is selected as AVR core clock, it remains enabled even if the radio transceiver
is in SLEEP mode or its power reduction bit PRTRX24 is set.
Table 11-9. Transceiver Crystal Clock Operating Mode
Frequency Range (MHz)
16
Notes:
154
CKSEL3:0
(1)
1111 - 0110
1. All CKSEL fuse values have the same significance.
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ATmega128RFA1
Table 11-10. Start-up Times for the Transceiver Oscillator Clock Selection
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from
Power-down and
Power-save
Additional Delay
from Reset
CKSEL0
SUT1:0
fast rising power
258 CK
14CK + 4.1 ms
0
00
slowly rising power
258 CK
14CK + 65 ms
0
01
BOD enabled
1K CK
14CK + 0 ms
0
10
fast rising power
1K CK
14CK + 4.1 ms
0
11
slowly rising power
1K CK
14CK + 65 ms
1
00
BOD enabled
16K CK
14CK + 0 ms
1
01
fast rising power
16K CK
14CK + 4.1 ms
1
10
slowly rising power
16K CK
14CK + 65 ms
1
11
11.8 Clock Output Buffer
The device can output the system clock on the CLKO pin. To enable the output, the
CKOUT Fuse has to be programmed. This mode is suitable when the chip clock is used
to drive other circuits on the system. The clock also will be output during reset, and the
normal operation of I/O pin will be overridden when the fuse is programmed. Any clock
source, including the internal RC Oscillator, can be selected when the clock is output on
CLKO. If the System Clock Prescaler is used, it is the divided system clock that is
output.
Special attention is required to prevent unwanted radiation from the connected PCB
clock trace. Proper filtering can help to suppress higher harmonics.
11.9 Timer/Counter Oscillator
The device can operate the Timer/Counter2 as well as the MAC Symbol Counter from
the 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator or an external clock source. See section "Application
Circuits" on page 500 for the watch crystal connection and the asynchronous control
register "ASSR – Asynchronous Status Register" on page 331 to get the 32.768 kHz
crystal oscillator enabled by the control bit AS2.
11.10 System Clock Prescaler
The ATmega128RFA1 has a system clock prescaler, and the system clock can be
divided by setting the “CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register”. This feature can be used to
decrease the system clock frequency and the power consumption when the
requirement for processing power is low. This can be used with all clock source options,
and it will affect the clock frequency of the CPU and all synchronous peripherals. The
clocks clkI/O, clkADC, clkCPU, and clkFLASH are divided by a factor as shown in CLKPR –
Clock Prescale Register on page 157.
The prescaler clock division factor of the internal RC-Oscillator is different from all other
clock sources, see register description CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register on page 157
Flash, EEPROM, Fuse- and Lock-bit programming is not allowed while using RCOscillator with CLKPS=0xF (clkCPU = 16MHz).
When switching between prescaler settings, the System Clock Prescaler ensures that
no glitches occur in the clock system. It also ensures that no intermediate frequency is
higher than neither the clock frequency corresponding to the previous setting nor the
clock frequency corresponding to the new setting.
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The prescaler is implemented as a ripple counter running at the frequency of the
undivided clock, which may be faster than the CPU's clock frequency. Hence, it is not
possible to determine the state of the prescaler - even if it were readable. The exact
time it takes to switch from one clock division to another cannot be exactly predicted.
From the time the CLKPS values are written, it takes between t1 + t2 and t1 + 2t2 before
the new clock frequency is active. In this interval 2 active clock edges are produced.
Here t1 is the previous clock period and t2 is the clock period corresponding to the new
prescaler setting.
To avoid unintentional changes of clock frequency, a special write procedure must be
followed to change the CLKPS bits:
1. Write the Clock Prescaler Change Enable (CLKPCE) bit to one and all other bits in
CLKPR to zero.
2. Within four cycles, write the desired value to CLKPS while writing a zero to
CLKPCE.
Interrupts must be disabled when changing prescaler settings to make sure the write
procedure is not interrupted.
It is not required to change the prescaler setting of an existing software package written
for an 8MHz internal RC oscillator. The change of the prescaler (additional 1:2 divider)
is compensated by doubling the RC oscillator frequency of the ATmega128RFA1.
11.11 Register Description
11.11.1 OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Value
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
NA ($66)
CAL7
CAL6
CAL5
CAL4
CAL3
CAL2
CAL1
CAL0
Read/Write
Initial Value
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
OSCCAL
The Oscillator Calibration Register is used to trim the Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
to remove process variations from the oscillator frequency. A preprogrammed
calibration value is automatically written to this register during chip reset, giving the
Factory calibrated frequency. The application software can write this register to change
the oscillator frequency. The oscillator can be calibrated to frequencies as specified in
the section "Electrical Characteristics". Calibration outside that range is not guaranteed.
Note that this oscillator is used to time EEPROM and Flash write accesses and these
write times will be affected accordingly. The calibration to very high frequencies can
cause EEPROM or Flash erase/write failures. The CAL7 bit determines the range of
operation for the oscillator. Setting this bit to 0 gives the lowest frequency range, setting
this bit to 1 gives the highest frequency range. The two frequency ranges are
overlapping, in other words a setting of OSCCAL = 0x7F gives a higher frequency than
OSCCAL = 0x80. The CAL6..0 bits are used to tune the frequency within the selected
range. A setting of 0x00 gives the lowest frequency in that range, and a setting of 0x7F
gives the highest frequency in the range.
• Bit 7:0 – CAL7:0 - Oscillator Calibration Tuning Value
Table 11-11 CAL Register Bits
156
Register Bits
Value
Description
CAL7:0
0x00
Calibration value for lowest oscillator
frequency
0x7f
End value of low frequency range calibration
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Register Bits
Value
Description
0x80
Start value of high frequency range
calibration
0xff
Calibration value for highest oscillator
frequency
11.11.2 CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register
Bit
NA ($61)
7
6
5
4
CLKPCE
Res2
Res1
Res0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
CLKPS3 CLKPS2 CLKPS1 CLKPS0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
CLKPR
RW
0
• Bit 7 – CLKPCE - Clock Prescaler Change Enable
The CLKPCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the CLKPS bits. The
CLKPCE bit is only updated when the other bits in CLKPR are simultaneously written to
zero. CLKPCE is cleared by hardware four cycles after it is written or when CLKPS bits
are written. Rewriting the CLKPCE bit within this time-out period does neither extend
the time-out period, nor clear the CLKPCE bit.
• Bit 6:4 – Res2:0 - Reserved
• Bit 3:0 – CLKPS3:0 - Clock Prescaler Select Bits
These bits define the division factor between the selected clock source and the internal
system clock. These bits can be written run-time to vary the clock frequency to suit the
application requirements. As the divider divides the master clock input to the MCU, the
speed of all synchronous peripherals is reduced when a division factor is used. The
division factors are given in the following table. Note that the factor is different when
using the internal 16MHz RC oscillator as the clock source. The CKDIV8 Fuse
determines the initial value of the CLKPS bits. If CKDIV8 is not programmed, the
CLKPS bits will be reset to 0000. If CKDIV8 is programmed, CLKPS bits are reset to
0011 giving a division factor of 8 at start up. This feature should be used if the selected
clock source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at the
present operating conditions. Note that any value can be written to the CLKPS bits
regardless of the CKDIV8 Fuse setting. The Application software must ensure that a
sufficient division factor is chosen if the selected clock source has a higher frequency
than the maximum frequency of the device at the present operating conditions. The
device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed.
Table 11-12 CLKPS Register Bits
Register Bits
CLKPS3:0
Value
Description
0x0
Division factor 1 / RC-Oscillator 2
0x1
Division factor 2 / RC-Oscillator 4
0x2
Division factor 4 / RC-Oscillator 8
0x3
Division factor 8 / RC-Oscillator 16
0x4
Division factor 16 / RC-Oscillator 32
0x5
Division factor 32 / RC-Oscillator 64
0x6
Division factor 64 / RC-Oscillator 128
0x7
Division factor 128 / RC-Oscillator 256
0x8
Division factor 256 / RC-Oscillator 512
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Register Bits
158
Value
Description
0x9
Reserved
0xA
Reserved
0xB
Reserved
0xC
Reserved
0xD
Reserved
0xE
Reserved
0xF
Division factor 1 only permitted for RCOscillator. Flash and EEPROM programming
is not allowed.
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12 Power Management and Sleep Modes
Sleep modes enable the application to shut down unused modules in the MCU, thereby
saving power. The AVR microcontroller and the RF transceiver provide various sleep
modes allowing the user to tailor the power consumption to the application’s
requirements.
12.1 Deep-Sleep Mode
When the microcontroller goes into Power-down or Power-save modes while the
transceiver is in SLEEP state the device enters the Deep-Sleep mode.
Sending the microcontroller to Power-down or Power-save is not allowed during the
wake-up phase of the transceiver. The TRX24_AWAKE interrupt shall be used to wait
for the transceiver is operational.
The DVDD voltage regulator and the associated power chain will be switched off.
Remaining running logic will then be supplied from the Low Leakage Voltage Regulator.
Even the AVDD regulator will switched off. See chapter "Radio Transceiver" on page
164 how to disable the radio transceiver.
Before entering Deep-Sleep mode the automatic calibration of the Low Leakage
Voltage Regulator must be completed. This automatic calibration can be temporarily
disabled for very short wake-up times. For details see "Low Leakage Voltage Regulator
(LLVREG)" on page 168.
The SRAM blocks use the data retention mode to preserve its content while saving
leakage power. The Low Leakage Voltage Regulator has only limited driving
capabilities, see section "Supply Voltage and Leakage Control" on page 165 for details.
Therefore the remaining running logic must be clocked with low frequencies only.
The Deep-Sleep mode can be finished by a wake-up source shown by the Table 12-1
on page 160. Then DVDD voltage regulator and the associated power chain will be
switched on. If the power-chain is completely enabled the standard AVR wake-up
procedure continues (for details see chapter "Power-chain" on page 165).
Note that the wake-up time from Deep-sleep mode is significantly longer than the wakeup time from the Power-down or Power-save mode because the entire power-chain will
be restarted.
Additionally note that if the ADC is enabled and/or running a conversion, while entering
Deep-sleep mode, the ADC supply voltage is switched off. Therefore the ADC must be
disabled before entering Deep-sleep mode to avoid an undefined ADC operation.
If Timer/Counter 2 is not operated asynchronously (i.e., AS2 in ASSR is 0), the timer is
kept running in all sleep modes (see chapter Power-save Mode on page 162). This
implies the main oscillator (as selected by the fuse configuration) is kept running. The
power chain remains enabled and the device does not enter the Deep-Sleep mode.
Assembly Code Example
…
ldi
r16, (1<<SLPTR)
sts
TRXPR, r16
; disable transceiver
ldi
r16, (2<<SM0) + (1<<SE)
; select power down mode
out
SMCR, r16
; enable sleep mode
sleep
; go to deep sleep
…
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(1)
C Code Example
#include <avr/sleep.h>
int main(void)
{
…
TRXPR = 1 << SLPTR;
// sent transceiver to sleep
set_sleep_mode(SLEEP_MODE_PWR_DOWN); // select power down mode
sleep_enable();
sleep_cpu();
// go to deep sleep
sleep_disable();
// executed after wake-up
…
}
Notes:
1. See also section "About Code Examples" on page 8.
The C-source code example uses high level functions from the library. Deep-Sleep
mode will not be entered during on-chip debug sessions. Refer to section "Transceiver
Pin Register TRXPR" on page 34 for a description of the functionality of the SLPTR bit.
12.2 AVR Microcontroller Sleep Modes
In chapter "System Clock and Clock Options" on page 150 the different clock systems
in the ATmega128RFA1, and their distribution were presented. Figure 11-1 on page
150 is helpful in selecting an appropriate sleep mode. The following table shows the
different sleep modes and their wake-up sources.
Table 12-1. Active Clock Domains and Wake-up Sources in the Different Sleep Modes
X
(2)
Powerdown
(3)
X
(3)
X
(3)
X
(3)
X
(3)
X
X
X
Powersave
(2)
X
Standby
X
X
(1)
Extended
Standby
(2)
X
Notes:
X
X
X
(2)
X
X
X
(2)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Transceiver
X
X
Symbol Counter
X
X
Other I/O
X
ADCNRM
(2)
WDT Interrupt
X
ADC
X
SPM/EEPROM
Ready
X
Timer/Counter2
X
TWI Address
Match
X
Wake-up Sources
INT7:0 and Pin
Change
clkASY
Timer Oscillator
Enabled
clkADC
Main Clocksource Enabled
Oscillators
clkIO
Idle
clkFLASH
Sleep
Mode
clkCPU
Active Clock Domains
(4)
X
(4)
(4)
X
(4)
X
(4)
X
(4)
X
(4)
X
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
1. Only recommended with external crystal or resonator selected as clock source.
2. If Timer/Counter2 is running in asynchronous mode.
3. For INT7:4, only level interrupt.
4. The Symbol Counter and/or the Transceiver can wakeup the AVR if the Transceiver
Oscillator is enabled (Transceiver not in SLEEP).
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To enter any of the sleep modes, the SE bit in in the SMCR register (see "SMCR –
Sleep Mode Control Register" on page 170) must be written to logic one and a SLEEP
instruction must be executed. The SM2, SM1, and SM0 bits in the SMCR Register
select which sleep mode will be activated by the SLEEP instruction. See chapter
"Register Description" on page 170 for a summary.
If an enabled interrupt occurs while the MCU is in a sleep mode, the MCU wakes up.
The MCU is then halted for four cycles in addition to the start-up time, executes the
interrupt routine, and resumes execution from the instruction following SLEEP. The
contents of the Register File and SRAM are unaltered when the device wakes up from
sleep. Note that SRAM data retention must be enabled in some sleep modes to
preserve the memory contents (see section "SRAM with Data Retention" on page 167).
If a reset occurs during sleep mode, the MCU wakes up and executes from the Reset
Vector.
12.2.1 Idle Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 000 in the SMCR register, the SLEEP instruction
makes the MCU enter Idle mode, stopping the CPU but allowing the SPI, USART,
Analog Comparator, ADC, 2-wire Serial Interface, Timer/Counters, Watchdog, and the
interrupt system to continue operating. This sleep mode basically halts clkCPU and
clkFLASH, while allowing the other clocks to run.
Idle mode enables the MCU to wake up from external triggered interrupts as well as
internal ones like the Timer Overflow and USART Transmit Complete interrupts. If
wake-up from the Analog Comparator interrupt is not required, the Analog Comparator
can be powered down by setting the ACD bit in the Analog Comparator Control and
Status Register – ACSR. This will reduce power consumption in Idle mode. If the ADC
is enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this mode is entered.
12.2.2 ADC Noise Reduction Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 001, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter
ADC Noise Reduction mode (ADCNRM), stopping the CPU but allowing the ADC, the
external interrupts, 2-wire Serial Interface address match, Timer/Counter2 and the
Watchdog to continue operating (if enabled). This sleep mode basically halts clkI/O,
clkCPU, and clkFLASH, while allowing the other clocks to run.
This improves the noise environment for the ADC, enabling higher resolution
measurements. If the ADC is enabled, a conversion starts automatically when this
mode is entered. Apart form the ADC Conversion Complete interrupt, only an External
Reset, a Watchdog System Reset, a Watchdog interrupt, a Brown-out Reset, a 2-wire
serial interface interrupt, a Timer/Counter2 interrupt, an SPM/EEPROM ready interrupt,
an external level interrupt on INT7:4 or a pin change interrupt can wakeup the MCU
from ADC Noise Reduction mode.
12.2.3 Power-down Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 010, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter
Power-down mode. In this mode, the 16 MHz crystal oscillator is stopped (if selected by
CKSEL fuses), while the external interrupts, the 2-wire Serial Interface, and the
Watchdog continue operating (if enabled). Only an External Reset, a Watchdog Reset,
a Brown-out Reset, 2-wire Serial Interface address match, an external level interrupt on
INT7:4, an external interrupt on INT3:0, a pin change interrupt, or a symbol counter
interrupt can wake up the MCU. This sleep mode basically halts all generated clocks,
allowing operation of asynchronous modules only.
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Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down mode, the
changed level must be held for some time to wake up the MCU. Refer to section
"External Interrupts" on page 221 for details.
When waking up from Power-down mode, there is a delay from the wake-up condition
occurs until the wake-up becomes effective. This allows the clock to restart and become
stable after have been stopped. The wake-up period is defined by the same CKSEL
Fuses that define the Reset Time-out period, as described in chapter "System Clock
and Clock Options" on page 150.
12.2.4 Power-save Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 011, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter
Power-save mode. This mode is identical to Power-down, with one exception:
If Timer/Counter2 is enabled, it will keep running during sleep. The device can wake up
from either Timer Overflow or Output Compare event from Timer/Counter2 if the
corresponding Timer/Counter2 interrupt enable bits are set in TIMSK2, and the Global
Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is set. If Timer/Counter2 is not running, Power-down mode
is recommended instead of Power-save mode.
The Timer/Counter2 can be clocked both synchronously and asynchronously in Powersave mode. If the Timer/Counter2 is not using the asynchronous clock, the
Timer/Counter Oscillator is stopped during sleep. If the Timer/Counter2 is not using the
synchronous clock, the clock source is stopped during sleep. Note that even if the
synchronous clock is running in Power-save, this clock is only available for the
Timer/Counter2. Timer/Counter2 operation is described in detail in section "8-bit
Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation" on page 312.
12.2.5 Standby Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are 110 and the crystal oscillator of the radio transceiver is
selected, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Standby mode. This mode is
identical to Power-down with the exception that the Oscillator is kept running. From
Standby mode, the device wakes up in six clock cycles.
12.2.6 Extended Standby Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are 111 and the crystal oscillator of the radio transceiver is
selected, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Extended Standby mode. This
mode is identical to Power-save mode with the exception that the oscillator is kept
running. From Extended Standby mode, the device wakes up in six clock cycles.
12.3 Power Reduction Register
The Power Reduction Register (PRR), see "PRR0 – Power Reduction Register0" on
page 171, "PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1" on page 172 and "PRR2 – Power
Reduction Register 2" on page 173, provide a method to stop the clock to individual
peripherals to reduce power consumption.
Note that when the clock for a peripheral is stopped, then:
• The current state of the peripheral is frozen.
• The associated registers can not be read or written.
• Resources used by the peripheral (e.g. IO pins) will remain occupied.
The peripheral unit should in most cases be disabled before stopping the clock. Waking
up a module, which is done by clearing the bit in PRR, puts the module in the same
state as before the shutdown. Exceptions are the SRAM blocks and the radio
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transceiver. The SRAM is shut down by a DRT switch and the radio transceiver is in
reset state if its respective power reduction bit is set.
Module shutdown can be used in Idle mode and Active mode to significantly reduce the
overall power consumption. See chapter "Typical Characteristics" on page 526 for
examples. In all other sleep modes, the clock is already stopped.
12.4 Minimizing Power Consumption
There are several issues to consider when trying minimizing the power consumption in
an AVR controlled system. In general, sleep modes should be used as much as
possible, and the sleep mode should be selected so that as few as possible of the
device’s functions are operating. All functions not needed should be disabled. In
particular, the following modules may need special consideration when trying to achieve
the lowest possible power consumption.
12.4.1 Analog to Digital Converter
If enabled, the ADC will be enabled in all sleep modes. To save power, the ADC should
be disabled before entering any sleep mode. Refer to chapter "ADC – Analog to Digital
Converter" on page 414 for details on ADC operation.
12.4.2 Analog Comparator
When entering Idle mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled if not used. When
entering ADC Noise Reduction mode the Analog Comparator should also be disabled.
In other sleep modes, the Analog Comparator is automatically disabled. However, if the
Analog Comparator is set up to use the Internal Voltage Reference as input, the Analog
Comparator should be disabled in all sleep modes. Otherwise, the Internal Voltage
Reference will be enabled, independent of sleep mode. Refer to "AC – Analog
Comparator" on page 411 for details on how to configure the Analog Comparator.
12.4.3 Brown-out Detector
If the Brown-out Detector is enabled by the BODLEVEL Fuses, it will be disabled in
Deep-sleep mode. Refer to "Brown-out Detection" on page 182 for details on how to
configure the Brown-out Detector. It is recommended to enable the Brown-out Detector.
12.4.4 Internal Voltage Reference
The Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled when needed by the Brown-out
Detection, the Analog Comparator or the ADC. If these modules are disabled as
described in the sections above, the internal voltage reference will be disabled and not
consume power. When turned on again, the user must allow the reference to start up
before the output is used. If the reference is kept on in sleep mode, the output can be
used immediately. Refer to "Internal Voltage Reference" on page 183 for details on the
start-up time.
12.4.5 Watchdog Timer
If the Watchdog Timer is not needed in the application, the module should be turned off.
If the Watchdog Timer is enabled, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence,
always consume power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to
the total current consumption. Refer to "Watchdog Timer" on page 184 for details on
how to configure the Watchdog Timer.
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12.4.6 Port Pins
When entering a sleep mode, all port pins should be configured to use minimum power.
The most important is then to ensure that no pins drive resistive loads. In sleep modes
where both the I/O clock (clkI/O) and the ADC clock (clkADC) are stopped, the input
buffers of the device will be disabled. This ensures that no power is consumed by the
input logic when not needed. In some cases, the input logic is needed for detecting
wake-up conditions, and it will then be enabled. Refer to the section "I/O-Ports" on page
190 for details on which pins are enabled. If the input buffer is enabled and the input
signal is left floating or have an analog signal level close to DEVDD/2, the input buffer
will use excessive power.
For analog input pins, the digital input buffer should be disabled at all times. An analog
signal level close to DEVDD/2 on an input pin can cause significant current even in
active mode. Digital input buffers can be disabled by writing to the Digital Input Disable
Registers DIDR1 and DIDR0. Refer to "DIDR1 – Digital Input Disable Register 1" on
page 413 and "DIDR0 – Digital Input Disable Register 0" on page 438 for details.
12.4.7 On-chip Debug System
If the On-chip debug system is enabled by the OCDEN Fuse and the chip enters sleep
mode, the main clock source is enabled, and hence, always consumes power. In the
deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption.
There are three alternative ways to disable the OCD system:
• Disable the OCDEN Fuse.
• Disable the JTAGEN Fuse.
• Write one to the JTD bit in MCUCR.
12.4.8 Symbol Counter
The Symbol Counter acts as a separate counter, which uses either the 16MHz clock
from XTAL1/XTAL2 crystal pins or the clock from PG3/PG4 low frequency crystal pins.
If the Symbol Counter module is not used, it should be disabled, see section "MAC
Symbol Counter" on page 136.
12.4.9 Radio Transceiver
The radio transceiver module is automatically starting its state machine after power on.
While the CPU is in any sleep mode, the radio transceiver remains active. This enables
the radio transceiver to wakeup the MCU if a pending action is over (frame received or
transmission completed). The radio transceiver will be inactive during sleep, if either the
its power reduction bit PRTRX24 in register PRR1 is set or it is send into SLEEP mode,
see "PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1" on page 172 for details. After reactivation
the 16MHz crystal oscillator is started first and afterwards the radio transceiver with
TRX_OFF state.
The radio transceiver is derived from a stand alone solution that was partly controlled
by external pins. Now the radio transceiver is fully controlled by individual register bits.
The radio transceiver has a separate reset signal. A radio transceiver reset is initiated
by setting bit TRXRST in register TRXPR. This bit is self-resetting.
The radio transceiver signal SLPTR can be controlled by the bit SLPTR in register
TRXPR and is used to set the radio transceiver into SLEEP mode (assuming
TRX_STATE is TRX_OFF). This bit has a multiple function, see section "Low-Power 2.4
GHz Transceiver" on page 30 for a detailed description of the radio transceiver.
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12.5 Supply Voltage and Leakage Control
For battery applications using DEEP_SLEEP periods, the leakage current defines the
system life time. Due to the typical strong temperature dependency of the leakage
current, major contributors to the leakage budget are turned off:
• Analog and digital voltage regulator,
• Non-volatile memory (NVM),
• SRAM,
• Digital signal processor of the radio transceiver including AES engine.
If the CPU uses one of the sleep modes “power-down” or “power-save”, the above
mentioned blocks will be switched off by power switches. When the CPU wakes up, the
blocks are switched on again. There are some additional exceptions (internal voltage
regulator, SRAM, radio transceiver), see section "Power-chain" below .
The supply voltage control is mainly hidden to the application, it is not necessary to
configure the supply voltage control. Nevertheless some configurations can be done in
order to get the maximum effect and the lowest sleep current, for details see section
"SRAM with Data Retention" on page 167.
12.5.1 Power-chain
The following figure shows the major dependencies of the power-chain and how the
power switches are situated inside the chain.
Figure 12-1. Power-chain connections
powerchain_ ok
power_control
bandgap
llvreg_ok
DVREG
drt_switch
drt_switch
power_switch
power_switch
LLVREG
First SRAM
Last SRAM
Radio
Transceiver
NVM
trx24_sleeps
Startup and Wakeup from DEEP_SLEEP
After power-on reset (POR) or wakeup from DEEP_SLEEP the power switches of the
blocks will be enabled one after another (power-chained) to decrease current peaks.
The blocks will be enabled in the following order:
1. Bandgap reference and voltage regulator,
2. Digital voltage regulator (DVREG) and low leakage voltage regulator (LLVREG),
3. first SRAM block (lower 4k bytes),
4. last SRAM block (upper 4k bytes),
5. Radio transceiver including AES engine,
6. Non-volatile memory.
If the power-chain is completely enabled the standard AVR wake-up procedure
continues.
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Figure 12-2 shows the chained startup procedure after power up. The Figure 12-3
shows the startup from DEEP_SLEEP. A module is only switched on if it is not
deselected by power reduction register (PRR1 or PRR2). This is possible for SRAM
blocks and radio transceiver power switch. At the end of the startup, the pin RSTON is
enabled. Depending of the currently enabled memory blocks (NSRAM), the startup
procedure takes different time.
tSTARTUP_TOTAL = tBG + tDVREG + NSRAM·tDRT_ON + 3·tPWRSW_ON + tOSC_STARTUP
The SRAM is organized in 4kByte blocks, the NVM in 128kByte blocks. Deselected
SRAM blocks (by PRR2 register) reduce the wakeup time from DEEP_SLEEP. For
further timing information see "Power Management Electrical Characteristics" on page
516.
Figure 12-2. Timing visualization of power up
RSTON
POR
s ta rtu p
bandgap
s ta rtu p
DVREG
D R T s w itc h
SRAM #0
D R T s w it c h
SR AM #1
D R T s w itc h
SR AM #2
D R T s w it c h
SRAM #3
p o w e r s w itc h
r a d io tr a n s .
p o w e r s w itc h
NVM
tP O R
tB G
tD V R E G
tD R T_O N
tD R T_O N
tD R T _ O N
tD R T_O N
tP W R S W _O N
tP W R S W _O N
o s c il l a t o r
s ta rtu p
tO S C _S TA R TU P
tS T A R T U P
Figure 12-3. Timing visualization of wakeup from DEEP_SLEEP
SLEEP
s ta rtu p
bandgap
s ta rtu p
DVREG
D R T s w it c h
SRAM #0
D R T s w itc h
SR AM #1
D R T s w itc h
SRAM #2
D R T s w itc h
SR AM #3
p o w e r s w it c h
r a d io tr a n s .
p o w e r s w itc h
NVM
tB G
tD V R E G
tD R T _ O N
tD R T_O N
tD R T_O N
tD R T _ O N
tP W R S W _O N
tP W R S W _ O N
o s c il l a t o r
s ta rtu p
tO S C _S T A R TU P
tS T A R T U P
Sleep
Six sleep modes are defined for the CPU. Disabling the power-chain and thus switching
off of the above mentioned blocks makes only sense for the modes “power-down” and
“power-save”. Also an enabled radio transceiver prevents the power-chain from being
disabled.
In order to disable the power-chain, one of the following conditions must fit:
• The radio transceiver has to be disabled (power reduction register PRR1 bit
PRTRX24).
• The radio transceiver is sent into SLEEP mode (register TRXPR bit SLPTR).
The SRAM blocks may be configured separately to decrease their leakage current (see
section "SRAM with Data Retention" on page 167).
The following table shows the different implemented sleep modes and the behavior of
the power-chain depending on the current state of the radio transceiver.
Table 12-2. Power states of microcontroller and radio transceiver
AVR State
Radio Transceiver State
Powerchain
ON
ON
ON
ON
166
off (SLEEP or power reduction)
ON
off
(1…6)
ON
ON
off
(1,4…6)
off (SLEEP or power reduction)
ON
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
AVR State
(2,3)
off
DEEP SLEEP
Notes:
Radio Transceiver State
Powerchain
off (SLEEP or power reduction)
off
(7)
1. Idle
2. Power Down
3. Power Save
4. ADC Noise Reduction Mode
5. Standby
6. Extended Standby
7. If the OCDEN fuse is programmed, the Power-chain is always on
12.5.2 SRAM with Data Retention
It is necessary to prevent any data loss of the SRAM when setting the CPU in one of
the DEEP_SLEEP modes. For that purpose the SRAM blocks will not be completely
switched off if the power-chain is disabled. The supply voltage for any individual SRAM
block is decreased to reduce its leakage current but guaranteeing its data retention.
The SRAM memory is divided into 4kByte blocks. Each block can be fully switched off
by setting the correspondent bit (PRRAM0 ... PRRAM3) in register PRR2 (see "PRR2 –
Power Reduction Register 2" on page 173). This enables the application software to
switch off unused SRAM memory to save power and to reduce leakage currents.
Every SRAM block can be enabled again by resetting the respective bit (PRRAM0 ...
PRRAM3) of register PRR2. For each SRAM block n the bit DRTSWOK of the
corresponding register DRTRAMn shows the state of the DRT switch (logic high means
SRAM block can be accessed).
If the power-chain is switched off during deep-sleep modes, the content of the SRAM
blocks must be sustained. To provide data retention and lowest leakage current, a data
retention block controls the SRAM behavior during deep-sleep. Since the leakage
current is dramatically depending from the voltage of the SRAM, the supply voltage can
be decreased by enabling the data retention mode DRT.
Every SRAM block n is controlled by its assigned register DRTRAMn. The bit ENDRT
enables the data retention mode during deep-sleep. If this bit is zero, the respective
SRAM block is completely switched off.
Table 12-3. SRAM behavior while in deep-sleep mode
ENDRT
Power-chain
SRAM supply voltage
1
ON
1.8V (DVDD)
0
ON
1.8V (DVDD)
1
off
Reduced
0
off
Disconnected
The lower 4-bit of the register DRTRAMn are reserved and should not be changed. The
reset value of the DRT voltage settings are preprogrammed during the manufacturing
process and need not to be changed.
12.5.3 Voltage Regulators (AVREG, DVREG)
The main features of the Voltage Regulator blocks are:
• Bandgap stabilized 1.8V supply for analog and digital domain;
• Low dropout (LDO) voltage regulator;
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• Configurable to use an external voltage regulator;
The internal voltage regulators supply a stabilized voltage to the ATmega128RFA1. The
AVREG provides the regulated 1.8V supply voltage for the analog section and the
DVREG supplies the 1.8V supply voltage for the digital section. The DVREG is enabled
during startup and is switched off if the power-chain is disabled. The AVREG is enabled
only on request by either the A/D converter or the radio transceiver.
A simplified schematic of the internal voltage regulator is shown in Figure 12-4 below.
Figure 12-4. Simplified Schematic of AVREG/DVREG
(D )E V D D
B andgap
voltage
reference
1.25V
AVDD,
DVDD
The voltage regulators require bypass capacitors for stable operation. The value of the
bypass capacitors determines their settling time. The bypass capacitors shall be placed
as close as possible to the pins and shall be connected to ground with the shortest
possible traces.
The voltage regulators can be configured with the register VREG_CTRL. It is
recommended to use the internal regulators but it is also possible to supply the low
voltage domains by an external voltage supply. For this configuration the internal
analog voltage regulator needs to be switched off by setting the register bit
AVREG_EXT = 1 (see "VREG_CTRL – Voltage Regulator Control and Status Register"
on page 117). The internal digital voltage regulator may not be switched off, an external
voltage has to overdrive the internal voltage. A regulated external supply voltage of
1.8V must then be connected to the pins 13, 14 (DVDD) and pin 29 (AVDD). When
turning on the external supply ensure a sufficiently long stabilization time before
interacting with the ATmega128RFA1.
The status bits AVDD_OK = 1 and DVDD_OK = 1 of register VREG_CTRL indicate an
enabled and stable internal supply voltage. Reading value 0 indicates that the internal
supply voltage is disabled or not yet settled to the final value.
In case the ATmega128RFA1 is not supplied with a sufficient (D)EVDD and the digital
voltage regulator output voltage is too low, a power on reset (POR) is initiated. This is
implemented with revision F, the register VERSION_NUM must be equal or greater
than REV_F (see "VERSION_NUM – Device Identification Register (Version Number)"
on page 125).
12.5.4 Low Leakage Voltage Regulator (LLVREG)
The main digital voltage regulator (DVREG) will be switched off during the
DEEP_SLEEP modes “power-down” and “power-save”. The Low Leakage Voltage
Regulator will then keep the digital supply voltage to provide data retention. No
application software control is required.
During the active power states, when the main voltage regulator supplies the chip, the
Low Leakage Voltage Regulator is digitally calibrated. Its output voltage is adjusted to
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match the output voltage of the main regulator. This fixed calibration result is stored and
used when the chip enters a power-down state where the main regulator is switched off.
Because the calibration setting is fixed, temperature and load current variations during
the following DEEP_SLEEP period are not regulated out. Thus the output voltage may
drift away from the target value. However the design guarantees that for allowed
operating conditions the output voltage will stay within valid limits. After every wake-up
a new calibration cycle is initiated.
The output driving capability of the Low Leakage Voltage Regulator is limited. Its main
purpose is to provide the leakage current of the connected analog and digital blocks.
At least one full calibration cycle of the Low Leakage Voltage Regulator has to be
completed before the power-chain can be disabled. Therefore if the CPU uses one of
the DEEP_SLEEP modes “power down” or “power save”, the power-chain is not
disabled before the Low Leakage Voltage Regulator completed this first calibration
cycle.
By default the LLVREG automatically starts the calibration after finishing the power-on
reset and the wake-up/start-up procedures (see section "Low Leakage Voltage
Regulator Control" below for a detailed description of the Low Leakage Voltage
Regulator).
Notes:
1. The LLVREG calibration will be inaccurate at a DEVDD supply voltage of
1.8V or lower. Therefore when operating the device at 1.8V the LLVREG
calibration should be disabled and the register values of LLDRL and
LLDRH should be set to 0x06 and 0x0f, respectively.
2. When waking up from Deep Sleep mode the LLVREG calibration starts
after 4 clock cycles of the 128 kHz oscillator. If the device goes to sleep
again earlier then the old calibration values will be used.
12.5.5 Low Leakage Voltage Regulator Control
The three register LLCR, LLDRL and LLDRH allow the software to monitor the
calibration process and to modify or correct the calibration results. The automatic
calibration is the normal operation mode. It is an internal process that does not require
any software interaction. Nevertheless the calibration is transparent for the user through
LLCR, LLDRL and LLDRH (control and data register respectively).
The register access requires a minimum system clock of at least the output frequency
of the 128 kHz RC oscillator. The register access will not work if the system clock is
slower. See chapter "System Clock and Clock Options" on page 150 for details on how
to set the system clock frequency.
Before the device can enter the sleep mode “power down” or “power save” the first
calibration cycle of the Low Leakage Voltage Regulator must be completed to get valid
data in LLDRL and LLDRH. The cycle time tCAL (see Table 35-27 on page 517) is not
fixed. It depends on the temperature, manufacturing process and the frequency of the
128 kHz RC oscillator (independent of the Watchdog setting).
Systems that require very short power-up times may temporarily disable the calibration
process by setting bit LLENCAL to 0. After disabling the calibration the register values
read from LLCR, LLDRL and LLDRH will be stable after at most five 64 kHz clock
cycles (clock output of the 128 kHz RC oscillator divided by 2).
The output voltage of the Low Leakage Voltage Regulator in sleep mode will be the
most accurate if constantly calibrated to compensate for any environmental changes
(e.g. temperature). However these changes may be slow enough to skip the calibration
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th
during some power-up cycles (e.g. calibrate only every 10 power-up time and use the
old calibration results during all other times).
After the completion of the power-up process the calibration will start automatically if bit
LLENCAL in the control register LLCR is 1 (default). The completion of a calibration
cycle is indicated by the bit LLDONE in that same register. After the first cycle the
calibration will continue to run until either the device goes into a sleep mode (“power
down” or “power save”) or by setting the LLENCAL bit to 0. The output voltage of the
Low Leakage Voltage Regulator is then defined by the values in the data register
LLDRL and LLDRH and by the bits LLTCO and LLSHORT of the control register.
Write access to the three register is granted when the bit LLENCAL is set to 0. The
application software can then modify the calibration results. Higher values in the data
register generate lower output voltages in the sleep modes. In general it is not
recommended nor required to alter the automatically generated calibration result.
The write access to the three register must follow a certain scheme to be successful.
The registers are implemented in the I/O clock domain while the logic of the Low
Leakage Voltage Regulator runs with 64 kHz (clock output of the 128 kHz RC oscillator
divided by 2). It takes at least two 64 kHz clock cycles before the data written to the
register take effect in the regulator circuit. The write access from the software must be
aware of this process. Furthermore the value of LLDRH must be written first followed by
LLDRL. Otherwise the LLDRH write access will be ignored. The following Assembler
code fragment shows a working example. Note the polling of bit 3 LLCAL of the LLCR
register to verify the completion of the synchronization process.
Assembly Code Example
…
clr r20
sts
LLDRH,r18
; write LLDRH first
sts
LLDRL,r19
; write LLDRL second
sts
LLCR,r20
; bit 0 cleared = disable automatic calibration
; poll LLCAL bit of LLCR to check if automatic calibration is
; turned of
wait_calib:
lds
r20,LLCR
sbrc r20,3
rjmp wait_calib
; not executed if bit 3 of LLCR is cleared
…
12.6 Register Description
12.6.1 SMCR – Sleep Mode Control Register
Bit
$33 ($53)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
SM2
SM1
SM0
SE
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SMCR
The Sleep Mode Control Register contains control bits for power management.
• Bit 7:4 – Res3:0 - Reserved
• Bit 3:1 – SM2:0 - Sleep Mode Select bit 2
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These bits select between the five available sleep modes. Standby modes are only
recommended for use with external crystals or resonators.
Table 12-94 SM Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
SM2:0
0x00
Idle
0x01
ADC Noise Reduction (If Available)
0x02
Power Down
0x03
Power Save
0x04
Reserved
0x05
Reserved
0x06
Standby
0x07
Extended Standby
• Bit 0 – SE - Sleep Enable
The SE bit must be written to logic one to make the MCU enter the sleep mode when
the SLEEP instruction is executed. To avoid the MCU entering the sleep mode unless it
is the programmers purpose, it is recommended to write the Sleep Enable (SE) bit to
one just before the execution of the SLEEP instruction and to clear it immediately after
waking up.
12.6.2 PRR0 – Power Reduction Register0
Bit
NA ($64)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
PRTWI
PRTIM2
PRTIM0
PRPGA
PRTIM1
PRSPI
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
1
0
PRUSART0 PRADC
R/W
0
PRR0
R/W
0
• Bit 7 – PRTWI - Power Reduction TWI
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the TWI by stopping the clock to the module.
When waking up the TWI again, the TWI should be re initialized to ensure proper
operation.
• Bit 6 – PRTIM2 - Power Reduction Timer/Counter2
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter2 module. When the
Timer/Counter2 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 5 – PRTIM0 - Power Reduction Timer/Counter0
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter0 module. When the
Timer/Counter0 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 4 – PRPGA - Power Reduction PGA
Writing a logic one to this bit reduced the power consumption of the programmable gain
amplifier. The block is not turned off. Only the current levels in the amplifiers are
reduced. Reducing the PGA current levels is only recommended for slow ADC clock
frequencies. A new ADC conversion using the PGA should be delayed by a default
start-up time after changing (setting or resetting) this bit.
• Bit 3 – PRTIM1 - Power Reduction Timer/Counter1
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter1 module. When the
Timer/Counter1 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
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• Bit 2 – PRSPI - Power Reduction Serial Peripheral Interface
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Serial Peripheral Interface by stopping the
clock to the module. When waking up the SPI again, the SPI should be re initialized to
ensure proper operation.
• Bit 1 – PRUSART0 - Power Reduction USART
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART0 by stopping the clock to the
module. When waking up the USART0 again, the USART0 should be reinitialized to
ensure proper operation.
• Bit 0 – PRADC - Power Reduction ADC
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the ADC. The ADC must be disabled (reset
ADEN bit in register ADCSRA) before shut down. The analog comparator cannot use
the ADC input MUX when the ADC is shut down.
12.6.3 PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1
Bit
NA ($65)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
Res
R
0
6
5
PRTRX24 PRTIM5
RW
0
RW
0
4
3
2
1
0
PRTIM4
PRTIM3
PRUSART1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PRR1
• Bit 7 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 6 – PRTRX24 - Power Reduction Transceiver
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the transceiver (disconnect from the power
supply). In power-down and power-save modes the power-chain will be disabled when
this bit is one. Writing a logic zero to this bit will re-enable the transceiver.
• Bit 5 – PRTIM5 - Power Reduction Timer/Counter5
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter5 module. When the
Timer/Counter5 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 4 – PRTIM4 - Power Reduction Timer/Counter4
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter4 module. When the
Timer/Counter4 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 3 – PRTIM3 - Power Reduction Timer/Counter3
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter3 module. When the
Timer/Counter3 is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
• Bit 0 – PRUSART1 - Power Reduction USART1
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART1 by stopping the clock to the
module. When waking up the USART1 again, the USART1 should be reinitialized to
ensure proper operation.
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12.6.4 PRR2 – Power Reduction Register 2
Bit
NA ($63)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
3
2
1
0
PRRAM3 PRRAM2 PRRAM1 PRRAM0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PRR2
RW
0
The Power Reduction Register PRR2 allows to individually disable all four SRAM
blocks. Setting any PRRAM3:0 bit to one will completely switch off (disconnect from the
power supply) the corresponding SRAM block. This enables the application to disable
unused SRAM memory to save power. Every SRAM block can be re-enabled by
reseting the appropriate PRRAM3:0 bit.
• Bit 7:4 – Res3:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3 – PRRAM3 - Power Reduction SRAM 3
Setting this bit to one will disable the SRAM block 3. Setting this bit to zero will enable
the SRAM block 3.
• Bit 2 – PRRAM2 - Power Reduction SRAM 2
Setting this bit to one will disable the SRAM block 2. Setting this bit to zero will enable
the SRAM block 2.
• Bit 1 – PRRAM1 - Power Reduction SRAM 1
Setting this bit to one will disable the SRAM block 1. Setting this bit to zero will enable
the SRAM block 1.
• Bit 0 – PRRAM0 - Power Reduction SRAM 0
Setting this bit to one will disable the SRAM block 0. Setting this bit to zero will enable
the SRAM block 0.
12.6.5 TRXPR – Transceiver Pin Register
Bit
NA ($139)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
Resx3
Resx2
SLPTR
TRXRST
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TRXPR
The register TRXPR allows to control basic actions of the radio transceiver like reset or
state transitions. The register bit functionality is inherited from the external pins of the
stand-alone radio transceiver.
• Bit 7:4 – Res3:0 - Reserved
• Bit 3:2 – Resx3:2 - Reserved
• Bit 1 – SLPTR - Multi-purpose Transceiver Control Bit
The bit SLPTR is a multi-functional bit to control transceiver state transitions.
Dependent on the radio transceiver state, a rising edge of bit SLPTR causes the
following state transitions: TRX_OFF => SLEEP (level sensitive), PLL_ON =>
BUSY_TX. Whereas the falling edge of bit SLPTR causes the following state transition:
SLEEP => TRX_OFF (level sensitive). When the radio transceiver is in TRX_OFF state
the microcontroller forces the transceiver to SLEEP by setting SLPTR = H. The
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Transceiver awakes when the microcontroller releases the bit SLPTR. In states
PLL_ON and TX_ARET_ON, bit SLPTR is used as trigger input to initiate a TX
transaction. Here SLPTR is sensitive on rising edge only. After initiating a state change
by a rising edge at Bit SLPTR in radio transceiver states TRX_OFF, RX_ON or
RX_AACK_ON, the radio transceiver remains in the new state as long as the pin is
logical high and returns to the preceding state with the falling edge.
• Bit 0 – TRXRST - Force Transceiver Reset
The RESET state is used to set back the state machine and to reset all registers of the
transceiver to their default values. A reset forces the radio transceiver into the
TRX_OFF state and resets all transceiver register to their default values. A reset is
initiated with bit TRXRST = H. The bit is cleared automatically During transceiver reset
the microcontroller has to set the radio transceiver control bit SLPTR to the default
value.
12.6.6 DRTRAM0 – Data Retention Configuration Register of SRAM 0
Bit
NA ($135)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
DRTSWOK
ENDRT
Resx3
Resx2
Resx1
Resx0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DRTRAM0
The DRTRAM0 register controls the behavior of SRAM block 0 in the power-states
"power-save" and "power-down". To prevent any data loss the SRAM will not
completely disconnected from the power supply. Reserved bits will be overwritten
during chip reset by the factory calibration and should not be modified.
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved
• Bit 5 – DRTSWOK - DRT Switch OK
This bit indicates the status of the SRAM power-switch. A logical one indicates that the
SRAM supply voltage is fully available and the memory may be accessed normally.
• Bit 4 – ENDRT - Enable SRAM Data Retention
During "Deep-Sleep" each SRAM block will either be switched off or provides data
retention of its memory content. This bit must set to one if data retention mode should
be used. Otherwise the SRAM is switched off (disconnected from the power supply)
and all its data are lost.
• Bit 3:0 – Resx3:0 - Reserved
12.6.7 DRTRAM1 – Data Retention Configuration Register of SRAM 1
Bit
NA ($134)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
DRTSWOK
ENDRT
Resx3
Resx2
Resx1
Resx0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DRTRAM1
The DRTRAM1 register controls the behavior of SRAM block 1 in the power-states
"power-save" and "power-down". To prevent any data loss the SRAM will not
completely disconnected from the power supply. Reserved bits will be overwritten
during chip reset by the factory calibration and should not be modified.
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• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved
• Bit 5 – DRTSWOK - DRT Switch OK
This bit indicates the status of the SRAM power-switch. A logical one indicates that the
SRAM supply voltage is fully available and the memory may be accessed normally.
• Bit 4 – ENDRT - Enable SRAM Data Retention
During "Deep-Sleep" each SRAM block will either be switched off or provides data
retention of its memory content. This bit must set to one if data retention mode should
be used. Otherwise the SRAM is switched off (disconnected from the power supply)
and all its data are lost.
• Bit 3:0 – Resx3:0 - Reserved
12.6.8 DRTRAM2 – Data Retention Configuration Register of SRAM 2
Bit
NA ($133)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Resx7
Res
DRTSWOK
ENDRT
Resx3
Resx2
Resx1
Resx0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DRTRAM2
The DRTRAM2 register controls the behavior of SRAM block 2 in the power-states
"power-save" and "power-down". To prevent any data loss the SRAM will not
completely disconnected from the power supply. Reserved bits will be overwritten
during chip reset by the factory calibration and should not be modified.
• Bit 7 – Resx7 - Reserved
• Bit 6 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5 – DRTSWOK - DRT Switch OK
This bit indicates the status of the SRAM power-switch. A logical one indicates that the
SRAM supply voltage is fully available and the memory may be accessed normally.
• Bit 4 – ENDRT - Enable SRAM Data Retention
During "Deep-Sleep" each SRAM block will either be switched off or provides data
retention of its memory content. This bit must set to one if data retention mode should
be used. Otherwise the SRAM is switched off (disconnected from the power supply)
and all its data are lost.
• Bit 3:0 – Resx3:0 - Reserved
12.6.9 DRTRAM3 – Data Retention Configuration Register of SRAM 3
Bit
NA ($132)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
DRTSWOK
ENDRT
Resx3
Resx2
Resx1
Resx0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DRTRAM3
The DRTRAM3 register controls the behavior of SRAM block 3 in the power-states
"power-save" and "power-down". To prevent any data loss the SRAM will not
175
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
completely disconnected from the power supply. Reserved bits will be overwritten
during chip reset by the factory calibration and should not be modified.
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved
• Bit 5 – DRTSWOK - DRT Switch OK
This bit indicates the status of the SRAM power-switch. A logical one indicates that the
SRAM supply voltage is fully available and the memory may be accessed normally.
• Bit 4 – ENDRT - Enable SRAM Data Retention
During "Deep-Sleep" each SRAM block will either be switched off or provides data
retention of its memory content. This bit must set to one if data retention mode should
be used. Otherwise the SRAM is switched off (disconnected from the power supply)
and all its data are lost.
• Bit 3:0 – Resx3:0 - Reserved
12.6.10 LLCR – Low Leakage Voltage Regulator Control Register
Bit
7
6
NA ($12F)
Res1
Res0
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
5
4
LLDONE LLCOMP
R
0
R
0
3
2
LLCAL
LLTCO
R
0
RW
0
1
0
LLSHORT LLENCAL
RW
0
LLCR
RW
1
This register allows to monitor and to control the calibration process of the low-leakage
voltage regulator. The automatic calibration is the normal operation mode. However,
certain circumstances may require to disable this automatic process for instance to
save power-up time. The results of the automatic calibration can also be modified when
required by the application for instance to get a higher or lower output voltage.
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5 – LLDONE - Calibration Done
This bit indicates the last state of the calibration algorithm. The data register contents is
updated with new calibration data after the bit changed to 1. The bit will only be high for
one 64kHz clock period, because a new calibration loop is started automatically.
• Bit 4 – LLCOMP - Comparator Output
This bit indicates the output state of the comparator of the low-leakage voltage
regulator. In this way the calibration progress can be directly monitored for debug
purposes. The state of the bit changes at most every 64kHz clock period.
• Bit 3 – LLCAL - Calibration Active
This bit indicates that the automatic calibration is in progress. The analog part of the
calibration circuit is powered up if the bit is 1.
• Bit 2 – LLTCO - Temperature Coefficient of Current Source
This bit shows the status of the selection of the temperature coefficient. The state of the
bit is updated in the course of the automatic calibration. A valid value is present after
the LLDONE bit is 1 for the first time. Write access is only enabled when the automatic
calibration is turned off (LLENCAL is 0). This bit should not be changed without further
information.
• Bit 1 – LLSHORT - Short Lower Calibration Circuit
176
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
This bit shows the status of the short switch for the lower calibration circuit. The state of
the bit is updated in the course of the automatic calibration. A valid value is present
after the LLDONE bit is 1 for the first time. If this bit is set to 1 register LLDRL has no
function. Write access is only possible when the automatic calibration is turned off
(LLENCAL is 0). This bit should not be changed without further information.
• Bit 0 – LLENCAL - Enable Automatic Calibration
This bit enables the automatic calibration. The automatic calibration runs if the state of
the bit is 1. Write access to the two data register and the bits LLSHORT and LLTCO is
then denied. If the state of LLENCAL is 0 then the calibration algorithm is stopped and
the output voltage of the low-leakage voltage regulator is defined by the values in the
two data register LLDRL and LLDRH and by the bits LLSHORT and LLTCO.
12.6.11 LLDRH – Low Leakage Voltage Regulator Data Register (High-Byte)
Bit
NA ($131)
7
6
5
Res2
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
R
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
LLDRH4 LLDRH3 LLDRH2 LLDRH1 LLDRH0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
LLDRH
RW
0
The high-byte of the calibration data can be accessed through this register. Write
access is only enabled when the bit LLENCAL of the LLCR register is 0. Then the data
bits LLDRH4:0 directly control the output voltage of the low-leakage voltage regulator.
Higher numbers generate lower voltages. If the bit LLENCAL is 1 then the results of the
automatic calibration are stored.
• Bit 7:5 – Res2:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bit 4:0 – LLDRH4:0 - High-Byte Data Register Bits
Value of the high-byte calibration result
Table 12-95 LLDRH Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
LLDRH4:0
0x00
Calibration limit for fast process corner/high
output voltage
0x10
Calibration limit for slow process corner/low
output voltage
12.6.12 LLDRL – Low Leakage Voltage Regulator Data Register (Low-Byte)
Bit
NA ($130)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
LLDRL3
LLDRL2
LLDRL1
LLDRL0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
LLDRL
The low-byte of the calibration data can be accessed through this register. Write access
is only enabled when the bit LLENCAL of the LLCR register is 0. Then the data bits
LLDRL3:0 directly control the output voltage of the low-leakage voltage regulator.
Higher numbers generate lower voltages. The contents of this register is meaningless
177
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
when the bit LLSHORT of the LLCR register is 1. If the bit LLENCAL is 1 then the
results of the automatic calibration are stored.
• Bit 7:4 – Res3:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved for future use.
• Bit 3:0 – LLDRL3:0 - Low-Byte Data Register Bits
Value of the low-byte calibration result
Table 12-96 LLDRL Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
LLDRL3:0
0x00
Calibration limit for fast process corner/high
output voltage
0x08
Calibration limit for slow process corner/low
output voltage
12.6.13 DPDS0 – Port Driver Strength Register 0
Bit
NA ($136)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PFDRV1 PFDRV0 PEDRV1 PEDRV0 PDDRV1 PDDRV0 PBDRV1 PBDRV0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DPDS0
RW
0
The output driver strength can be set individually for each digital I/O port. The following
tables show output current levels for a typical supply voltage of DEVDD = 3.3V. Refer to
section "Electrical Characteristics" for details.
• Bit 7:6 – PFDRV1:0 - Driver Strength Port F
Table 12-97 PFDRV Register Bits
Register Bits
PFDRV1:0
Value
Description
0
2 mA
1
4 mA
2
6 mA
3
8 mA
• Bit 5:4 – PEDRV1:0 - Driver Strength Port E
Table 12-98 PEDRV Register Bits
Register Bits
PEDRV1:0
Value
Description
0
2 mA
1
4 mA
2
6 mA
3
8 mA
• Bit 3:2 – PDDRV1:0 - Driver Strength Port D
Table 12-99 PDDRV Register Bits
Register Bits
PDDRV1:0
178
Value
Description
0
2 mA
1
4 mA
2
6 mA
3
8 mA
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
• Bit 1:0 – PBDRV1:0 - Driver Strength Port B
Table 12-100 PBDRV Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
PBDRV1:0
Description
0
2 mA
1
4 mA
2
6 mA
3
8 mA
12.6.14 DPDS1 – Port Driver Strength Register 1
Bit
NA ($137)
7
6
5
4
3
2
Res5
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
1
0
PGDRV1 PGDRV0
RW
0
DPDS1
RW
0
The output driver strength can be set individually for each digital I/O port. The following
table shows output current levels for a typical supply voltage of DEVDD = 3.3V. Refer to
section "Electrical Characteristics" for details.
• Bit 7:2 – Res5:0 - Reserved
• Bit 1:0 – PGDRV1:0 - Driver Strength Port G
Driver strength can be set for port G except the port pins PG3 and PG4. The leakage
current of the ports PG3 and PG4 is reduced.
Table 12-101 PGDRV Register Bits
Register Bits
PGDRV1:0
Value
Description
0
2 mA
1
4 mA
2
6 mA
3
8 mA
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
13 System Control and Reset
13.1 Resetting the AVR
During reset, all I/O Registers are set to their initial values, and the program starts
execution from the Reset Vector. The instruction placed at the Reset Vector must be a
JMP – Absolute Jump – instruction to the reset handling routine. If the program never
enables an interrupt source, the Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program
code can be placed at these locations. This is also the case if the Reset Vector is in the
Application section while the Interrupt Vectors are in the Boot section or vice versa. The
circuit diagram in Figure 13-1 on page 181 shows the reset logic."System and Reset
Characteristics" on page 515 defines the electrical parameters of the reset circuitry.
The I/O ports of the AVR are immediately reset to their initial state when a reset source
goes active. This does not require any clock source to be running.
After all reset sources have gone inactive, a delay counter is invoked, stretching the
internal reset. This allows the power to reach a stable level before normal operation
starts. The time-out period of the delay counter is defined by the user through the SUT
and CKSEL Fuses. The different selections for the delay period are presented in "Clock
Sources" on page 151.
13.2 Reset Sources
The ATmega128RFA1 has five sources of reset:
• Power-on Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage is below the Power-on
Reset threshold (VPOT).
• External Reset. The MCU is reset when a low level is present on the RSTN pin for
longer than the minimum pulse length.
• Watchdog Reset. The MCU is reset when the Watchdog Timer period expires and
the Watchdog is enabled.
• Brown-out Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage EVDD is below the
Brown-out Reset threshold (VBOT) and the Brown-out Detector is enabled.
• JTAG AVR Reset. The MCU is reset as long as there is a logic one in the Reset
Register, one of the scan chains of the JTAG system. Refer to the section "IEEE
1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan" on page 446 for details.
180
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Figure 13-1. Reset Logic
DATA BUS
EVDD
BORF
PORF
EXTRF
WDRF
JTRF
MCU Status
Register (MCUSR)
Brown-out
Reset Circuit
BODLEVEL [2..0]
DEVDD
Pull-up Resistor
SPIKE
FILTER
Reset Circuit
S
COUNTER RESET
RSTN
Watchdog
Timer
JTAG Reset
Register
Watchdog
Oscillator
Clock
Generator
CK
R
Q
INTERNAL RESET
Power-on
Reset Circuit
Delay Counters
TIMEOUT
CKSEL[3:0]
SUT[1:0]
13.2.1 Power-on Reset
A Power-on Reset (POR) pulse is generated by a dynamic, on-chip detection circuit.
The POR is active when DEVDD is rising. The electrical characteristics are defined in
"System and Reset Characteristics" on page 515. The POR circuit can be used to
trigger the start-up reset. To detect a failure in the supply voltage (e.g. a voltage drop)
the brown-own detector should be used.
A Power-on Reset (POR) circuit ensures that the device is reset from Power-on.
Reaching the Power-on Reset threshold voltage invokes the delay counter, which
determines how long the device is kept in RESET after the DEVDD rise. The RESET
signal is activated again without any delay, when DEVDD decreases below the
detection level.
Figure 13-2. MCU Start-up, RSTN Tied to DEVDD
DEVDD
RSTN
TIME-OUT
V POT
V RST
tTOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
181
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Figure 13-3. MCU Start-up, RSTN Extended Externally
VCC
V POT
V RST
RSTN
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
13.2.2 External Reset
An External Reset is generated by a low level on the RSTN pin. Reset pulses longer
than the minimum pulse width (see "System and Reset Characteristics" on page 515)
will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed
to generate a reset. When the applied signal reaches the Reset Threshold Voltage –
VRST – on its positive edge, the delay counter starts the MCU after the Time-out period –
tTOUT – has expired.
Figure 13-4. Reset During Operation
DEVDD
RSTN
TIME-OUT
V RST
tTOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
13.2.3 Brown-out Detection
ATmega128RFA1 has an On-chip Brown-out Detection (BOD) circuit for monitoring the
EVDD level during operation by comparing it to a fixed trigger level. The trigger level for
the BOD can be selected by the BODLEVEL Fuses. The trigger level has a hysteresis
to ensure spike free Brown-out Detection. The hysteresis on the detection level should
be interpreted as VBOT+ = VBOT + VHYST/2 and VBOT-= VBOT - VHYST/2.
When the BOD is enabled, and EVDD decreases to a value below the trigger level
(VBOT- in Figure 13-5 on page 183), the Brown-out Reset is immediately activated. When
EVDD increases above the trigger level (VBOT+ in Figure 13-5 on page 183), the delay
counter starts the MCU after the Time-out period tTOUT has expired.
The BOD circuit will only detect a drop in EVDD if the voltage stays below the trigger
level for longer than tBOD given in "System and Reset Characteristics" on page 515.
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ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Figure 13-5. Brown-out Reset During Operation
EVDD
V BOT+
V BOT-
RSTN
tTOUT
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
13.2.4 Watchdog Reset
When the Watchdog times out, it will generate a short reset pulse of one CK cycle
duration. On the falling edge of this pulse, the delay timer starts counting the Time-out
period tTOUT. See "Watchdog Timer" on page 184. for details on operation of the
Watchdog Timer.
Figure 13-6. Watchdog Reset During Operation
DEVDD
RSTN
1 CK Cycle
WDT
TIME-OUT
RESET
TIME-OUT
tTOUT
INTERNAL
RESET
13.3 Internal Voltage Reference
ATmega128RFA1 features an internal bandgap reference. This reference is used for
Brown-out Detection, and it can be used as an input to the Analog Comparator or the
ADC.
Voltage Reference Enable Signals and Start-up Time
The voltage reference has a start-up time that may influence the way it should be used.
The start-up time is given in "System and Reset Characteristics" on page 515. To save
power, the reference is not always turned on. The reference is on during the following
situations:
1. When the BOD is enabled (by programming the BODLEVEL [2:0] Fuse).
2. When the bandgap reference is connected to the Analog Comparator (by setting the
ACBG bit in ACSR).
3. When the ADC is enabled.
Thus, when the BOD is not enabled, after setting the ACBG bit or enabling the ADC,
the user must always allow the reference to start up before the output from the Analog
Comparator or ADC is used. To reduce power consumption in Power-down mode, the
user can avoid the three conditions above to ensure that the reference is turned off
before entering Power-down mode.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
13.4 Watchdog Timer
13.4.1 Features
• Clocked from separate On-chip Oscillator
• 3 Operating modes
- Interrupt
- System Reset
- Interrupt and System Reset
• Selectable Time-out period from 16ms to 8s
• Possible Hardware fuse Watchdog always on (WDTON) for fail-safe mode
128kHz
OSCILLATOR
WATCHDOG
RESET
WDE
OSC/2K
OSC/4K
OSC/8K
OSC/16K
OSC/32K
OSC/64K
OSC/128K
OSC/256K
OSC/512K
OSC/1024K
Figure 13-7. Watchdog Timer
WDP0
WDP1
WDP2
WDP3
MCU RESET
WDIF
WDIE
INTERRUPT
13.4.2 Overview
ATmega128RFA1 has an Enhanced Watchdog Timer (WDT). The WDT is a timer
counting cycles of a separate on-chip 128 kHz oscillator. The WDT gives an interrupt or
a system reset when the counter reaches a given time-out value. In normal operation
mode, it is required that the system uses the WDR -Watchdog Timer Reset - instruction
to restart the counter before the time-out value is reached. If the system doesn't restart
the counter, an interrupt or system reset will be issued.
In Interrupt mode, the WDT gives an interrupt when the timer expires. This interrupt can
be used to wake the device from sleep-modes, and also as a general system timer.
One example is to limit the maximum time allowed for certain operations, giving an
interrupt when the operation has run longer than expected. In System Reset mode, the
WDT gives a reset when the timer expires. This is typically used to prevent system
hang-up in case of runaway code. The third mode, Interrupt and System Reset mode,
combines the other two modes by first giving an interrupt and then switch to System
Reset mode. This mode will for instance allow a safe shutdown by saving critical
parameters before a system reset.
The Watchdog always on (WDTON) fuse, if programmed, will force the Watchdog Timer
to System Reset mode. With the fuse programmed the System Reset mode bit (WDE)
and Interrupt mode bit (WDIE) are locked to 1 and 0 respectively. To further ensure
184
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
program security, alterations to the Watchdog set-up must follow timed sequences. The
sequence for clearing WDE and changing time-out configuration is as follows:
1. In the same operation, write a logic one to the Watchdog change enable bit (WDCE)
and WDE. A logic one must be written to WDE regardless of the previous value of
the WDE bit.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, write the WDE and Watchdog prescaler bits (WDP)
as desired, but with the WDCE bit cleared. This must be done in one operation.
The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for turning off the
Watchdog Timer. The example assumes that interrupts are controlled (e.g. by disabling
interrupts globally) so that no interrupts will occur during the execution of these
functions.
(1)
Assembly Code Example, Disable Watchdog Timer
WDT_off:
; Turn off global interrupt
cli
; Reset Watchdog Timer
wdr
; Clear WDRF in MCUSR
in
r16, MCUSR
andi
r16, (0xff & (0<<WDRF))
out
MCUSR, r16
; Write logical one to WDCE and WDE
; Keep old prescaler setting to prevent unintentional time-out
lds r16, WDTCSR
ori r16, (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE)
sts WDTCSR, r16
; Turn off WDT
ldi r16, (0<<WDE)
sts WDTCSR, r16
; Turn on global interrupt
sei
ret
C Code Example, Disable Watchdog Timer
void WDT_off(void)
(1)
{
disable_interrupt();
watchdog_reset();
/* Clear WDRF in MCUSR*/
MCUSR &= ~(1<<WDRF);
/* Write logical one to WDCE and WDE */
/* Keep old prescaler setting to prevent unintentional time-out */
WDTCSR |= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Turn off WDT */
WDTCSR = 0x00;
__enable_interrupt();
}
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
If the Watchdog is accidentally enabled, for example by a runaway pointer or brown-out
condition, the device will be reset and the Watchdog Timer will stay enabled. If the code
is not set up to handle the Watchdog, this might lead to an eternal loop of time-out
resets. To avoid this situation, the application software should always clear the
Watchdog System Reset Flag (WDRF) and the WDE control bit in the initialization
routine, even if the Watchdog is not in use.
The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for changing the
time-out value of the Watchdog Timer.
Assembly Code Example, Prescaler Change
WDT_Prescaler_Change:
(1,2)
; Turn off global interrupt
cli
; Reset Watchdog Timer
wdr
; Start timed sequence
lds
r16, WDTCSR
ori
r16, (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE)
sts
WDTCSR, r16
; --Got four cycles to set the new values from here –
; Set new prescaler(time-out) value = 64K cycles (~0.5 s)
ldi
r16, (1<<WDE) | (1<<WDP2) | (1<<WDP0)
sts
WDTCSR, r16
; --Finished setting new values, used 2 cycles –
; Turn on global interrupt
sei
ret
(1,2)
C Code Example, Prescaler Change
void WDT_Prescaler_Change(void)
{
__disable_interrupt();
__watchdog_reset();
/* Start timed sequence */
WDTCSR |= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Set new prescaler(time-out) value = 64K cycles (~0.5 s) */
WDTCSR
= (1<<WDE) | (1<<WDP2) | (1<<WDP0);
__enable_interrupt();
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
2. The Watchdog Timer should be reset before any change of the WDP
bits, since a change in the WDP bits can result in a time-out when
switching to a shorter time-out period.
When using the Watchdog Timer in Interrupt Mode the WDIE bit must be used as
shown in the following code example.
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ATmega128RFA1
Assembly Code Example, Interrupt Mode
WDT_Interrupt_Mode:
(1,2)
; Turn off global interrupt
cli
; Reset Watchdog Timer
wdr
; Start timed sequence, use WDCE and WDE bits
ldi
r16, (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE)
sts
WDTCSR, r16
; --Got four cycles to set the new values from here –
; Use WDIE bit to set new time-out value (64K cycles ~0.5 s)
ldi
r16, (1<<WDIF) | (1<<WDIE) | (1<<WDP2) | (1<<WDP0)
sts
WDTCSR, r16
; --Finished setting new values, used 2 cycles –
; Turn on global interrupt
sei
ret
(1,2)
C Code Example, Interrupt Mode
void WDT_Interrupt_Mode(void)
{
__disable_interrupt();
__watchdog_reset();
/* Start timed sequence, use WDCE and WDE bits*/
WDTCSR
= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Use WDIE bit to set time-out value (64k cycles ~0.5 s) */
WDTCSR
= (1<<WDIF) | (1<<WDIE) | (1<<WDP2) | (1<<WDP0);
__enable_interrupt();
}
Note:
1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
2. The Watchdog Timer should be reset before any change of the WDP
bits, since a change in the WDP bits can result in a time-out when
switching to a shorter time-out period.
To clear any pending old Watchdog interrupt the WDIF bit is written to one together with
the WDIE bit.
13.5 Register Description
13.5.1 MCUSR – MCU Status Register
Bit
$34 ($54)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res2
Res1
Res0
JTRF
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
MCUSR
The MCU Status Register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU
reset. To make use of the Reset Flags to identify a reset condition, the user should read
and then Reset the MCUSR as early as possible in the program. If the register is
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
cleared before another reset occurs, the source of the reset can be found by examining
the Reset Flags. Note, after power on the bit EXTRF has to be ignored.
• Bit 7:5 – Res2:0 - Reserved
• Bit 4 – JTRF - JTAG Reset Flag
This bit is set if a reset is being caused by a logic one in the JTAG Reset Register
selected by the JTAG instruction AVR_RESET. This bit is reset by a Power-on Reset,
or by writing a logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 3 – WDRF - Watchdog Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Watchdog Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by
writing a logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 2 – BORF - Brown-out Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Brown-out Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by
writing a logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 1 – EXTRF - External Reset Flag
This bit is set if an External Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by
writing a logic zero to the flag.
• Bit 0 – PORF - Power-on Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Power-on Reset occurs. The bit is reset only by writing a logic zero to
the flag.
13.5.2 WDTCSR – Watchdog Timer Control Register
Bit
NA ($60)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
WDIF
WDIE
WDP3
WDCE
WDE
WDP2
WDP1
WDP0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
WDTCSR
• Bit 7 – WDIF - Watchdog Timeout Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when a time-out occurs in the Watchdog Timer and the Watchdog Timer
is configured for interrupt. WDIF is cleared by hardware when executing the
corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, WDIF is cleared by writing a logic
one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG and WDIE are set, the Watchdog Time-out
Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 6 – WDIE - Watchdog Timeout Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Watchdog
Interrupt is enabled. If WDE is cleared in combination with this setting, the Watchdog
Timer is in Interrupt Mode, and the corresponding interrupt is executed if time-out in the
Watchdog Timer occurs. If WDE is set, the Watchdog Timer is in Interrupt and System
Reset Mode. The first time-out in the Watchdog Timer will set WDIF. Executing the
corresponding interrupt vector will clear WDIE and WDIF automatically by hardware
(the Watchdog goes to System Reset Mode). This is useful for keeping the Watchdog
Timer security while using the interrupt. To stay in Interrupt and System Reset Mode,
WDIE must be set after each interrupt. This should however not be done within the
interrupt service routine itself, as this might compromise the safety-function of the
Watchdog System Reset mode. If the interrupt is not executed before the next time-out,
a System Reset will be applied.
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Table 13-1. Watchdog Timer Configuration
(1)
WDTON
WDE
WDIE
Mode
Action on Time-out
1
0
0
Stopped
None
1
0
1
Interrupt Mode
Interrupt
1
1
0
System Reset Mode
Reset
1
1
1
Interrupt and System
Reset Mode
Interrupt, then go to
System Reset Mode
0
x
x
System Reset Mode
Reset
Note:
1. WDTON Fuse set to “0“ means programmed and “1” means un-programmed.
• Bit 4 – WDCE - Watchdog Change Enable
This bit is used in timed sequences for changing WDE and prescaler bits. To clear the
WDE bit, and/or change the prescaler bits, WDCE must be set. Once written to one,
hardware will clear WDCE after four clock cycles.
• Bit 3 – WDE - Watch Dog Enable
When the WDE is set (one) the Watchdog Timer is enabled. WDE is overridden by
WDRF in MCUSR. This means that WDE is always set when WDRF is set. To clear
WDE, WDRF must be cleared first. This feature ensures multiple resets during
conditions causing failure, and a safe start-up after the failure.
• Bit 5, 2:0 – WDP3:0 – Watchdog Timer Prescaler 3, 2, 1 and 0
The WDP3:0 bits determine the Watchdog Timer prescaling when the Watchdog Timer
is running. The following table also shows approximate time-out values.
Table 13-2. WDP Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
WDP3:0
0x00
Oscillator Cycles 2k, (16ms)
0x01
Oscillator Cycles 4k, (32ms)
0x02
Oscillator Cycles 8k, (64ms)
0x03
Oscillator Cycles 16k, (0.125s)
0x04
Oscillator Cycles 32k, (0.25s)
0x05
Oscillator Cycles 64k, (0.5s)
0x06
Oscillator Cycles 128k, (1.0s)
0x07
Oscillator Cycles 256k, (2.0s)
0x08
Oscillator Cycles 512k, (4.0s)
0x09
Oscillator Cycles 1024k, (8.0s)
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14 I/O-Ports
14.1 Introduction
All ATmega128RFA1 ports have true Read-Modify-Write functionality when used as
general digital I/O ports. This means that the direction of one port pin can be changed
without unintentionally changing the direction of any other pin with the SBI and CBI
instructions. The same applies when changing drive value (if configured as output) or
enabling/disabling of pull-up resistors (if configured as input). Each output buffer has
symmetrical drive characteristics with both configurable sink and source capability.
Every port is individually configurable in four different drive strengths. The pin driver is
strong enough to drive LED displays directly. All port pins have individually selectable
pull-up resistors with a supply-voltage invariant resistance. All I/O pins have protection
diodes to both DEVDD and DVSS as indicated in Figure 14-1 below. Refer to "Electrical
Characteristics" on page 512 for a complete list of parameters.
Figure 14-1. I/O Pin Equivalent Schematic
All registers and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case
“x” represents the numbering letter for the port, and a lower case “n” represents the bit
number. However, when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form
must be used. For example, PORTB3 for bit no. 3 in Port B, here documented generally
as PORTxn.
Three I/O memory address locations are allocated for each port, one each for the Data
Register – PORTx, Data Direction Register – DDRx, and the Port Input Pins – PINx.
The Port Input Pins I/O location is read only, while the Data Register and the Data
Direction Register are read/write. However, writing a logic one to a bit in the PINx
Register, will result in a toggle in the corresponding bit in the Data Register. In addition,
the Pull-up Disable – PUD bit in MCUCR disables the pull-up function for all pins in all
ports when set.
Using the I/O port as General Digital I/O is described in "Ports as General Digital I/O"
on page 191. Most port pins are multiplexed with alternate functions for the peripheral
features on the device. How each alternate function interferes with the port pin is
described in "Alternate Port Functions" on page 195. Refer to the individual module
sections for a full description of the alternate functions.
Note that enabling the alternate function of some of the port pins does not affect the use
of the other pins in the port as general digital I/O.
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14.2 Ports as General Digital I/O
The ports are bi-directional I/O ports with optional internal pull-ups. Figure 14-2 below
shows a functional description of one I/O-port pin, here generically called Pxn.
Figure 14-2. General Digital I/O
(1)
DPDS0/DPDS1
DPDS0/DPDS1:
Note:
drive strength register
1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port.
clkI/O, SLEEP, and PUD are common to all ports.
14.2.1 Configuring the Port
Drive strength of output buffers is configurable port-wise. Source/sink capably of 2mA,
4mA, 6mA or 8mA is selectable through registers DPDS1 and DPDS0. Note that pins
PG3 and PG4 of PORTG have fixed drive strength of 2mA to enable the operation of
the low power crystal oscillator.
14.2.2 Configuring the Pin
Each port pin consists of three register bits: DDxn, PORTxn, and PINxn. The DDxn bits
are accessed at the DDRx I/O address, the PORTxn bits at the PORTx I/O address,
and the PINxn bits at the PINx I/O address.
The DDxn bit in the DDRx Register selects the direction of this pin. If DDxn is written
logic one, Pxn is configured as an output pin. If DDxn is written logic zero, Pxn is
configured as an input pin.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an input pin, the pull-up
resistor is activated. To switch the pull-up resistor off, PORTxn has to be written logic
zero or the pin has to be configured as an output pin. The port pins are tri-stated when
reset condition becomes active, even if no clocks are running.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin
is driven high (one). If PORTxn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an
output pin, the port pin is driven low (zero).
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14.2.3 Toggling the Pin
Writing a logic one to PINxn toggles the value of PORTxn, independent on the value of
DDRxn. Note that the SBI instruction can be used to toggle one single bit in a port.
14.2.4 Switching Between Input and Output
When switching between tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) and output high ({DDxn,
PORTxn} = 0b11), an intermediate state with either pull-up enabled {DDxn, PORTxn} =
0b01) or output low ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b10) must occur. Normally, the pull-up
enabled state is fully acceptable, as a high-impedance environment will not notice the
difference between a strong high driver and a pull-up. If this is not the case, the PUD bit
in the MCUCR Register can be set to disable all pull-ups in all ports.
Switching between input with pull-up and output low generates the same problem. The
user must use either the tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) or the output high state
({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b11) as an intermediate step.
The following table summarizes the control signals for the pin value.
PUD
(in MCUCR)
PORTxn
DDxn
Table 14-1. Port Pin Configurations
I/O
Pull-up
Comment
0
0
X
Input
No
Tri-state (Hi-Z)
0
1
0
Input
Yes
Pxn will source current if ext. pulled low.
0
1
1
Input
No
Tri-state (Hi-Z)
1
0
X
Output
No
Output Low (Sink)
1
1
X
Output
No
Output High (Source)
14.2.5 Reading the Pin Value
Independent of the setting of Data Direction bit DDxn, the port pin can be read through
the PINxn Register bit. As shown in Figure 14-2 on page 191, the PINxn Register bit
and the preceding latch constitute a synchronizer. This is needed to avoid meta-stability
if the physical pin changes value near the edge of the internal clock, but it also
introduces a delay. Figure 14-3 on page 193 shows a timing diagram of the
synchronization when reading an externally applied pin value. The maximum and
minimum propagation delays are denoted tPD,MAX and tPD,MIN respectively.
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Figure 14-3. Synchronization when reading an external applied pin value
Consider the clock period starting shortly after the first falling edge of the system clock.
The latch is closed when the clock is low, and goes transparent when the clock is high,
as indicated by the shaded region of the “SYNC LATCH” signal. The signal value is
latched when the system clock goes low. It is clocked into the PINxn Register at the
succeeding positive clock edge. As indicated by the two arrows tPD,MAX and tPD,MIN, a
single signal transition on the pin will be delayed between ½ and 1½ system clock
period depending upon the time of assertion.
When reading back a software assigned pin value, a NOP instruction must be inserted
as indicated in Figure 14-4 below. The out instruction sets the “SYNC LATCH” signal at
the positive edge of the clock. In this case, the delay tPD through the synchronizer is 1
system clock period.
Figure 14-4. Synchronization when reading software assigned pin value
The following code example shows how to set port B pins 0 and 1 high, 2 and 3 low,
and define the port pins from 4 to 7 as input with pull-ups assigned to port pins 6 and 7.
The resulting pin values are read back again, but as previously discussed, a NOP
instruction is included to be able to read back the value recently assigned to some of
the pins.
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Assembly Code Example
(1)
…
; Define pull-ups and set outputs high
; Define directions for port pins
ldi r16,(1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0)
ldi r17,(1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0)
out PORTB,r16
out DDRB,r17
; Insert nop for synchronization
nop
; Read port pins
in r16,PINB
…
C Code Example
unsigned char i;
…
/* Define pull-ups and set outputs high */
/* Define directions for port pins */
PORTB = (1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0);
DDRB = (1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0);
/* Insert nop for synchronization*/
__no_operation();
/* Read port pins */
i = PINB;
…
Note:
1. For the assembly program, two temporary registers are used to minimize the time
from pull-ups are set on pins 0, 1, 6, and 7, until the direction bits are correctly set,
defining bit 2 and 3 as low and redefining bits 0 and 1 as strong high drivers.
14.2.6 Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes
As shown in Figure 14-2 on page 191, the digital input signal can be clamped to ground
at the input of the Schmitt-Trigger. The signal denoted SLEEP in the figure, is set by the
MCU Sleep Controller in Power-down mode, Power-save mode, and Standby mode to
avoid high power consumption if some input signals are left floating, or have an analog
signal level close to VDEVDD/2.
SLEEP is overridden for port pins enabled as external interrupt pins. If the external
interrupt request is not enabled, SLEEP is active also for these pins. SLEEP is also
overridden by various other alternate functions as described in "Alternate Port
Functions" on page 195.
If a logic high level (“one”) is present on an asynchronous external interrupt pin
configured as “Interrupt on Rising Edge, Falling Edge, or Any Logic Change on Pin”
while the external interrupt is not enabled, the corresponding External Interrupt Flag will
be set when resuming from the above mentioned Sleep mode, as the clamping in these
sleep mode produces the requested logic change.
14.2.7 Unconnected Pins
If some pins are unused, it is recommended to ensure that these pins have a defined
level. Even though most of the digital inputs are disabled in the deep sleep modes as
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described above, floating inputs should be avoided to reduce current consumption in all
other modes where the digital inputs are enabled (Reset-, Active- and Idle-mode).
The simplest method to ensure a defined level of an unused pin is to enable the internal
pull-up. In this case, the pull-up will be disabled during reset. If low power consumption
during reset is important, it is recommended to use an external pull-up or pull-down.
Connecting unused pins directly to DEVDD or DVSS is not recommended, since this
may cause excessive currents if the pin is accidentally configured as an output.
14.3 Alternate Port Functions
Most port pins have alternate functions in addition to being general digital I/O ports.
Figure 14-5 below shows how the port pin control signals from the simplified Figure
14-2 on page 191 can be overridden by alternate functions. The overriding signals may
not be present in all port pins, but the figure serves as a generic description applicable
to all port pins in the AVR microcontroller family.
Figure 14-5. Alternate Port Functions
(1)
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Note:
1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port.
clkI/O, SLEEP, and PUD are common to all ports. All other signals are unique for
each pin.
The following table summarizes the function of the overriding signals. The pin and port
indexes from Figure 14-5 on page 195 are not shown in the succeeding tables. The
overriding signals are generated internally in the modules having the alternate function.
Table 14-2. Generic Description of Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions
Signal Name
Full Name
Description
PUOE
Pull-up Override
Enable
If this signal is set, the pull-up enable is controlled by
the PUOV signal. If this signal is cleared, the pull-up is
enabled when {DDxn, PORTxn, PUD} = 0b010.
PUOV
Pull-up Override
Value
If PUOE is set, the pull-up is enabled/disabled when
PUOV is set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the
DDxn, PORTxn, and PUD Register bits.
DDOE
Data Direction
Override Enable
If this signal is set, the Output Driver Enable is
controlled by the DDOV signal. If this signal is cleared,
the Output driver is enabled by the DDxn Register bit.
DDOV
Data Direction
Override Value
If DDOE is set, the Output Driver is enabled/disabled
when DDOV is set/cleared, regardless of the setting of
the DDxn Register bit.
PVOE
Port Value Override
Enable
If this signal is set and the Output Driver is enabled, the
port value is controlled by the PVOV signal. If PVOE is
cleared, and the Output Driver is enabled, the port
Value is controlled by the PORTxn Register bit.
PVOV
Port Value Override
Value
If PVOE is set, the port value is set to PVOV,
regardless of the setting of the PORTxn Register bit.
PTOE
Port Toggle Override
Enable
If PTOE is set, the PORTxn Register bit is inverted.
DIEOE
Digital Input Enable
Override Enable
If this bit is set, the Digital Input Enable is controlled by
the DIEOV signal. If this signal is cleared, the Digital
Input Enable is determined by MCU state (Normal
mode, sleep mode).
DIEOV
Digital Input Enable
Override Value
If DIEOE is set, the Digital Input is enabled/disabled
when DIEOV is set/cleared, regardless of the MCU
state (Normal mode, sleep mode).
DI
Digital Input
This is the Digital Input to alternate functions. In the
figure, the signal is connected to the output of the
Schmitt-Trigger but before the synchronizer. Unless the
Digital Input is used as a clock source, the module with
the alternate function will use its own synchronizer.
AIO
Analog Input/Output
This is the Analog Input/output to/from alternate
functions. The signal is connected directly to the pad,
and can be used bi-directionally.
The following subsections shortly describe the alternate functions for each port, and
relate the overriding signals to the alternate function. Refer to the alternate function
description for further details.
14.3.1 Alternate Functions of Port B
The Port B pins with alternate functions are shown in the following table.
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Table 14-3. Port B Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Functions
PB7
OC0A/OC1C/PCINT7 (Output Compare and PWM Output A for
Timer/Counter0, Output Compare and PWM Output C for Timer/Counter1 or
Pin Change Interrupt 7)
PB6
OC1B/PCINT6 (Output Compare and PWM Output B for Timer/Counter1 or
Pin Change Interrupt 6)
PB5
OC1A/PCINT5 (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter1 or
Pin Change Interrupt 5)
PB4
OC2A/PCINT4 (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter2 or
Pin Change Interrupt 4)
PB3
MISO/PDO/PCINT3 (SPI Bus Master Input/Slave Output, Programming Data
Output or Pin Change Interrupt 3)
PB2
MOSI/PDI/PCINT2 (SPI Bus Master Output/Slave Input , Programming Data
Input or Pin Change Interrupt 2)
PB1
SCK/PCINT1 (SPI Bus Serial Clock or Pin Change Interrupt 1)
PB0
SS
¯ ¯ /PCINT0 (SPI Slave Select input or Pin Change Interrupt 0)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• OC0A/OC1C/PCINT7, Bit 7
OC0A, Output Compare Match A output: The PB7 pin can serve as an external output
for the Timer/Counter0 Output Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output
(DDB7 set “one”) to serve this function. The OC0A pin is also the output pin for the
PWM mode timer function.
OC1C, Output Compare Match C output: The PB7 pin can serve as an external output
for the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare C. The pin has to be configured as an output
(DDB7 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC1C pin is also the output pin for the
PWM mode timer function.
PCINT7, Pin Change Interrupt source 7: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• OC1B/PCINT6, Bit 6
OC1B, Output Compare Match B output: The PB6 pin can serve as an external output
for the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output
(DDB6 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC1B pin is also the output pin for the
PWM mode timer function.
PCINT6, Pin Change Interrupt source 6: The PB6 pin can serve as an external interrupt
sourceOC1A, Output Compare Match A output: The PB5 pin can serve as an external
output for the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an
output (DDB5 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC1A pin is also the output pin for
the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT5, Pin Change Interrupt source 5: The PB5 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• OC2A/PCINT4, Bit 4
OC2A, Output Compare Match output: The PB4 pin can serve as an external output for
the Timer/Counter2 Output Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB4
set (one)) to serve this function. The OC2A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode
timer function.
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PCINT4, Pin Change Interrupt source 4: The PB4 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• MISO/PDO/PCINT3 – Port B, Bit 3
MISO: Master Data input, Slave Data output pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is
enabled as a master, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of
DDB3. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, the data direction of this pin is controlled by
DDB3. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the
PORTB3 bit.
PDO, SPI Serial Programming Data Output. During Serial Program Downloading, this
pin is used as data output line (see section "Serial Downloading" on page 484 for
details).
PCINT3, Pin Change Interrupt source 3: The PB3 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• MOSI/PDI/PCINT2 – Port B, Bit 2
MOSI: SPI Master Data output, Slave Data input for SPI channel. When the SPI is
enabled as a slave, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB2.
When the SPI is enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by
DDB2. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the
PORTB2 bit.
PDI, SPI Serial Programming Data Input. During Serial Program Downloading, this pin
is used as data input line (see section "Serial Downloading" on page 484 for details).
PCINT2, Pin Change Interrupt source 2: The PB2 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• SCK/PCINT1 – Port B, Bit 1
SCK: Master Clock output, Slave Clock input pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is
enabled as a slave, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB1.
When the SPI0 is enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by
DDB1. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the
PORTB1 bit.
PCINT1, Pin Change Interrupt source 1: The PB1 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
• SS
¯ ¯ /PCINT0 – Port B, Bit 0
SS
¯ ¯ : Slave Port Select input. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is configured
as an input regardless of the setting of DDB0. As a slave, the SPI is activated when this
pin is driven low. When the SPI is enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is
controlled by DDB0. When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be
controlled by the PORTB0 bit.
Table 14-4 below and Table 14-5 on page 199 relate the alternate functions of Port B to
the overriding signals shown in Figure 14-5 on page 195. SPI MSTR INPUT and SPI
SLAVE OUTPUT constitute the MISO signal, while MOSI is divided into SPI MSTR
OUTPUT and SPI SLAVE INPUT.
PCINT0, Pin Change Interrupt source 0: The PB0 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
Table 14-4. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB7:PB4
198
Signal
Name
PB7/OC0A/OC1C
PB6/OC1B
PB5/OC1A
PB4/OC2A
PUOE
0
0
0
0
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Signal
Name
PB7/OC0A/OC1C
PB6/OC1B
PB5/OC1A
PB4/OC2A
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
OC0/OC1C
ENABLE
OC1B ENABLE
OC1A ENABLE
OC2A ENABLE
PVOV
OC0/OC1C
OC1B
OC1A
OC2A
DIEOE
PCINT7•PCIE0
PCINT6•PCIE0
PCINT5•PCIE0
PCINT4•PCIE0
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
PCINT7 INPUT
PCINT6 INPUT
PCINT5 INPUT
PCINT4 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Table 14-5. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB3:PB0
Signal
Name
PB3/MISO/PDO
PB2/MOSI/PDI
PB1/SCK
PB0/SS
¯¯
PUOE
SPE•MSTR
SPE•(~MSTR)
SPE•(~MSTR)
SPE•(~MSTR)
PUOV
PORTB3•(~PUD)
PORTB2•(~PUD)
PORTB1•(~PUD)
PORTB0•(~PUD)
DDOE
SPE•MSTR
SPE•(~MSTR)
SPE•(~MSTR)
SPE•(~MSTR)
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
SPE•(~MSTR)
SPE•MSTR
SPE•MSTR
0
PVOV
SPI SLAVE
OUTPUT
SPI MSTR
OUTPUT
SCK OUTPUT
0
DIEOE
PCINT3•PCIE0
PCINT2•PCIE0
PCINT1•PCIE0
PCINT0•PCIE0
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
SPI MSTR INPUT
PCINT3 INPUT
SPI SLAVE INPUT
PCINT2 INPUT
SCK INPUT
PCINT1 INPUT
SPI SS
¯ ¯ PCINT0
INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
14.3.2 Alternate Functions of Port D
The Port D pins with alternate functions are shown in the following table.
Table 14-6. Port D Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PD7
T0 (Timer/Counter0 Clock Input)
PD6
T1 (Timer/Counter1 Clock Input)
PD5
XCK1 (USART1 External Clock Input/Output)
PD4
ICP1 (Timer/Counter1Input Capture Trigger)
PD3
INT3/TXD1 (External Interrupt3 Input or USART1 Transmit Pin)
PD2
INT2/RXD 1(External Interrupt2 Input or USART1 Receive Pin)
PD1
INT1/SDA (External Interrupt1 Input or TWI Serial Data)
PD0
INT0/SCL (External Interrupt0 Input or TWI Serial Clock)
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
• T0 – Port D, Bit 7
T0, this is Timer/Counter0 counter source.
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• T1 – Port D, Bit 6
T1, this is Timer/Counter1 counter source.
• XCK1 – Port D, Bit 5
XCK1, USART1 External clock: The Data Direction Register (DDD5) controls whether
the clock is output (DDD5 set) or input (DDD5 cleared). The XCK1 pin is active only
when the USART1 operates in Synchronous mode.
• ICP1 – Port D, Bit 4
ICP1 – Input Capture Pin 1: The PD4 pin can act as an input capture pin for
Timer/Counter1.
• INT3/TXD1 – Port D, Bit 3
INT3, External Interrupt source 3: The PD3 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source to the MCU.
TXD1, Transmit Data (Data output pin for the USART1). When the USART1 Transmitter
is enabled, this pin is configured as an output regardless of the value of DDD3.
• INT2/RXD1 – Port D, Bit 2
INT2, External Interrupt source 2: The PD2 pin can serve as an External Interrupt
source to the MCU.
RXD1, Receive Data (Data input pin for the USART1). When the USART1 receiver is
enabled this pin is configured as an input regardless of the value of DDD2. When the
USART forces this pin to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTD2
bit.
• INT1/SDA – Port D, Bit 1
INT1, External Interrupt source 1: The PD1 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source to the MCU.
SDA, 2-wire Serial Interface Data: When the TWEN bit in TWCR is set (one) to enable
the 2-wire Serial Interface, pin PD1 is disconnected from the port and becomes the
Serial Data I/O pin for the 2-wire Serial Interface. In this mode, there is a spike filter on
the pin to suppress spikes shorter than 50 ns on the input signal, and the pin is driven
by an open drain driver with slew rate limitation.
• INT0/SCL – Port D, Bit 0
INT0, External Interrupt source 0: The PD0 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source to the MCU.
SCL, 2-wire Serial Interface Clock: When the TWEN bit in TWCR is set (one) to enable
the 2-wire Serial Interface, pin PD0 is disconnected from the port and becomes the
Serial Clock I/O pin for the 2-wire Serial Interface. In this mode, there is a spike filter on
the pin to suppress spikes shorter than 50 ns on the input signal, and the pin is driven
by an open drain driver with slew-rate limitation.
Table 14-7 below and Table 14-8 on page 201 relates the alternate functions of Port D
to the overriding signals shown in Figure 14-5 on page 195.
Table 14-7. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PD7:PD4
200
Signal
Name
PD7/T0
PD6/T1
PD5/XCK1
PD4/ICP1
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
XCK1 OUTPUT
ENABLE
0
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Signal
Name
PD7/T0
PD6/T1
PD5/XCK1
PD4/ICP1
DDOV
0
0
1
0
PVOE
0
0
XCK1 OUTPUT
ENABLE
0
PVOV
0
0
XCK1 OUTPUT
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
T0 INPUT
T1 INPUT
XCK1 INPUT
ICP1 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Table 14-8. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PD3:PD0
Signal
Name
PD3/INT3/TXD1
PD2/INT2/RXD1
PD1/INT1/SDA
PD0/INT0/SCL
PUOE
TXEN1
RXEN1
TWEN
TWEN
PUOV
0
PORTD2&(~PUD)
PORTD1&(~PUD)
PORTD0&(~PUD)
DDOE
TXEN1
RXEN1
TWEN
TWEN
DDOV
1
0
SDA_OUT
SCL_OUT
PVOE
TXEN1
0
TWEN
TWEN
PVOV
TXD1
0
0
0
DIEOE
INT3 ENABLE
INT2 ENABLE
INT1 ENABLE
INT0 ENABLE
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
INT3 INPUT
INT2 INPUT/RXD1
INT1 INPUT
INT0 INPUT
AIO
-
-
SDA INPUT
SCL INPUT
Note:
1. When enabled, the 2-wire Serial Interface enables Slew-Rate controls on the
output pins PD0 and PD1. This is not shown in this table. In addition, spike filters
are connected between the AIO outputs shown in the port figure and the digital
logic of the TWI module.
14.3.3 Alternate Functions of Port E
The Port E pins with alternate functions are shown in the following table.
Table 14-9. Port E Pins Alternate Functions
Port
Pin
Alternate Function
PE7
INT7/ICP3/CLK0 (External Interrupt7 Input, Timer/Counter3 Input Capture Trigger or
Divided System Clock)
PE6
INT6/T3 (External Interrupt6 Input or Timer/Counter3 Clock Input)
PE5
INT5/OC3C (External Interrupt5 Input or Output Compare and PWM Output C for
Timer/Counter3)
PE4
INT4/OC3B (External Interrupt4 Input or Output Compare and PWM Output B for
Timer/Counter3)
PE3
AIN1/OC3A (Analog Comparator Negative Input or Output Compare and PWM Output A
for Timer/Counter3)
PE2
AIN0/XCK0 (Analog Comparator or Positive Input or USART0 external clock input/output)
PE1
TXD0 (USART0 Transmit Pin)
201
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Port
Pin
Alternate Function
PE0
RXD0/PCINT8 (USART0 Receive Pin or Pin Change Interrupt8)
• INT7/ICP3/CLKO – Port E, Bit 7
INT7, External Interrupt source 7: The PE7 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
ICP3, Input Capture Pin 3: The PE7 pin can act as an input capture pin for
Timer/Counter3.
CLKO - Divided System Clock: The divided system clock can be output on the PE7 pin.
The divided system clock will be output if the CKOUT Fuse is programmed, regardless
of the PORTE7 and DDE7 settings. It will also be output during reset.
• INT6/T3 – Port E, Bit 6
INT6, External Interrupt source 6: The PE6 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
T3, this is the Timer/Counter3 counter source.
• INT5/OC3C – Port E, Bit 5
INT5, External Interrupt source 5: The PE5 pin can serve as an External Interrupt
source.
OC3C, Output Compare Match C output: The PE5 pin can serve as an External output
for the Timer/Counter3 Output Compare C. The pin has to be configured as an output
(DDE5 set “one”) to serve this function. The OC3C pin is also the output pin for the
PWM mode timer function.
• INT4/OC3B – Port E, Bit 4
INT4, External Interrupt source 4: The PE4 pin can serve as an External Interrupt
source.
OC3B, Output Compare Match B output: The PE4 pin can serve as an External output
for the Timer/Counter3 Output Compare B. The pin has to be configured as an output
(DDE4 set (one)) to serve this function. The OC3B pin is also the output pin for the
PWM mode timer function.
• AIN1/OC3A – Port E, Bit 3
AIN1 – Analog Comparator Negative input. This pin is directly connected to the
negative input of the Analog Comparator.
OC3A, Output Compare Match A output: The PE3 pin can serve as an External output
for the Timer/Counter3 Output Compare A. The pin has to be configured as an output
(DDE3 set “one”) to serve this function. The OC3A pin is also the output pin for the
PWM mode timer function.
• AIN0/XCK0 – Port E, Bit 2
AIN0 – Analog Comparator Positive input. This pin is directly connected to the positive
input of the Analog Comparator.
XCK0, this is the USART0 External clock. The Data Direction Register (DDE2) controls
whether the clock is output (DDE2 set) or input (DDE2 cleared). The XCK0 pin is active
only when the USART0 operates in Synchronous mode.
• TXD0 – Port E, Bit 1
TXD0, this is the USART0 Transmit pin.
• RXD0/PCINT8 – Port E, Bit 0
202
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
RXD0, USART0 Receive Pin. Receive Data (Data input pin for the USART0). When the
USART0 receiver is enabled this pin is configured as an input regardless of the value of
DDRE0. When the USART0 forces this pin to be an input, a logical one in PORTE0 will
turn on the internal pull-up.
PCINT8, Pin Change Interrupt source 8: The PE0 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
Table 14-10 below and Table 14-11 below relates the alternate functions of Port E to
the overriding signals shown in Figure 14-5 on page 195.
Table 14-10. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PE7:PE4
Signal
Name
PE7/INT7/ICP3
PE6/INT6/T3
PE5/INT5/OC3C
PE4/INT4/OC3B
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
0
0
0
0
DDOV
0
0
0
0
PVOE
0
0
OC3C ENABLE
OC3B ENABLE
PVOV
0
0
OC3C
OC3B
DIEOE
INT7 ENABLE
INT6 ENABLE
INT5 ENABLE
INT4 ENABLE
DIEOV
1
1
1
1
DI
INT7 INPUT / ICP3
INPUT
INT7 INPUT / T3
INPUT
INT5 INPUT
INT4 INPUT
AIO
–
–
–
–
Table 14-11. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PE3:PE0
Signal
Name
PE3/AIN1/OC3A
PE2/AIN0/XCK0
PE1/TXD0
PE0 /
RXD0/PCINT8
PUOE
0
0
TXEN0
RXEN0
PUOV
0
0
0
PORTE0 & (~PUD)
DDOE
0
XCK0 OUTPUT
ENABLE
TXEN0
RXEN0
DDOV
0
1
1
0
PVOE
OC3BENABLE
XCK0 OUTPUT
ENABLE
TXEN0
0
PVOV
OC3B
XCK0 OUTPUT
TXD0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
PCINT8 & PCIE1
DIEOV
0
0
0
1
DI
0
XCK0 INPUT
–
RXD0
PE0
0
0
0
PCINT8 INPUT
AIO
AIN1 INPUT
AIN0 INPUT
-
-
14.3.4 Alternate Functions of Port F
The Port F has an alternate function as analog input for the ADC as shown in Table
14-12 on page 204. If some Port F pins are configured as outputs, it is essential that
these do not switch when a conversion is in progress. This might corrupt the result of
the conversion. If the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins PF7(TDI),
PF5(TMS), and PF4(TCK) will be activated even if a Reset occurs.
203
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Table 14-12. Port F Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PF7
ADC7/TDI (ADC input channel 7 or JTAG Test Data Input)
PF6
ADC6/TDO (ADC input channel 6 or JTAG Test Data Output)
PF5
ADC5/TMS (ADC input channel 5 or JTAG Test Mode Select)
PF4
ADC4/TCK (ADC input channel 4 or JTAG Test Clock)
PF3
ADC3/DIG4 (ADC input channel 3 or Radio Transceiver RX/TX Indicator
Output)
PF2
ADC2/DIG2 (ADC input channel 2 or Radio Transceiver Antenna Diversity
Control Output)
PF1
ADC1 (ADC input channel 1)
PF0
ADC0 (ADC input channel 0)
• TDI, ADC7 – Port F, Bit 7
ADC7, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 7.
TDI, JTAG Test Data In: Serial input data to be shifted in to the Instruction Register or
Data Register (scan chains). When the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be
used as an I/O pin.
• TDO, ADC6 – Port F, Bit 6
ADC6, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 6.
TDO, JTAG Test Data Out: Serial output data from Instruction Register or Data
Register. When the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
The TDO pin is tri-stated unless TAP states that shift out data are entered.
• TMS, ADC5 – Port F, Bit 5
ADC5, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 5.
TMS, JTAG Test Mode Select: This pin is used for navigating through the TAPcontroller state machine. When the JTAG interface is enabled, this pin can not be used
as an I/O pin.
• TCK, ADC4 – Port F, Bit 4
ADC4, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 4.
TCK, JTAG Test Clock: JTAG operation is synchronous to TCK. When the JTAG
interface is enabled, this pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• DIG4, ADC3 – Port F, Bit 3
ADC3, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 3.
DIG4, Radio Transceiver RX/TX Indicator Output: If the bit PA_EXT_EN in
TRX_CTRL_1 is set to one then the PF3 pin serves as the Radio Transceiver
receive/transmit indicator output to control an external RF front-end.
• DIG2, ADC2 – Port F, Bit 2
ADC2, Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 2.
DIG2, Radio Transceiver Antenna Diversity Control Output: If the bit
ANT_EXT_SW_EN in ANT_DIV is set to one then the PF2 pin serves as a Radio
Transceiver output to control External Antenna Diversity.
• ADC1 – ADC0 – Port F, Bit 1:0
Analog to Digital Converter, Channel 1:0.
204
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Table 14-13. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PF7:PF4
Signal
Name
PF7/ADC7/TDI
PF6/ADC6/TDO
PF5/ADC5/TMS
PF4/ADC4/TCK
PUOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
PUOV
1
0
1
1
DDOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
DDOV
0
SHIFT_IR+SHIFT_DR
0
0
PVOE
0
JTAGEN
0
0
PVOV
0
TDO
0
0
DIEOE
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
JTAGEN
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
TDI/ADC7 INPUT
ADC6 INPUT
TMS/ADC5
INPUT
TCK/ADC4 INPUT
Table 14-14. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PF3:PF0
Signal
Name
PF3/ADC3/DIG4
PF2/ADC2/DIG2
PF1/ADC1
PF0/ADC0
PUOE
0
0
0
0
PUOV
0
0
0
0
DDOE
PA_EXT_EN
ANT_EXT_SW_EN
0
0
DDOV
PA_EXT_EN
ANT_EXT_SW_EN
0
0
PVOE
PA_EXT_EN
ANT_EXT_SW_EN
0
0
PVOV
DIG4
DIG2
0
0
DIEOE
0
0
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
0
0
DI
–
–
–
–
AIO
ADC3 INPUT
ADC2 INPUT
ADC1 INPUT
ADC0 INPUT
14.3.5 Alternate Functions of Port G
The Port G alternate pin configuration is as follows:
Table 14-15. Port G Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin
Alternate Function
PG5
OC0B (Output Compare and PWM Output B for Timer/Counter0)
PG4
TOSC1 (RTC Oscillator Timer/Counter2)
PG3
TOSC2 (RTC Oscillator Timer/Counter2)
PG2
AMR (Automated Meter Reading - Counter Input for Timer/Counter2)
PG1
DIG1 (Radio Transceiver Antenna Diversity Control Output)
PG0
DIG3 (Radio Transceiver RX/TX Indicator Output)
• OC0B – Port G, Bit 5
OC0B, Output Compare match B output: The PG5 pin can serve as an external output
for the TImer/Counter0 Output Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output
(DDG5 set) to serve this function. The OC0B pin is also the output pin for the PWM
mode timer function.
• TOSC1 – Port G, Bit 4
205
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
TOSC2, Timer Oscillator pin 1: Setting the AS2 bit to one and the EXCLKAMR bit to
zero in ASSR, enables asynchronous clocking of Timer/Counter2 by a Crystal
Oscillator. The pin PG4 is disconnected from the port, and becomes the input of the
inverting Oscillator amplifier. In this mode, a Crystal Oscillator is connected to this pin,
and the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
TOSC2 – Port G, Bit 3
TOSC2, Timer Oscillator pin 2: Setting the AS2 bit to one and the EXCLKAMR bit to
zero in ASSR, enables asynchronous clocking of Timer/Counter2 by a Crystal
Oscillator. The pin PG3 is disconnected from the port, and becomes the inverting output
of the Oscillator amplifier. In this mode, a Crystal Oscillator is connected to this pin, and
the pin can not be used as an I/O pin.
• AMR – Port G, Bit 2
AMR, Automated Meter Reading Input: Setting the AS2 and the EXCLKAMR bits in
ASSR to one, enables asynchronous clocking of Timer/Counter2 by the AMR pin
• DIG1 – Port G, Bit 1
DIG1, Radio Transceiver Antenna Diversity Control Output: If the bit
ANT_EXT_SW_EN in ANT_DIV is set to one then the PG1 pin serves as a Radio
Transceiver output to control External Antenna Diversity.
• DIG3 – Port G, Bit 0
DIG3, Radio Transceiver RX/TX Indicator Output: If the bit PA_EXT_EN in
TRX_CTRL_1 is set to one then the PG0 pin serves as the Radio Transceiver
receive/transmit indicator output to control an external RF front-end.
Table 14-16 below relates the alternate functions of Port G to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 14-5 on page 195.
Table 14-16. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PG5:PG2
206
Signal
Name
PG5/OC0B
PG4/TOSC1
PG3/TOSC2
PG2/AMR
PUOE
–
AS2 &
(~EXCLKAMR)
AS2 &
(~EXCLKAMR) &
(~EXCLK)
AS2 & EXCLKAMR
PUOV
–
0
0
0
DDOE
–
AS2 &
(~EXCLKAMR)
AS2 &
(~EXCLKAMR) &
(~EXCLK)
AS2 & EXCLKAMR
DDOV
–
0
0
0
PVOE
OC0B Enable
0
0
0
PVOV
OC0B
0
0
0
DIEOE
–
AS2 &
(~EXCLKAMR)
AS2 &
(~EXCLKAMR) &
(~EXCLK)
AS2 & EXCLKAMR
DIEOV
–
EXCLK
0
1
DI
–
–
–
AMR
AIO
–
T/C2
OSC INPUT
T/C2
OSC OUTPUT
–
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Table 14-17. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PG1:PG0
Signal
Name
PG1/DIG1
PG0/DIG3
PUOE
0
0
PUOV
0
0
DDOE
ANT_EXT_SW_EN
PA_EXT_EN
DDOV
ANT_EXT_SW_EN
PA_EXT_EN
PVOE
ANT_EXT_SW_EN
PA_EXT_EN
PVOV
DIG1
DIG3
DIEOE
0
0
DIEOV
0
0
DI
–
–
AIO
–
–
14.4 Register Description
For a detailed description of register MCUCR see chapter "MCUCR – MCU Control
Register" on page 219.
14.4.1 MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
$35 ($55)
PUD
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
3
2
1
0
MCUCR
The MCU Control Register contains control bits of the general Microcontroller Unit
functions.
• Bit 4 – PUD - Pull-up Disable
When this bit is written to one, the I/O ports pull-up resistors are disabled even if the
DDxn and PORTxn Registers are configured to enable the pull-up resistor ({DDxn,
PORTxn} = 2'b01). See section "Ports as General Digital I/O" for more details about this
feature.
14.4.2 DPDS0 – Port Driver Strength Register 0
Bit
NA ($136)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PFDRV1 PFDRV0 PEDRV1 PEDRV0 PDDRV1 PDDRV0 PBDRV1 PBDRV0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DPDS0
RW
0
The output driver strength can be set individually for each digital I/O port. The following
tables show output current levels for a typical supply voltage of DEVDD = 3.3V. Refer to
section "Electrical Characteristics" for details.
• Bit 7:6 – PFDRV1:0 - Driver Strength Port F
207
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Table 14-18 PFDRV Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
PFDRV1:0
Description
0
2 mA
1
4 mA
2
6 mA
3
8 mA
• Bit 5:4 – PEDRV1:0 - Driver Strength Port E
Table 14-19 PEDRV Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
PEDRV1:0
Description
0
2 mA
1
4 mA
2
6 mA
3
8 mA
• Bit 3:2 – PDDRV1:0 - Driver Strength Port D
Table 14-20 PDDRV Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
PDDRV1:0
Description
0
2 mA
1
4 mA
2
6 mA
3
8 mA
• Bit 1:0 – PBDRV1:0 - Driver Strength Port B
Table 14-21 PBDRV Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
PBDRV1:0
Description
0
2 mA
1
4 mA
2
6 mA
3
8 mA
14.4.3 DPDS1 – Port Driver Strength Register 1
Bit
NA ($137)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
Res5
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
1
0
PGDRV1 PGDRV0
RW
0
DPDS1
RW
0
The output driver strength can be set individually for each digital I/O port. The following
table shows output current levels for a typical supply voltage of DEVDD = 3.3V. Refer to
section "Electrical Characteristics" for details.
• Bit 7:2 – Res5:0 - Reserved
• Bit 1:0 – PGDRV1:0 - Driver Strength Port G
Driver strength can be set for port G except the port pins PG3 and PG4. The leakage
current of the ports PG3 and PG4 is reduced.
208
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Table 14-22 PGDRV Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
PGDRV1:0
Description
0
2 mA
1
4 mA
2
6 mA
3
8 mA
14.4.4 PORTB – Port B Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
$05 ($25)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PORTB7:0
PORTB
RW
0
If PORTBn is written logic one when the PORTB pin n is configured as an input pin, the
pull-up resistor is activated. To switch the pull-up resistor off, PORTBn has to be written
logic zero or the pin has to be configured as an output pin. If PORTBn is written logic
one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven high (one). If
PORTBn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is
driven low (zero).
• Bit 7:0 – PORTB7:0 - Port B Data Register Value
14.4.5 DDRB – Port B Data Direction Register
Bit
$04 ($24)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDB7
DDB6
DDB5
DDB4
DDB3
DDB2
DDB1
DDB0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DDRB
The DDBn bit in the DDRB Register selects the direction of the PORTB pin n. If DDBn
is written logic one, PBn is configured as an output pin. If DDBn is written logic zero,
PBn is configured as an input pin.
• Bit 7:0 – DDB7:0 - Port B Data Direction Register Value
14.4.6 PINB – Port B Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
$03 ($23)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
PINB7:0
R
0
PINB
This register allows access to the PORTB pins independent of the setting of the Data
Direction bit DDBn. The port pin can be read through the PINBn Register bit, and
writing a logic one to PINBn toggles the value of PORTBn.
• Bit 7:0 – PINB7:0 - Port B Input Pins Value
209
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
14.4.7 PORTD – Port D Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
$0B ($2B)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
PORTD7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PORTD
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
If PORTDn is written logic one when the PORTD pin n is configured as an input pin, the
pull-up resistor is activated. To switch the pull-up resistor off, PORTDn has to be written
logic zero or the pin has to be configured as an output pin. If PORTDn is written logic
one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven high (one). If
PORTDn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is
driven low (zero).
• Bit 7:0 – PORTD7:0 - Port D Data Register Value
14.4.8 DDRD – Port D Data Direction Register
Bit
$0A ($2A)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDD7
DDD6
DDD5
DDD4
DDD3
DDD2
DDD1
DDD0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DDRD
The DDDn bit in the DDRD Register selects the direction of the PORTD pin n. If DDDn
is written logic one, PDn is configured as an output pin. If DDDn is written logic zero,
PDn is configured as an input pin.
• Bit 7:0 – DDD7:0 - Port D Data Direction Register Value
14.4.9 PIND – Port D Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
$09 ($29)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
PIND7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
PIND
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
This register allows access to the PORTD pins independent of the setting of the Data
Direction bit DDDn. The port pin can be read through the PINDn Register bit, and
writing a logic one to PINDn toggles the value of PORTDn.
• Bit 7:0 – PIND7:0 - Port D Input Pins Value
14.4.10 PORTE – Port E Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
$0E ($2E)
Read/Write
Initial Value
210
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PORTE7:0
RW
0
PORTE
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
If PORTEn is written logic one when the PORTE pin n is configured as an input pin, the
pull-up resistor is activated. To switch the pull-up resistor off, PORTEn has to be written
logic zero or the pin has to be configured as an output pin. If PORTEn is written logic
one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven high (one). If
PORTEn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is
driven low (zero).
• Bit 7:0 – PORTE7:0 - Port E Data Register Value
14.4.11 DDRE – Port E Data Direction Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$0D ($2D)
DDE7
DDE6
DDE5
DDE4
DDE3
DDE2
DDE1
DDE0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DDRE
The DDEn bit in the DDRE Register selects the direction of the PORTE pin n. If DDEn
is written logic one, PEn is configured as an output pin. If DDEn is written logic zero,
PEn is configured as an input pin.
• Bit 7:0 – DDE7:0 - Port E Data Direction Register Value
14.4.12 PINE – Port E Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
$0C ($2C)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
PINE7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
PINE
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
This register allows access to the PORTE pins independent of the setting of the Data
Direction bit DDEn. The port pin can be read through the PINEn Register bit, and
writing a logic one to PINEn toggles the value of PORTEn.
• Bit 7:0 – PINE7:0 - Port E Input Pins Value
14.4.13 PORTF – Port F Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
$11 ($31)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
PORTF7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PORTF
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
If PORTFn is written logic one when the PORTF pin n is configured as an input pin, the
pull-up resistor is activated. To switch the pull-up resistor off, PORTFn has to be written
logic zero or the pin has to be configured as an output pin. If PORTFn is written logic
one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven high (one). If
PORTFn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is
driven low (zero).
• Bit 7:0 – PORTF7:0 - Port F Data Register Value
211
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
14.4.14 DDRF – Port F Data Direction Register
Bit
$10 ($30)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DDF7
DDF6
DDF5
DDF4
DDF3
DDF2
DDF1
DDF0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DDRF
The DDFn bit in the DDRF Register selects the direction of the PORTF pin n. If DDFn is
written logic one, PFn is configured as an output pin. If DDFn is written logic zero, PFn
is configured as an input pin.
• Bit 7:0 – DDF7:0 - Port F Data Direction Register Value
14.4.15 PINF – Port F Input Pins Address
Bit
7
6
5
4
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
$0F ($2F)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
PINF7:0
PINF
R
0
This register allows access to the PORTF pins independent of the setting of the Data
Direction bit DDFn. The port pin can be read through the PINFn Register bit, and writing
a logic one to PINFn toggles the value of PORTFn.
• Bit 7:0 – PINF7:0 - Port F Input Pins Value
14.4.16 PORTG – Port G Data Register
Bit
$14 ($34)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
PORTG5 PORTG4 PORTG3 PORTG2 PORTG1 PORTG0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PORTG
RW
0
If PORTGn is written logic one when the PORTG pin n is configured as an input pin, the
pull-up resistor is activated. To switch the pull-up resistor off, PORTGn has to be written
logic zero or the pin has to be configured as an output pin. If PORTGn is written logic
one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven high (one). If
PORTGn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is
driven low (zero).
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5:0 – PORTG5:0 - Port G Data Register Value
212
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
14.4.17 DDRG – Port G Data Direction Register
Bit
$13 ($33)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
DDG5
DDG4
DDG3
DDG2
DDG1
DDG0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DDRG
The DDGn bit in the DDRG Register selects the direction of the PORTG pin n. If DDGn
is written logic one, PGn is configured as an output pin. If DDGn is written logic zero,
PGn is configured as an input pin.
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5:0 – DDG5:0 - Port G Data Direction Register Value
14.4.18 PING – Port G Input Pins Address
Bit
$12 ($32)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
PING5
PING4
PING3
PING2
PING1
PING0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
PING
This register allows access to the PORTG pins independent of the setting of the Data
Direction bit DDGn. The port pin can be read through the PINGn Register bit, and
writing a logic one to PINGn toggles the value of PORTGn.
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5:0 – PING5:0 - Port G Input Pins Value
213
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
15 Interrupts
This section describes the specifics of the interrupt handling as performed in
ATmega128RFA1. For a general explanation of the AVR interrupt handling, refer to
"Reset and Interrupt Handling" on page 15.
15.1 Interrupt Vectors in ATmega128RFA1
Table 15-1. Reset and Interrupt Vectors
Vector
No.
0
(1)
$0000
Source
Interrupt Definition
RESET
External Pin, Power-on Reset, Brown-out
Reset, Watchdog Reset, and JTAG AVR
Reset
1
$0002
INT0
External Interrupt Request 0
2
$0004
INT1
External Interrupt Request 1
3
$0006
INT2
External Interrupt Request 2
4
$0008
INT3
External Interrupt Request 3
5
$000A
INT4
External Interrupt Request 4
6
$000C
INT5
External Interrupt Request 5
7
$000E
INT6
External Interrupt Request 6
8
$0010
INT7
External Interrupt Request 7
9
$0012
PCINT0
Pin Change Interrupt Request 0
10
$0014
PCINT1
Pin Change Interrupt Request 1
PCINT2
Pin Change Interrupt Request 2
11
214
Program
(2)
Address
(3)
$0016
12
$0018
WDT
Watchdog Time-out Interrupt
13
$001A
TIMER2_COMPA
Timer/Counter2 Compare Match A
14
$001C
TIMER2_COMPB
Timer/Counter2 Compare Match B
15
$001E
TIMER2_OVF
Timer/Counter2 Overflow
16
$0020
TIMER1_CAPT
Timer/Counter1 Capture Event
17
$0022
TIMER1_COMPA
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match A
18
$0024
TIMER1_COMPB
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B
19
$0026
TIMER1_COMPC
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match C
20
$0028
TIMER1_OVF
Timer/Counter1 Overflow
21
$002A
TIMER0_COMPA
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A
22
$002C
TIMER0_COMPB
Timer/Counter0 Compare match B
23
$002E
TIMER0_OVF
Timer/Counter0 Overflow
24
$0030
SPI_STC
SPI Serial Transfer Complete
25
$0032
USART0_RX
USART0 Rx Complete
26
$0034
USART0_UDRE
USART0 Data Register Empty
27
$0036
USART0_TX
USART0 Tx Complete
28
$0038
ANALOG_COMP
Analog Comparator
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Vector
No.
Program
(2)
Address
Source
29
$003A
ADC
ADC Conversion Complete
30
$003C
EE_READY
EEPROM Ready
31
$003E
TIMER3_CAPT
Timer/Counter3 Capture Event
32
$0040
TIMER3_COMPA
Timer/Counter3 Compare Match A
33
$0042
TIMER3_COMPB
Timer/Counter3 Compare Match B
34
$0044
TIMER3_COMPC
Timer/Counter3 Compare Match C
35
$0046
TIMER3_OVF
Timer/Counter3 Overflow
36
$0048
USART1_RX
USART1 Rx Complete
37
$004A
USART1_UDRE
USART1 Data Register Empty
38
$004C
USART1_TX
USART1 Tx Complete
39
$004E
TWI
2-wire Serial Interface
40
$0050
SPM_READY
Store Program Memory Ready
TIMER4_CAPT
Timer/Counter4 Capture Event
41
(3)
$0052
Interrupt Definition
42
$0054
TIMER4_COMPA
Timer/Counter4 Compare Match A
43
$0056
TIMER4_COMPB
Timer/Counter4 Compare Match B
44
$0058
TIMER4_COMPC
Timer/Counter4 Compare Match C
45
$005A
TIMER4_OVF
Timer/Counter4 Overflow
TIMER5_CAPT
Timer/Counter5 Capture Event
46
(3)
$005C
47
$005E
TIMER5_COMPA
Timer/Counter5 Compare Match A
48
$0060
TIMER5_COMPB
Timer/Counter5 Compare Match B
49
$0062
TIMER5_COMPC
Timer/Counter5 Compare Match C
50
$0064
TIMER5_OVF
Timer/Counter5 Overflow
51
52
53
54
55
56
(3)
Reserved
(3)
Reserved
(3)
Reserved
(3)
Reserved
(3)
Reserved
(3)
Reserved
$0066
$0068
$006A
$006C
$006E
$0070
57
$0072
TRX24_PLL_LOCK
Transceiver PLL Lock
58
$0074
TRX24_PLL_UNLOCK
Transceiver PLL Unlock
59
$0076
TRX24_RX_START
Transceiver Receive Start
60
$0078
TRX24_RX_END
Transceiver Receive End
61
$007A
TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE
Transceiver CCAED Measurement finished
62
$007C
TRX24_XAH_AMI
Transceiver Frame Address Match
63
$007E
TRX24_TX_END
Transceiver Transmit End
64
$0080
TRX24_AWAKE
Transceiver Wakeup finished
215
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Vector
No.
Program
(2)
Address
Source
65
$0082
SCNT_CMP1
Symbol Counter Compare Match 1
66
$0084
SCNT_CMP 2
Symbol Counter Compare Match 2
67
$0086
SCNT_CMP 3
Symbol Counter Compare Match 3
68
$0088
SCNT_OVFL
Symbol Counter Overflow
69
$008A
SCNT_BACKOFF
Symbol Counter Backoff Slot Counter
70
$008C
AES_READY
AES Encryption Ready
71
$008E
BAT_LOW
Battery Monitor Alert
Note:
Interrupt Definition
1. When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed, the device will jump to the Boot Loader
address at reset, see "Memory Programming" on page 470.
2. When the IVSEL bit in MCUCR is set, Interrupt Vectors will be moved to the start
of the Boot Flash Section. The address of each Interrupt Vector will then be the
address in this table added to the start address of the Boot Flash Section.
3. Not useful in ATmega128RFA1 due to limited pin count. 0.
15.2 Reset and Interrupt Vector Placement
Table 15-2 below shows Reset and Interrupt Vectors placement for the various
combinations of BOOTRST and IVSEL settings. If the program never enables an
interrupt source, the Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program code can be
placed at these locations. This is also the case if the Reset Vector is in the Application
section while the Interrupt Vectors are in the Boot section or vice versa.
Table 15-2. Reset and Interrupt Vectors Placement
(1)
BOOTRST
IVSEL
Reset Address
Interrupt Vectors Start Address
1
0
0x0000
0x0002
1
1
0x0000
Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
0
0
Boot Reset Address
0x0002
0
1
Boot Reset Address
Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
Note:
1. The Boot Reset Address is shown in Table 30-7 on page 467 through Table 30-6
on page 466. For the BOOTRST Fuse “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means
programmed.
The most typical and general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector
Addresses in ATmega128RFA1 is:
Address
0x0000
0x0002
0x0004
0x0006
0x0008
0x000A
0x000C
0x000E
0x0010
0x0012
0x0014
0x0016
216
Labels
Code
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
RESET
INT0
INT1
INT2
INT3
INT4
INT5
INT6
INT7
PCINT0
PCINT1
PCINT2
Comments
;Reset Handler
;IRQ0 Handler
;IRQ1 Handler
;IRQ2 Handler
;IRQ3 Handler
;IRQ4 Handler
;IRQ5 Handler
;IRQ6 Handler
;IRQ7 Handler
;PCINT0 Handler
;PCINT1 Handler
;PCINT2 Handler
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
0X0018
0x001A
0x001C
0x001E
0x0020
0x0022
0x0024
0x0026
0x0028
0x002A
0x002C
0x002E
0x0030
0x0032
0x0034
0x0036
0x0038
0x003A
0x003C
0x003E
0x0040
0x0042
0x0044
0x0046
0x0048
0x004A
0x004C
0x004E
0x0050
0x0052
0x0054
0x0056
0x0058
0x005A
0x005C
0x005E
0x0060
0x0062
0x0064
0x0066
0x0068
0x006A
0x006C
0x006E
0x0070
0x0072
0x0074
0x0076
0x0078
0x007A
0x007C
0x007E
0x0080
0x0082
0x0084
0x0086
0x0088
0x008A
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
jmp
WDT
TIM2_COMPA
TIM2_COMPB
TIM2_OVF
TIM1_CAPT
TIM1_COMPA
TIM1_COMPB
TIM1_COMPC
TIM1_OVF
TIM0_COMPA
TIM0_COMPB
TIM0_OVF
SPI_STC
USART0_RX
USART0_UDRE
USART0_TX
ANA_COMP
ADC
EE_RDY
TIM3_CAPT
TIM3_COMPA
TIM3_COMPB
TIM3_COMPC
TIM3_OVF
USART1_RX
USART1_UDRE
USART1_TX
TWI
SPM_RDY
TIM4_CAPT
TIM4_COMPA
TIM4_COMPB
TIM4_COMPC
TIM4_OVF
TIM5_CAPT
TIM5_COMPA
TIM5_COMPB
TIM5_COMPC
TIM5_OVF
0x15e
0x15e
0x15e
0x15e
0x15e
0x15e
TRX24_PLL_LOCK
TRX24_PLL_UNLOCK
TRX24_RX_START
TRX24_RX_END
TRX24_CCA_ED_DONE
TRX24_XAH_AMI
TRX24_TX_END
TRX24_AWAKE
SCNT_CMP1
SCNT_CMP2
SCNT_CMP3
SCNT_OVFL
SCNT_BACKOFF
;Watchdog Timeout Handler
;Timer2 CompareA Handler
;Timer2 CompareB Handler
;Timer2 Overflow Handler
;Timer1 Capture Handler
;Timer1 CompareA Handler
;Timer1 CompareB Handler
;Timer1 CompareC Handler
;Timer1 Overflow Handler
;Timer0 CompareA Handler
;Timer0 CompareB Handler
;Timer0 Overflow Handler
;SPI Transfer Complete Handler
;USART0 RX Complete Handler
;USART0,UDR Empty Handler
;USART0 TX Complete Handler
;Analog Comparator Handler
;ADC Conversion Complete Handler
;EEPROM Ready Handler
;Timer3 Capture Handler
;Timer3 CompareA Handler
;Timer3 CompareB Handler
;Timer3 CompareC Handler
;Timer3 Overflow Handler
;USART1 RX Complete Handler
;USART1,UDR Empty Handler
;USART1 TX Complete Handler
;2-wire Serial Handler
;SPM Ready Handler
;Timer4 Capture Handler
;Timer4 CompareA Handler
;Timer4 CompareB Handler
;Timer4 CompareC Handler
;Timer4 Overflow Handler
;Timer5 Capture Handler
;Timer5 CompareA Handler
;Timer5 CompareB Handler
;Timer5 CompareC Handler
;Timer5 Overflow Handler
;0x15e <__bad_interrupt>
;0x15e <__bad_interrupt>
;0x15e <__bad_interrupt>
;0x15e <__bad_interrupt>
;0x15e <__bad_interrupt>
;0x15e <__bad_interrupt>
;Transceiver PLL Lock Handler
;Transceiver PLL Unlock Handler
;Transceiver RX Start Handler
;Transceiver RX End Handler
;Transceiver CCAED DONE Handler
;Transceiver Addr. Match Handler
;Transceiver Transmit End Handler
;Transceiver Wake Up Handler
;Symbol Counter Compare Match 1
;Symbol Counter Compare Match 2
;Symbol Counter Compare Match 3
;Symbol Counter Overflow Handler
;Symbol Backoff Slot Counter H.
217
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
0x008C
0x008E
;
0x0090
0x0091
0x0092
0x0093
0x0094
0x0095
...
jmp
jmp
RESET:
...
ldi
out
ldi
out
sei
<instr>
...
AES_READY
BAT_LOW
;Encryption/Decryption Ready H.
;Batterie Monitor Alert Handler
r16, high(RAMEND)
SPH,r16
r16, low(RAMEND)
SPL,r16
;Main program start
;Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
;Enable interrupts
xxx
...
When the BOOTRST Fuse is unprogrammed, the Boot section size set to 8KBytes and
the IVSEL bit in the MCUCR Register is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most
typical and general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
Address Labels
Code
Comments________________________
0x0000 RESET:
0x0001
0x0002
0x0003
0x0004
0x0005
.org 0xF002
0xF002
0xF004
... ... ... ;
0xF08E
ldi r16,high(RAMEND)
out SPH,r16
ldi r16,low(RAMEND)
out SPL,r16
sei
<instr> xxx
;Main program start
;Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
jmp EXT_INT0
jmp EXT_INT1
;IRQ0 Handler
;IRQ1 Handler
jmp BAT_LOW
; ;Batterie Monitor Alert Handler
;Enable interrupts
When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed and the Boot section size set to 8KBytes,
the most typical and general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector
Addresses is:
Address Labels
.org 0x0002
0x0002
0x0004
... ... ... ;
.org 0xF000
0xF000 RESET:
0xF001
0xF002
0xF003
0xF004
0xF005
Code
Comments________________________
jmp EXT_INT0
jmp EXT_INT1
;IRQ0 Handler
;IRQ1 Handler
ldi r16,high(RAMEND)
out SPH,r16
ldi r16,low(RAMEND)
out SPL,r16
sei
<instr> xxx
;Main program start
;Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
;Enable interrupts
When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed, the Boot section size set to 8KBytes and
the IVSEL bit in the MCUCR Register is set before any interrupts are enabled, the most
typical and general program setup for the Reset and Interrupt Vector Addresses is:
Address Labels
.org 0xF000
0xF000
0xF002
0xF004
... ... ... ;
0xF090 RESET:
0xF091
218
Code
Comments________________________
jmp RESET
jmp EXT_INT0
jmp EXT_INT1
;Reset handler
;IRQ0 Handler
;IRQ1 Handler
ldi r16,high(RAMEND)
out SPH,r16
; Main program start
;Set Stack Pointer to top of RAM
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
0xF092
0xF093
0xF094
0xF095
ldi r16,low(RAMEND)
out SPL,r16
sei
<instr> xxx
;Enable interrupts
15.3 Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Section
The MCU Control Register controls the placement of the Interrupt Vector table, see
Code Example below. For more details, see "Reset and Interrupt Handling" on page 15.
Assembly Code Example
Move_interrupts:
; Get MCUCR
in r16, MCUCR
mov r17, r16
; Enable change of Interrupt Vectors
ori r16, (1<<IVCE)
out MCUCR, r16
; Move interrupts to Boot Flash section
ori r16, (1<<IVSEL)
out MCUCR, r17
ret
C Code Example
void Move_interrupts(void)
{
uchar temp;
/* Get MCUCR */
temp = MCUCR;
/* Enable change of Interrupt Vectors */
MCUCR = temp|(1<<IVCE);
/* Move interrupts to Boot Flash section */
MCUCR = temp|(1<<IVSEL);
}
15.4 Register Description
15.4.1 MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$35 ($55)
JTD
Res1
Res0
PUD
Res1
Res0
IVSEL
IVCE
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
MCUCR
The MCU Control Register contains control bits for general Microcontroller Unit
functions.
• Bit 7 – JTD - JTAG Interface Disable
When this bit is zero, the JTAG interface is enabled if the JTAGEN Fuse is
programmed. If this bit is one, the JTAG interface is disabled. In order to avoid
219
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
unintentional disabling or enabling of the JTAG interface, a timed sequence must be
followed when changing this bit: The application software must write this bit to the
desired value twice within four cycles to change its value. Note that this bit must not be
altered when using the On-chip Debug system.
• Bit 6:5 – Res1:0 - Reserved
• Bit 4 – PUD - Pull-up Disable
When this bit is written to one, the I/O ports pull-up resistors are disabled even if the
DDxn and PORTxn Registers are configured to enable the pull-up resistor ({DDxn,
PORTxn} = 2'b01). See section "Ports as General Digital I/O" for more details about this
feature.
• Bit 3:2 – Res1:0 - Reserved
• Bit 1 – IVSEL - Interrupt Vector Select
When the IVSEL bit is cleared (zero), the Interrupt Vectors are placed at the start of the
Flash memory. When this bit is set (one), the Interrupt Vectors are moved to the
beginning of the Boot Loader section of the Flash. The actual address of the start of the
Boot Flash Section is determined by the BOOTSZ Fuses. Refer to the section "Memory
Programming" for details. To avoid unintentional changes of Interrupt Vector tables, a
special write procedure must be followed to change the IVSEL bit (see section "Moving
Interrupts Between Application and Boot Section" for details): 1. Write the Interrupt
Vector Change Enable (IVCE) bit to one; 2. Within four cycles, write the desired value
to IVSEL while writing a zero to IVCE. Interrupts will be automatically disabled while this
sequence is executed. Interrupts are disabled in the same cycle IVCE is set, and they
remain disabled until after the instruction following the write to IVSEL. If IVSEL is not
written, interrupts remain disabled for four cycles. The I-bit in the Status Register is
unaffected by the automatic disabling. Note that if Interrupt Vectors are placed in the
Boot Loader section and Boot Lock bit BLB02 is programmed, interrupts are disabled
while executing from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the
Application section and Boot Lock bit BLB12 is programed, interrupts are disabled while
executing from the Boot Loader section.
• Bit 0 – IVCE - Interrupt Vector Change Enable
The IVCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the IVSEL bit. IVCE is
cleared by hardware four cycles after it is written or when IVSEL is written. Setting the
IVCE bit will disable interrupts as explained in the IVSEL description.
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16 External Interrupts
The External Interrupts are triggered by the INT7:0 pin or any of the PCINT8:0 pins.
Observe that if enabled, the interrupts will trigger even if the INT7:0 or PCINT8:0 pins
are configured as outputs. This feature provides a way of generating a software
interrupt.
The Pin Change Interrupt PCI0 will trigger if any enabled PCINT7:0 pin toggles, Pin
change interrupt PCI1 if the enabled PCINT8 toggles. PCINT23:9 have no function
inside the ATmega128RFA1. Their corresponding I/O port are not implemented.
PCMSK1 and PCMSK0 Registers control which pins contribute to the pin change
interrupts. PCI2 and PCMSK2 associated to PCINT23:16 have no task in this design.
Pin change interrupts on PCINT8:0 are detected asynchronously. This implies that
these interrupts can be used for waking the part also from sleep modes other than Idle
mode.
The External Interrupts can be triggered by a falling or rising edge or a low level. This is
set up as indicated in the specification for the External Interrupt Control Registers –
EICRA (INT3:0) and EICRB (INT7:4). When the external interrupt is enabled and is
configured as level triggered, the interrupt will trigger as long as the pin is held low.
Note that recognition of falling or rising edge interrupts on INT7:4 requires the presence
of an I/O clock, described in "Overview" on page 3. Low level interrupts and the edge
interrupt on INT3:0 are detected asynchronously. This implies that these interrupts can
be used for waking the part also from sleep modes other than Idle mode. The I/O clock
is halted in all sleep modes except Idle mode.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down, the
required level must be held long enough for the MCU to complete the wake-up to trigger
the level interrupt. If the level disappears before the end of the Start-up Time, the MCU
will still wake up, but no interrupt will be generated. The start-up time is defined by the
SUT and CKSEL Fuses as described in "Clock Sources" on page 151.
16.1 Pin Change Interrupt Timing
An example of timing of a pin change interrupt is shown in Figure 16-1 below.
Figure 16-1. Normal Pin Change Interrupt
pcint_in_(0)
pin_lat
PCINT(0)
D
LE
clk
0
Q
pin_sync
PCINT(0) in PCMSK(x)
pcint_syn
pcint_setflag
PCIF
x
clk
clk
PCINT(n)
pin_lat
pin_sync
pcint_in_(n)
pcint_syn
pcint_setflag
PCIF
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16.2 Register Description
16.2.1 EICRA – External Interrupt Control Register A
Bit
NA ($69)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ISC31
ISC30
ISC21
ISC20
ISC11
ISC10
ISC01
ISC00
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
EICRA
The External Interrupts 3 - 0 are activated by the external pins INT3:0 if the SREG I-flag
and the corresponding interrupt mask in the EIMSK is set. The level and edges on the
external pins that activate the interrupts are defined in the following tables. Edges on
INT3:0 are registered asynchronously. Pulses on INT3:0 pins wider than the minimum
pulse width of typical 50 ns will generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not
guaranteed to generate an interrupt. If low level interrupt is selected, the low level must
be held until the completion of the currently executing instruction to generate an
interrupt. If enabled, a level triggered interrupt will generate an interrupt request as long
as the pin is held low. When changing the ISCn bit, an interrupt can occur. Therefore, it
is recommended to first disable INTn by clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the EIMSK
Register. Then, the ISCn bit can be changed. Finally, the INTn interrupt flag should be
cleared by writing a logical one to its Interrupt Flag bit (INTFn) in the EIFR Register
before the interrupt is re-enabled. When changing the ISCn1/ISCn0 bits, the interrupt
must be disabled by clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the EIMSK Register. Otherwise
an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
• Bit 7:6 – ISC31:30 - External Interrupt 3 Sense Control Bit
Table 16-128 ISC3 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ISC31:30
0x00
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt
request.
0x01
Any edge of INTn generates asynchronously
an interrupt request.
0x02
The falling edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
0x03
The rising edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
• Bit 5:4 – ISC21:20 - External Interrupt 2 Sense Control Bit
Table 16-129 ISC2 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ISC21:20
0x00
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt
request.
0x01
Any edge of INTn generates asynchronously
an interrupt request.
0x02
The falling edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
0x03
The rising edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
• Bit 3:2 – ISC11:10 - External Interrupt 1 Sense Control Bit
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Table 16-130 ISC1 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ISC11:10
0x00
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt
request.
0x01
Any edge of INTn generates asynchronously
an interrupt request.
0x02
The falling edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
0x03
The rising edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
• Bit 1:0 – ISC01:00 - External Interrupt 0 Sense Control Bit
Table 16-131 ISC0 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ISC01:00
0x00
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt
request.
0x01
Any edge of INTn generates asynchronously
an interrupt request.
0x02
The falling edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
0x03
The rising edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
16.2.2 EICRB – External Interrupt Control Register B
Bit
NA ($6A)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ISC71
ISC70
ISC61
ISC60
ISC51
ISC50
ISC41
ISC40
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
EICRB
The External Interrupts 7 - 4 are activated by the external pins INT7:4 if the SREG I-flag
and the corresponding interrupt mask in the EIMSK is set. The level and edges on the
external pins that activate the interrupts are defined in the following tables. Edges on
INT7:4 are registered asynchronously. Pulses on INT7:4 pins wider than the minimum
pulse width of typical 50 ns will generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not
guaranteed to generate an interrupt. If low level interrupt is selected, the low level must
be held until the completion of the currently executing instruction to generate an
interrupt. If enabled, a level triggered interrupt will generate an interrupt request as long
as the pin is held low. When changing the ISCn bit, an interrupt can occur. Therefore, it
is recommended to first disable INTn by clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the EIMSK
Register. Then, the ISCn bit can be changed. Finally, the INTn interrupt flag should be
cleared by writing a logical one to its Interrupt Flag bit (INTFn) in the EIFR Register
before the interrupt is re-enabled. When changing the ISCn1/ISCn0 bits, the interrupt
must be disabled by clearing its Interrupt Enable bit in the EIMSK Register. Otherwise
an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
• Bit 7:6 – ISC71:70 - External Interrupt 7 Sense Control Bit
Table 16-132 ISC7 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ISC71:70
0x00
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt
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Register Bits
Value
Description
request.
0x01
Any edge of INTn generates asynchronously
an interrupt request.
0x02
The falling edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
0x03
The rising edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
• Bit 5:4 – ISC61:60 - External Interrupt 6 Sense Control Bit
Table 16-133 ISC6 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ISC61:60
0x00
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt
request.
0x01
Any edge of INTn generates asynchronously
an interrupt request.
0x02
The falling edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
0x03
The rising edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
• Bit 3:2 – ISC51:50 - External Interrupt 5 Sense Control Bit
Table 16-134 ISC5 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ISC51:50
0x00
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt
request.
0x01
Any edge of INTn generates asynchronously
an interrupt request.
0x02
The falling edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
0x03
The rising edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
• Bit 1:0 – ISC41:40 - External Interrupt 4 Sense Control Bit
Table 16-135 ISC4 Register Bits
224
Register Bits
Value
Description
ISC41:40
0x00
The low level of INTn generates an interrupt
request.
0x01
Any edge of INTn generates asynchronously
an interrupt request.
0x02
The falling edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
0x03
The rising edge of INTn generates
asynchronously an interrupt request.
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ATmega128RFA1
16.2.3 EIMSK – External Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$1D ($3D)
INT7
INT6
INT5
INT4
INT3
INT2
INT1
INT0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
EIMSK
When an INT7:0 bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set
(one), the corresponding external pin interrupt is enabled. The Interrupt Sense Control
bits in the External Interrupt Control Registers EICRA and EICRB define whether the
External Interrupt is activated on rising or falling edge or level sensed. Activity on any of
these pins will trigger an interrupt request even if the pin is enabled as an output. This
provides a way of generating a software interrupt.
• Bit 7:0 – INT7:0 - External Interrupt Request Enable
Table 16-136 INT Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
INT7:0
0x00
All external pin interrupts are disabled.
0xff
All external pin interrupts are enabled.
16.2.4 EIFR – External Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$1C ($3C)
INTF7
INTF6
INTF5
INTF4
INTF3
INTF2
INTF1
INTF0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
EIFR
When an edge or logic change on the INT7:0 pin triggers an interrupt request, INTF7:0
becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG and the corresponding interrupt enable bit
INT7:0 in EIMSK are set (one), the MCU will jump to the interrupt vector. The flag is
cleared when the interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by
writing a logical one to it. These flags are always cleared when INT7:0 are configured
as level interrupt. Note that when entering sleep mode with the INT3:0 interrupts
disabled, the input buffers on these pins will be disabled. This may cause a logic
change in internal signals which will set the INTF3:0 flags. See "Digital Input Enable
and Sleep Modes" for more information.
• Bit 7:0 – INTF7:0 - External Interrupt Flag
Table 16-137 INTF Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
INTF7:0
0x00
No edge or logic change on INT7:0
occurred.
0x01
A edge or logic change on INT0 occurred
and triggered an interrupt request.
0x02
...
0x80
A edge or logic change on INT7 occurred
and triggered an interrupt request.
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16.2.5 PCICR – Pin Change Interrupt Control Register
Bit
NA ($68)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
PCIE2
PCIE1
PCIE0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PCICR
• Bit 7:3 – Res4:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 2 – PCIE2 - Pin Change Interrupt Enable 2
When the PCIE2 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one),
pin change interrupt 2 is enabled. Any change on any enabled PCINT23:16 pin will
cause an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of Pin Change Interrupt Request is
executed from the PCI2 Interrupt Vector. PCINT23:16 pins are enabled individually by
the PCMSK2 Register. Note that the I/O ports corresponding to PCINT23:16 are not
implemented. Therefore PCIE2 has no function in this device.
• Bit 1 – PCIE1 - Pin Change Interrupt Enable 1
When the PCIE1 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one),
pin change interrupt 1 is enabled. Any change on any enabled PCINT15:8 pin will
cause an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of Pin Change Interrupt Request is
executed from the PCI1 Interrupt Vector. PCINT15:8 pins are enabled individually by
the PCMSK1 Register. Note that the I/O ports corresponding to PCINT15:9 are not
implemented.
• Bit 0 – PCIE0 - Pin Change Interrupt Enable 0
When the PCIE0 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one),
pin change interrupt 0 is enabled. Any change on any enabled PCINT7:0 pin will cause
an interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of Pin Change Interrupt Request is executed
from the PCI0 Interrupt Vector. PCINT7:0 pins are enabled individually by the PCMSK0
Register.
16.2.6 PCIFR – Pin Change Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
$1B ($3B)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
PCIF2
PCIF1
PCIF0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PCIFR
• Bit 7:3 – Res4:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 2 – PCIF2 - Pin Change Interrupt Flag 2
When a logic change on any PCINT23:16 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF2
becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG and the PCIE2 bit in PCICR are set (one), the
MCU will jump to the corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag is cleared when the
interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical
one to it. Note that the I/O ports corresponding to PCINT23:16 are not implemented.
Therefore PCIF2 has no function in this device.
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• Bit 1 – PCIF1 - Pin Change Interrupt Flag 1
When a logic change on any PCINT15:8 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF1
becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG and the PCIE1 bit in PCICR are set (one), the
MCU will jump to the corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag is cleared when the
interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical
one to it. Note that the I/O ports corresponding to PCINT15:9 are not implemented.
• Bit 0 – PCIF0 - Pin Change Interrupt Flag 0
When a logic change on any PCINT7:0 pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF0
becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG and the PCIE0 bit in PCICR are set (one), the
MCU will jump to the corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag is cleared when the
interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical
one to it.
16.2.7 PCMSK2 – Pin Change Mask Register 2
Bit
NA ($6D)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($6D)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
PCINT23
PCINT22
PCINT21
PCINT20
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
PCINT19
PCINT18
PCINT17
PCINT16
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PCMSK2
PCMSK2
Note that the PCMSK2 register has no function in this device. The I/O ports associated
to PCINT23:16 are not implemented. Normally each bit PCINT23:16 selects whether
the pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT23:16 is set
and the PCIE2 bit in PCICR is set, the pin change interrupt is enabled on the
corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT23:16 is cleared, the pin change interrupt on the
corresponding I/O pin is disabled.
• Bit 7:0 – PCINT23:16 - Pin Change Enable Mask
16.2.8 PCMSK1 – Pin Change Mask Register 1
Bit
NA ($6C)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
NA ($6C)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
PCINT15
PCINT14
PCINT13
PCINT12
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
PCINT11
PCINT10
PCINT9
PCINT8
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PCMSK1
PCMSK1
Bit PCINT8 selects whether the pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding
I/O pin. If PCINT8 is set and the PCIE1 bit in PCICR is set, the pin change interrupt is
enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT8 is cleared, the pin change interrupt on
the corresponding I/O pin is disabled.
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• Bit 7:1 – PCINT15:9 - Pin Change Enable Mask
Bits 15:9 of the PCMSK1 register have no function in this device. The I/O ports
associated to PCINT15:9 are not implemented.
• Bit 0 – PCINT8 - Pin Change Enable Mask 8
If this bit is set to one the pin change interrupt on the corresponding I/O pin is enabled.
If this bit is set to zero the pin change interrupt is disabled.
16.2.9 PCMSK0 – Pin Change Mask Register 0
Bit
NA ($6B)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PCINT7
PCINT6
PCINT5
PCINT4
PCINT3
PCINT2
PCINT1
PCINT0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
PCMSK0
Each bit PCINT7:0 selects whether the pin change interrupt is enabled on the
corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT7:0 is set and the PCIE0 bit in PCICR is set, the pin
change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT7:0 is cleared, the pin
change interrupt on the corresponding I/O pin is disabled.
• Bit 7:0 – PCINT7:0 - Pin Change Enable Mask
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17 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM
17.1 Features
• Two Independent Output Compare Units
• Double Buffered Output Compare Registers
• Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
• Glitch Free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
• Variable PWM Period
• Frequency Generator
• Three Independent Interrupt Sources (TOV0, OCF0A, and OCF0B)
17.2 Overview
Timer/Counter0 is a general purpose 8-bit Timer/Counter module with two independent
Output Compare Units and with PWM support. It allows accurate program execution
timing (event management) and wave generation.
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 17-1. For the
actual placement of I/O pins refer to section "Pin Configurations" on page 2. CPU
accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins, are shown in bold. The devicespecific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the "Register Description" on page
241.
Figure 17-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Control Logic
clkTn
Clock Select
Edge
Detector
TOP
Tn
BOTTOM
( From Prescaler )
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=0
OCnA
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
DATA BUS
OCRnA
Fixed
TOP
Value
OCnB
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnB
OCRnB
TCCRnA
TCCRnB
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17.2.1 Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT0) and Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are
8-bit registers. Interrupt request signals (abbreviated to Int.Req. in the figure) are all
visible in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFR0). All interrupts are individually
masked with the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK0). TIFR0 and TIMSK0 are not
shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler or by an external clock
source on the T0 pin. The Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and
edge the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The Timer/Counter
is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is
referred to as the timer clock (clkT0).
The double buffered Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are compared
with the Timer/Counter value at all times. The result of the compare can be used by the
Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output
Compare pins (OC0A and OC0B); see "Output Compare Unit" on page 231 for details.
The Compare Match event will also set the Compare Flag (OCF0A or OCF0B) which
can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
17.2.2 Definitions
Many register and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case
“n” replaces the Timer/Counter number (in this case 0). A lower case “x” replaces the
Output Compare Unit (in this case Compare Unit A or Compare Unit B). However when
using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used i.e.,
TCNT0 for accessing Timer/Counter0 counter value and so on.
The definitions in Table 17-1 are also used extensively throughout the document.
Table 17-1. Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x00.
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in
the count sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value
0xFF (MAX) or the value stored in the OCR0A Register. The assignment is
dependent on the mode of operation.
17.3 Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock
source is selected by the Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select
(CS02:0) bits located in the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR0B). For details on
clock sources and prescaler see Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 Prescaler on page 307
17.4 Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter
unit. Figure 17-2 shows a block diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
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Figure 17-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
DATA BUS
Clock Select
count
clear
TCNTn
Control Logic
clkTn
Edge
Detector
Tn
direction
( From Prescaler )
bottom
top
Signal description (internal signals):
count
Increment or decrement TCNT0 by 1;
direction
Select between increment and decrement;
clear
Clear TCNT0 (set all bits to zero);
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock referred to as clkT0 in the following text;
top
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached maximum value;
bottom
Signalize that TCNT0 has reached minimum value (zero);
Depending of the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented or
decremented at each timer clock (clkT0). clkT0 can be generated from an external or
internal clock source selected by the Clock Select bits (CS02:0). When no clock source
is selected (CS02:0 = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNT0 value can be
accessed by the CPU regardless of whether clkT0 is present or not. A CPU write access
overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM01 and WGM00 bits
located in the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR0A) and the WGM02 bit located in
the Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCR0B). There are close connections between
how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output
Compare outputs OC0A and OC0B. For more details about advanced counting
sequences and waveform generation, see "Modes of Operation" on page 235.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set according to the mode of operation
selected by the WGM02:0 bits. TOV0 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
17.5 Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT0 with the Output Compare
Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B). The comparator signals a match whenever TCNT0
equals OCR0A or OCR0B. A match will set the Output Compare Flag (OCF0A or
OCF0B) at the next clock cycle of the timer. If the corresponding interrupt is enabled,
the Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The Output
Compare Flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. The flag can
alternatively be software-cleared by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The
Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to the
operating mode set by the WGM02:0 bits and Compare Output mode (COM0x1:0) bits.
The MAX and BOTTOM signals are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the
special cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation (refer to "Modes of
Operation" on page 235).
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Figure 17-3. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRnx
TCNTn
= (8-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCnx
FOCn
WGMn1:0
COMnX1:0
The OCR0x Registers are double buffered when using any of the Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) modes. For the normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes
of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the
update of the OCR0x Compare Registers to either TOP or BOTTOM of the counting
sequence. The synchronization prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical
PWM pulses and thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCR0x Register access may seem complex, but this is not the case. When the
double buffering is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCR0x Buffer Register. If
double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCR0x directly.
17.5.1 Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be
forced by writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOC0x) bit. Forcing Compare
Match will not set the OCF0x Flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC0x pin will be
updated as if a real Compare Match had occurred (the COM0x1:0 bits settings define
whether the OC0x pin is set, cleared or toggled).
17.5.2 Compare Match Blocking by TCNT0 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT0 Register will block any Compare Match that
occur in the next timer clock cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows
OCR0x to be initialized to the same value as TCNT0 without triggering an interrupt
when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
17.5.3 Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT0 in any mode of operation will block all Compare Matches for one
timer clock cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNT0 while using the Output
Compare Unit, independently of whether the Timer/Counter is running or not. If the
value written to TCNT0 equals the OCR0x value, the Compare Match will be missed
resulting in an incorrect waveform generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT0 value
equal to BOTTOM when the counter is down-counting.
The setup of the OC0x should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register
for the port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OC0x value is to use the Force
Output Compare (FOC0x) strobe bits in Normal mode. The OC0x Registers keep their
values even when changing between Waveform Generation modes.
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Be aware that the COM0x1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare
value. A Change of the COM0x1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
17.6 Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM0x1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform
Generator uses the COM0x1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OC0x) state at the
next Compare Match. The COM0x1:0 bits control also the OC0x pin output source.
Figure 17-4 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM0x1:0 bit
setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the
parts of the general I/O Port Control Registers (DDR and PORT) affected by the
COM0x1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the OC0x state, the reference is to the
internal OC0x Register and not to the OC0x pin. The OC0x Register is reset to “0” if a
system reset occurs.
Figure 17-4. Compare Match Output Unit Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCn
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCnx
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC0x) from the
Waveform Generator if either of the COM0x1:0 bits are set. However the OC0x pin
direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) of the
port pin. The Data Direction Register bit of the OC0x pin (DDR_OC0x) must be set as
output before the OC0x value is visible at the pin. The port override function is
independent of the Waveform Generation mode.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initializing the OC0x state before the
output is enabled. Note that some COM0x1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain
modes of operation (see "Register Description" on page 241).
17.6.1 Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM0x1:0 bits differently in Normal, CTC and PWM
modes. A setting of COM0x1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator in all modes that no
action on the OC0x Register is to be performed on the next Compare Match. For
compare output actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 17-2. For fast PWM
mode refer to Table 17-3 and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 17-4.
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A state change of the COM0x1:0 bits will have effect at the first Compare Match after
the bits are written. For non-PWM modes the action can be forced to have immediate
effect by using the FOC0x strobe bits.
The following table shows the COM0x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are
set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 17-2. Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM0A1
COM0B1
COM0A0
COM0B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0x disconnected;
0
1
Toggle OC0x on Compare Match;
1
0
Clear OC0x on Compare Match;
1
1
Set OC0x on Compare Match;
Description
Table 17-3 shows the COM0x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM01:0 bits are set to fast
PWM mode.
Table 17-3. Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode
COM0A1
COM0B1
COM0A0
COM0B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0x disconnected.
0
1
WGM02 = 0: Normal Port Operation, OC0A Disconnected.
WGM02 = 1: Toggle OC0A on Compare Match.
OC0B: not applicable, reserved function;
1
0
Clear OC0x on Compare Match, set OC0x at BOTTOM, (noninverting mode).
1
1
Set OC0x on Compare Match, clear OC0x at BOTTOM, (inverting
mode).
Note:
Description
A special case occurs when OCR0x equals TOP and COM0x1 is set. In this case, the
Compare Match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at BOTTOM. See "Fast PWM
Mode" on page 236.
Table 17-4 shows the COM0x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are set to
phase correct PWM mode.
Table 17-4. Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode
COM0A1
COM0B1
COM0A0
COM0B0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC0x disconnected.
0
1
WGM02 = 0: Normal Port Operation, OC0A Disconnected.
WGM02 = 1: Toggle OC0A on Compare Match.
OC0B: not applicable, reserved function;
1
0
Clear OC0x on Compare Match when up-counting. Set OC0x on
Compare Match when down-counting.
1
1
Set OC0x on Compare Match when up-counting. Clear OC0x on
Compare Match when down-counting.
Note:
234
Description
A special case occurs when OCR0x equals TOP and COM0x1 is set. In this case, the
Compare Match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See "Fast PWM
Mode" on page 236 for more details.
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17.7 Modes of Operation
The mode of operation i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare
pins, is defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM02:0) and
Compare Output mode (COM0x1:0) bits. The Compare Output mode bits do not affect
the counting sequence while the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The COM0x1:0
bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or
non-inverted PWM). For non-PWM modes the COM0x1:0 bits control whether the
output should be set, cleared, or toggled at a Compare Match (see "Output Compare
Unit" on page 231).
For detailed timing information see "Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams" on page 239.
Table 17-5 shows the function of the WGM2:0 bits of registers TCCR0A and TCCR0B.
These bits control the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum
(TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used.
Table 17-5. Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description
Mode
WGM2
WGM1
WGM0
Timer/Counter
Mode of
Operation
0
0
0
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
0
1
PWM, Phase
Correct
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
0
1
0
CTC
OCRA
Immediate
MAX
3
0
1
1
Fast PWM
0xFF
TOP
MAX
4
1
0
0
Reserved
–
–
–
5
1
0
1
PWM, Phase
Correct
OCRA
TOP
BOTTOM
6
1
1
0
Reserved
–
–
–
7
1
1
1
Fast PWM
OCRA
BOTTOM
TOP
Notes:
TOP
Update of
OCRX at
TOV Flag
(0,0)
Set on
1. MAX = 0xFF
2. BOTTOM = 0x00
17.7.1 Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM02:0 = 0). In this mode the
counting direction is always up (incrementing) and no counter clear is performed. The
counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 8-bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then
restarts from the BOTTOM (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow
Flag (TOV0) will be set at the same timer clock cycle when the TCNT0 becomes zero.
th
The TOV0 Flag in this case behaves like a 9 bit, except that it is only set and not
cleared. However, the timer resolution can be increased by software utilizing the timer
overflow interrupt that automatically clears the TOV0 Flag. There are no special cases
to consider in the Normal mode. A new counter value can be written at anytime.
The Output Compare Unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. It is
not recommended to use the Output Compare for waveform generation in Normal
mode, since this will occupy too much CPU time.
17.7.2 Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) mode (WGM02:0 = 2), the OCR0A Register is used
to manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when
the counter value (TCNT0) matches OCR0A. The OCR0A value defines the TOP value
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for the counter, hence also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the
Compare Match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external
events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 17-5. The counter value
(TCNT0) increases until a Compare Match occurs between TCNT0 and OCR0A. The
counter (TCNT0) is then cleared.
Figure 17-5. CTC Mode Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCn
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by
using the OCF0A Flag. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can
update the TOP value. However, changing TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the
counter is running with no or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the
CTC mode does not have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to
OCR0A is lower than the current value of TCNT0, the counter will miss the Compare
Match. The counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap
around starting at 0x00 before the Compare Match can occur.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC0A output can be set to toggle
its logical level on each Compare Match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to
toggle mode (COM0A1:0 = 1). The OC0A value will not be visible on the port pin unless
the data direction of the pin is set to output. The generated waveform will have a
maximum frequency of fOC0 = fclkI/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform
frequency is defined by the following equation:
f OC 0 x =
f clkI / O
2 ⋅ N ⋅ (1 + OCR0 x)
The N variable represents the prescaler factor (1, 8, 64, 256 or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV0 Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle
that the counter changes from MAX to 0x00.
17.7.3 Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode (WGM02:0 = 3 or 7) provides a high
frequency PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM mode differs from the
other PWM modes by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from BOTTOM to
TOP and then restarts from BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM2:0 = 3, and
OCR0A when WGM2:0 = 7. In non-inverting Compare Output mode the Output
Compare (OC0x) is cleared on the Compare Match between TCNT0 and OCR0x and
set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode the output is set on Compare
Match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation, the operating
frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as in the phase correct PWM
mode that uses dual-slope operation. This high frequency operation makes the fast
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PWM mode well suited for power regulation, rectification and DAC applications. The
high frequency allows physically small sized external components (coils, capacitors),
and therefore reduces total system cost.
In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the TOP
value. The counter is then cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram
for the fast PWM mode is shown in Figure 17-6. The TCNT0 value is shown in the
timing diagram as a histogram illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram
includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on
the TCNT0 slopes represent Compare Matches between OCR0x and TCNT0.
Figure 17-6. Fast PWM Mode Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches TOP.
The interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the compare value if the interrupt
is enabled.
In fast PWM mode the compare unit allows generating PWM waveforms on the OC0x
pins. Setting the COM0x1:0 bits to 2 will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted
PWM output can be generated by setting the COM0x1:0 to 3. Setting the COM0A1:0
bits to 1 allows the OC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches if the WGM02 bit is set.
This option is not available for the OC0B pin (see Table 17-3 on page 234). The actual
OC0x value will only be visible at the port pin if the data direction of the port pin is set to
output. The PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC0x Register at
the Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0, and by clearing (or setting) the OC0x
Register at the timer clock cycle when the counter is cleared (changes from TOP to
BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output fOC0xPWM can be calculated with the following
equation:
f OC 0 xPWM =
f clkI / O
N ⋅ 256
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256 or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represent special cases when generating
a PWM waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM,
the output will be a narrow spike for each MAX+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR0A
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
equal to MAX will result in a constantly high or low output (depending on the polarity of
the output set by the COM0A1:0 bits.)
A frequency with 50% duty cycle waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved
by setting OC0x to toggle its logical level on each Compare Match (COM0x1:0 = 1). The
generated waveform will have a maximum frequency of fOC0xPWM = fclkI/O/2 when OCR0A
is set to zero. This feature is similar to the OC0A toggle in CTC mode, except that in the
fast PWM mode the double buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled.
17.7.4 Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct pulse-width modulation (PWM) mode (WGM02:0 = 1 or 5) provides a
phase-correct, high-resolution PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct
PWM mode is based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from
BOTTOM to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when
WGM2:0 = 1 and TOP = OCR0A when WGM2:0 = 5. In non-inverting Compare Output
mode, the Output Compare (OC0x) is cleared on the Compare Match between TCNT0
and OCR0x while up-counting, and OC0x is set on the Compare Match while downcounting. The operation is inverted in inverting Output Compare mode. The dual-slope
operation has a lower maximum operation frequency than single-slope operation.
However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are
preferred for motor control applications.
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches
TOP. The counter changes the direction when reaching TOP. The TCNT0 value will be
equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM
mode is shown in Figure 17-7 below. The TCNT0 value is shown in the timing diagram
as a histogram illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted
and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes
represent Compare Matches between OCR0x and TCNT0.
Figure 17-7. Phase Correct PWM Mode Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches
BOTTOM. The Interrupt Flag can be used to generate an interrupt each time the
counter reaches the BOTTOM value.
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In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generating PWM waveforms on
the OC0x pins. Setting the COM0x1:0 bits to 2 will produce a non-inverted PWM. An
inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COM0x1:0 to 3. Setting the
COM0A0 bits to 1 allows the OC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches if the WGM02
bit is set. This option is not available for the OC0B pin (see Table 17-4 on page 234).
The actual OC0x value will only be visible at the port pin if the data direction for the port
pin is set to output. The PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC0x
Register at the Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0 when the counter
increments, and by setting (or clearing) the OC0x Register at Compare Match between
OCR0x and TCNT0 when the counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output
fOC0xPCPWM when using phase-correct PWM can be calculated with the following
equation:
f OC 0 xPCPWM =
f clkI / O
N ⋅ 510
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256 or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represent special cases when generating
a PWM waveform output in the phase-correct PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to
BOTTOM, the output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the output will be
continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have
the opposite logic values.
At the very start of period 2 in Figure 17-7 OCnx has a transition from high to low even
though there is no Compare Match. The reason of this transition is to guarantee
symmetry around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a transition without
Compare Match:
• OCR0x changes its value from MAX like in Figure 17-7 on page 238. When the
OCR0x value is MAX the OC0x pin value is the same as the result of a downcounting Compare Match. To ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OC0x value at
MAX must correspond to the result of an up-counting Compare Match.
• The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR0x. For that
reason it misses the Compare Match and hence the OC0x change that would have
happened on the way up.
17.8 Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkT0) is therefore
shown as a clock enable signal in the following figures. The figures include information
on when Interrupt Flags are set. Figure 17-8 contains timing data for basic
Timer/Counter operation. The figure shows the count sequence close to the MAX value
in all modes other than phase correct PWM mode.
Figure 17-8. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
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Figure 17-9 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 17-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram with Prescaler (fclkI/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 17-10 shows the setting of OCF0B and OCF0A in all modes except CTC and
PWM mode, where OCR0A is TOP.
Figure 17-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, setting of OCF0x with Prescaler (fclkI/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 17-11 shows the setting of OCF0A and the clearing of TCNT0 in CTC mode and
fast PWM mode where OCR0A is TOP.
Figure 17-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode
with Prescaler (fclkI/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
OCRnx
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP
OCFnx
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17.9 Register Description
17.9.1 GTCCR – General Timer/Counter Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
$23 ($43)
TSM
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
0
PSRASY PSRSYNC
R
0
GTCCR
RW
0
• Bit 7 – TSM - Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode
Writing the TSM bit to one activates the Timer/Counter Synchronization mode. In this
mode the value that is written to the PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits is kept, hence
keeping the corresponding prescaler reset signals asserted. This ensures that the
corresponding Timer/Counters are halted and can be configured to the same value
without the risk of one of them advancing during the configuration. When the TSM bit is
written to zero, the PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits are cleared by hardware and the
Timer/Counters simultaneously start counting.
• Bit 6:2 – Res4:0 - Reserved
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 1 – PSRASY - Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter2
When this bit is one, the Timer/Counter2 prescaler will be reset. This bit is normally
cleared immediately by hardware. If the bit is written when Timer/Counter2 is operating
in asynchronous mode, the bit will remain one until the prescaler has been reset. The
bit will not be cleared by hardware if the TSM bit is set.
• Bit 0 – PSRSYNC - Prescaler Reset for Synchronous Timer/Counters
When this bit is one, the Timer/Counter0, Timer/Counter1, Timer/Counter3,
Timer/Counter4 and Timer/Counter5 prescaler will be reset. This bit is normally cleared
immediately by hardware, except if the TSM bit is set. Note that Timer/Counter0,
Timer/Counter1, Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter4 and Timer/Counter5 share the same
prescaler and a reset of this prescaler will affect all timers.
17.9.2 TCCR0A – Timer/Counter0 Control Register A
Bit
$24 ($44)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
COM0A1 COM0A0 COM0B1 COM0B0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
WGM01
WGM00
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCCR0A
• Bit 7:6 – COM0A1:0 - Compare Match Output A Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC0A) behavior. If one or both of the
COM0A1:0 bits are set, the OC0A output overrides the normal port functionality of the
I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit
corresponding to the OC0A pin must be set in order to enable the output driver. When
OC0A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0A1:0 bits depends on the
WGM02:0 bit setting. The following shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the
WGM02:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM). For the functionality in
other modes refer to section "Operating Modes".
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Table 17-6 COM0A Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
COM0A1:0
Description
0
Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected
1
Toggle OC0A on Compare Match
2
Clear OC0A on Compare Match
3
Set OC0A on Compare Match
• Bit 5:4 – COM0B1:0 - Compare Match Output B Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC0B) behavior. If one or both of the
COM0B1:0 bits are set, the OC0B output overrides the normal port functionality of the
I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit
corresponding to the OC0B pin must be set in order to enable the output driver. When
OC0B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0B1:0 bits depends on the
WGM02:0 bit setting. The following shows the COM0B1:0 bit functionality when the
WGM02:0 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM). For the functionality in
other modes refer to section "Operating Modes".
Table 17-7 COM0B Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
COM0B1:0
Description
0
Normal port operation, OC0B disconnected
1
Toggle OC0B on Compare Match
2
Clear OC0B on Compare Match
3
Set OC0B on Compare Match
• Bit 3:2 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 1:0 – WGM01:00 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM02 bit found in the TCCR0B Register, these bits control the
counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and
what type of waveform generation to be used according to the following table. Modes of
operation supported by the Timer/Counter0 unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear
Timer on Compare Match (CTC) mode, and two types of Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) modes (see section "Modes of Operation" for details).
Table 17-8 WGM0 Register Bits
Register Bits
WGM02:00
242
Value
Description
0x0
Normal mode of operation
0x1
PWM, phase correct, TOP=0xFF
0x2
CTC, TOP = OCRA
0x3
Fast PWM, TOP=0xFF
0x4
Reserved
0x5
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = OCRA
0x6
Reserved
0x7
Fast PWM, TOP=OCRA
ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
17.9.3 TCCR0B – Timer/Counter0 Control Register B
Bit
$25 ($45)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC0A
FOC0B
Res1
Res0
WGM02
CS02
CS01
CS00
W
0
W
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
TCCR0B
• Bit 7 – FOC0A - Force Output Compare A
The FOC0A bit is only active when the WGM02:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero
when TCCR0B is written in a PWM operation mode. When writing a logical one to the
FOC0A bit, an immediate Compare Match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit.
The OC0A output is changed according to its COM0A1:0 bits setting. Note that the
FOC0A bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the
COM0A1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced compare. A FOC0A strobe will
not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR0A as TOP.
The FOC0A bit is always read as zero.
• Bit 6 – FOC0B - Force Output Compare B
The FOC0B bit is only active when the WGM02:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero
when TCCR0B is written in a PWM operation mode. When writing a logical one to the
FOC0B bit, an immediate Compare Match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit.
The OC0B output is changed according to its COM0B1:0 bits setting. Note that the
FOC0B bit is implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the
COM0B1:0 bits that determines the effect of the forced compare. A FOC0B strobe will
not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR0B as TOP.
The FOC0B bit is always read as zero.
• Bit 5:4 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3 – WGM02 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM01:00 bits found in the TCCR0A Register, these bits control
the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value,
and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC)
mode, and two types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes (see section "Modes of
Operation").
• Bit 2:0 – CS02:00 - Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter0
according to the following table.If external pin modes are used for Timer/Counter0,
transitions on the T0 pin will clock the counter even if the pin is configured as an output.
This feature allows software control of the counting.
Table 17-9 CS0 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
CS02:00
0x00
No clock source (Timer/Counter0 stopped)
0x01
clkIO/1 (no prescaling)
0x02
clkIO/8 (from prescaler)
0x03
clkIO/64 (from prescaler)
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Register Bits
Value
Description
0x04
clkIO/256 (from prescaler)
0x05
clkIO/1024 (from prescaler)
0x06
External clock source on T0 pin, clock on
falling edge
0x07
External clock source on T0 pin, clock on
rising edge
17.9.4 TCNT0 – Timer/Counter0 Register
Bit
$26 ($46)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
$26 ($46)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
TCNT0_7
TCNT0_6
TCNT0_5
TCNT0_4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
TCNT0_3
TCNT0_2
TCNT0_1
TCNT0_0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCNT0
TCNT0
The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to
the Timer/Counter0 unit 8-bit counter. Writing to the TCNT0 Register blocks (removes)
the Compare Match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter (TCNT0) while
the counter is running, introduces a risk of missing a Compare Match between TCNT0
and the OCR0x Registers.
• Bit 7:0 – TCNT0_7:0 - Timer/Counter0 Byte
17.9.5 OCR0A – Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Register
Bit
$27 ($47)
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
$27 ($47)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
OCR0A_7
OCR0A_6
OCR0A_5
OCR0A_4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
OCR0A_3
OCR0A_2
OCR0A_1
OCR0A_0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR0A
OCR0A
The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC0A pin.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR0A_7:0 - Output Compare Register
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17.9.6 OCR0B – Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Register B
Bit
$28 ($48)
7
6
5
4
OCR0B_7
OCR0B_6
OCR0B_5
OCR0B_4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
OCR0B_3
OCR0B_2
OCR0B_1
OCR0B_0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
Bit
$28 ($48)
Read/Write
Initial Value
OCR0B
OCR0B
The Output Compare Register B contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC0B pin.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR0B_7:0 - Output Compare Register
17.9.7 TIMSK0 – Timer/Counter0 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
NA ($6E)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
OCIE0B
OCIE0A
TOIE0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIMSK0
• Bit 7:3 – Res4:0 - Reserved
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 2 – OCIE0B - Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Match B Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0B bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match B interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is
executed if a Compare Match in Timer/Counter0 occurs, i.e., when the OCF0B bit is set
in the Timer/Counter0 Interrupt Flag Register TIFR0.
• Bit 1 – OCIE0A - Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0A bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is
executed if a Compare Match in Timer/Counter0 occurs, i.e., when the OCF0A bit is set
in the Timer/Counter0 Interrupt Flag Register TIFR0.
• Bit 0 – TOIE0 - Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE0 bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the
Timer/Counter0 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed
if an overflow in Timer/Counter0 occurs i.e., when the TOV0 bit is set in the
Timer/Counter0 Interrupt Flag Register TIFR0.
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17.9.8 TIFR0 – Timer/Counter0 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
$15 ($35)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
OCF0B
OCF0A
TOV0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIFR0
• Bit 7:3 – Res4:0 - Reserved
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 2 – OCF0B - Timer/Counter0 Output Compare B Match Flag
The OCF0B bit is set when a Compare Match occurs between the Timer/Counter0 and
the data in OCR0B Output Compare Register. OCF0B is cleared by hardware when
executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF0B is cleared
by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0B (Timer/Counter
Compare B Match Interrupt Enable) and OCF0B are set, the Timer/Counter Compare
Match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 1 – OCF0A - Timer/Counter0 Output Compare A Match Flag
The OCF0A bit is set when a Compare Match occurs between the Timer/Counter0 and
the data in OCR0A Output Compare Register. OCF0A is cleared by hardware when
executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF0A is cleared
by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0A (Timer/Counter
Compare A Match Interrupt Enable) and OCF0A are set, the Timer/Counter Compare
Match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – TOV0 - Timer/Counter0 Overflow Flag
The bit TOV0 is set when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter0. TOV0 is cleared by
hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively,
TOV0 is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the SREG I-bit, TOIE0
(Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable) and TOV0 are set, the Timer/Counter0
Overflow interrupt is executed. The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM02:0 bit
setting.
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18 16-bit Timer/Counter (Timer/Counter 1, 3, 4, and 5)
18.1 Features
• True 16-bit Design (i.e., allows 16-bit PWM)
• Three independent Output Compare Units
• Double Buffered Output Compare Registers
• One Input Capture Unit
• Input Capture Noise Canceller
• Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
• Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
• Variable PWM Period
• Frequency Generator
• External Event Counter
• Numerous independent interrupt sources
o
TOV1, OCF1A, OCF1B, OCF1C, ICF1
o
TOV3, OCF3A, OCF3B, OCF3C, ICF3
o
TOV4, OCF4A, OCF4B, OCF4C
o
TOV5, OCF5A, OCF5B, OCF5C
18.2 Overview
The 16-bit Timer/Counter unit allows accurate program execution timing (event
management), wave generation and signal timing measurement.
Most register and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case
“n” replaces the Timer/Counter number, and a lower case “x” replaces the Output
Compare unit channel. However when using the register or bit defines in a program, the
precise form must be used i.e., TCNT1 for accessing Timer/Counter1 counter value and
so on.
A simplified block diagram of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 18-1. For the
actual placement of I/O pins, see section "Pin Configurations" on page 2. CPU
accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins are shown in bold. The devicespecific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the section "Register Description" on
page 269.
The Power Reduction Timer/Counter1 bit, PRTIM1, in "PRR0 – Power Reduction
Register0" on page 171 must be written to zero to enable Timer/Counter1 module.
The Power Reduction bits of Timer/Counter3 (PRTIM3), Timer/Counter4 bit (PRTIM4)
and Timer/Counter5 (PRTIM5) in "PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1" on page 172
must be written to zero to enable the respective Timer/Counter module.
Note, note the complete Timer/Counter I/O functionality is provided for each
Timer/Counter module depending on the available I/O pins.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Figure 18-1. 16-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
(1)
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Control Logic
clkTn
Clock Select
Edge
Detector
TOP
Tn
BOTTOM
( From Prescaler )
Timer/Counter
TCNTn
=
=0
OCnA
(Int.Req.)
Waveform
Generation
=
OCnA
OCRnA
OCnB
(Int.Req.)
DATA BUS
Fixed
TOP
Values
Waveform
Generation
=
OCRnB
OCnB
( From Analog
Comparator Ouput )
ICFn (Int.Req.)
Edge
Detector
ICRn
Noise
Canceler
ICPn
TCCRnA
Notes:
TCCRnB
1. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2, Table 14-3 on page 197 and Table 14-9 en page
201 for Timer/Counter1, 2 and 3 pin placements and description.
18.2.1 Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNTn) Output Compare Registers (OCRnA/B/C) and Input
Capture Register (ICRn) are all 16-bit registers. Special procedures must be followed
when accessing the 16-bit registers. These procedures are described in the section
"Accessing 16-bit Registers" on page 249. The Timer/Counter Control Registers
(TCCRnA/B/C) are 8-bit registers and have no CPU access restrictions. Interrupt
requests (shorten as Int.Req.) signals are all visible in the Timer Interrupt Flag Register
(TIFRn). All interrupts are individually masked with the Timer Interrupt Mask Register
(TIMSKn). TIFRn and TIMSKn are not shown in the figure since these registers are
shared by other timer units.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler or by an external clock
source on the Tn pin. The Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and
which clock edge the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The
Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the clock
select logic is referred to as the timer clock (clkTn).
The double buffered Output Compare Registers (OCRnA/B/C) are compared with the
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ATmega128RFA1
Timer/Counter value at all time. The result of the compare can be used by the
Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output
Compare pin (OCnA/B/C). See section "Output Compare Units" on page 255 for details.
The compare match event will also set the Compare Match Flag (OCFnA/B/C) which
can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
The Input Capture Register can capture the Timer/Counter value at a given external
(edge triggered) event on either the Input Capture pin (ICPn) or on the Analog
Comparator pins (see "AC – Analog Comparator" on page 411). The Input Capture unit
includes a digital filtering unit (Noise Canceller) for reducing the chance of capturing
noise spikes.
The TOP value, or maximum Timer/Counter value, can in some modes of operation be
defined by either the OCRnA Register, the ICRn Register or by a set of fixed values.
When using OCRnA as TOP value in a PWM mode, the OCRnA Register can not be
used for generating a PWM output. However the TOP value will in this case be double
buffered allowing the TOP value to be changed at run time. If a fixed TOP value is
required, the ICRn Register can be used as an alternative, freeing the OCRnA to be
used as PWM output.
18.2.2 Definitions
The following definitions are used extensively throughout the document:
Table 18-1. Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x0000.
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFFFF (decimal 65535).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in
the count sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be one of the fixed
values: 0x00FF, 0x01FF, 0x03FF or to the value stored in the OCRnA or ICRn
Register. The assignment is dependent of the mode of operation.
18.3 Accessing 16-bit Registers
The TCNTn, OCRnA/B/C and ICRn are 16-bit registers that can be accessed by the
AVR CPU via the 8-bit data bus. The 16-bit register must be byte accessed using two
read or write operations. Each 16-bit timer has a single 8-bit register for temporary
storing of the high byte of the 16-bit access. The same Temporary Register is shared
between all 16-bit registers within each 16-bit timer. Accessing the low byte triggers the
16-bit read or write operation. When the low byte of a 16-bit register is written by the
CPU, the written low byte and the high byte stored in the Temporary Register are both
copied into the 16-bit register in the same clock cycle. When the low byte of a 16-bit
register is read by the CPU, the high byte of the 16-bit register is copied into the
Temporary Register in the same clock cycle as the low byte is read.
Not all 16-bit accesses use the Temporary Register for the high byte. Reading the
OCRnA/B/C 16-bit registers does not involve using the Temporary Register.
To do a 16-bit write, the high byte must be written before the low byte. For a 16-bit read,
the low byte must be read before the high byte.
The following code examples show how to access the 16-bit timer registers assuming
that no interrupt updates the temporary register. The same principle can be used
directly for accessing the OCRnA/B/C and ICRn Registers. Note that when using the Cprogramming language, the compiler handles the 16-bit access.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
(1)
Assembly Code Examples
...
; Set TCNTn to 0x01FF
ldi r17,0x01
ldi r16,0xFF
out TCNTnH,r17
out TCNTnL,r16
; Read TCNTn into r17:r16
in r16,TCNTnL
in r17,TCNTnH
...
(1)
C Code Examples
unsigned int i;
...
/* Set TCNTn to 0x01FF */
TCNTn = 0x1FF;
/* Read TCNTn into i */
i = TCNTn;
...
Notes:
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8.
The assembly code example returns the TCNTn value in the r17:r16 register pair.
It is important to notice that accessing 16-bit registers are atomic operations. If an
interrupt occurs between the two instructions accessing the 16-bit register and the
interrupt code updates the temporary register by accessing the same or any other of the
16-bit Timer Registers, then the result of the access outside the interrupt will be
corrupted. Therefore the main code must disable the interrupts during the 16-bit access
when both the main code and the interrupt code update the temporary register.
The following code examples show how to do an atomic read of the TCNTn Register
contents. Reading any of the OCRnA/B/C or ICRn Registers can be done by using the
same principle.
The assembly code example returns the TCNTn value in the r17:r16 register pair.
(1)
Assembly Code Examples
TIM16_ReadTCNTn:
; Save global interrupt flag
in r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Read TCNTn into r17:r16
in r16,TCNTnL
in r17,TCNTnH
; Restore global interrupt flag
out SREG,r18
ret
250
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ATmega128RFA1
(1)
C Code Examples
unsigned int TIM16_ReadTCNTn( void )
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
__disable_interrupt();
/* Read TCNTn into i */
i = TCNTn;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
return i;
}
Notes:
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8 .
The following code examples show how to do an atomic write of the TCNTn Register
contents. Writing any of the OCRnA/B/C or ICRn Registers can be done by using the
same principle.
The assembly code example requires that the r17:r16 register pair contains the value to
be written to TCNTn.
(1)
Assembly Code Examples
TIM16_WriteTCNTn:
; Save global interrupt flag
in r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Set TCNTn to r17:r16
out TCNTnH,r17
out TCNTnL,r16
; Restore global interrupt flag
out SREG,r18
ret
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
(1)
C Code Examples
void TIM16_WriteTCNTn( unsigned int i )
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
__disable_interrupt();
/* Set TCNTn to i */
TCNTn = i;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
}
Notes:
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8 .
18.3.1 Reusing the Temporary High Byte Register
If writing to more than one 16-bit register where the high byte is the same for all
registers written, then the high byte only needs to be written once. However note that
the same rule of atomic operation described previously also applies in this case.
18.4 Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock
source is selected by the Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select
(CSn2:0) bits located in the Timer/Counter control Register B (TCCRnB). For details on
clock sources and prescaler, see "Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 Prescaler" on page
307.
18.5 Counter Unit
The main part of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable 16-bit bi-directional
counter unit. The following figure shows a block diagram of the counter and its
surroundings.
Figure 18-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
TEMP (8-bit)
Clock Select
Count
TCNTnH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
Clear
Direction
Control Logic
clkTn
Edge
Detector
Tn
( From Prescaler )
TOP
BOTTOM
Signal description (internal signals):
252
Count
Increment or decrement TCNTn by 1;
Direction
Select between increment and decrement;
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Clear
Clear TCNTn (set all bits to zero);
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock;
TOP
Signalize that TCNTn has reached maximum value;
BOTTOM
Signalize that TCNTn has reached minimum value (zero);
The 16-bit counter is mapped into two 8-bit I/O memory locations: Counter High
(TCNTnH) contains the upper eight bits of the counter and Counter Low (TCNTnL)
contains the lower eight bits. The TCNTnH Register can only be indirectly accessed by
the CPU. When the CPU does an access to the TCNTnH I/O location, the CPU
accesses the high byte temporary register (TEMP). The temporary register is updated
with the TCNTnH value when the TCNTnL is read and TCNTnH is updated with the
temporary register value when TCNTnL is written. This allows the CPU to read or write
the entire 16-bit counter value within one clock cycle via the 8-bit data bus. It is
important to notice that there are special cases of writing to the TCNTn Register giving
unpredictable results when the counter is running. These special cases are described in
the sections of their importance.
Depending on the mode of operation, the counter is cleared, incremented or
decremented at each timer clock (clkTn). The clkTn can be generated from an external or
internal clock source selected by the Clock Select bits (CSn2:0). The timer is stopped
when no clock source is selected (CSn2:0 = 0). However, the TCNTn value can be
accessed by the CPU independent of whether clkTn is present or not. A CPU write
overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the settings of the Waveform Generation
mode bits (WGMn3:0) located in the Timer/Counter Control Registers A and B
(TCCRnA and TCCRnB). There are close connections between how the counter
behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare outputs
OCnx. For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation,
see "Modes of Operation" on page 259.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set according to the mode of operation
selected by the WGMn3:0 bits. TOVn can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
18.6 Input Capture Unit
The Timer/Counter incorporates an input capture unit that can capture external events
and give them a time-stamp indicating time of occurrence. The external signal indicating
an event, or multiple events, can be applied via the ICPn pin or alternatively, for the
Timer/Counter1 only, via the Analog Comparator unit. The time-stamps can then be
used to calculate frequency, duty-cycle and other features of the signal applied.
Alternatively the time-stamps can be used for creating a log of the events.
The Input Capture unit is illustrated by the block diagram shown in Figure 18-3. The
elements of the block diagram not direct parts of the input capture unit are gray shaded.
The small “n” in register and bit names indicates the Timer/Counter number.
A capture will be triggered when a change of the logic level (an event) occurs on the
Input Capture Pin (ICPn), or alternatively on the analog Comparator output (ACO), and
this change matches the setting of the edge detector. When a capture is triggered, the
16-bit value of the counter (TCNTn) is written to the Input Capture Register (ICRn). The
Input Capture Flag (ICFn) is set at the same system clock as the TCNTn value is
copied into ICRn Register. If enabled (TICIEn = 1), the input capture flag generates an
input capture interrupt. The ICFn flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is
executed. Alternatively the ICFn flag can be software-cleared by writing a logical one to
its I/O bit location.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Figure 18-3. Input Capture Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TEMP (8-bit)
ICRnH (8-bit)
WRITE
ICRnL (8-bit)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
ICRn (16-bit Register)
ACO*
Analog
Comparator
ACIC*
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
ICNC
ICES
Noise
Canceler
Edge
Detector
ICFn (Int.Req.)
ICPn
Note:
1. The Analog Comparator Output (ACO) can only trigger the Timer/Counter1 ICP –
not Timer/Counter3, 4 or 5.
Reading the 16-bit value in the Input Capture Register (ICRn) is done by first reading
the low byte (ICRnL) and then the high byte (ICRnH). When the low byte is read the
high byte is copied into the high byte Temporary Register (TEMP). The CPU will access
the TEMP Register when reading the ICRnH I/O location.
The ICRn Register can only be written when using a Waveform Generation mode that
utilizes the ICRn Register for defining the counter’s TOP value. In these cases the
Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) bits must be set before the TOP value can be
written to the ICRn Register. When writing the ICRn Register the high byte must be
written to the ICRnH I/O location before the low byte is written to ICRnL.
For more information on how to access the 16-bit registers refer to "Accessing 16-bit
Registers" on page 249.
18.6.1 Input Capture Trigger Source
The main trigger source for the input capture unit is the Input Capture Pin (ICPn).
Timer/Counter1 can alternatively use the analog comparator output as trigger source for
the input capture unit. The Analog Comparator is selected as trigger source by setting
the analog Comparator Input Capture (ACIC) bit in the Analog Comparator Control and
Status Register (ACSR). Be aware that changing trigger source can trigger a capture.
The input capture flag must therefore be cleared after the change.
Both the Input Capture Pin (ICPn) and the Analog Comparator output (ACO) inputs are
sampled using the same technique as for the Tn pin (Figure 19-1 on page 307). The
edge detector is also identical. However, when the noise canceller is enabled,
additional logic is inserted before the edge detector increasing the delay by four system
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clock cycles. Note that the input of the noise canceller and edge detector is always
enabled unless the Timer/Counter is set in a Waveform Generation mode that uses
ICRn to define TOP.
An input capture can be software-triggered by controlling the port of the ICPn pin.
18.6.2 Noise Canceller
The noise canceller improves noise immunity by using a simple digital filtering scheme.
The noise canceller input is monitored over four samples and all four must be equal for
changing the output that in turn is used by the edge detector.
The noise canceller is enabled by setting the Input Capture Noise Canceller (ICNCn) bit
in Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCRnB). When enabled the noise canceller
introduces additional four system clock cycles of delay from a change applied to the
input to the update of the ICRn Register. The noise canceller uses the system clock and
is therefore not affected by the prescaler.
18.6.3 Using the Input Capture Unit
The main challenge when using the Input Capture unit is to assign enough processor
capacity for handling the incoming events. The time between two events is critical. The
ICRn will be overwritten with a new value if the processor has not read the captured
value in the ICRn Register before the next event occurs. In this case the result of the
capture will be incorrect.
When using the Input Capture interrupt, the ICRn Register should be read as early in
the interrupt handler routine as possible. Even though the Input Capture interrupt has
relatively high priority, the maximum interrupt response time is dependent on the
maximum number of clock cycles it takes to handle any of the other interrupt requests.
It is not recommended to use the Input Capture unit in any mode of operation where the
TOP value (resolution) is actively changed while counting.
Measurement of the duty cycle of an external signal requires that the trigger edge is
changed after each capture. Changing the edge sensing must be done as early as
possible after the ICRn Register has been read. After a change of the edge, the Input
Capture Flag (ICFn) must be cleared by software (writing a logical one to the I/O bit
location). For measuring frequency only, the clearing of the ICFn Flag is not required (if
an interrupt handler is used).
18.7 Output Compare Units
The 16-bit comparator continuously compares TCNTn with the Output Compare
Register (OCRnx). If TCNTn equals OCRnx the comparator signals a match. A match
will set the Output Compare Flag (OCFnx) at the next clock cycle of the timer. If
enabled (OCIEnx = 1), the Output Compare Flag generates an Output Compare
interrupt. The OCFnx Flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed.
Alternatively the OCFnx Flag can be software-cleared by writing a logical one to its I/O
bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output
according to the Waveform Generation mode bits (WGMn3:0) and Compare Output
mode bits (COMnx1:0). The TOP and BOTTOM signals are used by the Waveform
Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in some modes of
operation (see "Modes of Operation" on page 259).
A special feature of Output Compare unit A allows it to define the Timer/Counter TOP
value i.e., the counter resolution. In addition to the counter resolution, the TOP value
defines the period time for waveforms generated by the Waveform Generator.
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Figure 18-4 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit. The small “n” in the
register and bit names indicates the device number (n = Timer/Counter n), and the “x”
indicates Output Compare unit A, B or C. The elements of the block diagram not direct
parts of the Output Compare unit are gray shaded.
Figure 18-4. Output Compare Unit Block Diagram
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TEMP (8-bit)
OCRnxH Buf. (8-bit)
OCRnxL Buf. (8-bit)
TCNTnH (8-bit)
OCRnx Buffer (16-bit Register)
OCRnxH (8-bit)
TCNTnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
OCRnxL (8-bit)
OCRnx (16-bit Register)
= (16-bit Comparator )
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
TOP
BOTTOM
Waveform Generator
WGMn3:0
OCnx
COMnx1:0
The OCRnx Register is double buffered when using any of the twelve Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) modes. For the Normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes
of operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the
update of the OCRnx Compare Register to either TOP or BOTTOM of the counting
sequence. The synchronization prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical
PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCRnx Register access may seem complex, but this is not the case. When the
double buffering is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCRnx Buffer Register. If
double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCRnx directly. The content of the
OCR1x (Buffer or Compare) Register is only changed by a write operation (the
Timer/Counter does not update this register automatically as the TCNT1 and ICR1
Register). Therefore OCR1x is not read via the high byte temporary register (TEMP).
However, it is a good practice to read the low byte first similar to accessing other 16-bit
registers. Writing the OCRnx Registers must be done via the TEMP Register since the
compare of all 16 bits is done continuously. The high byte (OCRnxH) has to be written
first. The TEMP Register will be updated with the value written by the CPU to the high
byte I/O location. Then when the low byte (OCRnxL) is written to the lower eight bits,
the high byte will be copied into the upper 8-bits of either the OCRnx buffer or OCRnx
Compare Register in the same system clock cycle.
For more information of how to access the 16-bit registers refer to "Accessing 16-bit
Registers" on page 249.
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18.7.1 Force Output Compare
In non-PWM Waveform Generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be
forced by writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOCnx) bit. Forcing compare
match will not set the OCFnx Flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OCnx pin will be
updated as if a real compare match had occurred (the COMn1:0 bits settings define
whether the OCnx pin is set, cleared or toggled).
18.7.2 Compare Match Blocking by TCNTn Write
All CPU writes to the TCNTn Register will block any compare match that occurs in the
next clock cycle of the timer even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCRnx
to be initialized to the same value as TCNTn without triggering an interrupt when the
Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
18.7.3 Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNTn in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one
timer clock cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNTn using any of the
Output Compare channels, independent of whether the Timer/Counter is running or not.
If the value written to TCNTn equals the OCRnx value, the compare match will be
missed resulting in incorrect waveform generation. Do not write the TCNTn equal to
TOP in PWM modes with variable TOP values. The compare match for the TOP will be
ignored and the counter will continue to 0xFFFF. Similarly, do not write the TCNTn
value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is down-counting.
The setup of the OCnx should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register
for the port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OCnx value is to use the Force
Output Compare (FOCnx) strobe bits in Normal mode. The OCnx Register keeps its
value even when changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COMnx1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare
value. A change of the COMnx1:0 bits will immediately take effect.
18.8 Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform
Generator uses the COMnx1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OCnx) state at the
next compare match. Secondly the COMnx1:0 bits control the OCnx pin output source.
Figure 18-5 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COMnx1:0 bit
setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the
parts of the general I/O Port Control Registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected by
the COMnx1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the OCnx state, the reference is to the
internal OCnx Register and not to the OCnx pin. After a system reset the OCnx
Register will have a value of “0”.
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OCnx) from the
Waveform Generator if either of the COMnx1:0 bits are set. However, the OCnx pin
direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the
port pin. The Data Direction Register bit for the OCnx pin (DDR_OCnx) must be set as
output before the OCnx value is visible on the pin. The port override function is
generally independent of the Waveform Generation mode, but there are some
exceptions. Refer to Table 18-2, Table 18-3 and Table 18-4 on page 259 for details.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OCnx state
before the output is enabled. Note that some COMnx1:0 bit settings are reserved for
certain modes of operation (see section "Register Description" on page 269).
The COMnx1:0 bits have no effect on the Input Capture unit.
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Figure 18-5. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
Waveform
Generator
COMnx0
FOCnx
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
OCnx
Pin
0
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
18.8.1 Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COMnx1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC and PWM
modes. A setting of COMnx1:0 = 0 tells the Waveform Generator in all modes that no
action on the OCnx Register is to be performed on the next compare match. For
compare output actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 18-2. For fast PWM
mode refer to Table 18-3 and for phase-correct and phase-and-frequency-correct PWM
refer to Table 18-4.
A change of the COMnx1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after
the bits are written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate
effect by using the FOCnx strobe bits.
Table 18-2 shows the COMnx1:0 bit functionality when the WGMn3:0 bits are set to a
normal or a CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 18-2. Compare Output Mode, non-PWM
COMnA1
COMnB1
COMnC1
COMnA0
COMnB0
COMnC0
0
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC disconnected.
0
1
Toggle OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match.
1
0
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match (set output to low
level).
1
1
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match (set output to high
level).
Description
Table 18-3 shows the COMnx1:0 bit functionality when the WGMn3:0 bits are set to the
fast PWM mode.
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Table 18-3. Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM
COMnA1
COMnB1
COMnC1
COMnA0
COMnB0
COMnC0
0
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC disconnected.
0
1
WGM13:0 = 14 or 15: Toggle OC1A on Compare Match, OC1B and
OC1C disconnected (normal port operation). For all other WGM1
settings, normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B/OC1C disconnected.
1
0
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match; set
OCnA/OCnB/OCnC at BOTTOM (non-inverting mode).
1
1
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match, clear
OCnA/OCnB/OCnC at BOTTOM (inverting mode).
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCRnA/OCRnB/OCRnC equals TOP and
COMnA1/COMnB1/COMnC1 is set. In this case the compare match is ignored, but
the set or clear is done at BOTTOM. See "Fast PWM Mode" on page 261 for more
details.
Table 18-4 shows the COMnx1:0 bit functionality when the WGMn3:0 bits are set to the
phase correct and phase and frequency correct PWM mode.
Table 18-4. Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct and Phase/Frequency Correct
PWM
COMnA1
COMnB1
COMnC1
COMnA0
COMnB0
COMnC0
0
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC disconnected.
0
1
WGM13:0 =9 or 11: Toggle OC1A on Compare Match, OC1B and
OC1C disconnected (normal port operation). For all other WGM1
settings, normal port operation, OC1A/OC1B/OC1C disconnected.
1
0
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match when up-counting.
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match when down-counting.
1
1
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match when up-counting.
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on compare match when down-counting.
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCRnA/OCRnB/OCRnC equals TOP and
COMnA1/COMnB1/COMnC1 is set. See "Phase and Frequency Correct PWM
Mode" on page 265 for more details.
18.9 Modes of Operation
The mode of operation i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare
pins, is defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGMn3:0) and
the Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits. The Compare Output mode bits do not
affect the counting sequence, but the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The
COMnx1:0 bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or not
(inverted or non-inverted PWM). For non-PWM modes the COMnx1:0 bits control if the
output should be set, cleared or toggle at a compare match (See "Compare Match
Output Unit" on page 257)
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Table 18-5. Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description
WGMn0)
(PWMn0)
Timer/Counter
Mode of Operation
TOP
Update of
OCRnx at
Mode
WGMn3
WGMn2
(CTCn)
0
0
0
0
0
Normal
0xFFFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
0
0
1
PWM, Phase Correct, 8-bit
0x00FF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
0
0
1
0
PWM, Phase Correct, 9-bit
0x01FF
TOP
BOTTOM
3
0
0
1
1
PWM, Phase Correct, 10-bit
0x3FF
TOP
BOTTOM
4
0
1
0
0
CTC
OCRnA
Immediate
MAX
5
0
1
0
1
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x00FF
BOTTOM
TOP
6
0
1
1
0
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x01FF
BOTTOM
TOP
7
0
1
1
1
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x03FF
BOTTOM
TOP
8
1
0
0
0
PWM, Phase and Frequency
Correct
ICRn
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
9
1
0
0
1
PWM, Phase and Frequency
Correct
OCRnA
BOTTOM
BOTTOM
10
1
0
1
0
PWM, Phase Correct
ICRn
TOP
BOTTOM
11
1
0
1
1
PWM, Phase Correct
OCRnA
TOP
BOTTOM
12
1
1
0
0
CTC
ICRn
Immediate
MAX
13
1
1
0
1
(Reserved)
–
–
–
14
1
1
1
0
Fast PWM
ICRn
BOTTOM
TOP
15
1
1
1
1
Fast PWM
OCRnA
BOTTOM
TOP
Notes:
WGMn1
(PWMn1)
(1)
TOVn Flag
Set on
1. The CTCn and PWMn1:0 bit definition names are obsolete. Use the WGMn2:0 definitions. However, the functionality
and location of these bits are compatible with previous versions of the timer.
For detailed timing information refer to "Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams" on page 267.
18.9.1 Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGMn3:0 = 0). In this mode the
counting direction is always up (incrementing) and no counter clear is performed. The
counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 16-bit value (MAX = 0xFFFF) and
then restarts from the BOTTOM (0x0000). In normal operation the Timer/Counter
Overflow Flag (TOVn) will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNTn becomes
th
zero. In this case the TOVn Flag behaves like a 17 bit, except that it is only set and not
cleared. However the timer resolution can be increased by software when combined
with the timer overflow interrupt that automatically clears the TOVn Flag. There are no
special cases to consider in the Normal mode. A new counter value can be written
anytime.
The Input Capture unit is easy to use in Normal mode. However it is important to note
that the maximum interval between the external events must not exceed the resolution
of the counter. The timer overflow interrupt or the prescaler must be used to extend the
resolution for the capture unit if the intervals between events are too long.
The Output Compare units can be used to generate interrupts at some given time.
Using the Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not
recommended because this will occupy too much CPU time.
18.9.2 Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) mode (WGMn3:0 = 4 or 12), the OCRnA or ICRn
Register are used to manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is
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cleared to zero when the counter value (TCNTn) matches either the OCRnA (WGMn3:0
= 4) or the ICRn (WGMn3:0 = 12). The OCRnA or ICRn define the top value for the
counter, hence also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare
match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in the following figure. The counter
value (TCNTn) increases until a compare match occurs with either OCRnA or ICRn,
and then counter (TCNTn) is cleared.
Figure 18-6. CTC Mode Timing Diagram
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TCNTn
OCnA
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnA1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
Each time the counter reaches the TOP value an interrupt can be generated by either
the OCFnA or ICFn Flag according to the register used to define the TOP value. If the
interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the TOP
value. However, changing TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is
running with no or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode
does not have the double buffering feature. The counter will miss the compare match if
the new value written to OCRnA or ICRn is lower than the current value of TCNTn. The
counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFFFF) and wrap around
starting at 0x0000 before the compare match can occur. In many cases this feature is
not desirable. The fast PWM mode is available as an alternative using OCRnA for
defining TOP (WGMn3:0 = 15). The OCRnA then will be double buffered.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OCnA output can be set to toggle
its logical level on each compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to
toggle mode (COMnA1:0 = 1). The OCnA value will not be visible on the port pin unless
the data direction for the pin is set to output (DDR_OCnA = 1). The waveform
generated will have a maximum frequency of fOCnA = fclkI/O/2 when OCRnA is set to zero
(0x0000). The waveform frequency is given by the following equation:
f OCnA =
f clkI / O
2 ⋅ N ⋅ (1 + OCRnA)
The N variable represents the prescaler factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOVn Flag is set in the same clock cycle of
the timer when the counter changes from MAX to 0x0000.
18.9.3 Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode (WGMn3:0 = 5, 6, 7, 14 or 15) provides
a high frequency PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the
other PWM options by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from BOTTOM to
TOP then restarts from BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output
Compare (OCnx) is cleared on the compare match between TCNTn and OCRnx, and
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OCnx is set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode output is set on compare
match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation, the operating
frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase-correct and phase
and frequency correct PWM modes that use dual-slope operation. This high frequency
makes the fast PWM mode well suited for power regulation, rectification and DAC
applications. High frequency allows physically small sized external components (coils,
capacitors), hence reducing total system cost.
The PWM resolution for fast PWM can be fixed to 8-, 9-, or 10-bit, or defined by either
ICRn or OCRnA. The minimum resolution allowed is 2-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to
0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to MAX). The PWM
resolution RFPWM in bits can be calculated with the following equation:
R FPWM =
log(TOP + 1)
log(2)
In fast PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches either
one of the fixed values 0x00FF, 0x01FF or 0x03FF (WGMn3:0 = 5, 6 or 7), the value in
ICRn (WGMn3:0 = 14) or the value in OCRnA (WGMn3:0 = 15). The counter is then
cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast PWM mode is
shown in Figure 18-7. The figure shows fast PWM mode when OCRnA or ICRn is used
to define TOP. The TCNTn value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for
illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted
PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNTn slopes represent compare
matches between OCRnx and TCNTn. The OCnx Interrupt Flag will be set when a
compare match occurs.
Figure 18-7. Fast PWM Mode Timing Diagram
OCRnx / TOP Update
and TOVn Interrupt Flag
Set and OCnA Interrupt
Flag Set or ICFn
Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. In
addition the OCnA or ICFn Flag is set at the same timer clock cycle as TOVn is set
when either OCRnA or ICRn is used to define the TOP value. If one of the interrupts are
enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be utilized for updating the TOP and compare
values.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is
higher or equal to the value of all of the Compare Registers. A compare match will
never occur between the TCNTn and the OCRnx if the TOP value is lower than any of
the Compare Registers. Note that when working with fixed TOP values the unused bits
are masked to zero when any of the OCRnx Registers are written.
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The procedure for updating ICRn differs from updating OCRnA when used for defining
the TOP value. The ICRn Register is not double buffered. This means that if ICRn is
changed to a low value while the counter is running with no or a low prescaler value,
there is a risk that the newly written ICRn value is lower than the current value of
TCNTn. In consequence the counter will miss the compare match at the TOP value.
The counter must then count to the MAX value (0xFFFF) and wrap around starting at
0x0000 before the compare match can occur. The OCRnA Register is double buffered
though. This feature allows writing the OCRnA I/O location at anytime. When the
OCRnA I/O location is written the new value will be put first into the OCRnA Buffer
Register. The OCRnA Compare Register will then be updated with the value in the
Buffer Register at the next clock cycle of the timer when TCNTn matches TOP. The
update is done at the same timer clock cycle as the TCNTn is cleared and the TOVn
Flag is set.
The definition of TOP with the ICRn Register works well for fixed TOP values.
Combined with ICRn, the OCRnA Register is free to be used for generating a PWM
output on OCnA. However, if the base PWM frequency is actively changed (by
modifying the TOP value), working with the OCRnA as TOP is clearly a better choice
due to its double buffer feature.
In fast PWM mode the compare units allow the generation of PWM waveforms on the
OCnx pins. Setting the COMnx1:0 bits to 2 will produce a non-inverted PWM and an
inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COMnx1:0 to 3 (see Table 18-3
on page 259). The actual OCnx value will only be visible on the port pin if the data
direction of the port pin is set to output (DDR_OCnx). The PWM waveform is generated
by setting (or clearing) the OCnx Register at the compare match between OCRnx and
TCNTn, and by clearing (or setting) the OCnx Register at the timer clock cycle the
counter is cleared (changes from TOP to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency of the output fOCnxPWM can be calculated with the following
equation:
fOCnxPWM =
fclkI / O
N ⋅ (1 + TOP)
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256 or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCRnx Register represent special cases when generating a
PWM waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCRnx is set equal to BOTTOM
(0x0000), the output will be a narrow spike for each TOP+1 timer clock cycle. Setting
the OCRnx equal to TOP will result in a constant high or low output (depending on the
polarity of the output set by the COMnx1:0 bits.)
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved
by setting OCnA to toggle its logical level on each compare match (COMnA1:0 = 1).
This applies only if OCR1A is used to define the TOP value (WGM13:0 = 15). The
waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOCnA = fclkI/O/2 when OCRnA is
set to zero (0x0000). This feature is similar to the OCnA toggle in CTC mode, except
the double buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
18.9.4 Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode (WGMn3:0 = 1, 2, 3, 10 or 11)
provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase
correct PWM mode is, like the phase and frequency correct PWM mode, based on a
dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM (0x0000) to TOP
and then from TOP to BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output
Compare (OCnx) is cleared on the compare match between TCNTn and OCRnx while
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up-counting, and set on the compare match while down-counting. In inverting Output
Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has a lower
maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However these modes are
preferred for motor control applications due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope
PWM modes.
The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode can be fixed to 8, 9 or 10 bit, or
be defined by either ICRn or OCRnA. The minimum resolution allowed is 2 bit (ICRn or
OCRnA set to 0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16-bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to
MAX). The PWM resolution RPCPWM in bits can be calculated with the following equation:
RPCPWM =
log(TOP + 1)
log(2)
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches
either one of the fixed values 0x00FF, 0x01FF or 0x03FF (WGMn3:0 = 1, 2, or 3), the
value in ICRn (WGMn3:0 = 10) or the value in OCRnA (WGMn3:0 = 11). The counter
has then reached the TOP and changes the count direction. The TCNTn value will be
equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM
mode is shown on Figure 18-8 below. The figure shows phase correct PWM mode
when OCRnA or ICRn is used to define TOP. The TCNTn value is shown in the timing
diagram as a histogram illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes noninverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNTn
slopes represent compare matches between OCRnx and TCNTn. The OCnx Interrupt
Flag will be set when a compare match occurs.
Figure 18-8. Phase Correct PWM Mode Timing Diagram
OCRnx/TOP Update and
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on Bottom)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set each time the counter reaches
BOTTOM. When either OCRnA or ICRn is used for defining the TOP value, the OCnA
or ICFn Flag is set accordingly at the same timer clock cycle as the OCRnx Registers
are updated with the double buffer value (at TOP). The Interrupt Flags can be used to
generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the TOP or BOTTOM value.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is
higher or equal to the value of all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower
than any of the Compare Registers, a compare match will never occur between the
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TCNTn and the OCRnx. Note that when working with fixed TOP values, the unused bits
are masked to zero when any of the OCRnx Registers are written. As the third period
shown in Figure 18-8 illustrates, changing the TOP actively while the Timer/Counter is
running in the phase correct mode can result in an asymmetrical output. The reason for
this can be found in the update time of the OCRnx Register. Since the OCRnx update
occurs at TOP, the PWM period starts and ends at TOP. This implies that the length of
the falling slope is determined by the previous TOP value, while the length of the rising
slope is determined by the new TOP value. When these two values are not equal the
two slopes of the period will differ in length. The difference in length gives the
asymmetrical result of the output.
It is recommended to use the phase and frequency correct mode instead of the phase
correct mode when changing the TOP value while the Timer/Counter is running. When
using a static TOP value there are practically no differences between the two modes of
operation.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare units allow generating PWM waveforms on
the OCnx pins. Setting the COMnx1:0 bits to 2 will produce a non-inverted PWM. An
inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COMnx1:0 to 3 (see Table 18-4
on page 259). The actual OCnx value will only be visible on the port pin if the data
direction of the port pin is set to output (DDR_OCnx). The PWM waveform is generated
by setting (or clearing) the OCnx Register at the compare match between OCRnx and
TCNTn when the counter increments, and by clearing (or setting) the OCnx Register at
compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn when the counter decrements. The PWM
frequency of the output fOCnxPCPWM when using phase-correct PWM can be calculated
with the following equation:
f OCnxPCPWM =
f clkI / O
2 ⋅ N ⋅ TOP)
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCRnx Register represent special cases when generating a
PWM waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCRnx is set equal to
BOTTOM the output will be continuously low and if set equal to TOP the output will be
continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have
the opposite logic values. If OCR1A is used to define the TOP value (WGM13:0 = 11)
and COM1A1:0 = 1, the OC1A output will toggle with a 50% duty cycle.
18.9.5 Phase and Frequency Correct PWM Mode
The phase and frequency correct Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) mode (WGMn3:0 = 8
or 9) provides a high resolution phase and frequency correct PWM waveform
generation option. The phase and frequency correct PWM mode is, like the phase
correct PWM mode, based on a dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly
from BOTTOM (0x0000) to TOP and then from TOP to BOTTOM. In non-inverting
Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OCnx) is cleared on the compare match
between TCNTn and OCRnx while up-counting, and set on the compare match while
down-counting. In inverting Compare Output mode, the operation is inverted. The dualslope operation gives a lower maximum operation frequency compared to the singleslope operation. However these modes are preferred for motor control applications due
to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes.
The main difference between the phase correct and the phase and frequency correct
PWM mode is the time the OCRnx Register is updated by the OCRnx Buffer Register,
(see Figure 18-8 on page 264 and Figure 18-9 on page 266).
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
The PWM resolution for the phase and frequency correct PWM mode can be defined by
either ICRn or OCRnA. The minimum resolution allowed is 2 bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to
0x0003), and the maximum resolution is 16 bit (ICRn or OCRnA set to MAX). The PWM
resolution RPFCPWM in bits can be calculated with the following equation:
R PFCPWM =
log(TOP + 1)
log(2)
In phase and frequency correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter
value matches either the value in ICRn (WGMn3:0 = 8), or the value in OCRnA
(WGMn3:0 = 9). The counter has then reached TOP and changes the count direction.
The TCNTn value will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for
the phase correct and frequency correct PWM mode is shown in Figure 18-9 below.
The figure shows phase and frequency correct PWM mode when OCRnA or ICRn is
used to define TOP. The TCNTn value is shown in the timing diagram as a histogram
for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted
PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNTn slopes represent compare
matches between OCRnx and TCNTn. The OCnx Interrupt Flag will be set when a
compare match occurs.
Figure 18-9. Phase and Frequency Correct PWM Mode Timing Diagram
OCnA Interrupt Flag Set
or ICFn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on TOP)
OCRnx/TOP Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
(Interrupt on Bottom)
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set at the timer clock cycle when the
OCRnx Registers are updated with the double-buffered value (at BOTTOM). The OCnA
or ICFn Flag is set after TCNTn has reached TOP when either OCRnA or ICRn is used
for defining the TOP value. The Interrupt Flags can then be used to generate an
interrupt each time the counter reaches the TOP or BOTTOM value.
When changing the TOP value the program must ensure that the new TOP value is
higher or equal to the value of all of the Compare Registers. If the TOP value is lower
than any of the Compare Registers, a compare match will never occur between the
TCNTn and the OCRnx.
As Figure 18-9 shows the output generated is, in contrast to the phase correct mode,
symmetrical in all periods. Since the OCRnx Registers are updated at BOTTOM, the
length of the rising and the falling slopes will always be equal. This gives symmetrical
output pulses and is therefore frequency correct.
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The definition of TOP with the ICRn Register works well when using fixed TOP values.
Combined with ICRn the OCRnA Register is available for generating a PWM output on
OCnA. However, if the base PWM frequency is actively changed by modifying the TOP
value, using the OCRnA as TOP is clearly a better choice due to its double buffer
feature.
In phase and frequency correct PWM mode, the compare units allow generating PWM
waveforms on the OCnx pins. Setting the COMnx1:0 bits to 2 will produce a noninverted PWM. An inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COMnx1:0 to
3 (see Table 18-4 on page 259). The actual OCnx value will only be visible at the port
pin if the data direction of the port pin is set to output (DDR_OCnx). The PWM
waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OCnx Register at the compare match
between OCRnx and TCNTn when the counter increments, and by clearing (or setting)
the OCnx Register at compare match between OCRnx and TCNTn when the counter
decrements. The PWM frequency of the output fOCnxPFCPWM when using phase and
frequency correct PWM can be calculated with the following equation:
fOCnxPFCPWM =
fclkI / O
2 ⋅ N ⋅ TOP)
The N variable represents the prescaler divider (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCRnx Register represent special cases when generating a
PWM waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCRnx is set equal to
BOTTOM the output will be continuously low and if set equal to TOP the output will be
set to high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the
opposite logic values. If OCR1A is used to define the TOP value (WGM13:0 = 9) and
COM1A1:0 = 1, the OC1A output will toggle with a 50% duty cycle.
18.10 Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkTn) is therefore
shown as a clock enable signal in the following figures. The figures include information
on when Interrupt Flags are set and when the OCRnx Register is updated with the
OCRnx buffer value (only for modes utilizing double buffering). Figure 18-10 shows a
timing diagram for the setting of OCFnx.
Figure 18-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCFnx, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
OCRnx
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
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Figure 18-11 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 18-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCFnx with Prescaler (fclkI/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCFnx
Figure 18-12 shows the count sequence close to TOP in various modes. When using
phase and frequency correct PWM mode the OCRnx Register is updated at BOTTOM.
The timing diagrams will be the same, but TOP should be replaced by BOTTOM, TOP1 by BOTTOM+1 and so on. The same renaming applies for modes that set the TOVn
Flag at BOTTOM.
Figure 18-12. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
(CTC and FPWM)
TCNTn
(PC and PFC PWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP - 1
TOP
TOP - 1
TOP - 2
TOVn (FPWM)
and ICFn (if used
as TOP)
OCRnx
(Update at TOP)
268
Old OCRnx Value
New OCRnx Value
ATmega128RFA1
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Figure 18-13 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 18-13. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram with Prescaler (fclkI/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O/8)
TCNTn
(CTC and FPWM)
TCNTn
(PC and PFC PWM)
TOP - 1
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP - 1
TOP
TOP - 1
TOP - 2
TOVn (FPWM)
and ICF n (if used
as TOP)
OCRnx
Old OCRnx Value
(Update at TOP)
New OCRnx Value
18.11 Register Description
18.11.1 TCCR1A – Timer/Counter1 Control Register A
Bit
NA ($80)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
COM1A1 COM1A0 COM1B1 COM1B0 COM1C1 COM1C0 WGM11
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
0
WGM10
TCCR1A
RW
0
• Bit 7:6 – COM1A1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel A
The COM1A1:0 bits control the output compare behavior of pin OC1A. If one or both of
the COM1A1:0 bits are written to one, the OC1A output overrides the normal port
functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However note that the Data Direction
Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC1A pin must be set in order to enable the
output driver. When the OC1A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM1A1:0
bits is dependent of the WGM13:0 bits setting. The following table shows the
COM1A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-6 COM1A Register Bits
Register Bits
COM1A1:0
Value
Description
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC
disconnected.
1
Toggle OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match.
2
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match (set output to low level).
3
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match
(set output to high level).
• Bit 5:4 – COM1B1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel B
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The COM1B1:0 bits control the output compare behavior of pin OC1B. If one or both of
the COM1B1:0 bits are written to one, the OC1B output overrides the normal port
functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However note that the Data Direction
Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC1B pin must be set in order to enable the
output driver. When the OC1A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM1B1:0
bits is dependent of the WGM13:0 bits setting. The following table shows the
COM1B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-7 COM1B Register Bits
Register Bits
COM1B1:0
Value
Description
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC
disconnected.
1
Toggle OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match.
2
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match (set output to low level).
3
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match
(set output to high level).
• Bit 3:2 – COM1C1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel C
The COM1C1:0 bits control the output compare behavior of pin OC1C. If one or both of
the COM1C1:0 bits are written to one, the OC1C output overrides the normal port
functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However note that the Data Direction
Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC1C pin must be set in order to enable the
output driver. When the OC1A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM1C1:0
bits is dependent of the WGM13:0 bits setting. The following table shows the
COM1C1:0 bit functionality when the WGM13:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-8 COM1C Register Bits
Register Bits
COM1C1:0
Value
Description
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC
disconnected.
1
Toggle OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match.
2
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match (set output to low level).
3
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match
(set output to high level).
• Bit 1:0 – WGM11:10 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM13:12 bits, found in the TCCR1B Register, these bits control
the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value
and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC)
mode, and three types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For more information
on the different modes see section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-9 WGM1 Register Bits
Register Bits
WGM13:10
270
Value
Description
0x0
Normal mode of operation
0x1
PWM, phase correct, 8-bit
ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
Register Bits
Value
Description
0x2
PWM, phase correct, 9-bit
0x3
PWM, phase correct, 10-bit
0x4
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0x5
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x6
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x7
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x8
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
ICRn
0x9
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
OCRnA
0xA
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = ICRn
0xB
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = OCRnA
0xC
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0xD
Reserved
0xE
Fast PWM, TOP = ICRn
0xF
Fast PWM, TOP = OCRnA
18.11.2 TCCR1B – Timer/Counter1 Control Register B
Bit
NA ($81)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC1
ICES1
Res
WGM13
WGM12
CS12
CS11
CS10
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCCR1B
• Bit 7 – ICNC1 - Input Capture 1 Noise Canceller
Setting this bit (to one) activates the Input Capture Noise Canceler. When the Noise
Canceler is activated, the input from the Input Capture Pin (ICP1) is filtered. The filter
function requires four successive equal valued samples of the ICP1 pin for changing its
output. The input capture is therefore delayed by four Oscillator cycles when the noise
canceler is enabled.
• Bit 6 – ICES1 - Input Capture 1 Edge Select
This bit selects which edge on the Input Capture Pin (ICP1) that is used to trigger a
capture event. When the ICES1 bit is written to zero, a falling (negative) edge is used
as trigger. When the ICES1 bit is written to one, a rising (positive) edge will trigger the
capture. When a capture is triggered according to the ICES1 setting, the counter value
is copied into the Input Capture Register (ICR1). The event will also set the Input
Capture Flag (ICF1). This can be used to cause an Input Capture Interrupt, if this
interrupt is enabled. When the ICR1 is used as TOP value (see description of the
WGM13:0 bits located in the TCCR1A and the TCCR1B Register), the ICP1 is
disconnected and consequently the input capture function is disabled.
• Bit 5 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 4:3 – WGM13:12 - Waveform Generation Mode
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Combined with the WGM11:10 bits, found in the TCCR1A Register, these bits control
the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value
and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC)
mode, and three types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For more information
on the different modes see section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-10 WGM1 Register Bits
Register Bits
WGM13:10
Value
Description
0x0
Normal mode of operation
0x1
PWM, phase correct, 8-bit
0x2
PWM, phase correct, 9-bit
0x3
PWM, phase correct, 10-bit
0x4
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0x5
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x6
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x7
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x8
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
ICRn
0x9
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
OCRnA
0xA
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = ICRn
0xB
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = OCRnA
0xC
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0xD
Reserved
0xE
Fast PWM, TOP = ICRn
0xF
Fast PWM, TOP = OCRnA
• Bit 2:0 – CS12:10 - Clock Select
The three clock select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter1
according to the following table. If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter1,
transitions on the T1 pin will clock the counter even if the pin is configured as an output.
This feature allows software control of the counting.
Table 18-11 CS1 Register Bits
272
Register Bits
Value
Description
CS12:10
0x00
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0x01
clkIO/1 (no prescaling)
0x02
clkIO/8 (from prescaler)
0x03
clkIO/64 (from prescaler)
0x04
clkIO/256 (from prescaler)
0x05
clkIO/1024 (from prescaler)
0x06
External clock source on Tn pin, clock on
falling edge
0x07
External clock source on Tn pin, clock on
rising edge
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18.11.3 TCCR1C – Timer/Counter1 Control Register C
Bit
NA ($82)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC1A
FOC1B
FOC1C
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
TCCR1C
• Bit 7 – FOC1A - Force Output Compare for Channel A
The FOC1A bit is only active when the WGM13:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC1A bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the
waveform generation unit. The OC1A output is changed according to its COM1A1:0 bits
setting. Note that the FOC1A bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the value
present in the COM1A1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC1A strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR1A as TOP. The FOC1A bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 6 – FOC1B - Force Output Compare for Channel B
The FOC1B bit is only active when the WGM13:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC1B bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the
waveform generation unit. The OC1B output is changed according to its COM1B1:0 bits
setting. Note that the FOC1B bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the value
present in the COM1B1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC1B strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR1B as TOP. The FOC1B bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 5 – FOC1C - Force Output Compare for Channel C
The FOC1C bit is only active when the WGM13:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC1C bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the
waveform generation unit. The OC1C output is changed according to its COM1C1:0 bits
setting. Note that the FOC1C bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the value
present in the COM1C1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC1C strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR1C as TOP. The FOC1C bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 4:0 – Res4:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved for future use.
18.11.4 TCNT1H – Timer/Counter1 High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($85)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT1H7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCNT1H
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT1H and TCNT1L, combined TCNT1) give
direct access, both for read and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit
counter. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written simultaneously
when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details. Modifying the
counter (TCNT1) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare
match between TCNT1 and one of the OCR1x Registers. Writing to the TCNT1
Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all
compare units.
• Bit 7:0 – TCNT1H7:0 - Timer/Counter1 High Byte
18.11.5 TCNT1L – Timer/Counter1 Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($84)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCNT1L7:0
RW
0
TCNT1L
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT1H and TCNT1L, combined TCNT1) give
direct access, both for read and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit
counter. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written simultaneously
when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other
16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details. Modifying the
counter (TCNT1) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare
match between TCNT1 and one of the OCR1x Registers. Writing to the TCNT1
Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all
compare units.
• Bit 7:0 – TCNT1L7:0 - Timer/Counter1 Low Byte
18.11.6 OCR1AH – Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register A High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($89)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR1AH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR1AH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT1). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC1A pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR1AH7:0 - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register High Byte
18.11.7 OCR1AL – Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register A Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($88)
Read/Write
Initial Value
274
4
3
2
1
0
OCR1AL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR1AL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT1). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC1A pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR1AL7:0 - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register Low Byte
18.11.8 OCR1BH – Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register B High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($8B)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR1BH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR1BH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT1). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC1B pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR1BH7:0 - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register High Byte
18.11.9 OCR1BL – Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register B Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($8A)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR1BL7:0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR1BL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT1). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC1B pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR1BL7:0 - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register Low Byte
275
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
18.11.10 OCR1CH – Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register C High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($8D)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR1CH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR1CH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT1). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC1C pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR1CH7:0 - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register High Byte
18.11.11 OCR1CL – Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register C Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($8C)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR1CL7:0
RW
0
OCR1CL
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT1). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC1C pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR1CL7:0 - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Register Low Byte
18.11.12 ICR1H – Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Register High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($87)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
ICR1H7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
ICR1H
R
0
R
0
R
0
The Input Capture Register is updated with the counter (TCNT1) value each time an
event occurs on the ICP1 pin or on the Analog Comparator output. The Input Capture
Register can be used for defining the counter TOP value. The Input Capture Register is
16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read simultaneously when
the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary
High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit
registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – ICR1H7:0 - Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Register High Byte
276
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
18.11.13 ICR1L – Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Register Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($86)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
ICR1L7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
ICR1L
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
The Input Capture Register is updated with the counter (TCNT1) value each time an
event occurs on the ICP1 pin or on the Analog Comparator output. The Input Capture
Register can be used for defining the counter TOP value. The Input Capture Register is
16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read simultaneously when
the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary
High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit
registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – ICR1L7:0 - Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Register Low Byte
18.11.14 TIMSK1 – Timer/Counter1 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
NA ($6F)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
ICIE1
Res
OCIE1C
OCIE1B
OCIE1A
TOIE1
R
0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIMSK1
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5 – ICIE1 - Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture interrupt is enabled. The
corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the ICF1 Flag, located in TIFR1, is
set.
• Bit 4 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3 – OCIE1C - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare C Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare C Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF1C Flag, located in
TIFR1, is set.
• Bit 2 – OCIE1B - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare B Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare B Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF1B Flag, located in
TIFR1, is set.
• Bit 1 – OCIE1A - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare A Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter1 Output Compare A Match interrupt is enabled.
277
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF1A Flag, located in
TIFR1, is set.
• Bit 0 – TOIE1 - Timer/Counter1 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter1 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding
Interrupt Vector is executed when the TOV1 Flag, located in TIFR1, is set.
18.11.15 TIFR1 – Timer/Counter1 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
$16 ($36)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
ICF1
Res
OCF1C
OCF1B
OCF1A
TOV1
R
0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIFR1
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5 – ICF1 - Timer/Counter1 Input Capture Flag
This flag is set when a capture event occurs on the ICP1 pin. When the Input Capture
Register (ICR1) is set by the WGM13:0 to be used as the TOP value, the ICF1 Flag is
set when the counter reaches the TOP value. ICF1 is automatically cleared when the
Input Capture Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, ICF1 can be cleared by writing
a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 4 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3 – OCF1C - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare C Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT1) value matches the
Output Compare Register C (OCR1C). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC1C)
strobe will not set the OCF1C Flag. OCF1C is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match C Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF1C can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 2 – OCF1B - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare B Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT1) value matches the
Output Compare Register B (OCR1B). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC1B)
strobe will not set the OCF1B Flag. OCF1B is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match B Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF1B can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 1 – OCF1A - Timer/Counter1 Output Compare A Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT1) value matches the
Output Compare Register A (OCR1A). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC1A)
strobe will not set the OCF1A Flag. OCF1A is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match A Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF1A can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 – TOV1 - Timer/Counter1 Overflow Flag
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM13:0 bits setting of the Timer/Counter1
Control Register. In Normal and CTC modes, the TOV1 Flag is set when the timer
278
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
overflows. TOV1 is automatically cleared when the Timer/Counter1 Overflow Interrupt
Vector is executed. Alternatively, TOV1 can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit
location.
18.11.16 TCCR3A – Timer/Counter3 Control Register A
Bit
NA ($90)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
COM3A1 COM3A0 COM3B1 COM3B0 COM3C1 COM3C0 WGM31
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
0
WGM30
TCCR3A
RW
0
• Bit 7:6 – COM3A1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel A
The COM3A1:0 bits control the output compare behavior of pin OC3A. If one or both of
the COM3A1:0 bits are written to one, the OC3A output overrides the normal port
functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However note that the Data Direction
Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC3A pin must be set in order to enable the
output driver. When the OC3A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM3A1:0
bits is dependent of the WGM33:0 bits setting. The following table shows the
COM3A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM33:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-12 COM3A Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
COM3A1:0
Description
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC
disconnected.
1
Toggle OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match.
2
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match (set output to low level).
3
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match
(set output to high level).
• Bit 5:4 – COM3B1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel B
The COM3B1:0 bits control the output compare behavior of pin OC3B. If one or both of
the COM3B1:0 bits are written to one, the OC3B output overrides the normal port
functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However note that the Data Direction
Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC3B pin must be set in order to enable the
output driver. When the OC3B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM3B1:0
bits is dependent of the WGM33:0 bits setting. The following table shows the
COM3B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM33:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-13 COM3B Register Bits
Register Bits
COM3B1:0
Value
Description
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC
disconnected.
1
Toggle OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match.
2
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match (set output to low level).
3
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match
279
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Register Bits
Value
Description
(set output to high level).
• Bit 3:2 – COM3C1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel C
The COM3C1:0 bits control the output compare behavior of pin OC3C. If one or both of
the COM3C1:0 bits are written to one, the OC3C output overrides the normal port
functionality of the I/O pin it is connected to. However note that the Data Direction
Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC3C pin must be set in order to enable the
output driver. When the OC3C is connected to the pin, the function of the COM3C1:0
bits is dependent of the WGM33:0 bits setting. The following table shows the
COM3C1:0 bit functionality when the WGM33:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-14 COM3C Register Bits
Register Bits
COM3C1:0
Value
Description
0
Normal port operation, OCnA/OCnB/OCnC
disconnected.
1
Toggle OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match.
2
Clear OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare
Match (set output to low level).
3
Set OCnA/OCnB/OCnC on Compare Match
(set output to high level).
• Bit 1:0 – WGM31:30 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM33:32 bits, found in the TCCR3B Register, these bits control
the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value
and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC)
mode, and three types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For more information
on the different modes see section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-15 WGM3 Register Bits
Register Bits
WGM33:30
280
Value
Description
0x0
Normal mode of operation
0x1
PWM, phase correct, 8-bit
0x2
PWM, phase correct, 9-bit
0x3
PWM, phase correct, 10-bit
0x4
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0x5
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x6
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x7
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x8
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
ICRn
0x9
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
OCRnA
0xA
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = ICRn
0xB
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = OCRnA
0xC
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0xD
Reserved
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Register Bits
Value
Description
0xE
Fast PWM, TOP = ICRn
0xF
Fast PWM, TOP = OCRnA
18.11.17 TCCR3B – Timer/Counter3 Control Register B
Bit
NA ($91)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC3
ICES3
Res
WGM33
WGM32
CS32
CS31
CS30
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
TCCR3B
• Bit 7 – ICNC3 - Input Capture 3 Noise Canceller
Setting this bit (to one) activates the Input Capture Noise Canceler. When the Noise
Canceler is activated, the input from the Input Capture Pin (ICP3) is filtered. The filter
function requires four successive equal valued samples of the ICP3 pin for changing its
output. The input capture is therefore delayed by four Oscillator cycles when the noise
canceler is enabled.
• Bit 6 – ICES3 - Input Capture 3 Edge Select
This bit selects which edge on the Input Capture Pin (ICP3) that is used to trigger a
capture event. When the ICES3 bit is written to zero, a falling (negative) edge is used
as trigger. When the ICES3 bit is written to one, a rising (positive) edge will trigger the
capture. When a capture is triggered according to the ICES3 setting, the counter value
is copied into the Input Capture Register (ICR3). The event will also set the Input
Capture Flag (ICF3). This can be used to cause an Input Capture Interrupt, if this
interrupt is enabled. When the ICR3 is used as TOP value (see description of the
WGM33:0 bits located in the TCCR3A and the TCCR3B Register), the ICP3 is
disconnected and consequently the input capture function is disabled.
• Bit 5 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 4:3 – WGM33:32 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM31:30 bits, found in the TCCR3A Register, these bits control
the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value
and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC)
mode, and three types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For more information
on the different modes see section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-16 WGM3 Register Bits
Register Bits
WGM33:30
Value
Description
0x0
Normal mode of operation
0x1
PWM, phase correct, 8-bit
0x2
PWM, phase correct, 9-bit
0x3
PWM, phase correct, 10-bit
0x4
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0x5
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x6
Fast PWM, 9-bit
281
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Register Bits
Value
Description
0x7
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x8
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
ICRn
0x9
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
OCRnA
0xA
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = ICRn
0xB
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = OCRnA
0xC
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0xD
Reserved
0xE
Fast PWM, TOP = ICRn
0xF
Fast PWM, TOP = OCRnA
• Bit 2:0 – CS32:30 - Clock Select
The three clock select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter3
according to the following table. If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter3,
transitions on the T3 pin will clock the counter even if the pin is configured as an output.
This feature allows software control of the counting.
Table 18-17 CS3 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
CS32:30
0x00
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0x01
clkIO/1 (no prescaling)
0x02
clkIO/8 (from prescaler)
0x03
clkIO/64 (from prescaler)
0x04
clkIO/256 (from prescaler)
0x05
clkIO/1024 (from prescaler)
0x06
External clock source on Tn pin, clock on
falling edge
0x07
External clock source on Tn pin, clock on
rising edge
18.11.18 TCCR3C – Timer/Counter3 Control Register C
Bit
NA ($92)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC3A
FOC3B
FOC3C
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
TCCR3C
• Bit 7 – FOC3A - Force Output Compare for Channel A
The FOC3A bit is only active when the WGM33:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC3A bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the
waveform generation unit. The OC3A output is changed according to its COM3A1:0 bits
setting. Note that the FOC3A bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the value
present in the COM3A1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC3A strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR3A as TOP. The FOC3A bits are always read
as zero.
282
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ATmega128RFA1
• Bit 6 – FOC3B - Force Output Compare for Channel B
The FOC3B bit is only active when the WGM33:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC3B bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the
waveform generation unit. The OC3B output is changed according to its COM3B1:0 bits
setting. Note that the FOC3B bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the value
present in the COM3B1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC3B strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR1B as TOP. The FOC3B bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 5 – FOC3C - Force Output Compare for Channel C
The FOC3C bit is only active when the WGM33:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC3C bit, an immediate compare match is forced on the
waveform generation unit. The OC3C output is changed according to its COM3C1:0 bits
setting. Note that the FOC3C bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the value
present in the COM3C1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC3C strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR3C as TOP. The FOC3C bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 4:0 – Res4:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved for future use.
18.11.19 TCNT3H – Timer/Counter3 High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($95)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT3H7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCNT3H
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT3H and TCNT3L, combined TCNT3) give
direct access, both for read and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit
counter. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written simultaneously
when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other
16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details. Modifying the
counter (TCNT3) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare
match between TCNT3 and one of the OCR3x Registers. Writing to the TCNT3
Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all
compare units.
• Bit 7:0 – TCNT3H7:0 - Timer/Counter3 High Byte
18.11.20 TCNT3L – Timer/Counter3 Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($94)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT3L7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCNT3L
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT3H and TCNT3L, combined TCNT3) give
direct access, both for read and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit
counter. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written simultaneously
when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other
16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details. Modifying the
counter (TCNT3) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare
match between TCNT3 and one of the OCR3x Registers. Writing to the TCNT3
Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all
compare units.
• Bit 7:0 – TCNT3L7:0 - Timer/Counter3 Low Byte
18.11.21 OCR3AH – Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register A High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($99)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR3AH7:0
RW
0
OCR3AH
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT3). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC3A pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR3AH7:0 - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register High Byte
18.11.22 OCR3AL – Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register A Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($98)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR3AL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR3AL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT3). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC3A pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR3AL7:0 - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register Low Byte
284
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
18.11.23 OCR3BH – Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register B High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($9B)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR3BH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR3BH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT3). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC3B pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR3BH7:0 - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register High Byte
18.11.24 OCR3BL – Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register B Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($9A)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR3BL7:0
RW
0
OCR3BL
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT3). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC3B pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR3BL7:0 - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register Low Byte
18.11.25 OCR3CH – Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register C High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($9D)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR3CH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR3CH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT3). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC3C pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR3CH7:0 - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register High Byte
285
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
18.11.26 OCR3CL – Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register C Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($9C)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR3CL7:0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR3CL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT3). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC3C pin. The Output Compare
Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are written
simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the access is performed using
an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all
the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR3CL7:0 - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare Register Low Byte
18.11.27 ICR3H – Timer/Counter3 Input Capture Register High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
NA ($97)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
ICR3H7:0
R
0
ICR3H
The Input Capture Register is updated with the counter (TCNT3) value each time an
event occurs on the ICP3 pin. The Input Capture Register can be used for defining the
counter TOP value. The Input Capture Register is 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the
high and low bytes are read simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers,
the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – ICR3H7:0 - Timer/Counter3 Input Capture Register High Byte
18.11.28 ICR3L – Timer/Counter3 Input Capture Register Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($96)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
ICR3L7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
ICR3L
R
0
R
0
R
0
The Input Capture Register is updated with the counter (TCNT3) value each time an
event occurs on the ICP3 pin. The Input Capture Register can be used for defining the
counter TOP value. The Input Capture Register is 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the
high and low bytes are read simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers,
the access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – ICR3L7:0 - Timer/Counter3 Input Capture Register Low Byte
286
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
18.11.29 TIMSK3 – Timer/Counter3 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
NA ($71)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
ICIE3
Res
OCIE3C
OCIE3B
OCIE3A
TOIE3
R
0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIMSK3
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5 – ICIE3 - Timer/Counter3 Input Capture Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter3 Input Capture interrupt is enabled. The
corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the ICF3 Flag, located in TIFR3, is
set.
• Bit 4 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3 – OCIE3C - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare C Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter3 Output Compare C Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF3C Flag, located in
TIFR3, is set.
• Bit 2 – OCIE3B - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare B Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter3 Output Compare B Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF3B Flag, located in
TIFR3, is set.
• Bit 1 – OCIE3A - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare A Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter3 Output Compare A Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF3A Flag, located in
TIFR3, is set.
• Bit 0 – TOIE3 - Timer/Counter3 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter3 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding
Interrupt Vector is executed when the TOV3 Flag, located in TIFR3, is set.
18.11.30 TIFR3 – Timer/Counter3 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
$18 ($38)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
ICF3
Res
OCF3C
OCF3B
OCF3A
TOV3
R
0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIFR3
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
287
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5 – ICF3 - Timer/Counter3 Input Capture Flag
This flag is set when a capture event occurs on the ICP3 pin. When the Input Capture
Register (ICR3) is set by the WGM33:0 to be used as the TOP value, the ICF3 Flag is
set when the counter reaches the TOP value. ICF3 is automatically cleared when the
Input Capture Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, ICF3 can be cleared by writing
a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 4 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3 – OCF3C - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare C Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT3) value matches the
Output Compare Register C (OCR3C). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC3C)
strobe will not set the OCF3C Flag. OCF3C is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match C Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF3C can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 2 – OCF3B - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare B Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT3) value matches the
Output Compare Register B (OCR3B). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC3B)
strobe will not set the OCF3B Flag. OCF3B is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match B Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF3B can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 1 – OCF3A - Timer/Counter3 Output Compare A Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT3) value matches the
Output Compare Register A (OCR3A). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC3A)
strobe will not set the OCF3A Flag. OCF3A is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match A Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF3A can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 – TOV3 - Timer/Counter3 Overflow Flag
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM33:0 bits setting of the Timer/Counter3
Control Register. In Normal and CTC modes, the TOV3 Flag is set when the timer
overflows. TOV3 is automatically cleared when the Timer/Counter3 Overflow Interrupt
Vector is executed. Alternatively, TOV3 can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit
location.
18.11.31 TCCR4A – Timer/Counter4 Control Register A
Bit
NA ($A0)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
COM4A1 COM4A0 COM4B1 COM4B0 COM4C1 COM4C0 WGM41
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
WGM40
TCCR4A
RW
0
• Bit 7:6 – COM4A1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel A
The Timer/Counter4 has only limited functionality. Therefore the COM4A1:0 bits do not
control the output compare behavior of any pin. The following table shows the
288
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
COM4A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM43:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-18 COM4A Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
COM4A1:0
Description
0
Normal operation
1
Reserved
2
Reserved
3
Reserved
• Bit 5:4 – COM4B1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel B
The Timer/Counter4 has only limited functionality. Therefore the COM4B1:0 bits do not
control the output compare behavior of any pin. The following table shows the
COM4B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM43:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-19 COM4B Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
COM4B1:0
Description
0
Normal operation
1
Reserved
2
Reserved
3
Reserved
• Bit 3:2 – COM4C1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel C
The Timer/Counter4 has only limited functionality. Therefore the COM4C1:0 bits do not
control the output compare behavior of any pin. The following table shows the
COM4C1:0 bit functionality when the WGM43:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-20 COM4C Register Bits
Register Bits
COM4C1:0
Value
Description
0
Normal operation
1
Reserved
2
Reserved
3
Reserved
• Bit 1:0 – WGM41:40 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM43:42 bits, found in the TCCR4B Register, these bits control
the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value
and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC)
mode, and three types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For more information
on the different modes see section "Modes of Operation". Note that Timer/Counter4 has
only limited functionality. It cannot be connected to any I/O pin.
Table 18-21 WGM4 Register Bits
Register Bits
WGM43:40
Value
Description
0x0
Normal mode of operation
0x1
PWM, phase correct, 8-bit
0x2
PWM, phase correct, 9-bit
0x3
PWM, phase correct, 10-bit
0x4
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
289
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Register Bits
Value
Description
0x5
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x6
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x7
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x8
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
ICRn
0x9
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
OCRnA
0xA
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = ICRn
0xB
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = OCRnA
0xC
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0xD
Reserved
0xE
Fast PWM, TOP = ICRn
0xF
Fast PWM, TOP = OCRnA
18.11.32 TCCR4B – Timer/Counter4 Control Register B
Bit
NA ($A1)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC4
ICES4
Res
WGM43
WGM42
CS42
CS41
CS40
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
TCCR4B
• Bit 7 – ICNC4 - Input Capture 4 Noise Canceller
Timer/Counter4 has only limited functionality. It is not connected to any Input Capture
Pin. Therefore this bit has no meaningful function.
• Bit 6 – ICES4 - Input Capture 4 Edge Select
Timer/Counter4 has only limited functionality. It is not connected to any Input Capture
Pin. Therefore this bit has no meaningful function.
• Bit 5 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 4:3 – WGM43:42 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM41:40 bits, found in the TCCR4A Register, these bits control
the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value
and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC)
mode, and three types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For more information
on the different modes see section "Modes of Operation". Note that Timer/Counter4 has
only limited functionality. It cannot be connected to any I/O pin.
Table 18-22 WGM4 Register Bits
Register Bits
WGM43:40
290
Value
Description
0x0
Normal mode of operation
0x1
PWM, phase correct, 8-bit
0x2
PWM, phase correct, 9-bit
0x3
PWM, phase correct, 10-bit
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Register Bits
Value
Description
0x4
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0x5
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x6
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x7
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x8
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
ICRn
0x9
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
OCRnA
0xA
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = ICRn
0xB
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = OCRnA
0xC
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0xD
Reserved
0xE
Fast PWM, TOP = ICRn
0xF
Fast PWM, TOP = OCRnA
• Bit 2:0 – CS42:40 - Clock Select
The three clock select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter4
according to the following table. External pin modes cannot be used for the
Timer/Counter4.
Table 18-23 CS4 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
CS42:40
0x00
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0x01
clkIO/1 (no prescaling)
0x02
clkIO/8 (from prescaler)
0x03
clkIO/64 (from prescaler)
0x04
clkIO/256 (from prescaler)
0x05
clkIO/1024 (from prescaler)
0x06
Reserved
0x07
Reserved
18.11.33 TCCR4C – Timer/Counter4 Control Register C
Bit
NA ($A2)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC4A
FOC4B
FOC4C
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
TCCR4C
• Bit 7 – FOC4A - Force Output Compare for Channel A
The FOC4A bit is only active when the WGM43:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC4A bit, an immediate compare match is forced. Due to
the limited functionality of the Timer/Counter4 the match has no direct impact on any
output pin. Note that the FOC4A bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the
value present in the COM4A1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC4A strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
291
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR4A as TOP. The FOC4A bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 6 – FOC4B - Force Output Compare for Channel B
The FOC4B bit is only active when the WGM43:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC4B bit, an immediate compare match is forced. Due to
the limited functionality of the Timer/Counter4 the match has no direct impact on any
output pin. Note that the FOC4B bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the
value present in the COM4B1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC4B strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR4B as TOP. The FOC4B bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 5 – FOC4C - Force Output Compare for Channel C
The FOC4C bit is only active when the WGM43:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC4C bit, an immediate compare match is forced. Due to
the limited functionality of the Timer/Counter4 the match has no direct impact on any
output pin. Note that the FOC4C bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the
value present in the COM4C1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC4C strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR4C as TOP. The FOC4C bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 4:0 – Res4:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved for future use.
18.11.34 TCNT4H – Timer/Counter4 High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($A5)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCNT4H7:0
RW
0
TCNT4H
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT4H and TCNT4L, combined TCNT4) give
direct access, both for read and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit
counter. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written simultaneously
when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other
16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details. Modifying the
counter (TCNT4) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare
match between TCNT4 and one of the OCR4x Registers. Writing to the TCNT4
Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all
compare units.
• Bit 7:0 – TCNT4H7:0 - Timer/Counter4 High Byte
18.11.35 TCNT4L – Timer/Counter4 Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($A4)
Read/Write
Initial Value
292
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT4L7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCNT4L
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT4H and TCNT4L, combined TCNT4) give
direct access, both for read and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit
counter. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written simultaneously
when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other
16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details. Modifying the
counter (TCNT4) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare
match between TCNT4 and one of the OCR4x Registers. Writing to the TCNT4
Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all
compare units.
• Bit 7:0 – TCNT4L7:0 - Timer/Counter4 Low Byte
18.11.36 OCR4AH – Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register A High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($A9)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR4AH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR4AH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT4). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR4AH7:0 - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register High Byte
18.11.37 OCR4AL – Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register A Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($A8)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR4AL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR4AL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT4). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR4AL7:0 - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register Low Byte
293
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
18.11.38 OCR4BH – Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register B High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($AB)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR4BH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR4BH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT4). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR4BH7:0 - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register High Byte
18.11.39 OCR4BL – Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register B Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($AA)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR4BL7:0
RW
0
OCR4BL
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT4). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR4BL7:0 - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register Low Byte
18.11.40 OCR4CH – Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register C High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($AD)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR4CH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR4CH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT4). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR4CH7:0 - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register High Byte
294
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
18.11.41 OCR4CL – Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register C Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($AC)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR4CL7:0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR4CL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT4). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR4CL7:0 - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare Register Low Byte
18.11.42 ICR4H – Timer/Counter4 Input Capture Register High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
NA ($A7)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
ICR4H7:0
R
0
ICR4H
The Timer/Counter4 has only limited functionality. It is not connected to any I/O pin.
Therefore the contents of this register is never updated with the counter (TCNT4) value.
The Input Capture Register is 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes
are read simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is
performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register
is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for
details.
• Bit 7:0 – ICR4H7:0 - Timer/Counter4 Input Capture Register High Byte
18.11.43 ICR4L – Timer/Counter4 Input Capture Register Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($A6)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
ICR4L7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
ICR4L
R
0
R
0
R
0
The Timer/Counter4 has only limited functionality. It is not connected to any I/O pin.
Therefore the contents of this register is never updated with the counter (TCNT4) value.
The Input Capture Register is 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes
are read simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is
performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register
is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for
details.
• Bit 7:0 – ICR4L7:0 - Timer/Counter4 Input Capture Register Low Byte
295
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
18.11.44 TIMSK4 – Timer/Counter4 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
NA ($72)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
ICIE4
Res
OCIE4C
OCIE4B
OCIE4A
TOIE4
R
0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIMSK4
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5 – ICIE4 - Timer/Counter4 Input Capture Interrupt Enable
The Timer/Counter4 has only limited functionality. It does not have an Input Capture
pin. Therefore this bit has no useful meaning.
• Bit 4 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3 – OCIE4C - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare C Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter4 Output Compare C Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF4C Flag, located in
TIFR4, is set.
• Bit 2 – OCIE4B - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare B Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter4 Output Compare B Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF4B Flag, located in
TIFR4, is set.
• Bit 1 – OCIE4A - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare A Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter4 Output Compare A Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF4A Flag, located in
TIFR4, is set.
• Bit 0 – TOIE4 - Timer/Counter4 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter4 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding
Interrupt Vector is executed when the TOV4 Flag, located in TIFR4, is set.
18.11.45 TIFR4 – Timer/Counter4 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
$19 ($39)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
ICF4
Res
OCF4C
OCF4B
OCF4A
TOV4
R
0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIFR4
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
296
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
• Bit 5 – ICF4 - Timer/Counter4 Input Capture Flag
The Timer/Counter4 has only limited functionality. It does not have an Input Capture
pin. Therefore this bit has no useful meaning.
• Bit 4 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3 – OCF4C - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare C Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT4) value matches the
Output Compare Register C (OCR4C). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC4C)
strobe will not set the OCF4C Flag. OCF4C is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match C Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF4C can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 2 – OCF4B - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare B Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT4) value matches the
Output Compare Register B (OCR4B). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC4B)
strobe will not set the OCF4B Flag. OCF4B is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match B Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF4B can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 1 – OCF4A - Timer/Counter4 Output Compare A Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT4) value matches the
Output Compare Register A (OCR4A). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC4A)
strobe will not set the OCF4A Flag. OCF4A is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match A Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF4A can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 – TOV4 - Timer/Counter4 Overflow Flag
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM43:0 bits setting of the Timer/Counter4
Control Register. In Normal and CTC modes, the TOV4 Flag is set when the timer
overflows. TOV4 is automatically cleared when the Timer/Counter4 Overflow Interrupt
Vector is executed. Alternatively, TOV4 can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit
location.
18.11.46 TCCR5A – Timer/Counter5 Control Register A
Bit
NA ($120)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
COM5A1 COM5A0 COM5B1 COM5B0 COM5C1 COM5C0 WGM51
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
0
WGM50
TCCR5A
RW
0
• Bit 7:6 – COM5A1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel A
The Timer/Counter5 has only limited functionality. Therefore the COM5A1:0 bits do not
control the output compare behavior of any pin. The following table shows the
COM5A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM53:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-24 COM5A Register Bits
Register Bits
COM5A1:0
Value
0
Description
Normal operation
297
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Register Bits
Value
Description
1
Reserved
2
Reserved
3
Reserved
• Bit 5:4 – COM5B1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel B
The Timer/Counter5 has only limited functionality. Therefore the COM5B1:0 bits do not
control the output compare behavior of any pin. The following table shows the
COM5B1:0 bit functionality when the WGM53:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-25 COM5B Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
COM5B1:0
Description
0
Normal operation
1
Reserved
2
Reserved
3
Reserved
• Bit 3:2 – COM5C1:0 - Compare Output Mode for Channel C
The Timer/Counter5 has only limited functionality. Therefore the COM5C1:0 bits do not
control the output compare behavior of any pin. The following table shows the
COM5C1:0 bit functionality when the WGM53:0 bits are set to a normal or a CTC mode
(non-PWM). For the other functionality refer to section "Modes of Operation".
Table 18-26 COM5C Register Bits
Register Bits
COM5C1:0
Value
Description
0
Normal operation
1
Reserved
2
Reserved
3
Reserved
• Bit 1:0 – WGM51:50 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM53:52 bits, found in the TCCR5B Register, these bits control
the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value
and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC)
mode, and three types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For more information
on the different modes see section "Modes of Operation". Note that Timer/Counter5 has
only limited functionality. It cannot be connected to any I/O pin.
Table 18-27 WGM5 Register Bits
Register Bits
WGM53:50
298
Value
Description
0x0
Normal mode of operation
0x1
PWM, phase correct, 8-bit
0x2
PWM, phase correct, 9-bit
0x3
PWM, phase correct, 10-bit
0x4
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0x5
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x6
Fast PWM, 9-bit
0x7
Fast PWM, 10-bit
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Register Bits
Value
Description
0x8
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
ICRn
0x9
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
OCRnA
0xA
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = ICRn
0xB
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = OCRnA
0xC
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0xD
Reserved
0xE
Fast PWM, TOP = ICRn
0xF
Fast PWM, TOP = OCRnA
18.11.47 TCCR5B – Timer/Counter5 Control Register B
Bit
NA ($121)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ICNC5
ICES5
Res
WGM53
WGM52
CS52
CS51
CS50
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
TCCR5B
• Bit 7 – ICNC5 - Input Capture 5 Noise Canceller
Timer/Counter5 has only limited functionality. It is not connected to any Input Capture
Pin. Therefore this bit has no meaningful function.
• Bit 6 – ICES5 - Input Capture 5 Edge Select
Timer/Counter5 has only limited functionality. It is not connected to any Input Capture
Pin. Therefore this bit has no meaningful function.
• Bit 5 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 4:3 – WGM53:52 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM51:50 bits, found in the TCCR5A Register, these bits control
the counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value
and what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare match (CTC)
mode, and three types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes. For more information
on the different modes see section "Modes of Operation". Note that Timer/Counter5 has
only limited functionality. It cannot be connected to any I/O pin.
Table 18-28 WGM5 Register Bits
Register Bits
WGM53:50
Value
Description
0x0
Normal mode of operation
0x1
PWM, phase correct, 8-bit
0x2
PWM, phase correct, 9-bit
0x3
PWM, phase correct, 10-bit
0x4
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0x5
Fast PWM, 8-bit
0x6
Fast PWM, 9-bit
299
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Register Bits
Value
Description
0x7
Fast PWM, 10-bit
0x8
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
ICRn
0x9
PWM, Phase and frequency correct, TOP =
OCRnA
0xA
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = ICRn
0xB
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = OCRnA
0xC
CTC, TOP = OCRnA
0xD
Reserved
0xE
Fast PWM, TOP = ICRn
0xF
Fast PWM, TOP = OCRnA
• Bit 2:0 – CS52:50 - Clock Select
The three clock select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter5
according to the following table. External pin modes cannot be used for the
Timer/Counter5.
Table 18-29 CS5 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
CS52:50
0x00
No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0x01
clkIO/1 (no prescaling)
0x02
clkIO/8 (from prescaler)
0x03
clkIO/64 (from prescaler)
0x04
clkIO/256 (from prescaler)
0x05
clkIO/1024 (from prescaler)
0x06
Reserved
0x07
Reserved
18.11.48 TCCR5C – Timer/Counter5 Control Register C
Bit
NA ($122)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC5A
FOC5B
FOC5C
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
TCCR5C
• Bit 7 – FOC5A - Force Output Compare for Channel A
The FOC5A bit is only active when the WGM53:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC5A bit, an immediate compare match is forced. Due to
the limited functionality of the Timer/Counter5 the match has no direct impact on any
output pin. Note that the FOC5A bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the
value present in the COM5A1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC5A strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR5A as TOP. The FOC5A bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 6 – FOC5B - Force Output Compare for Channel B
300
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
The FOC5B bit is only active when the WGM53:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC5B bit, an immediate compare match is forced. Due to
the limited functionality of the Timer/Counter5 the match has no direct impact on any
output pin. Note that the FOC5B bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the
value present in the COM5B1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC5B strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR5B as TOP. The FOC5B bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 5 – FOC5C - Force Output Compare for Channel C
The FOC5C bit is only active when the WGM53:0 bits specify a non-PWM mode. When
writing a logical one to the FOC5C bit, an immediate compare match is forced. Due to
the limited functionality of the Timer/Counter5 the match has no direct impact on any
output pin. Note that the FOC5C bits are implemented as strobes. Therefore it is the
value present in the COM5C1:0 bits that determine the effect of the forced compare. A
FOC5C strobe will not generate any interrupt nor will it clear the timer in Clear Timer on
Compare Match (CTC) mode using OCR5C as TOP. The FOC5C bits are always read
as zero.
• Bit 4:0 – Res4:0 - Reserved
These bits are reserved for future use.
18.11.49 TCNT5H – Timer/Counter5 High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($125)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT5H7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCNT5H
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT5H and TCNT5L, combined TCNT5) give
direct access, both for read and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit
counter. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written simultaneously
when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other
16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details. Modifying the
counter (TCNT5) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare
match between TCNT5 and one of the OCR5x Registers. Writing to the TCNT5
Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all
compare units.
• Bit 7:0 – TCNT5H7:0 - Timer/Counter5 High Byte
18.11.50 TCNT5L – Timer/Counter5 Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($124)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCNT5L7:0
RW
0
TCNT5L
The two Timer/Counter I/O locations (TCNT5H and TCNT5L, combined TCNT5) give
direct access, both for read and for write operations, to the Timer/Counter unit 16-bit
301
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
counter. To ensure that both the high and low bytes are read and written simultaneously
when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is performed using an 8-bit
temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register is shared by all the other
16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for details. Modifying the
counter (TCNT5) while the counter is running introduces a risk of missing a compare
match between TCNT5 and one of the OCR5x Registers. Writing to the TCNT5
Register blocks (removes) the compare match on the following timer clock for all
compare units.
• Bit 7:0 – TCNT5L7:0 - Timer/Counter5 Low Byte
18.11.51 OCR5AH – Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register A High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($129)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR5AH7:0
RW
0
OCR5AH
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT5). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR5AH7:0 - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register High Byte
18.11.52 OCR5AL – Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register A Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($128)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR5AL7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR5AL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT5). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR5AL7:0 - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register Low Byte
18.11.53 OCR5BH – Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register B High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($12B)
Read/Write
Initial Value
302
4
3
2
1
0
OCR5BH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR5BH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT5). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR5BH7:0 - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register High Byte
18.11.54 OCR5BL – Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register B Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($12A)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR5BL7:0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR5BL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT5). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR5BL7:0 - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register Low Byte
18.11.55 OCR5CH – Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register C High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($12D)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR5CH7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR5CH
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT5). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR5CH7:0 - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register High Byte
303
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
18.11.56 OCR5CL – Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register C Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($12C)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCR5CL7:0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR5CL
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Registers contain a 16-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT5). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt. The Output Compare Registers are 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high
and low bytes are written simultaneously when the CPU writes to these registers, the
access is performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This
temporary register is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16bit Registers" for details.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR5CL7:0 - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare Register Low Byte
18.11.57 ICR5H – Timer/Counter5 Input Capture Register High Byte
Bit
7
6
5
4
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
NA ($127)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
ICR5H7:0
R
0
ICR5H
The Timer/Counter5 has only limited functionality. It is not connected to any I/O pin.
Therefore the contents of this register is never updated with the counter (TCNT5) value.
The Input Capture Register is 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes
are read simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is
performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register
is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for
details.
• Bit 7:0 – ICR5H7:0 - Timer/Counter5 Input Capture Register High Byte
18.11.58 ICR5L – Timer/Counter5 Input Capture Register Low Byte
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($126)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
ICR5L7:0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
ICR5L
R
0
R
0
R
0
The Timer/Counter5 has only limited functionality. It is not connected to any I/O pin.
Therefore the contents of this register is never updated with the counter (TCNT5) value.
The Input Capture Register is 16-bit in size. To ensure that both the high and low bytes
are read simultaneously when the CPU accesses these registers, the access is
performed using an 8-bit temporary High Byte Register (TEMP). This temporary register
is shared by all the other 16-bit registers. See section "Accessing 16-bit Registers" for
details.
• Bit 7:0 – ICR5L7:0 - Timer/Counter5 Input Capture Register Low Byte
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18.11.59 TIMSK5 – Timer/Counter5 Interrupt Mask Register
Bit
NA ($73)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
ICIE5
Res
OCIE5C
OCIE5B
OCIE5A
TOIE5
R
0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIMSK5
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 5 – ICIE5 - Timer/Counter5 Input Capture Interrupt Enable
The Timer/Counter5 has only limited functionality. It does not have an Input Capture
pin. Therefore this bit has no useful meaning.
• Bit 4 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3 – OCIE5C - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare C Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter5 Output Compare C Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF5C Flag, located in
TIFR5, is set.
• Bit 2 – OCIE5B - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare B Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter5 Output Compare B Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF5B Flag, located in
TIFR5, is set.
• Bit 1 – OCIE5A - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare A Match Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter5 Output Compare A Match interrupt is enabled.
The corresponding Interrupt Vector is executed when the OCF5A Flag, located in
TIFR5, is set.
• Bit 0 – TOIE5 - Timer/Counter5 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one, and the I-flag in the Status Register is set (interrupts
globally enabled), the Timer/Counter5 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding
Interrupt Vector is executed when the TOV5 Flag, located in TIFR5, is set.
18.11.60 TIFR5 – Timer/Counter5 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
$1A ($3A)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
ICF5
Res
OCF5C
OCF5B
OCF5A
TOV5
R
0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIFR5
• Bit 7:6 – Res1:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
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• Bit 5 – ICF5 - Timer/Counter5 Input Capture Flag
The Timer/Counter5 has only limited functionality. It does not have an Input Capture
pin. Therefore this bit has no useful meaning.
• Bit 4 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3 – OCF5C - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare C Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT5) value matches the
Output Compare Register C (OCR5C). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC5C)
strobe will not set the OCF5C Flag. OCF5C is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match C Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF5C can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 2 – OCF5B - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare B Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT5) value matches the
Output Compare Register B (OCR5B). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC5B)
strobe will not set the OCF5B Flag. OCF5B is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match B Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF5B can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 1 – OCF5A - Timer/Counter5 Output Compare A Match Flag
This flag is set in the timer clock cycle after the counter (TCNT5) value matches the
Output Compare Register A (OCR5A). Note that a Forced Output Compare (FOC5A)
strobe will not set the OCF5A Flag. OCF5A is automatically cleared when the Output
Compare Match A Interrupt Vector is executed. Alternatively, OCF5A can be cleared by
writing a logic one to its bit location.
• Bit 0 – TOV5 - Timer/Counter5 Overflow Flag
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM53:0 bits setting of the Timer/Counter5
Control Register. In Normal and CTC modes, the TOV5 Flag is set when the timer
overflows. TOV5 is automatically cleared when the Timer/Counter5 Overflow Interrupt
Vector is executed. Alternatively, TOV5 can be cleared by writing a logic one to its bit
location.
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19 Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 Prescaler
Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 share the same prescaler module, but the
Timer/Counters can have different prescaler settings. The description below applies to
all Timer/Counters. Tn is used as a general name, n = 0, 1, 3, 4, or 5.
19.1 Internal Clock Source
The Timer/Counter can be clocked directly by the system clock (by setting the CSn2:0 =
1). This provides the fastest operation with a maximum Timer/Counter clock frequency
equal to system clock frequency (fclkI/O). Alternatively one of four taps from the prescaler
can be used as a clock source. The prescaled clock has a frequency of either fclkI/O/8,
fclkI/O/64, fclkI/O/256 or fclkI/O/1024.
19.2 Prescaler Reset
The prescaler is free running, i.e., operates independently of the Clock Select logic of
the Timer/Counter, and it is shared by the Timer/Counter Tn. Since the prescaler is not
affected by the Timer/Counter’s clock select, the state of the prescaler will have
implications for situations where a prescaled clock is used. One example of prescaling
artifacts occurs when the timer is enabled and clocked by the prescaler (6 > CSn2:0 >
1). The number of system clock cycles from the moment the timer is enabled until the
first count occurs can be from 1 to N+1 system clock cycles, where N equals the
prescaler divisor (8, 64, 256, or 1024).
It is possible to use the prescaler reset for synchronizing the Timer/Counter to program
execution. However care must be taken if the other Timer/Counter that shares the same
prescaler also uses prescaling. A prescaler reset will affect the prescaler period for all
connected Timer/Counters.
19.3 External Clock Source
An external clock source applied to the Tn pin can be used as Timer/Counter clock
(clkTn). The Tn pin is sampled once every system clock cycle by the pin synchronization
logic. The synchronized (sampled) signal is then passed through the edge detector.
Figure 19-1 shows a functional equivalent block diagram of the Tn synchronization and
edge detector logic. The registers are clocked at the positive edge of the internal
system clock (clkI/O). The latch is transparent in the high period of the internal system
clock.
The edge detector generates one clkTn pulse for each positive (CSn2:0 = 7) or negative
(CSn2:0 = 6) edge it detects.
Figure 19-1. Tn/T0 Pin Sampling
Tn
D
Q
D
Q
D
Tn_sync
(To Clock
Select Logic)
Q
LE
clk I/O
Synchronization
Edge Detector
The synchronization and edge detector logic introduces a delay of 2.5 to 3.5 system
clock cycles from an edge applied to the Tn pin to the counter being updated.
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Enabling and disabling of the clock input must be done when Tn has been stable for at
least one system clock cycle. Otherwise there is a risk of generating a false
Timer/Counter clock pulse.
Each half period of the applied, external clock must be longer than one system clock
cycle to ensure correct sampling. The external clock must be guaranteed to have less
than half the system clock frequency (fExtClk < fclkI/O/2) given a 50/50% duty cycle. Since
the edge detector uses sampling, the maximum frequency of a detectable external
clock is half the sampling frequency (Nyquist sampling theorem). However due to
variation of the system clock frequency and duty cycle caused by Oscillator source
(crystal, resonator and capacitors) tolerances, it is recommended to limit the maximum
frequency of an external clock source to less than fclkI/O/2.5. An external clock source
can not be prescaled.
Figure 19-2. Prescaler for synchronous Timer/Counters
clk I/O
Clear
PSR10
Tn
Synchronization
Tn
Synchronization
CSn0
CSn0
CSn1
CSn1
CSn2
CSn2
TIMER/COUNTERn CLOCK SOURCE
clkTn
TIMER/COUNTERn CLOCK SOURCE
clkTn
19.4 Register Description
19.4.1 GTCCR – General Timer/Counter Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
$23 ($43)
TSM
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
1
0
PSRASY PSRSYNC
R
0
GTCCR
RW
0
• Bit 7 – TSM - Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode
Writing the TSM bit to one activates the Timer/Counter Synchronization mode. In this
mode the value that is written to the PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits is kept, hence
keeping the corresponding prescaler reset signals asserted. This ensures that the
corresponding Timer/Counters are halted and can be configured to the same value
without the risk of one of them advancing during the configuration. When the TSM bit is
written to zero, the PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits are cleared by hardware and the
Timer/Counters simultaneously start counting.
• Bit 6:2 – Res4:0 - Reserved
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This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 1 – PSRASY - Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter2
When this bit is one, the Timer/Counter2 prescaler will be reset. This bit is normally
cleared immediately by hardware. If the bit is written when Timer/Counter2 is operating
in asynchronous mode, the bit will remain one until the prescaler has been reset. The
bit will not be cleared by hardware if the TSM bit is set.
• Bit 0 – PSRSYNC - Prescaler Reset for Synchronous Timer/Counters
When this bit is one, the Timer/Counter0, Timer/Counter1, Timer/Counter3,
Timer/Counter4 and Timer/Counter5 prescaler will be reset. This bit is normally cleared
immediately by hardware, except if the TSM bit is set. Note that Timer/Counter0,
Timer/Counter1, Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter4 and Timer/Counter5 share the same
prescaler and a reset of this prescaler will affect all timers.
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20 Output Compare Modulator (OCM1C0A)
20.1 Overview
The Output Compare Modulator (OCM) allows generation of waveforms modulated with
a carrier frequency. The modulator uses the outputs from the Output Compare Unit C of
the 16-bit Timer/Counter1 and the Output Compare Unit of the 8-bit Timer/Counter0.
For more details about these Timer/Counters see "Timer/Counter 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5
Prescaler" on page 307 and "8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous
Operation" on page 312.
Figure 20-1. Output Compare Modulator, Block Diagram
Timer/Counter 1
OC1C
Pin
Timer/Counter 0
OC1C /
OC0A / PB7
OC0A
When the modulator is enabled, the two output compare channels are modulated
together as shown in the block diagram (Figure 20-1 above).
20.2 Description
The Output Compare unit 1C and Output Compare unit 2 share the PB7 port pin for
output. The outputs of the Output Compare units (OC1C and OC0A) override the
normal PORTB7 Register when one of them is enabled (i.e., when COMnx1:0 is not
equal to zero). When both OC1C and OC0A are enabled at the same time, the
modulator is automatically enabled.
The functional equivalent schematic of the modulator is shown on in the following
figure. The schematic includes part of the Timer/Counter units and the port B bit 7
output driver circuit.
Figure 20-2. Output Compare Modulator, Schematic
COMA01
COMA00
Vcc
COM1C1
COM1C0
( From Waveform Generator )
Modulator
0
D
1
Q
1
OC1C
Pin
0
( From Waveform Generator )
D
Q
OC1C /
OC0A/ PB7
OC0A
D
Q
D
PORTB7
Q
DDRB7
DATABUS
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When the modulator is enabled the type of modulation (logical AND or OR) can be
selected by the PORTB7 Register. Note that the DDRB7 controls the direction of the
port independent of the COMnx1:0 bit setting.
20.3 Timing Example
Figure 20-3 below illustrates the modulator in action. In this example the
Timer/Counter1 is set to operate in fast PWM mode (non-inverted) and Timer/Counter0
uses CTC waveform mode with toggle Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0 = 1).
Figure 20-3. Output Compare Modulator, Timing Diagram
clk I/O
OC1C
(FPWM Mode)
OC0A
(CTC Mode)
PB7
(PORTB7 = 0)
PB7
(PORTB7 = 1)
(Period)
1
2
3
In this example Timer/Counter2 provides the carrier while the modulating signal is
generated by the Output Compare unit C of the Timer/Counter1.
The resolution of the PWM signal (OC1C) is reduced by the modulation. The reduction
factor is equal to the number of system clock cycles of one period of the carrier (OC0A).
In this example the resolution is reduced by a factor of two. The reason for the
reduction is illustrated in Figure 20-3 above at the second and third period of the PB7
output when PORTB7 equals zero. The period 2 high time is one cycle longer than the
period 3 high time, but the result on the PB7 output is equal in both periods.
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21 8-bit Timer/Counter2 with PWM and Asynchronous Operation
21.1 Features
Timer/Counter2 is a general purpose, single channel, 8-bit Timer/Counter module. The
main features are:
• Single channel counter
• Clear timer on compare match (auto reload)
• Glitch-free, phase-correct pulse-width modulator (PWM)
• Frequency generator
• 10 bit clock prescaler
• Overflow and compare match interrupt sources (TOV2, OCF2A and OCF2B)
• Able to run with external 32 kHz watch crystal independent of the I/O clock
21.2 Overview
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown on Figure 21-1 on page
313. For the current placement of I/O pins, see chapter "Pin Configurations" on page 2.
CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits and I/O pins, are shown in bold. The
device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in the "Register Description" on
page 327.
The Power Reduction Timer/Counter2 bit PRTIM2 in register PRR0 (see "PRR0 –
Power Reduction Register0" on page 171) must be written to zero to enable
Timer/Counter2 module.
Note: OC2B is implemented but not routed to a pin and for this reason it can’t be used.
21.2.1 Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT2) and Output Compare Register (OCR2A and OCR2B) are 8
bit registers. Interrupt request (abbreviated to Int.Req.) signals are all visible in the
Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFR2). All interrupts are individually masked with the
Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK2). TIFR2 and TIMSK2 are not shown in the
figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, asynchronously clocked
from the TOSC1/2 pins or alternatively from the Automated Meter Reading (AMR) pin
as detailed later in this section. The asynchronous operation is controlled by the
Asynchronous Status Register (ASSR). The Clock Select logic block controls which
clock source the Timer/Counter uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The
Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source is selected. The output from the Clock
Select logic is referred to as the timer clock (clkT2).
The double buffered Output Compare Register (OCR2A and OCR2B) are compared
with the Timer/Counter value at all times. The result of the compare can be used by the
Waveform Generator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output
Compare pins (OC2A and OC2B). See chapter "Output Compare Unit" on page 319 for
details. The compare match event will also set the Compare Flag (OCF2A or OCF2B)
which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
21.2.2 Definitions
Many register and bit references in this document are written in general form. A lower
case “n” replaces the Timer/Counter number, in this case 2. However, when using the
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register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e., TCNT2 for
accessing Timer/Counter2 counter value and so on.
Figure 21-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
The definitions in Table Table 21-1 below are also used extensively throughout the
section.
Table 21-1. Definitions
BOTTOM
The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes zero (0x00).
MAX
The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the
count sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF (MAX)
or the value stored in the OCR2A Register. The assignment is dependent on the
mode of operation.
21.3 Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal synchronous or an external
asynchronous clock source. The clock source clkT2 is by default equal to the MCU
clock, clkI/O. When the AS2 bit in the ASSR Register is written to logic one, the clock
source is either taken from the Timer/Counter Oscillator connected to TOSC1 and
TOSC2 or from the AMR pin. For details on asynchronous operation, see section
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"Asynchronous Operation of Timer/Counter2" on page 323. For details on clock sources
and prescaler, see section "Timer/Counter Prescaler" on page 326.
21.4 Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter
unit. Figure 21-2 below shows a block diagram of the counter and its surrounding
environment.
Figure 21-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
Signal description (internal signals):
count
Increment or decrement TCNT2 by 1.
direction
Selects between increment and decrement.
clear
Clear TCNT2 (set all bits to zero).
clkTn
Timer/Counter clock, referred to as clkT2 in the following.
top
Signalizes that TCNT2 has reached maximum value.
bottom
Signalizes that TCNT2 has reached minimum value (zero).
Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or
decremented at each timer clock (clkT2). clkT2 can be generated from an external or
internal clock source, selected by the Clock Select bits (CS22:0). When no clock source
is selected (CS22:0 = 0) the timer is stopped. However, the TCNT2 value can be
accessed by the CPU, regardless of whether clkT2 is present or not. A CPU write
overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM21 and WGM20 bits
located in the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR2A) and the WGM22 located in the
Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCR2B). There are close connections between
how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output
Compare outputs OC2A and OC2B. For more details about advanced counting
sequences and waveform generation, see chapter "Modes of Operation" below.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set according to the mode of operation
selected by the WGM22:0 bits. TOV2 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
21.5 Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, i.e., the behaviour of the Timer/Counter and the Output
Compare pins, is defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode
(WGM22:0) and Compare Output mode (COM2x1:0) bits. The Compare Output mode
bits do not affect the counting sequence, while the Waveform Generation mode bits do.
The COM2x1:0 bits control whether the PWM output generated should be inverted or
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not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For non-PWM modes the COM2x1:0 bits control
whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled at a compare match (see chapter
"Compare Match Output Unit" on page 320).
For detailed timing information refer to chapter "Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams" on
page 322.
The following table shows the function of the WGM22:0 bits of registers TCCR2A and
TCCR2B. These bits control the counting sequence of the counter, the source for
maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of waveform generation to be used.
Table 21-2. Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description
Mode
WGM2
WGM1
WGM0
Timer/Counter
Mode of
Operation
0
0
0
0
Normal
0xFF
Immediate
MAX
1
0
0
1
PWM, Phase
Correct
0xFF
TOP
BOTTOM
2
0
1
0
CTC
OCRA
Immediate
MAX
3
0
1
1
Fast PWM
0xFF
TOP
MAX
4
1
0
0
Reserved
–
–
–
5
1
0
1
PWM, Phase
Correct
OCRA
TOP
BOTTOM
6
1
1
0
Reserved
–
–
–
7
1
1
1
Fast PWM
OCRA
BOTTOM
TOP
Notes:
TOP
Update of
OCRX at
TOV Flag
(1,2)
Set on
1. MAX = 0xFF
2. BOTTOM = 0x00
21.5.1 Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM22:0 = 0). In this mode the
counting direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The
counter simply overruns when it passes its maximum 8 bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then
restarts from the bottom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag
(TOV2) will be set in the same timer clock cycle as the TCNT2 becomes zero. The
TOV2 Flag in this case behaves like a ninth bit, except that it is only set, not cleared.
However combined with the timer overflow interrupt that automatically clears the TOV2
Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software. There are no special cases to
consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written anytime.
The Output Compare unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using
the Output Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended,
since this will occupy too much of the CPU time.
21.5.2 Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM22:0 = 2), the OCR2A Register is used
to manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when
the counter value (TCNT2) matches the OCR2A. The OCR2A defines the top value for
the counter, hence also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the compare
match output frequency. It also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Table 20-3. The counter value
(TCNT2) increases until a compare match occurs between TCNT2 and OCR2A, and
then counter (TCNT2) is cleared.
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Figure 21-3. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCn
(Toggle)
Period
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
1
2
3
4
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by
using the OCF2A Flag. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be
used for updating the TOP value. However, changing TOP to a value close to BOTTOM
when the counter is running with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care
since the CTC mode does not have the double buffering feature. If the new value
written to OCR2A is lower than the current value of TCNT2, the counter will miss the
compare match. The counter will then have to count to its maximum value (0xFF) and
wrap around starting at 0x00 before the compare match can occur.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC2A output can be set to toggle
its logical level on each compare match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to
toggle mode (COM2A1:0 = 1). The OC2A value will not be visible on the port pin unless
the data direction for the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have a
maximum frequency of fOC2A = fclkI/O/2 when OCR2A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform
frequency is defined by the following equation
f OCnx =
f clkI / O
2 ⋅ N ⋅ (1 + OCRnx)
The N variable represents the pre-scale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV2 Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle
that the counter counts from MAX to 0x00.
21.5.3 Fast PWM Mode
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. If
the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the
compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the
OC2x pin. Setting the COM2x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an
inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COM2x1:0 to three. TOP is
defined as 0xFF when WGM22:0 = 3, and OCR2A when WGM22:0 = 7 (see section
"Register Description" on page 327 for register TCCR2A). The actual OC2x value will
only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The
PWM waveform is generated by setting (or clearing) the OC2x Register at the compare
match between OCR2x and TCNT2, and clearing (or setting) the OC2x Register at the
timer clock cycle the counter is cleared (changes from TOP to BOTTOM).
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Figure 21-4. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCRnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
f OCnxPWM =
f clkI / O
N ⋅ 256
The N variable represents the pre-scale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR2A Register represent special cases when generating
a PWM waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCR2A is set equal to BOTTOM,
the output will be a narrow spike for each MAX+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR2A
equal to MAX will result in a constantly high or low output (depending on the polarity of
the output set by the COM2A1:0 bits.)
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved
by setting OC2x to toggle its logical level on each compare match (COM2x1:0 = 1). The
waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC2A = fclkI/O/2 when OCR2A is
set to zero. This feature is similar to the OC2A toggle in CTC mode, except the double
buffer feature of the Output Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
21.5.4 Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM22:0 = 1 or 5) provides a high resolution phase
correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a
dual-slope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to TOP and then
from TOP to BOTTOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM22:0 = 1, and OCR2A when
WGM22:0 = 5. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC2x) is
cleared on the compare match between TCNT2 and OCR2x while up-counting, and set
on the compare match while down-counting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the
operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation
frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the
dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications.
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches
TOP. When the counter reaches TOP, it changes the count direction. The TCNT2 value
will be equal to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct
PWM mode is shown on Figure 21-5 on page 318. The TCNT2 value is in the timing
diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram
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includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on
the TCNT2 slopes represent compare matches between OCR2x and TCNT2.
Figure 21-5. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
OCRnx Update
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
TCNTn
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
Period
1
2
3
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV2) is set each time the counter reaches
BOTTOM. The Interrupt Flag can be used to generate an interrupt each time the
counter reaches the BOTTOM value.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms
on the OC2x pin. Setting the COM2x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM.
An inverted PWM output can be generated by setting the COM2x1:0 to three. TOP is
defined as 0xFF when WGM22:0 = 3, and OCR2A when WGM22:0 = 7 (see section
"Register Description" on page 327 for register TCCR2A). The actual OC2x value will
only be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The
PWM waveform is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC2x Register at the compare
match between OCR2x and TCNT2 when the counter increments, and setting (or
clearing) the OC2x Register at compare match between OCR2x and TCNT2 when the
counter decrements. The PWM frequency for the output when using phase correct
PWM can be calculated by the following equation:
f OCnxPCPWM =
f clk _ I / O
N ⋅ 510
The N variable represents the pre-scale factor (1, 8, 32, 64, 128, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR2A Register represent special cases when generating
a PWM waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR2A is set equal to
BOTTOM, the output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the output will be
continuously high for non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have
the opposite logic values.
At the very start of period 2 in Figure 21-5 above OCnx has a transition from high to low
even though there is no Compare Match. The point of this transition is to guarantee
symmetry around BOTTOM. There are two cases that give a transition without
Compare Match.
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• OCR2A changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 21-5 on page 318. When the
OCR2A value is MAX the OCn pin value is the same as the result of a downcounting compare match. To ensure symmetry around BOTTOM the OCn value at
MAX must correspond to the result of an up-counting Compare Match.
• The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR2A, and for that
reason misses the Compare Match and hence the OCn change that would have
happened on the way up.
21.6 Output Compare Unit
The 8 bit comparator continuously compares TCNT2 with the Output Compare Register
(OCR2A and OCR2B). Whenever TCNT2 equals OCR2A or OCR2B, the comparator
signals a match. A match will set the Output Compare Flag (OCF2A or OCF2B) at the
next timer clock cycle. If the corresponding interrupt is enabled, the Output Compare
Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The Output Compare Flag is
automatically cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively, the Output Compare
Flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The
Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to
operating mode set by the WGM22:0 bits and Compare Output mode (COM2x1:0) bits.
The max and bottom signals are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the
special cases of the extreme values in some modes of operation (chapter "Modes of
Operation" on page 314).
Figure 21-6 below shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit.
Figure 21-6. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
DATA BUS
OCRn
TCNTn
= (8-bit Comparator )
OCFn (Int.Req.)
top
bottom
Waveform Generator
OCxy
FOCn
WGMn1:0
COMn1:0
The OCR2x Register is double buffered when using any of the Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) modes. For the Normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of
operation, the double buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the
update of the OCR2x Compare Register to either top or bottom of the counting
sequence. The synchronization prevents the occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical
PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
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The OCR2x Register access may seem complex, but this is not the case. When the
double buffering is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCR2x Buffer Register, and if
double buffering is disabled the CPU will access the OCR2x directly.
21.6.1 Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be
forced by writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOC2x) bit. Forcing compare
match will not set the OCF2x Flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC2x pin will be
updated as if a real compare match had occurred (the COM2x1:0 bits settings define
whether the OC2x pin is set, cleared or toggled).
21.6.2 Compare Match Blocking by TCNT2 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT2 Register will block any compare match that
occurs in the next timer clock cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows
OCR2x to be initialized to the same value as TCNT2 without triggering an interrupt
when the Timer/Counter clock is enabled.
21.6.3 Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT2 in any mode of operation will block all compare matches for one
timer clock cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNT2 when using the
Output Compare channel, independently of whether the Timer/Counter is running or
not. If the value written to TCNT2 equals the OCR2x value, the compare match will be
missed, resulting in incorrect waveform generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT2
value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is down-counting.
The setup of the OC2x should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register
for the port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OC2x value is to use the Force
Output Compare (FOC2x) strobe bit in Normal mode. The OC2x Register keeps its
value even when changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COM2x1:0 bits are not double buffered together with the compare
value. A change of the COM2x1:0 bits will take effect immediately.
21.7 Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM2x1:0) bits have two functions. The Waveform
Generator uses the COM2x1:0 bits for defining the Output Compare (OC2x) state at the
next compare match. Also, the COM2x1:0 bits control the OC2x pin output source.
Figure 20-7 shows a simplified schematic of the logic affected by the COM2x1:0 bit
setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits, and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only
the parts of the general I/O Port Control Registers (DDR and PORT) that are affected
by the COM2x1:0 bits are shown. When referring to the OC2x state, the reference is for
the internal OC2x Register, not the OC2x pin.
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC2x) from the
Waveform Generator if either of the COM2x1:0 bits are set. However, the OC2x pin
direction (input or output) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the
port pin. The Data Direction Register bit for the OC2x pin (DDR_OC2x) must be set as
output before the OC2x value is visible on the pin. The port override function is
independent of the Waveform Generation mode.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC2x state
before the output is enabled. Note that some COM2x1:0 bit settings are reserved for
certain modes of operation. See section "Register Description" on page 327 for details.
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Figure 21-7. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
COMnx1
COMnx0
FOCn
Waveform
Generator
D
Q
1
OCnx
DATA BUS
D
0
OCnx
Pin
Q
PORT
D
Q
DDR
clk I/O
21.7.1 Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM2x1:0 bits differently in normal, CTC, and PWM
modes. Setting the COM2x1:0 = 0 for all modes tells the Waveform Generator that no
action on the OC2x Register is to be performed on the next compare match. For
compare output actions in the non-PWM modes for fast PWM mode and for phase
correct PWM refer to section "Register Description" on page 327 for register TCCR2A.
A change of the COM2x1:0 bits state will have effect at the first compare match after
the bits are written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate
effect by using the FOC2x strobe bits.
The following table shows the COM2x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM02:0 bits are
set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 21-3. Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM2x1
COM2x0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2x disconnected;
Description
0
1
Toggle OC2x on Compare Match;
1
0
Clear OC2x on Compare Match;
1
1
Set OC2x on Compare Match;
Table 17-3 shows the COM2x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM21:0 bits are set to fast
PWM mode.
Table 21-4. Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode
COM2x1
COM2x0
Description
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2x disconnected.
0
1
WGM22 = 0: Normal Port Operation, OC2A Disconnected.
WGM22 = 1: Toggle OC2A on Compare Match.
OC2B: not applicable, reserved function;
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COM2x1
COM2x0
1
0
Clear OC2x on Compare Match, set OC2x at BOTTOM, (noninverting mode).
1
1
Set OC2x on Compare Match, clear OC2x at BOTTOM, (inverting
mode).
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR2x equals TOP and COM2x1 is set. In this case,
the Compare Match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at BOTTOM. See "Fast
PWM Mode" on page 316.
Table 17-4 shows the COM2x1:0 bit functionality when the WGM22:0 bits are set to
phase correct PWM mode.
Table 21-5. Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode
COM2x1
COM2x0
0
0
Normal port operation, OC2x disconnected.
0
1
WGM22 = 0: Normal Port Operation, OC2A Disconnected.
WGM22 = 1: Toggle OC2A on Compare Match.
OC2B: not applicable, reserved function;
1
0
Clear OC2x on Compare Match when up-counting. Set OC2x on
Compare Match when down-counting.
1
1
Set OC2x on Compare Match when up-counting. Clear OC2x on
Compare Match when down-counting.
Note:
Description
1. A special case occurs when OCR2x equals TOP and COM2x1 is set. In this case,
the Compare Match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See "Phase
Correct PWM Mode" on page 317 for more details.
21.8 Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The following figures show the Timer/Counter in synchronous mode, and the timer clock
(clkT2) is therefore shown as a clock enable signal. In asynchronous mode, clkI/O should
be replaced by the Timer/Counter Oscillator clock. The figures include information on
when Interrupt Flags are set. Figure 21-8 below contains timing data for basic
Timer/Counter operation. The figure shows the count sequence close to the MAX value
in all modes other than phase correct PWM mode.
Figure 21-8. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /1)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
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Figure 21-9 below shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
Figure 21-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclkI/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
MAX - 1
MAX
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOVn
Figure 21-10 below shows the setting of OCF2A in all modes except CTC mode.
Figure 21-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF2A, with Prescaler
(fclkI/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
OCRnx - 1
OCRnx
OCRnx + 1
OCRnx + 2
OCRnx Value
OCRnx
OCFnx
Figure 21-11 below shows the setting of OCF2A and the clearing of TCNT2 in CTC
mode.
Figure 21-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode,
with Prescaler (fclkI/O/8)
clkI/O
clkTn
(clkI/O /8)
TCNTn
(CTC)
TOP - 1
OCRnx
TOP
BOTTOM
BOTTOM + 1
TOP
OCFnx
21.9 Asynchronous Operation of Timer/Counter2
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously, some considerations must be taken.
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• Warning: When switching between asynchronous and synchronous clocking of
Timer/Counter2, the Timer Registers TCNT2, OCR2x, and TCCR2x might be
corrupted. A safe procedure for switching clock source is:
1. Disable the Timer/Counter2 interrupts by clearing OCIE2x and TOIE2.
2. Select clock source by setting AS2 as appropriate.
3. Write new values to TCNT2, OCR2x, and TCCR2x.
4. To switch to asynchronous operation: Wait for TCN2UB, OCR2xUB, and TCR2xUB.
5. Clear the Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flags.
6. Enable interrupts, if needed.
• The CPU main clock frequency must be more than four times the Oscillator
frequency.
• When writing to one of the registers TCNT2, OCR2x, or TCCR2x, the value is
transferred to a temporary register, and latched after two positive edges on TOSC1.
The user should not write a new value before the contents of the temporary register
have been transferred to its destination. Each of the five mentioned registers have
their individual temporary register, which means that e.g. writing to TCNT2 does not
disturb an OCR2x write in progress. To detect that a transfer to the destination
register has taken place, the Asynchronous Status Register – ASSR has been
implemented.
• When entering Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode after having written to
TCNT2, OCR2x, or TCCR2x, the user must wait until the written register has been
updated if Timer/Counter2 is used to wake up the device. Otherwise, the MCU will
enter sleep mode before the changes are effective. This is particularly important if
any of the Output Compare2 interrupt is used to wake up the device, since the
Output Compare function is disabled during writing to OCR2x or TCNT2. If the write
cycle is not finished, and the MCU enters sleep mode before the corresponding
OCR2xUB bit returns to zero, the device will never receive a compare match
interrupt, and the MCU will not wake up.
• If Timer/Counter2 is used to wake the device up from Power-save or ADC Noise
Reduction mode, precautions must be taken if the user wants to re-enter one of
these modes: The interrupt logic needs one TOSC1 cycle to be reset. If the time
between wake-up and re-entering sleep mode is less than one TOSC1 cycle, the
interrupt will not occur, and the device will fail to wake up. If the user is in doubt
whether the time before re-entering Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode is
sufficient, the following algorithm can be used to ensure that one TOSC1 cycle has
elapsed:
1. Write a value to TCCR2x, TCNT2, or OCR2x.
2. Wait until the corresponding Update Busy Flag in ASSR returns to zero. .
3. Enter Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode.
C Code Example (Fragment)
(1)
ISR( TIMER2_OVF_vect ) {…} // TC2 overflow IRQ service routine
int main(void){
…
ASSR
= 1<<AS2;
// turn on 32kHz crystal oscillator
TIMSK2 = 1<<TOIE2;
// enable TC2 overflow interrupt
TCCR2B = 0x05;
// divide clock by 128 (1s interrupts)
do
{} while(ASSR & (1<<TCR2BUB));
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// check if busy
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C Code Example (Fragment)
(1)
…
do {
// main loop
…
TRXPR = 1 << SLPTR;
// disable transceiver
set_sleep_mode(SLEEP_MODE_PWR_SAVE);
TCNT2 = 0;
// reset counter
do
// check if busy before sleeping
{} while(ASSR & (1<<TCN2UB));
sleep_enable();
sleep_cpu();
// go to deep-sleep (power-
save)
sleep_disable();
// executed after wakeup
…
}
…
}
Notes:
1. See section "About Code Examples" on page 8.
• When the asynchronous operation is selected, the 32.768 kHz Oscillator for
Timer/Counter2 is always running, except in Power-down and Standby modes. After
a Power-up Reset or wake-up from Power-down or Standby mode, the user should
be aware of the fact that this Oscillator might take as long as one second to stabilize.
The user is advised to wait for at least one second before using Timer/Counter2
after power-up or wake-up from Power-down or Standby mode. The contents of all
Timer/Counter2 Registers must be considered lost after a wake-up from Powerdown or Standby mode due to unstable clock signal upon start-up, no matter
whether the Oscillator is in use or a clock signal is applied to the TOSC1 pin.
• Description of wake up from Power-save or ADC Noise Reduction mode when the
timer is clocked asynchronously: When the interrupt condition is met, the wake up
process is started on the following cycle of the timer clock, that is, the timer is always
advanced by at least one before the processor can read the counter value. After
wake-up, the MCU is halted for four cycles, it executes the interrupt routine, and
resumes execution from the instruction following SLEEP.
• Reading of the TCNT2 Register shortly after wake-up from Power-save may give an
incorrect result. Since TCNT2 is clocked on the asynchronous TOSC clock, reading
TCNT2 must be done through a register synchronized to the internal I/O clock
domain. Synchronization takes place for every rising TOSC1 edge. When waking up
from Power-save mode, and the I/O clock (clkI/O) again becomes active, TCNT2 will
read as the previous value (before entering sleep) until the next rising TOSC1 edge.
The phase of the TOSC clock after waking up from Power-save mode is essentially
unpredictable, as it depends on the wake-up time. The recommended procedure for
reading TCNT2 is thus as follows:
1. Write any value to either of the registers OCR2x or TCCR2x.
2. Wait for the corresponding Update Busy Flag to be cleared.
3. Read TCNT2.
• During asynchronous operation, the synchronization of the Interrupt Flags for the
asynchronous timer takes 3 processor cycles plus one timer cycle. The timer is
therefore advanced by at least one before the processor can read the timer value
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causing the setting of the Interrupt Flag. The Output Compare pin is changed on the
timer clock and is not synchronized to the processor clock.
• If the CPU wakes up from asynchronous timer and goes back to sleep again, it may
wakeup multiple times or the IRQ is called multiple times. This may be avoided if the
CPU waits with the next sleep instruction until the next asynchronous clock arrives.
21.10 Timer/Counter Prescaler
Figure 21-12. Prescaler for Timer/Counter2
The register ASSR defines the clock source for the asynchronous Timer/Counter2. The
clock source for Timer/Counter2 is named clkT2S. clkT2S is by default connected to the
main system I/O clock clkI/O. By setting the AS2 bit in ASSR, Timer/Counter2 is
asynchronously clocked either from the TOSC1 or from the AMR pin. This enables the
use of Timer/Counter2 as a Real Time Counter (RTC).
The TOSC1 pin is selected by setting the EXCLKAMR bit in the ASSR register to logic
zero. Under this condition TOSC1 and TOSC2 are disconnected from Port G and a
crystal can then be connected between the TOSC1 and TOSC2 pins to serve as an
independent clock source for Timer/Counter2. The Oscillator is optimized for use with a
32.768 kHz crystal. By setting the EXCLK bit in the ASSR, a 32 kHz external clock can
be applied on TOSC1.
Setting the EXCLKAMR bit to logic one selects the AMR pin as the Timer/Counter2
clock source. Thus the 32 kHz oscillator can be used by the MAC symbol counter while
the Timer/Counter2 uses pin AMR as clock source, see "MAC Symbol Counter" on
page 136.
A complete overview of the implemented asynchronous clock sources can be found in
Table 21-6 on page 327. The last column mentions which pins are available for GPIO
functionality. For details about the ASSR register refer to section "Register Description"
on page 327.
For Timer/Counter2, the possible pre-scaled selections are: clkT2S/8, clkT2S/32, clkT2S
/64, clkT2S/128, clkT2S/256, and clkT2S/1024. Additionally, clkT2S as well as 0 (stop) may
be selected. Setting the PSRASY bit in GTCCR resets the prescaler. This allows the
user to operate with a predictable prescaler.
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Table 21-6. Asynchronous clock selection for Timer/Counter2 and Symbol-Counter
AS2
EXCLK
EXCLKAMR
Timer/Counter2
clock source
32 kHz crystal Osc.
(TOSC1/TOSC2)
PG2, PG3, PG4
as GPIOs
0
0
0
clkI/O
off
PG2, PG3, PG4
0
1
0
not defined
not defined
not defined
1
0
0
32 kHz crystal Osc
on
PG2
1
1
0
TOSC1 (PG4)
off
PG2, PG3
0
0
1
clkI/O
off
PG2, PG3, PG4
0
1
1
not defined
not defined
not defined
1
0
1
AMR (PG2)
on
1
1
1
AMR (PG2)
off
PG3, PG4
21.11 Register Description
21.11.1 TIMSK2 – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask register
Bit
NA ($70)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
OCIE2B
OCIE2A
TOIE2
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIMSK2
• Bit 7:3 – Res4:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 2 – OCIE2B - Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Match B Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE2B bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one),
the Timer/Counter2 Compare Match B interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt
is executed if a compare match in Timer/Counter2 occurs, i.e., when the OCF2B bit is
set in the Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register TIFR2.
• Bit 1 – OCIE2A - Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE2A bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one),
the Timer/Counter2 Compare Match A interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt
is executed if a compare match in Timer/Counter2 occurs, i.e., when the OCF2A bit is
set in the Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register TIFR2.
• Bit 0 – TOIE2 - Timer/Counter2 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE2 bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one), the
Timer/Counter2 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed
if an overflow in Timer/Counter2 occurs i.e., when the TOV2 bit is set in the
Timer/Counter2 Interrupt Flag Register TIFR2.
21.11.2 TIFR2 – Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
$17 ($37)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
OCF2B
OCF2A
TOV2
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TIFR2
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• Bit 7:3 – Res4:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 2 – OCF2B - Output Compare Flag 2 B
The OCF2B bit is set (one) when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter2
and the data in OCR2B Output Compare Register2. OCF2B is cleared by hardware
when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF2B is
cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE2B
(Timer/Counter2 Compare Match Interrupt Enable), and OCF2B are set (one), the
Timer/Counter2 Compare Match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 1 – OCF2A - Output Compare Flag 2 A
The OCF2A bit is set (one) when a compare match occurs between the Timer/Counter2
and the data in OCR2A Output Compare Register2. OCF2A is cleared by hardware
when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF2A is
cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE2A
(Timer/Counter2 Compare Match Interrupt Enable), and OCF2A are set (one), the
Timer/Counter2 Compare Match Interrupt is executed.
• Bit 0 – TOV2 - Timer/Counter2 Overflow Flag
The TOV2 bit is set (one) when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter2. TOV2 is cleared
by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively,
TOV2 is cleared by writing a logic one to the flag. When the SREG I-bit, TOIE2A
(Timer/Counter2 Overflow Interrupt Enable), and TOV2 are set (one), the
Timer/Counter2 Overflow interrupt is executed. In PWM mode, this bit is set when
Timer/Counter2 changes counting direction at 0x00.
21.11.3 TCCR2A – Timer/Counter2 Control Register A
Bit
NA ($B0)
7
6
5
4
COM2A1 COM2A0 COM2B1 COM2B0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
3
2
1
0
Res1
Res0
WGM21
WGM20
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCCR2A
• Bit 7:6 – COM2A1:0 - Compare Match Output A Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC2A) behavior. If one or both of the
COM2A1:0 bits are set, the OC2A output overrides the normal port functionality of the
I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit
corresponding to the OC2A pin must be set in order to enable the output driver. When
OC2A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM2A1:0 bits depends on the
WGM22:20 bit settings. The following table shows the COM2A1:0 bit functionality when
the WGM22:20 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM). Refer to section
"Compare Match Output Unit" for a description of the functionality in the other modes.
Table 21-7 COM2A Register Bits
Register Bits
COM2A1:0
328
Value
Description
0
Normal port operation, OC2A disconnected
1
Toggle OC2A on Compare Match
2
Clear OC2A on Compare Match
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Register Bits
Value
Description
3
Set OC2A on Compare Match
• Bit 5:4 – COM2B1:0 - Compare Match Output B Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC2B) behavior. If one or both of the
COM2B1:0 bits are set, the OC2B output overrides the normal port functionality of the
I/O pin it is connected to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit
corresponding to the OC2B pin must be set in order to enable the output driver. When
OC2B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM2B1:0 bits depends on the
WGM22:20 bit settings. The following table shows the COM2B1:0 bit functionality when
the WGM22:20 bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM). Refer to section
"Compare Match Output Unit" for a description of the functionality in the other modes.
Table 21-8 COM2B Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
COM2B1:0
Description
0
Normal port operation, OC2B disconnected
1
Toggle OC2B on Compare Match
2
Clear OC2B on Compare Match
3
Set OC2B on Compare Match
• Bit 3:2 – Res1:0 - Reserved
• Bit 1:0 – WGM21:20 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM22 bit found in the TCCR2B Register, these bits control the
counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and
what type of waveform generation to be used. Modes of operation supported by the
Timer/Counter2 unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare Match
(CTC) mode, and two types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes (see section
"Modes of Operation" for details).
Table 21-9 WGM2 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
WGM22:20
Description
0x0
Normal mode of operation
0x1
PWM, phase correct, TOP=0xFF
0x2
CTC, TOP = OCRA
0x3
Fast PWM, TOP=0xFF
0x4
Reserved
0x5
PWM, Phase correct, TOP = OCRA
0x6
Reserved
0x7
Fast PWM, TOP=OCRA
21.11.4 TCCR2B – Timer/Counter2 Control Register B
Bit
NA ($B1)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FOC2A
FOC2B
Res1
Res0
WGM22
CS22
CS21
CS20
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCCR2B
• Bit 7 – FOC2A - Force Output Compare A
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The FOC2A bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode. However,
for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR2B
is written in PWM mode operation. When writing a logical one to the FOC2A bit, an
immediate Compare Match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit. The OC2A
output is changed according to its COM2A1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC2A bit is
implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM2A1:0 bits that
determines the effect of the forced compare. A FOC2A strobe will not generate any
interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR2A as TOP. The FOC2A bit
is always read as zero.
• Bit 6 – FOC2B - Force Output Compare B
The FOC2B bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode. However,
for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when TCCR2B
is written in PWM mode operation. When writing a logical one to the FOC2B bit, an
immediate Compare Match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit. The OC2B
output is changed according to its COM2B1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC2B bit is
implemented as a strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM2B1:0 bits that
determines the effect of the forced compare. A FOC2B strobe will not generate any
interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using OCR2B as TOP. The FOC2B bit
is always read as zero.
• Bit 5:4 – Res1:0 - Reserved
• Bit 3 – WGM22 - Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM21:20 bits found in the TCCR2A Register, this bit controls the
counting sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and
what type of waveform generation to be used. See description of "TCCR2A Timer/Counter2 Control Register A" for details.
• Bit 2:0 – CS22:20 - Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter2. If
external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter2, transitions on the T2 pin will clock
the counter even if the pin is configured as an output. This feature allows software
control of the counting.
Table 21-10 CS2 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
CS22:20
0x00
No clock source (Timer/Counter2 stopped)
0x01
clkT2S/1 (no prescaling)
0x02
clkT2S/8 (from prescaler)
0x03
clkT2S/32 (from prescaler)
0x04
clkT2S/64 (from prescaler)
0x05
clkT2S/128 (from prescaler)
0x06
clkT2S/256 (from prescaler)
0x07
clkT2S/1024 (from prescaler)
21.11.5 TCNT2 – Timer/Counter2
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($B2)
Read/Write
Initial Value
330
4
3
2
1
0
TCNT27:20
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TCNT2
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to
the 8-bit counter unit of the Timer/Counter2. Writing to the TCNT2 Register blocks
(removes) the Compare Match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter
(TCNT2) while the counter is running, introduces a risk of missing a Compare Match
between TCNT2 and the OCR2x Registers.
• Bit 7:0 – TCNT27:20 - Timer/Counter2 Byte
21.11.6 OCR2A – Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Register A
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($B3)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR2A7:0
OCR2A
RW
0
The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT2). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC2A pin.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR2A7:0 - Output Compare Register
21.11.7 OCR2B – Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Register B
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($B4)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
OCR2B7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCR2B
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The Output Compare Register B contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared
with the counter value (TCNT2). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt, or to generate a waveform output on the OC2B pin.
• Bit 7:0 – OCR2B7:0 - Output Compare Register
21.11.8 ASSR – Asynchronous Status Register
Bit
NA ($B6)
Read/Write
Initial
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
EXCLKAMR EXCLK AS2 TCN2UB OCR2AUB OCR2BUB TCR2AUB TCR2BUB ASSR
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
The register ASSR controls the asynchronous clocks for Timer/Counter2 and enables
the asynchronous 32kHz clock for the symbol counter. Three bits
(AS2,EXCLK,EXCLKAMR) are used to control the clocks. Note, to prevent clock spikes
on asynchronous clock wires, every access to ASSR should change only one of the
three bits.
• Bit 7 – EXCLKAMR - Enable External Clock Input for AMR
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The bit EXCLKAMR extends the available clock sources for Timer/Counter2. If this bit is
written to one, and asynchronous clock is selected (bit AS2 set), AMR functionality is
enabled and Timer/Counter2 is clocked by pin AMR.
• Bit 6 – EXCLK - Enable External Clock Input
When EXCLK is written to one, and asynchronous clock is selected, the external clock
input buffer is enabled and an external clock can be input on Timer Oscillator 1
(TOSC1) pin instead of a 32 kHz crystal. Writing to EXCLK should be done before
asynchronous operation is selected. Note that the crystal Oscillator will only run when
this bit is zero.
• Bit 5 – AS2 - Timer/Counter2 Asynchronous Mode
When AS2 is written to zero, Timer/Counter2 is clocked from the I/O clock, clkI/O.
When AS2 is written to one, Timer/Counter2 is clocked from a crystal Oscillator
connected to the Timer Oscillator 1 (TOSC1) pin. When the value of AS2 is changed,
the contents of TCNT2, OCR2A, OCR2B, TCCR2A and TCCR2B might be corrupted.
• Bit 4 – TCN2UB - Timer/Counter2 Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCNT2 is written, this bit becomes
set. When TCNT2 has been updated from the temporary storage register, this bit is
cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that TCNT2 is ready to be
updated with a new value.
• Bit 3 – OCR2AUB - Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Register A Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and OCR2A is written, this bit
becomes set. When OCR2A has been updated from the temporary storage register,
this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that OCR2A is ready to
be updated with a new value.
• Bit 2 – OCR2BUB - Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Register B Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and OCR2B is written, this bit
becomes set. When OCR2B has been updated from the temporary storage register,
this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that OCR2B is ready to
be updated with a new value.
• Bit 1 – TCR2AUB - Timer/Counter2 Control Register A Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCCR2A is written, this bit
becomes set. When TCCR2A has been updated from the temporary storage register,
this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that TCCR2A is ready
to be updated with a new value.
• Bit 0 – TCR2BUB - Timer/Counter2 Control Register B Update Busy
When Timer/Counter2 operates asynchronously and TCCR2B is written, this bit
becomes set. When TCCR2B has been updated from the temporary storage register,
this bit is cleared by hardware. A logical zero in this bit indicates that TCCR2B is ready
to be updated with a new value.
21.11.9 GTCCR – General Timer Counter Control register
Bit
332
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$23 ($43)
TSM
PSRASY
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
GTCCR
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
• Bit 7 – TSM - Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode
Writing the TSM bit to one activates the Timer/Counter Synchronization mode. In this
mode the value that is written to the PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits is kept, hence
keeping the corresponding prescaler reset signals asserted. This ensures that the
corresponding Timer/Counters are halted and can be configured to the same value
without the risk of one of them advancing during the configuration. When the TSM bit is
written to zero, the PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits are cleared by hardware and the
Timer/Counters simultaneously start counting.
• Bit 1 – PSRASY - Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter2
When this bit is one, the Timer/Counter2 prescaler will be reset. This bit is normally
cleared immediately by hardware. If the bit is written when Timer/Counter2 is operating
in asynchronous mode, the bit will remain one until the prescaler has been reset. The
bit will not be cleared by hardware if the TSM bit is set.
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22 SPI- Serial Peripheral Interface
22.1 Features
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) allows high-speed synchronous data transfer
between the ATmega128RFA1 and peripheral devices or between several AVR
devices.
The ATmega128RFA1 SPI includes the following features:
• Full-duplex, Three-wire Synchronous Data Transfer
• Master or Slave Operation
• LSB First or MSB First Data Transfer
• Seven Programmable Bit Rates
• End of Transmission Interrupt Flag
• Write Collision Flag Protection
• Wake-up from Idle Mode
• Double Speed (CK/2) Master SPI Mode
22.2 Functional
Description
USART can also be used in Master SPI mode, see "USART in SPI Mode" on page 372.
The Power Reduction SPI bit, PRSPI, in "PRR0 – Power Reduction Register0" on page
171 must be written to zero to enable SPI module. The block diagram of the SPI
interface is shown in Figure 22-1 on page 335.
The interconnection between Master and Slave CPUs with SPI is shown in Figure 22-2
on page 335. The system consists of two shift Registers, and a Master clock generator.
__
The SPI Master initiates the communication cycle when pulling low the Slave Select SS
pin of the desired Slave. Master and Slave prepare the data to be sent in their
respective shift Registers, and the Master generates the required clock pulses on the
SCK line to interchange data. Data is always shifted from Master to Slave on the Master
Out – Slave In, MOSI, line, and from Slave to Master on the Master In – Slave Out,
MISO, line. After each__data packet, the Master will synchronize the Slave by pulling
high the Slave Select, SS, line.
__
When configured as a Master, the SPI interface has no automatic control of the SS line.
This must be handled by user software before communication can start. When this is
done, writing a byte to the SPI Data Register starts the SPI clock generator, and the
hardware shifts the eight bits into the Slave. After shifting one byte, the SPI clock
generator stops, setting the end of Transmission Flag (SPIF). If the SPI Interrupt Enable
bit (SPIE) in the SPCR Register is set, an interrupt is requested. The Master may
continue to shift the next byte__
by writing it into SPDR, or signal the end of packet by
pulling high the Slave Select, SS line. The last incoming byte will be kept in the Buffer
Register for later use.
When configured
__as a Slave, the SPI interface will remain sleeping with MISO tri-stated
as long as the SS pin is driven high. In this state, software may update the contents of
the SPI Data Register, SPDR, but the data will not be shifted out by incoming clock
pulses on the SCK pin until the SS pin is driven low. As one byte has been completely
shifted, the end of Transmission Flag, SPIF is set. If the SPI Interrupt Enable bit, SPIE,
in the SPCR Register is set, an interrupt is requested. The Slave may continue to place
new data to be sent into SPDR before reading the incoming data. The last incoming
byte will be kept in the Buffer Register for later use.
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ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
Figure 22-1. SPI Block Diagram
(1)
SPI2X
SPI2X
DIVIDER
/2/4/8/16/32/64/128
Note:
1. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2 and Table 14-3 on page 197 for SPI pin placement.
Figure 22-2. SPI Master-slave Interconnection
SHIFT
ENABLE
The system is single buffered in the transmit direction and double buffered in the
receive direction. This means that bytes to be transmitted cannot be written to the SPI
Data Register before the entire shift cycle is completed. When receiving data, however,
a received character must be read from the SPI Data Register before the next character
has been completely shifted in. Otherwise, the first byte is lost. In SPI Slave mode, the
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
control logic will sample the incoming signal of the SCK pin. To ensure correct sampling
of the clock signal, the minimum low and high periods should be:
Low period:
High period:
longer than 2 CPU clock cycles
longer than 2 CPU clock cycles
__
When the SPI is enabled, the data direction of the MOSI, MISO, SCK, and SS pins is
overridden according to Table 21-1. For more details on automatic port overrides, refer
to "Alternate Port Functions" on page 195.
Table 22-1. Pin Overrides
Pin
(1)
Direction, Master SPI
Direction, Slave SPI
MOSI
User Defined
Input
MISO
Input
User Defined
SCK
User Defined
Input
SS
User Defined
Input
Note:
1.
See "Alternate Functions of Port B" on page 196 for a detailed description of how
to define the direction of the user defined SPI pins.
The following code examples show how to initialize the SPI as a Master and how to
perform a simple transmission. DDR_SPI in the examples must be replaced by the
actual Data Direction Register controlling the SPI pins. DD_MOSI, DD_MISO and
DD_SCK must be replaced by the actual data direction bits for these pins. E.g. if MOSI
is placed on pin PB5, replace DD_MOSI with DDB5 and DDR_SPI with DDRB.
Assembly Code Example
(1)
SPI_MasterInit:
; Set MOSI and SCK output, all others input
ldi r17,(1<<DD_MOSI)|(1<<DD_SCK)
out DDR_SPI,r17
; Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/16
ldi r17,(1<<SPE)|(1<<MSTR)|(1<<SPR0)
out SPCR,r17
ret
SPI_MasterTransmit:
; Start transmission of data (r16)
out SPDR,r16
Wait_Transmit:
; Wait for transmission complete
sbis SPSR,SPIF
rjmp Wait_Transmit
ret
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ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
C Code Example
(1)
void SPI_MasterInit(void)
{
/* Set MOSI and SCK output, all others input */
DDR_SPI = (1<<DD_MOSI)|(1<<DD_SCK);
/* Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/16 */
SPCR = (1<<SPE)|(1<<MSTR)|(1<<SPR0);
}
void SPI_MasterTransmit(char cData)
{
/* Start transmission */
SPDR = cData;
/* Wait for transmission complete */
while(!(SPSR & (1<<SPIF)))
;
}
Note:
1.
See "About Code Examples" on page 8
Assembly Code Example(1)
SPI_SlaveInit:
; Set MISO output, all others input
ldi r17,(1<<DD_MISO)
out DDR_SPI,r17
; Enable SPI
ldi r17,(1<<SPE)
out SPCR,r17
ret
SPI_SlaveReceive:
; Wait for reception complete
sbis SPSR,SPIF
rjmp SPI_SlaveReceive
; Read received data and return
in r16,SPDR
ret
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
C Code Example(1)
void SPI_SlaveInit(void)
{
/* Set MISO output, all others input */
DDR_SPI = (1<<DD_MISO);
/* Enable SPI */
SPCR = (1<<SPE);
}
char SPI_SlaveReceive(void)
{
/* Wait for reception complete */
while(!(SPSR & (1<<SPIF)))
;
/* Return Data Register */
return SPDR;
}
Note:
1.
See "About Code Examples" on page 8;
__
22.3 Pin Functionality Slave Select Pin SS
22.3.1 Slave Mode
__
When
the SPI is configured as a Slave, the Slave Select (SS) pin is always input. When
__
SS is held low, the SPI is activated, and MISO
becomes an output if configured so by
__
the user. All other pins are inputs. When SS is driven high, all pins are inputs, and the
SPI is passive, which means
data. Note that the SPI
__that it will not receive incoming
__
logic will be reset once the SS pin is driven high. The SS pin is useful for packet/byte
synchronization to keep
__ the slave bit counter synchronous with the master clock
generator. When the SS pin is driven high, the SPI slave will immediately reset the send
and receive logic, and drop any partially received data in the Shift Register.
22.3.2 Master Mode
When the SPI is configured as
__ a Master
__ (MSTR in SPCR is set), the user can
determine the direction of the SS pin. If SS is configured as an output, the pin is a
general output
__ pin which does not affect
__ the SPI system. Typically, the pin will be
driving the SS pin of the SPI Slave. If SS
__ is configured as an input, it must be held high
to ensure Master SPI operation. If the SS pin
__is driven low by peripheral circuitry when
the SPI is configured as a Master with the SS pin defined as an input, the SPI system
interprets this as another master selecting the SPI as a slave and starting to send data
to it. To avoid bus contention, the SPI system takes the following actions:
1. The MSTR bit in SPCR is cleared and the SPI system becomes a Slave. As a result
of the SPI becoming a Slave, the MOSI and SCK pins become inputs.
2. The SPIF Flag in SPSR is set, and if the SPI interrupt is enabled, and the I-bit in
SREG is set, the interrupt routine will be executed.
Thus, when interrupt-driven
SPI transmission is used in Master mode, and there exists
__
a possibility that SS is driven low, the interrupt should always check that the MSTR bit
is still set. If the MSTR bit has been cleared by a slave select, it must be set by the user
to re-enable SPI Master Mode.
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ATmega128RFA1
22.3.3 Data Mode
There are four combinations of SCK phase and polarity with respect to serial data,
which are determined by control bits CPHA and CPOL. The SPI data transfer formats
are shown in Figure 22-3 below and Figure 22-4 below. Data bits are shifted out and
latched in on opposite edges of the SCK signal, ensuring sufficient time for data signals
to stabilize. This is clearly seen in the summary of Table 22-2 below:
Table 22-2. CPOL Functionality
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
SPI Mode
CPOL=0, CPHA=0
Sample (Rising)
Setup (Falling)
0
CPOL=0, CPHA=1
Setup (Rising)
Sample (Falling)
1
CPOL=1, CPHA=0
Sample (Falling)
Setup (Rising)
2
CPOL=1, CPHA=1
Setup (Falling)
Sample (Rising)
3
Figure 22-3. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 0
SCK (CPOL = 0)
mode 0
SCK (CPOL = 1)
mode 2
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0) MSB
LSB first (DORD = 1) LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
Figure 22-4. SPI Transfer Format with CPHA = 1
SCK (CPOL = 0)
mode 1
SCK (CPOL = 1)
mode 3
SAMPLE I
MOSI/MISO
CHANGE 0
MOSI PIN
CHANGE 0
MISO PIN
SS
MSB first (DORD = 0)
LSB first (DORD = 1)
MSB
LSB
Bit 6
Bit 1
Bit 5
Bit 2
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 3
Bit 4
Bit 2
Bit 5
Bit 1
Bit 6
LSB
MSB
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22.4 Register Description
22.4.1 SPCR – SPI Control Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$2C ($4C)
SPIE
SPE
DORD
MSTR
CPOL
CPHA
SPR1
SPR0
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
SPCR
• Bit 7 – SPIE - SPI Interrupt Enable
This bit causes the SPI interrupt to be executed if SPIF bit in the SPSR Register is set
and the if the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is set.s
• Bit 6 – SPE - SPI Enable
When the SPE bit is set (one), the SPI is enabled. This bit must be set to enable any
SPI operations.
• Bit 5 – DORD - Data Order
When the DORD bit is written to one, the LSB of the data word is transmitted first.
When the DORD bit is written to zero, the MSB of the data word is transmitted first.
• Bit 4 – MSTR - Master/Slave Select
This bit selects Master SPI mode when written to one, and Slave SPI mode when
written logic zero. If the Slave Select pin is configured as an input and is driven low
while MSTR is set, MSTR will be cleared and SPIF in SPSR are set. The user will then
have to set MSTR to re-enable SPI Master mode.
• Bit 3 – CPOL - Clock polarity
When this bit is written to one, SCK is high when idle. When CPOL is written to zero,
SCK is low when idle. Refer to the "Data Modes" section for an example. The CPOL
functionality is summarized below.
Table 22-3 CPOL Register Bits
Register Bits
CPOL
Value
Description
0
Rising (Leading Edge), Falling (Trailing
Edge)
1
Falling (Leading Egde), Rising (Trailing
Edge)
• Bit 2 – CPHA - Clock Phase
The settings of the Clock Phase bit (CPHA) determine if data is sampled on the leading
(first) or trailing (last) edge of SCK. Refer to the "Data Modes" section for an example.
The CPOL functionality is summarized below.
Table 22-4 CPHA Register Bits
Register Bits
CPHA
Value
Description
0
Sample (Leading Edge), Setup (Trailing
Edge)
1
Setup (Leading Edge), Sample (Trailing
Edge)
• Bit 1:0 – SPR1:0 - SPI Clock Rate Select 1 and 0
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These two bits control the SCK rate of the device configured as a Master. SPR1 and
SPR0 have no effect on the Slave. The relationship between SCK and the Oscillator
Clock frequency fosc is shown in the following table.
Table 22-5 SPR Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
SPR1:0
0x00
fosc/4 / fosc/2 (SPI2X=0/1)
0x01
fosc/16 / fosc/8 (SPI2X=0/1)
0x02
fosc/64 / fosc/32(SPI2X=0/1)
0x03
fosc/128 / fosc/64 (SPI2X=0/1)
22.4.2 SPSR – SPI Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$2D ($4D)
SPIF
WCOL
Res4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
SPI2X
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
SPSR
• Bit 7 – SPIF - SPI Interrupt Flag
When a serial transfer is complete, the SPIF Flag is set. An interrupt is generated if
SPIE in SPCR is set and global interrupts are enabled. The SPIF Flag is also set if the
Slave Select pin is an input and is driven low when the SPI is in Master mode. SPIF is
cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector.
Alternatively, the SPIF bit is cleared by first reading the SPI Status Register with SPIF
set and then accessing the SPI Data Register (SPDR).
• Bit 6 – WCOL - Write Collision Flag
The WCOL bit is set if the SPI Data Register (SPDR) is written during a data transfer.
The WCOL bit (and the SPIF bit) are cleared by first reading the SPI Status Register
with WCOL set and then accessing the SPI Data Register.
• Bit 5:1 – Res4:0 - Reserved
• Bit 0 – SPI2X - Double SPI Speed Bit
When this bit is written logic one the SPI speed (SCK Frequency) will be doubled when
the SPI is in Master mode. This means that the minimum SCK period will be two CPU
clock periods. When the SPI is configured as Slave, the SPI is only guaranteed to work
at fosc/4 or lower. The SPI interface on the ATmega128RFA1 is also used for program
memory and EEPROM downloading or uploading. See section "Serial Downloading" for
serial programming and verification.
22.4.3 SPDR – SPI Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
$2E ($4E)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
SPDR7:0
RW
X
RW
X
RW
X
RW
X
RW
X
SPDR
RW
X
R
0
R
0
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The SPI Data Register is a read/write register used for data transfer between the
Register File and the SPI Shift Register. Writing to the register initiates data
transmission. Reading the register causes the Shift Register Receive buffer to be read.
• Bit 7:0 – SPDR7:0 - SPI Data Register
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23 USART
23.1 Features
• Full duplex operation (independent serial receive and transmit registers)
• Asynchronous or synchronous operation
• Master or slave clocked synchronous operation
• High resolution baud rate generator
• Supports serial frames with 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 data bits and 1 or 2 stop bits
• Odd or even parity generation and parity check supported by hardware
• Data overrun detection
• Framing error detection
• Noise filtering includes false start bit detection and digital low pass filter
• 3 separate interrupts on TX complete, TX data register empty and RX complete
• Multi-processor communication mode
• Double speed, asynchronous communication mode
23.2 Overview
The Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous Serial Receiver and Transmitter
(USART) is a highly flexible serial communication device.
The ATmega128RFA1 has two USART’s, USART0 and USART1. The functionality for
all two USART’s is described below. USART0 and USART1 have different I/O registers
as shown in "Register Summary" on page 503.
A simplified block diagram of the USART transmitter is shown in Figure 23-1 on page
344 on page 344. CPU accessible I/O registers and I/O pins are shown in bold.
The Power Reduction USART0 bit, PRUSART0, in "PRR0 – Power Reduction
Register0" on page 171 must be disabled by writing a logical zero to it. The Power
Reduction USART1 bit, PRUSART1, in "PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1" on page
172 must be disabled by writing a logical zero to it.
The dashed boxes in the block diagram Figure 23-1 on page 344 separate the three
main parts of the USART (listed from the top): clock generator, transmitter and receiver.
Control registers are shared by all units. The clock generation logic consists of
synchronization logic for external clock input used by synchronous slave operation, and
the baud rate generator. The XCKn (transfer clock) pin is only used by synchronous
transfer mode. The transmitter consists of a single write buffer, a serial shift register,
Parity generator and control logic for handling different serial frame formats. The write
buffer allows a continuous transfer of data without any delay between frames. The
receiver is the most complex part of the USART module due to its clock and data
recovery units. The recovery units are used for asynchronous data reception. In
addition to the recovery units, the receiver includes a parity checker, control logic, a
shift register and a two level receive buffer (UDRn). The receiver supports the same
frame formats as the transmitter, and can detect frame, data overrun and parity errors.
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Figure 23-1. USART Block Diagram
(1)
Clock Generator
UBRR[H:L]
OSC
BAUD RATE GENERATOR
SYNC LOGIC
PIN
CONTROL
XCK
Transmitter
TX
UDR (Transmit)
CONTROL
DATA BUS
PARITY
GENERATOR
PIN
TRANSMIT SHIFT REGISTER
CONTROL
Receiver
RECEIVE SHIFT REGISTER
CLOCK
RX
RECOVERY
CONTROL
DATA
PIN
RECOVERY
CONTROL
UCSRA
RxD
PARITY
UDR (Receive)
Note:
TxD
CHECKER
UCSRB
UCSRC
1. See Figure 1-1 on page 2, Table 14-6 on page 199 and Table 14-9 on page
201Table 14-9 on page 201for USART pin placement.
23.3 Clock Generation
The clock generation logic generates the base clock for the transmitter and receiver.
The USART supports four modes of clock operation: Normal asynchronous, double
speed asynchronous, master synchronous and slave synchronous mode. The UMSELn
bit in USART Control and Status Register C (UCSRnC) selects between asynchronous
and synchronous operation. Double speed (asynchronous mode only) is controlled by
the U2Xn found in the UCSRnA register. When using synchronous mode (UMSELn =
1), the data direction register for the XCKn pin (DDR_XCKn) controls whether the clock
source is internal (master mode) or external (slave mode). The XCKn pin is only active
when using synchronous mode.
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Figure 22-2 on page 335 shows a block diagram of the clock generation logic.
Figure 23-2. Clock Generation Logic, Block Diagram
UBRR
U2X
fosc
Prescaling
Down-Counter
UBRR+1
/2
/4
/2
0
1
0
OSC
DDR_XCK
XCK
Pin
xcki
Sync
Register
Edge
Detector
0
1
UCPOL
txclk
UMSEL
1
xcko
DDR_XCK
1
0
rxclk
Signal description:
txclk
rxclk
xcki
xcko
fOSC
Transmitter clock (internal signal).
Receiver base clock (internal signal).
Input from XCK pin (internal signal). Used for synchronous slave operation.
Clock output to XCK pin (internal signal). Used for synchronous master
operation.
System clock frequency.
23.3.1 Internal Clock Generation – The Baud Rate Generator
Internal clock generation is used for the asynchronous and the synchronous master
modes of operation. The description in this section refers to Figure 22-2 on page 335.
The USART Baud Rate Register (UBRRn) and the down-counter connected to it
function as a programmable prescaler or baud rate generator. The down-counter,
running at system clock (fOSC), is loaded with the UBRRn value each time the counter
has counted down to zero or when the UBRRLn register is written. A clock is generated
each time the counter reaches zero. This clock is the baud rate generator clock output
(= fOSC/(UBRRn+1)). The transmitter divides the baud rate generator clock output by 2,
8 or 16 depending on mode. The baud rate generator output is used directly by the
receiver’s clock and data recovery units. However, the recovery units use a state
machine that uses 2, 8 or 16 states depending on mode set by the state of the
UMSELn, U2Xn and DDR_XCKn bits.
Table 23-1 below contains equations for calculating the baud rate (in bits per second)
and for calculating the UBRRn value for each mode of operation using an internally
generated clock source.
Table 23-1. Equations for Calculating Baud Rate Register Setting
Operating Mode
Equation for Calculating
(1)
Baud Rate
Equation for Calculating
UBRR Value
Asynchronous Normal Mode
(U2Xn = 0)
BAUD =
f OSC
16(UBRRn + 1)
UBRRn =
f OSC
−1
16 BAUD
Asynchronous Double Speed
Mode (U2Xn = 1)
BAUD =
f OSC
8(UBRRn + 1)
UBRRn =
f OSC
−1
8 BAUD
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Operating Mode
Synchronous Master Mode
Note:
Equation for Calculating
(1)
Baud Rate
BAUD =
f OSC
2(UBRRn + 1)
Equation for Calculating
UBRR Value
UBRRn =
f OSC
−1
2 BAUD
1. The baud rate is defined to be the transfer rate in bit per second (bps).
BAUD
fOSC
UBRRn
Baud rate (in bits per second, bps)
System oscillator clock frequency
Contents of the UBRRHn and UBRRLn registers, (0-4095)
Some examples of UBRRn values for some system clock frequencies are found in
Table 23-14 on page 369.
23.3.2 Double Speed Operation (U2Xn)
The transfer rate can be doubled by setting the U2Xn bit in UCSRnA. Setting this bit
only has effect for the asynchronous operation. Set this bit to zero when using
synchronous operation.
Setting this bit will reduce the divisor of the baud rate divider from 16 to 8, effectively
doubling the transfer rate for asynchronous communication. Note however that the
receiver will in this case only use half the number of samples (reduced from 16 to 8) for
data sampling and clock recovery, and therefore a more accurate baud rate setting and
system clock are required when this mode is used. For the transmitter, there are no
downsides.
23.3.3 External Clock
External clocking is used by the synchronous slave modes of operation. The description
in this section refers to Figure 22-2 on page 335 for details.
External clock input from the XCKn pin is sampled by a synchronization register to
minimize the chance of meta-stability. The output from the synchronization register
must then pass through an edge detector before it can be used by the transmitter and
receiver. This process introduces a two CPU clock period delay and therefore the
maximum external XCKn clock frequency is limited by the following equation:
f XCK <
f OSC
4
Note that fOSC depends on the stability of the system clock source. It is therefore
recommended to add some margin to avoid possible loss of data due to frequency
variations.
23.3.4 Synchronous Clock Operation
When synchronous mode is used (UMSELn = 1), the XCKn pin will be used as either
clock input (slave) or clock output (master). The dependency between the clock edges
and data sampling or data change is the same. The basic principle is that data input (on
RxDn) is sampled at the opposite XCKn clock edge of the edge the data output (TxDn)
is changed.
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Figure 23-3. Synchronous Mode XCKn Timing
UCPOL = 1
XCK
RxD / TxD
Sample
XCK
UCPOL = 0
RxD / TxD
Sample
The UCPOLn bit UCRSC selects which XCKn clock edge is used for data sampling and
which is used for data change. As Figure 22-3 on page 339 shows, when UCPOLn is
zero the data will be changed at rising XCKn edge and sampled at falling XCKn edge. If
UCPOLn is set, the data will be changed at falling XCKn edge and sampled at rising
XCKn edge.
23.4 Frame Formats
A serial frame is defined to be one character of data bits with synchronization bits (start
and stop bits), and optionally a parity bit for error checking. The USART accepts all 30
combinations of the following as valid frame formats:
• 1 start bit
• 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 data bits
• no, even or odd parity bit
• 1 or 2 stop bits
A frame starts with the start bit followed by the least significant data bit. Then the next
data bits, up to a total of nine, are succeeding, ending with the most significant bit. If
enabled, the parity bit is inserted after the data bits, before the stop bits. When a
complete frame is transmitted, it can be directly followed by a new frame, or the
communication line can be set to an idle (high) state. Figure 23-4 below illustrates the
possible combinations of the frame formats. Bits inside brackets are optional.
Figure 23-4. Frame Formats
FRAME
(IDLE)
St
(n)
P
Sp
IDLE
St
0
1
2
3
4
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[P]
Sp1
[Sp2]
(St / IDLE)
Start bit, always low
Data bits (0 to 8)
Parity bit - can be odd or even
Stop bit, always high
No transfers on the communication line (RxDn or TxDn). An IDLE line must be
high
The frame format used by the USART is set by the UCSZn2:0, UPMn1:0 and USBSn
bits in UCSRnB and UCSRnC. The receiver and transmitter use the same setting. Note
that changing the setting of any of these bits will corrupt all ongoing communication for
both the receiver and transmitter.
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The USART Character Size (UCSZn2:0) bits select the number of data bits in the
frame. The USART Parity Mode (UPMn1:0) bits enable and set the type of parity bit.
The selection between one or two stop bits is done by the USART Stop Bit Select
(USBSn) bit. The receiver ignores the second stop bit. A frame error will therefore only
be detected in cases where the first stop bit is zero.
23.4.1 Parity Bit Calculation
The parity bit is calculated by doing an exclusive-or of all the data bits. If odd parity is
used, the result of the exclusive or is inverted. The parity bit is located between the last
data bit and first stop bit of a serial frame. The relation between the parity bit and data
bits is as follows:
Peven = d n −1 ⊕ K ⊕ d 3 ⊕ d 2 ⊕ d1 ⊕ d 0 ⊕ 0
Podd = d n−1 ⊕ K ⊕ d 3 ⊕ d 2 ⊕ d1 ⊕ d 0 ⊕ 1
Peven
Podd
dn
Parity bit using even parity
Parity bit using odd parity
Data bit n of the character
23.5 USART Initialization
The USART has to be initialized before any communication can take place. The
initialization process normally consists of setting the baud rate, setting frame format and
enabling the transmitter or the receiver depending on the usage. For interrupt driven
USART operation, the global interrupt flag should be cleared (and interrupts globally
disabled) when doing the initialization.
Before doing a re-initialization with changed baud rate or frame format, be sure that
there are no ongoing transmissions during the period the registers are changed. The
TXCn flag can be used to check that the transmitter has completed all transfers, and
the RXC flag can be used to check that there are no unread data in the receive buffer.
Note that the TXCn flag must be cleared before each transmission (before UDRn is
written) if it is used for this purpose.
The following simple USART initialization code examples show one assembly and one
C function that are equal in functionality. The examples assume asynchronous
operation using polling (no interrupts enabled) and a fixed frame format. The baud rate
is given as a function parameter. For the assembly code, the baud rate parameter is
assumed to be stored in the r17:r16 Registers.
Assembly Code Example
USART_Init:
(1)
; Set baud rate
out UBRRnH, r17
out UBRRnL, r16
; Enable receiver and transmitter
ldi r16, (1<<RXENn)|(1<<TXENn)
out UCSRnB,r16
; Set frame format: 8data, 2stop bit
ldi r16, (1<<USBSn)|(3<<UCSZn0)
out UCSRnC,r16
ret
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C Code Example
#define FOSC 8000000// Clock Speed
#define BAUD 9600
#define (MYUBRR FOSC/16/BAUD-1)
void main( void )
{...
USART_Init ( MYUBRR );
...} // main
void USART_Init( unsigned int ubrr){
/* Set baud rate */
UBRRnH = (unsigned char)(ubrr>>8);
UBRRnL = (unsigned char) ubrr;
/* Enable receiver and transmitter */
UCSRnB = (1<<RXEN)|(1<<TXEN);
/* Set frame format: 8data, 2stop bit */
UCSRnC = (1<<USBS)|(3<<UCSZ0);
} // USART_Init
Note:
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8
More advanced initialization routines can be made that include frame format as
parameters, disable interrupts and so on. However, many applications use a fixed
setting of the baud and control registers, and for these types of applications the
initialization code can be placed directly in the main routine, or be combined with
initialization code for other I/O modules.
23.6 Data Transmission – The USART Transmitter
The USART transmitter is enabled by setting the Transmit Enable (TXEN) bit in the
UCSRnB register. When the transmitter is enabled, the normal port operation of the
TxDn pin is overridden by the USART and gives the function as the transmitter’s serial
output. The baud rate, mode of operation and frame format must be set up once before
doing any transmissions. If synchronous operation is used, the clock on the XCKn pin
will be overridden and used as transmission clock.
23.6.1 Sending Frames with 5 to 8 Data Bit
A data transmission is initiated by loading the transmit buffer with the data to be
transmitted. The CPU can load the transmit buffer by writing to the UDRn I/O location.
The buffered data in the transmit buffer will be moved to the shift register when the shift
register is ready to send a new frame. The shift register is loaded with new data if it is in
idle state (no ongoing transmission) or immediately after the last stop bit of the previous
frame is transmitted. When the shift register is loaded with new data, it will transfer one
complete frame at the rate given by the baud rate register, U2Xn bit or by XCKn
depending on mode of operation.
The following code examples show a simple USART transmit function based on polling
of the Data Register Empty Flag (UDREn). When using frames with less than eight bits,
the most significant bits written to the UDRn are ignored. The USART has to be
initialized before the function can be used. For the assembly code, the data to be sent
is assumed to be stored in register r16.
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Assembly Code Example
USART_Transmit:
(1)
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
sbis UCSRnA,UDREn rjmp USART_Transmit
; Put data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
out UDRn,r16
ret
(1)
C Code Example
void USART_Transmit( unsigned char data )
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSRnA & (1<<UDREn)) );
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDRn = data;
}
Note:
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8
The function simply waits for the transmit buffer to be empty by checking the UDREn
flag, before loading it with new data to be transmitted. If the data register empty
interrupt is utilized, the interrupt routine writes the data into the buffer.
23.6.2 Sending Frames with 9 Data Bit
If 9 bit characters are used (UCSZn2:0 = 7), the ninth bit must be written to the TXB8 bit
in UCSRnB before the low byte of the character is written to UDRn. The following code
examples show a transmit function that handles 9 bit characters. For the assembly
code, the data to be sent is assumed to be stored in registers r17:r16.
Assembly Code Example
USART_Transmit:
(1)(2)
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
sbis UCSRnA,UDREn
rjmp USART_Transmit
; Copy 9th bit from r17 to TXB8
cbi UCSRnB,TXB8
sbrc r17,0
sbi UCSRnB,TXB8
; Put LSB data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
out UDRn,r16
ret
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C Code Example
void USART_Transmit( unsigned int data )
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSRnA & (1<<UDREn))) );
/* Copy 9th bit to TXB8 */
UCSRnB &= ~(1<<TXB8);
if ( data & 0x0100 )
UCSRnB |= (1<<TXB8);
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDRn = data;
}
Note:
1. These transmit functions are written to be general functions. They can be
optimized if the content of the UCSRnB is static. For example, only the TXB8 bit
of the UCSRnB register is used after initialization.
2. See "About Code Examples" on page 8
th
The 9 bit can be used for indicating an address frame when using multi processor
communication mode or for other protocol handling as for example synchronization.
23.6.3 Transmitter Flags and Interrupts
The USART transmitter has two flags that indicate its state: USART Data Register
Empty (UDREn) and Transmit Complete (TXCn). Both flags can be used for generating
interrupts.
The Data Register Empty Flag (UDREn) indicates whether the transmit buffer is ready
to receive new data. This bit is set when the transmit buffer is empty, and cleared when
the transmit buffer contains data to be transmitted that has not yet been moved into the
shift register. For compatibility with future devices, always write this bit to zero when
writing the UCSRnA register.
When the USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable (UDRIEn) bit in UCSRnB is
written to one, the USART data register empty interrupt will be executed as long as
UDREn is set (provided that global interrupts are enabled). UDREn is cleared by writing
UDRn. When interrupt-driven data transmission is used, the data register empty
interrupt routine must either write new data to UDRn in order to clear UDREn or disable
the data register empty interrupt, otherwise a new interrupt will occur once the interrupt
routine terminates.
The Transmit Complete Flag (TXCn) bit is set one when the entire frame in the transmit
shift register has been shifted out and there are no new data currently present in the
transmit buffer. The TXCn flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmission
complete interrupt is executed, or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location.
The TXCn flag is useful in half-duplex communication interfaces (like the RS-485
standard), where a transmitting application must enter receive mode and free the
communication bus immediately after completing the transmission.
When the Transmission Complete Interrupt Enable (TXCIEn) bit in UCSRnB is set, the
USART transmission complete interrupt will be executed when the TXCn flag becomes
set (provided that global interrupts are enabled). When the transmission complete
interrupt is used, the interrupt handling routine does not have to clear the TXCn flag.
This is done automatically when the interrupt is executed.
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23.6.4 Parity Generator
The parity generator calculates the parity bit for the serial frame data. When parity bit is
enabled (UPMn1 = 1), the transmitter control logic inserts the parity bit between the last
data bit and the first stop bit of the frame that is sent.
23.6.5 Disabling the Transmitter
The disabling of the transmitter (setting the TXEN to zero) will not become effective until
ongoing and pending transmissions are completed, i.e., when the transmit shift register
and transmit buffer register do not contain data to be transmitted. The transmitter will no
longer override the TxDn pin when disabled.
23.7 Data Reception – The USART Receiver
The USART receiver is enabled by writing the Receive Enable (RXENn) bit in the
UCSRnB register to one. When the receiver is enabled, the normal pin operation of the
RxDn pin is overridden by the USART and given the function as the receiver’s serial
input. The baud rate, mode of operation and frame format must be set up once before
any serial reception can be done. If synchronous operation is used, the clock on the
XCKn pin will be used as transfer clock.
23.7.1 Receiving Frames with 5 to 8 Data Bits
The receiver starts data reception when it detects a valid start bit. Each bit that follows
the start bit will be sampled at the baud rate or XCKn clock, and shifted into the receive
shift register until the first stop bit of a frame is received. A second stop bit will be
ignored by the receiver. When the first stop bit is received, i.e., a complete serial frame
is present in the receive shift register, the contents of the shift register will be moved
into the receive buffer. The receive buffer can then be read by reading the UDRn I/O
location.
The following code example shows a simple USART receive function based on polling
of the Receive Complete Flag (RXCn). When using frames with less than eight bits the
most significant bits of the data read from the UDRn will be masked to zero. The
USART has to be initialized before the function can be used. The function simply waits
for data to be present in the receive buffer by checking the RXCn flag before reading
the buffer and returning the value.
Assembly Code Example
USART_Receive:
(1)
; Wait for data to be received
sbis UCSRnA, RXCn
rjmp USART_Receive
; Get and return received data from buffer
in r16, UDRn
ret
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C Code Example
unsigned char USART_Receive( void )
{
/* Wait for data to be received */
while ( !(UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)) );
/* Get and return received data from buffer */
return UDRn;
}
Note:
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8
23.7.2 Receiving Frames with 9 Data Bits
th
If 9 bit characters are used (UCSZn2:0=7) the 9 bit must be read from the RXB8n bit in
UCSRnB before reading the low bits from the UDRn register. This rule applies to the
FEn, DORn and UPEn status flags as well. Read status from UCSRnA, then data from
UDRn. Reading the UDRn I/O location will change the state of the receive buffer FIFO
and consequently the TXB8n, FEn, DORn and UPEn bits, which all are stored in the
FIFO, will change.
The following code example shows a simple USART receive function that handles both
nine bit characters and the status bits.
Assembly Code Example
USART_Receive:
(1)
; Wait for data to be received
sbis UCSRnA, RXCn
rjmp USART_Receive
; Get status and 9th bit, then data from buffer
in r18, UCSRnA
in r17, UCSRnB
in r16, UDRn
; If error, return -1
andi r18,(1<<FEn)|(1<<DORn)|(1<<UPEn)
breq USART_ReceiveNoError
ldi r17, HIGH(-1)
ldi r16, LOW(-1)
USART_ReceiveNoError:
; Filter the 9th bit, then return
lsr r17
andi r17, 0x01
ret
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C Code Example
unsigned int USART_Receive( void )
{
unsigned char status, resh, resl;
/* Wait for data to be received */
while ( !(UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)) );
/* Get status and 9th bit, then data */
/* from buffer */
status = UCSRnA;
resh = UCSRnB;
resl = UDRn;
/* If error, return -1 */
if ( status & (1<<FEn)|(1<<DORn)|(1<<UPEn) )
return -1;
/* Filter the 9th bit, then return */
resh = (resh >> 1) & 0x01;
return ((resh << 8) | resl);
}
Note:
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8
The receive function example reads all the I/O registers into the register file before any
computation is done. This gives an optimal receive buffer utilization since the buffer
location read will be free to accept new data as early as possible.
23.7.3 Receive Complete Flag and Interrupt
The USART receiver has one flag that indicates the receiver state.
The Receive Complete Flag (RXCn) indicates if there are unread data present in the
receive buffer. This flag is one when unread data exist in the receive buffer, and zero
when the receive buffer is empty (i.e., does not contain any unread data). If the receiver
is disabled (RXENn = 0), the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXCn
bit will become zero.
When the Receive Complete Interrupt Enable (RXCIEn) in UCSRnB is set, the USART
receive complete interrupt will be executed as long as the RXCn flag is set (provided
that global interrupts are enabled). When interrupt-driven data reception is used, the
receive complete routine must read the received data from UDRn in order to clear the
RXCn flag, otherwise a new interrupt will occur once the interrupt routine terminates.
23.7.4 Receiver Error Flags
The USART receiver has three error flags: Frame Error (FEn), Data OverRun (DORn)
and Parity Error (UPEn). All can be accessed by reading UCSRnA. Common for the
error flags is that they are located in the receive buffer together with the frame for which
they indicate the error status. Due to the buffering of the error flags, the UCSRnA must
be read before the receive buffer (UDRn), since reading the UDRn I/O location changes
the buffer read location. The error flags cannot be altered by the application software
doing a write to the flag location. However, all flags must be set to zero when the
UCSRnA is written for upward compatibility of future USART implementations. None of
the error flags can generate interrupts.
The Frame Error Flag (FEn) indicates the state of the first stop bit of the next readable
frame stored in the receive buffer. The FEn flag is zero when the stop bit was correctly
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read (as one), and the FEn flag will be one when the stop bit was incorrect (zero). This
flag can be used for detecting out-of-sync conditions, detecting break conditions and
protocol handling. The FEn flag is not affected by the setting of the USBSn bit in
UCSRnC since the receiver ignores all, except for the first, stop bits. For compatibility
with future devices, always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA.
The Data OverRun Flag (DORn) indicates data loss due to a receiver buffer full
condition. A data overrun occurs when the receive buffer is full (two characters), it is a
new character waiting in the receive shift register, and a new start bit is detected. If the
DORn flag is set there was one or more serial frame lost between the frame last read
from UDRn, and the next frame read from UDRn. For compatibility with future devices,
always write this bit to zero when writing to UCSRnA. The DORn flag is cleared when
the frame received was successfully moved from the shift register to the receive buffer.
The Parity Error Flag (UPEn) indicates that the next frame in the receive buffer had a
parity error when received. If parity check is not enabled the UPEn bit will always be
read zero. For compatibility with future devices, always set this bit to zero when writing
to UCSRnA. For more details see "Parity Bit Calculation" on page 348 and "Parity
Checker" below.
23.7.5 Parity Checker
The parity checker is active when the high USART parity mode (UPMn1) bit is set. Type
of parity check to be performed (odd or even) is selected by the UPMn0 bit. When
enabled, the parity checker calculates the parity of the data bits in incoming frames and
compares the result with the parity bit from the serial frame. The result of the check is
stored in the receive buffer together with the received data and stop bits. The Parity
Error Flag (UPEn) can then be read by software to check if the frame had a parity error.
The UPEn bit is set if the next character that can be read from the receive buffer had a
parity error when received .The parity checking was enabled at that point (UPMn1 = 1).
This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDRn) is read.
23.7.6 Disabling the Receiver
In contrast to the transmitter, disabling of the receiver will be immediate. Data from
ongoing receptions will therefore be lost. When disabled (i.e., the RXENn is set to zero)
the receiver will no longer override the normal function of the RxDn port pin. The
receiver buffer FIFO will be flushed when the receiver is disabled. Remaining data in
the buffer will be lost
23.7.7 Flushing the Receive Buffer
The receiver buffer FIFO will be flushed when the receiver is disabled, i.e., the buffer
will be emptied of its contents. Unread data will be lost. If the buffer has to be flushed
during normal operation, due to for instance an error condition, read the UDRn I/O
location until the RXCn flag is cleared. The following code example shows how to flush
the receive buffer.
Assembly Code Example
USART_Flush:
(1)
sbis UCSRnA, RXCn
ret
in r16, UDRn
rjmp USART_Flush
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C Code Example
void USART_Flush( void )
{
unsigned char dummy;
while ( UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn) ) dummy = UDRn;
}
Note:
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8
23.8 Asynchronous Data Reception
The USART includes a clock recovery and a data recovery unit for handling
asynchronous data reception. The clock recovery logic is used for synchronizing the
internally generated baud rate clock to the incoming asynchronous serial frames at the
RxDn pin. The data recovery logic samples and low pass filters each incoming bit,
thereby improving the noise immunity of the receiver. The asynchronous reception
operational range depends on the accuracy of the internal baud rate clock, the rate of
the incoming frames, and the frame size in number of bits.
23.8.1 Asynchronous Clock Recovery
The clock recovery logic synchronizes internal clock to the incoming serial frames.
Figure 23-5 below illustrates the sampling process of the start bit of an incoming frame.
The sample rate is 16 times the baud rate for Normal mode, and eight times the baud
rate for double speed mode. The horizontal arrows illustrate the synchronization
variation due to the sampling process. Note the larger time variation when using the
double speed mode (U2Xn = 1) of operation. Samples denoted zero are samples done
when the RxDn line is idle (i.e., no communication activity).
Figure 23-5. Start Bit Sampling
RxD
IDLE
START
BIT 0
Sample
(U2X = 0)
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
2
3
Sample
(U2X = 1)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
When the clock recovery logic detects a high (idle) to low (start) transition on the RxDn
line, the start bit detection sequence is initiated. Let sample 1 denote the first zerosample as shown in the figure. The clock recovery logic then uses samples 8, 9 and 10
for Normal mode, and samples 4, 5 and 6 for double speed mode (indicated with
sample numbers inside boxes on the figure), to decide if a valid start bit is received. If
two or more of these three samples have logical high levels (the majority wins), the start
bit is rejected as a noise spike and the receiver starts looking for the next high to lowtransition. If however, a valid start bit is detected, the clock recovery logic is
synchronized and the data recovery can begin. The synchronization process is
repeated for each start bit.
23.8.2 Asynchronous Data Recovery
When the receiver clock is synchronized to the start bit, the data recovery can begin.
The data recovery unit uses a state machine that has 16 states for each bit in Normal
mode and eight states for each bit in double speed mode. Figure 23-6 on page 357
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shows the sampling of the data bits and the parity bit. Each of the samples is given a
number that is equal to the state of the recovery unit.
Figure 23-6. Sampling of Data and Parity Bit
BIT n
RxD
Sample
(U2X = 0)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
1
Sample
(U2X = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
The decision of the logic level of the received bit is taken by doing a majority voting of
the logic value to the three samples in the centre of the received bit. The centre
samples are emphasized on the figure by having the sample number inside boxes. The
majority voting process is done as follows:
If two or all three samples have high levels, the received bit is registered to be logic 1. If
two or all three samples have low levels, the received bit is registered to be logic 0. This
majority voting process acts as a low pass filter for the incoming signal on the RxDn pin.
The recovery process is then repeated until a complete frame is received including the
first stop bit. Note that the receiver only uses the first stop bit of a frame.
Figure 23-7 below shows the sampling of the stop bit and the earliest possible
beginning of the start bit of the next frame.
Figure 23-7. Stop Bit Sampling and Next Start Bit Sampling
STOP 1
RxD
(A)
(B)
(C)
Sample
(U2X = 0)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0/1
0/1
0/1
Sample
(U2X = 1)
1
2
3
4
5
6
0/1
The same majority voting is done to the stop bit as done for the other bits in the frame.
If the stop bit is registered to have a logic 0 value, the Frame Error Flag (FEn) will be
set.
A new high to low transition indicating the start bit of a new frame can come right after
the last of the bits used for majority voting. For normal speed mode, the first low level
sample can be at point marked (A) in Figure 23-7 above. For double speed mode the
first low level must be delayed to (B). (C) marks a stop bit of full length. The early start
bit detection influences the operational range of the receiver.
23.8.3 Asynchronous Operational Range
The operational range of the receiver is dependent on the mismatch between the
received bit rate and the internally generated baud rate. If the transmitter is sending
frames at too fast or too slow bit rates, or the internally generated baud rate of the
receiver does not have a similar (see Table 23-2 on page 358) base frequency, the
receiver will not be able to synchronize the frames to the start bit.
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The following equations can be used to calculate the ratio of the incoming data rate and
internal receiver baud rate.
Rslow =
( D + 1)S
S −1 + D ⋅ S + SF
R fast =
( D + 2)S
( D + 1)S + S MF
Sum of character size and parity size (D = 5 to 10 bit)
Samples per bit. S = 16 for normal speed mode and S = 8 for double speed
mode.
SF
First sample number used for majority voting. SF = 8 for normal speed and
SF = 4 for double speed mode.
SM
Middle sample number used for majority voting. SM = 9 for normal speed and
SM = 5 for double speed mode.
Rslow is the ratio of the slowest incoming data rate that can be accepted in relation to
the receiver baud rate.
Rfast
is the ratio of the fastest incoming data rate that can be accepted in relation to
the receiver baud rate.
Table 23-2 below and Table 23-3 below list the maximum receiver baud rate error that
can be tolerated. Note that normal speed mode has higher tolerance of baud rate
variations.
D
S
Table 23-2. Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Normal Speed Mode
(U2Xn = 0)
D
# (Data+Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max
Receiver Error (%)
5
93.20
106.67
+6.67/-6.8
± 3.0
6
94.12
105.79
+5.79/-5.88
± 2.5
7
94.81
105.11
+5.11/-5.19
± 2.0
8
95.36
104.58
+4.58/-4.54
± 2.0
9
95.81
104.14
+4.14/-4.19
± 1.5
10
96.17
103.78
+3.78/-3.83
± 1.5
Table 23-3. Recommended Maximum Receiver Baud Rate Error for Double Speed
Mode (U2Xn = 1)
D
# (Data+Parity Bit)
Rslow (%)
Rfast (%)
Max Total Error (%)
Recommended Max
Receiver Error (%)
5
94.12
105.66
+5.66/-5.88
± 2.5
6
94.92
104.92
+4.92/-5.08
± 2.0
7
95.52
104,35
+4.35/-4.48
± 1.5
8
96.00
103.90
+3.90/-4.00
± 1.5
9
96.39
103.53
+3.53/-3.61
± 1.5
10
96.70
103.23
+3.23/-3.30
± 1.0
The recommendations of the maximum receiver baud rate error were made under the
assumption that the receiver and transmitter equally divides the maximum total error.
There are two possible sources for the receiver baud rate error. The receiver’s system
clock will always have some minor instability over the supply voltage range and the
temperature range. When using the radio transceiver crystal oscillator (XOSC) to
generate the system clock, this is rarely a problem, but for the internal RC oscillator the
system clock may differ more than 2% over the temperature range. The second source
for the error is more controllable. The baud rate generator can not always do an exact
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division of the system frequency to get the baud rate wanted. In this case an UBRR
value that gives an acceptable low error can be used if possible.
23.9 Multi-processor Communication Mode
Setting the Multi-processor Communication Mode (MPCMn) bit in UCSRnA enables a
filtering function of incoming frames received by the USART receiver. Frames that do
not contain address information will be ignored and not put into the receive buffer. This
effectively reduces the number of incoming frames that has to be handled by the MCU,
in a system with multiple MCUs that communicate via the same serial bus. The
transmitter is unaffected by the MPCMn setting, but has to be used differently when it is
a part of a system utilizing the multi-processor communication mode.
If the receiver is set up to receive frames that contain 5 to 8 data bits, then the first stop
bit indicates if the frame contains data or address information. If the receiver is set up
for frames with nine data bits, then the ninth bit (RXB8n) is used for identifying address
and data frames. When the frame type bit (the first stop or the ninth bit) is one, the
frame contains an address. When the frame type bit is zero the frame is a data frame.
The multi-processor communication mode enables several slave MCUs to receive data
from a master MCU. This is done by first decoding an address frame to find out which
MCU has been addressed. If a particular slave MCU has been addressed, it will receive
the following data frames as normal, while the other slave MCUs will ignore the
received frames until another address frame is received.
23.9.1 Using MPCMn
For an MCU to act as a master MCU, it can use a 9 bit character frame format
th
(UCSZn2:0 = 7). The 9 bit (TXB8n) must be set when an address frame (TXB8n = 1)
or cleared when a data frame (TXB = 0) is being transmitted. The slave MCUs must in
this case be set to use a 9 bit character frame format.
The following procedure should be used to exchange data in multi-processor
communication mode:
1. All slave MCUs are in multi-processor communication mode (MPCMn in UCSRnA is
set).
2. The master MCU sends an address frame, and all slaves receive and read this
frame. In the slave MCUs, the RXCn flag in UCSRnA will be set as normal.
3. Each slave MCU reads the UDRn register and determines if it has been selected. If
so, it clears the MPCMn bit in UCSRnA, otherwise it waits for the next address byte
and keeps the MPCMn setting.
4. The addressed MCU will receive all data frames until a new address frame is
received. The other slave MCUs, which still have the MPCMn bit set, will ignore the
data frames.
5. When the last data frame is received by the addressed MCU, the addressed MCU
sets the MPCMn bit and waits for a new address frame from master. The process
then repeats from 2.
Using any of the 5 to 8 bit character frame formats is possible, but impractical since the
receiver must change between using n and n+1 character frame formats. This makes
full-duplex operation difficult since the transmitter and receiver uses the same character
size setting. If 5 to 8 bit character frames are used, the transmitter must be set to use
two stop bit (USBSn = 1) since the first stop bit is used for indicating the frame type.
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Do not use read-modify-write instructions (SBI and CBI) to set or clear the MPCMn bit.
The MPCMn bit shares the same I/O location as the TXCn flag and this might
accidentally be cleared when using SBI or CBI instructions.
23.10 Register Description
23.10.1 UDR0 – USART0 I/O Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($C6)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
UDR07:00
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
UDR0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The USART Transmit Data Buffer Register and USART Receive Data Buffer Registers
share the same I/O address referred to as USART Data Register or UDR0. The
Transmit Data Buffer Register (TXB) will be the destination for data written to the UDR0
Register location. Reading the UDR0 Register location will return the contents of the
Receive Data Buffer Register (RXB). For 5-, 6-, or 7-bit characters the upper unused
bits will be ignored by the Transmitter and set to zero by the Receiver. The transmit
buffer can only be written when the UDRE0 Flag in the UCSR0A Register is set. Data
written to UDR0 when the UDRE0 Flag is not set, will be ignored by the USART
Transmitter. When data is written to the transmit buffer and the Transmitter is enabled,
the Transmitter will load the data into the Transmit Shift Register when the Shift
Register is empty. Then the data will be serially transmitted on the TxD0 pin. The
receive buffer consists of a two level FIFO. The FIFO will change its state whenever the
receive buffer is accessed. Due to this behavior of the receive buffer, do not use ReadModify-Write instructions (SBI and CBI) on this location. Be careful when using bit test
instructions (SBIC and SBIS), since these also will change the state of the FIFO.
• Bit 7:0 – UDR07:00 - USART I/O Data Register
23.10.2 UCSR0A – USART0 Control and Status Register A
Bit
NA ($C0)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXC0
TXC0
UDRE0
FE0
DOR0
UPE0
U2X0
MPCM0
R
0
RW
0
R
1
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
UCSR0A
• Bit 7 – RXC0 - USART Receive Complete
This flag bit is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when
the receive buffer is empty (i.e., does not contain any unread data). If the Receiver is
disabled, the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXC0 bit will become
zero. The RXC0 Flag can be used to generate a Receive Complete interrupt (see
description of the RXCIE0 bit).
• Bit 6 – TXC0 - USART Transmit Complete
This flag bit is set when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift Register has been shifted
out and there are no new data currently present in the transmit buffer (UDR0). The
TXC0 Flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is executed,
or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The TXC0 Flag can generate a
Transmit Complete interrupt (see description of the TXCIE0 bit).
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• Bit 5 – UDRE0 - USART Data Register Empty
The UDRE0 Flag indicates if the transmit buffer (UDR0) is ready to receive new data. If
UDRE0 is one, the buffer is empty, and therefore ready to be written. The UDRE0 Flag
can generate a Data Register Empty interrupt (see description of the UDRIE0 bit).
UDRE0 is set after a reset to indicate that the Transmitter is ready.
• Bit 4 – FE0 - Frame Error
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a Frame Error when
received. I.e., when the first stop bit of the next character in the receive buffer is zero.
This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDR0) is read. The FE0 bit is zero when the
stop bit of received data is one. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSR0A.
• Bit 3 – DOR0 - Data OverRun
This bit is set if a Data OverRun condition is detected. A Data OverRun occurs when
the receive buffer is full (two characters), it is a new character waiting in the Receive
Shift Register and a new start bit is detected. This bit is valid until the receive buffer
(UDR0) is read. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSR0A.
• Bit 2 – UPE0 - USART Parity Error
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a Parity Error when received
and the Parity Checking was enabled at that point (UPM01 = 1). This bit is valid until the
receive buffer (UDR0) is read. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSR0A.
• Bit 1 – U2X0 - Double the USART Transmission Speed
This bit only has effect for the asynchronous operation. Write this bit to zero when using
synchronous operation. Writing this bit to one will reduce the divisor of the baud rate
divider from 16 to 8 effectively doubling the transfer rate for asynchronous
communication.
• Bit 0 – MPCM0 - Multi-processor Communication Mode
This bit enables the Multi-processor Communication mode. When the MPCM0 bit is
written to one, all the incoming frames received by the USART Receiver that do not
contain address information will be ignored. The Transmitter is unaffected by the
MPCM0 setting. For more detailed information see section "Multi-processor
Communication Mode".
23.10.3 UCSR0B – USART0 Control and Status Register B
Bit
NA ($C1)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCIE0
TXCIE0
UDRIE0
RXEN0
TXEN0
UCSZ02
RXB80
TXB80
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
W
0
UCSR0B
• Bit 7 – RXCIE0 - RX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the RXC0 Flag. A USART Receive Complete
interrupt will be generated only if the RXCIE0 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the RXC0 bit in UCSR0A is set.
• Bit 6 – TXCIE0 - TX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the TXC0 Flag. A USART Transmit Complete
interrupt will be generated only if the TXCIE0 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the TXC0 bit in UCSR0A is set.
• Bit 5 – UDRIE0 - USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable
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Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the UDRE0 Flag. A Data Register Empty
interrupt will be generated only if the UDRIE0 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the UDRE0 bit in UCSR0A is set.
• Bit 4 – RXEN0 - Receiver Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Receiver. The Receiver will override normal
port operation for the RxD0 pin when enabled. Disabling the Receiver will flush the
receive buffer invalidating the FE0, DOR0 and UPE0 Flags.
• Bit 3 – TXEN0 - Transmitter Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Transmitter. The Transmitter will override
normal port operation for the TxD0 pin when enabled. The disabling of the Transmitter
(writing TXEN0 to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending
transmissions are completed, i.e., when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer
Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter will no
longer override the TxD0 port.
• Bit 2 – UCSZ02 - Character Size
The UCSZ02 bits combined with the UCSZ01:0 bit in UCSR0C sets the number of data
bits (Character Size) in the frame that the Receiver and Transmitter use.
• Bit 1 – RXB80 - Receive Data Bit 8
RXB80 is the 9th data bit of the received character when operating with serial frames
with nine data bits. The bit must be read before reading the lower 8 bits from UDR0.
• Bit 0 – TXB80 - Transmit Data Bit 8
TXB80 is the 9th data bit in the character to be transmitted when operating with serial
frames with nine data bits. The bit must be written before writing the lower 8 bits to
UDR0.
23.10.4 UCSR0C – USART0 Control and Status Register C
Bit
NA ($C2)
7
6
UMSEL01 UMSEL00
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
5
4
3
UPM01
UPM00
USBS0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
2
1
0
UCSZ01 UCSZ00 UCPOL0
RW
0
RW
1
UCSR0C
RW
0
• Bit 7:6 – UMSEL01:00 - USART Mode Select
These bits select the mode of operation of the USART0 as shown in the following table.
See section "USART in SPI Mode" for a full description of the Master SPI Mode
(MSPIM) operation.
Table 23-4 UMSEL0 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
UMSEL01:00
0x00
Asynchronous USART
0x01
Synchronous USART
0x02
Reserved
0x03
Master SPI (MSPIM)
• Bit 5:4 – UPM01:00 - Parity Mode
These bits enable and set type of parity generation and check. If enabled, the
Transmitter will automatically generate and send the parity of the transmitted data bits
within each frame. The Receiver will generate a parity value for the incoming data and
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compare it to the UPM0 setting. If a mismatch is detected, the UPE0 Flag in UCSR0A
will be set.
Table 23-5 UPM0 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
UPM01:00
0x00
Disabled
0x01
Reserved
0x02
Enabled, Even Parity
0x03
Enabled, Odd Parity
• Bit 3 – USBS0 - Stop Bit Select
This bit selects the number of stop bits to be inserted by the Transmitter. The Receiver
ignores this setting.
Table 23-6 USBS0 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
USBS0
0x00
1-bit
0x01
2-bit
• Bit 2:1 – UCSZ01:00 - Character Size
The UCSZ01:0 bits combined with the UCSZ02 bit in UCSR0B sets the number of data
bits (Character Size) in the frame that the Receiver and Transmitter use.
Table 23-7 UCSZ0 Register Bits
Register Bits
UCSZ02:00
Value
Description
0
5-bit
1
6-bit
2
7-bit
3
8-bit
4
Reserved
5
Reserved
6
Reserved
7
9-bit
• Bit 0 – UCPOL0 - Clock Polarity
This bit is used for synchronous mode only. Write this bit to zero when asynchronous
mode is used. The UCPOL0 bit sets the relationship between data output change and
data input sample, and the synchronous clock (XCK0).
Table 23-8 UCPOL0 Register Bits
Register Bits
UCPOL0
Value
Description
0
Rising XCKn Edge (Transmitted Data
Changed), Falling XCKn Edge (Received
Data Sampled)
1
Falling XCKn Edge (Transmitted Data
Changed), Rising XCKn Edge (Received
Data Sampled)
363
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
23.10.5 UBRR0H – USART0 Baud Rate Register High Byte
Bit
NA ($C5)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
3
2
UBRR11 UBRR10
RW
0
RW
0
1
0
UBRR9
UBRR8
RW
0
RW
0
UBRR0H
UBRR0 is a 12-bit register which contains the USART baud rate. The UBRR0H
contains the four most significant bits, and the UBRR0L contains the eight least
significant bits of the USART baud rate. Ongoing transmissions by the Transmitter and
Receiver will be corrupted if the baud rate is changed. Writing UBRR0L will trigger an
immediate update of the baud rate prescaler.
• Bit 7:4 – Res3:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 3:0 – UBRR11:8 - USART Baud Rate Register
These bits represent bits [11:8] of the Baud Rate Register. Sample values for
commonly used clock frequencies can be found in section "Examples of Baud Rate
Setting".
23.10.6 UBRR0L – USART0 Baud Rate Register Low Byte
Bit
NA ($C4)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
UBRR7
UBRR6
UBRR5
UBRR4
UBRR3
UBRR2
UBRR1
UBRR0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
UBRR0L
UBRR0 is a 12-bit register which contains the USART baud rate. The UBRR0H
contains the four most significant bits, and the UBRR0L contains the eight least
significant bits of the USART baud rate. Ongoing transmissions by the Transmitter and
Receiver will be corrupted if the baud rate is changed. Writing UBRR0L will trigger an
immediate update of the baud rate prescaler.
• Bit 7:0 – UBRR7:0 - USART Baud Rate Register
These bits represent bits [7:0] of the Baud Rate Register. Sample values for commonly
used clock frequencies can be found in section "Examples of Baud Rate Setting".
23.10.7 UDR1 – USART1 I/O Data Register
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($CE)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
UDR17:10
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
UDR1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The USART Transmit Data Buffer Register and USART Receive Data Buffer Registers
share the same I/O address referred to as USART Data Register or UDR1. The
Transmit Data Buffer Register (TXB) will be the destination for data written to the UDR1
Register location. Reading the UDR1 Register location will return the contents of the
364
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Receive Data Buffer Register (RXB). For 5-, 6-, or 7-bit characters the upper unused
bits will be ignored by the Transmitter and set to zero by the Receiver. The transmit
buffer can only be written when the UDRE1 Flag in the UCSR1A Register is set. Data
written to UDR1 when the UDRE1 Flag is not set, will be ignored by the USART
Transmitter. When data is written to the transmit buffer and the Transmitter is enabled,
the Transmitter will load the data into the Transmit Shift Register when the Shift
Register is empty. Then the data will be serially transmitted on the TxD1 pin. The
receive buffer consists of a two level FIFO. The FIFO will change its state whenever the
receive buffer is accessed. Due to this behavior of the receive buffer, do not use ReadModify-Write instructions (SBI and CBI) on this location. Be careful when using bit test
instructions (SBIC and SBIS), since these also will change the state of the FIFO.
• Bit 7:0 – UDR17:10 - USART I/O Data Register
23.10.8 UCSR1A – USART1 Control and Status Register A
Bit
NA ($C8)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXC1
TXC1
UDRE1
FE1
DOR1
UPE1
U2X1
MPCM1
R
0
RW
0
R
1
R
0
R
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
UCSR1A
• Bit 7 – RXC1 - USART Receive Complete
This flag bit is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when
the receive buffer is empty (i.e., does not contain any unread data). If the Receiver is
disabled, the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXC1 bit will become
zero. The RXC1 Flag can be used to generate a Receive Complete interrupt (see
description of the RXCIE1 bit).
• Bit 6 – TXC1 - USART Transmit Complete
This flag bit is set when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift Register has been shifted
out and there are no new data currently present in the transmit buffer (UDR1). The
TXC1 Flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is executed,
or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The TXC1 Flag can generate a
Transmit Complete interrupt (see description of the TXCIE1 bit).
• Bit 5 – UDRE1 - USART Data Register Empty
The UDRE1 Flag indicates if the transmit buffer (UDR1) is ready to receive new data. If
UDRE1 is one, the buffer is empty, and therefore ready to be written. The UDRE1 Flag
can generate a Data Register Empty interrupt (see description of the UDRIE1 bit).
UDRE1 is set after a reset to indicate that the Transmitter is ready.
• Bit 4 – FE1 - Frame Error
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a Frame Error when
received. I.e., when the first stop bit of the next character in the receive buffer is zero.
This bit is valid until the receive buffer (UDR1) is read. The FE1 bit is zero when the
stop bit of received data is one. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSR1A.
• Bit 3 – DOR1 - Data OverRun
This bit is set if a Data OverRun condition is detected. A Data OverRun occurs when
the receive buffer is full (two characters), it is a new character waiting in the Receive
Shift Register and a new start bit is detected. This bit is valid until the receive buffer
(UDR1) is read. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSR1A.
• Bit 2 – UPE1 - USART Parity Error
365
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
This bit is set if the next character in the receive buffer had a Parity Error when received
and the Parity Checking was enabled at that point (UPM11 = 1). This bit is valid until the
receive buffer (UDR1) is read. Always set this bit to zero when writing to UCSR1A.
• Bit 1 – U2X1 - Double the USART Transmission Speed
This bit only has effect for the asynchronous operation. Write this bit to zero when using
synchronous operation. Writing this bit to one will reduce the divisor of the baud rate
divider from 16 to 8 effectively doubling the transfer rate for asynchronous
communication.
• Bit 0 – MPCM1 - Multi-processor Communication Mode
This bit enables the Multi-processor Communication mode. When the MPCM1 bit is
written to one, all the incoming frames received by the USART Receiver that do not
contain address information will be ignored. The Transmitter is unaffected by the
MPCM1 setting. For more detailed information see section "Multi-processor
Communication Mode".
23.10.9 UCSR1B – USART1 Control and Status Register B
Bit
NA ($C9)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RXCIE1
TXCIE1
UDRIE1
RXEN1
TXEN1
UCSZ12
RXB81
TXB81
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
W
0
UCSR1B
• Bit 7 – RXCIE1 - RX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the RXC1 Flag. A USART Receive Complete
interrupt will be generated only if the RXCIE1 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the RXC1 bit in UCSR1A is set.
• Bit 6 – TXCIE1 - TX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the TXC1 Flag. A USART Transmit Complete
interrupt will be generated only if the TXCIE1 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the TXC1 bit in UCSR1A is set.
• Bit 5 – UDRIE1 - USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the UDRE1 Flag. A Data Register Empty
interrupt will be generated only if the UDRIE1 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the UDRE1 bit in UCSR1A is set.
• Bit 4 – RXEN1 - Receiver Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Receiver. The Receiver will override normal
port operation for the RxD1 pin when enabled. Disabling the Receiver will flush the
receive buffer invalidating the FE1, DOR1 and UPE1 Flags.
• Bit 3 – TXEN1 - Transmitter Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Transmitter. The Transmitter will override
normal port operation for the TxD1 pin when enabled. The disabling of the Transmitter
(writing TXEN1 to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending
transmissions are completed, i.e., when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer
Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter will no
longer override the TxD1 port.
• Bit 2 – UCSZ12 - Character Size
366
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
The UCSZ12 bits combined with the UCSZ11:0 bit in UCSR1C sets the number of data
bits (Character Size) in the frame that the Receiver and Transmitter use.
• Bit 1 – RXB81 - Receive Data Bit 8
RXB81 is the 9th data bit of the received character when operating with serial frames
with nine data bits. The bit must be read before reading the lower 8 bits from UDR1.
• Bit 0 – TXB81 - Transmit Data Bit 8
TXB81 is the 9th data bit in the character to be transmitted when operating with serial
frames with nine data bits. The bit must be written before writing the lower 8 bits to
UDR1.
23.10.10 UCSR1C – USART1 Control and Status Register C
Bit
NA ($CA)
7
6
UMSEL11 UMSEL10
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
5
4
3
UPM11
UPM10
USBS1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
2
1
0
UCSZ11 UCSZ10 UCPOL1
RW
1
RW
1
UCSR1C
RW
0
• Bit 7:6 – UMSEL11:10 - USART Mode Select
These bits select the mode of operation of the USART1 as shown in the following table.
See section "USART in SPI Mode" for a full description of the Master SPI Mode
(MSPIM) operation.
Table 23-9 UMSEL1 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
UMSEL11:10
0x00
Asynchronous USART
0x01
Synchronous USART
0x02
Reserved
0x03
Master SPI (MSPIM)
• Bit 5:4 – UPM11:10 - Parity Mode
These bits enable and set type of parity generation and check. If enabled, the
Transmitter will automatically generate and send the parity of the transmitted data bits
within each frame. The Receiver will generate a parity value for the incoming data and
compare it to the UPM1 setting. If a mismatch is detected, the UPE1 Flag in UCSR1A
will be set.
Table 23-10 UPM1 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
UPM11:10
0x00
Disabled
0x01
Reserved
0x02
Enabled, Even Parity
0x03
Enabled, Odd Parity
• Bit 3 – USBS1 - Stop Bit Select
This bit selects the number of stop bits to be inserted by the Transmitter. The Receiver
ignores this setting.
367
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Table 23-11 USBS1 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
USBS1
0x00
1-bit
0x01
2-bit
• Bit 2:1 – UCSZ11:10 - Character Size
The UCSZ11:0 bits combined with the UCSZ12 bit in UCSR1B sets the number of data
bits (Character Size) in the frame that the Receiver and Transmitter use.
Table 23-12 UCSZ1 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
UCSZ12:10
Description
0
5-bit
1
6-bit
2
7-bit
3
8-bit
4
Reserved
5
Reserved
6
Reserved
7
9-bit
• Bit 0 – UCPOL1 - Clock Polarity
This bit is used for synchronous mode only. Write this bit to zero when asynchronous
mode is used. The UCPOL1 bit sets the relationship between data output change and
data input sample, and the synchronous clock (XCK1).
Table 23-13 UCPOL1 Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
UCPOL1
Description
0
Rising XCKn Edge (Transmitted Data
Changed), Falling XCKn Edge (Received
Data Sampled)
1
Falling XCKn Edge (Transmitted Data
Changed), Rising XCKn Edge (Received
Data Sampled)
23.10.11 UBRR1H – USART1 Baud Rate Register High Byte
Bit
NA ($CD)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
Res3
Res2
Res1
Res0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
3
2
UBRR11 UBRR10
RW
0
RW
0
1
0
UBRR9
UBRR8
RW
0
RW
0
UBRR1H
UBRR1 is a 12-bit register which contains the USART baud rate. The UBRR1H
contains the four most significant bits, and the UBRR1L contains the eight least
significant bits of the USART baud rate. Ongoing transmissions by the Transmitter and
Receiver will be corrupted if the baud rate is changed. Writing UBRR1L will trigger an
immediate update of the baud rate prescaler.
• Bit 7:4 – Res3:0 - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
368
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
• Bit 3:0 – UBRR11:8 - USART Baud Rate Register
These bits represent bits [11:8] of the Baud Rate Register. Sample values for
commonly used clock frequencies can be found in section "Examples of Baud Rate
Setting".
23.10.12 UBRR1L – USART1 Baud Rate Register Low Byte
Bit
NA ($CC)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
UBRR7
UBRR6
UBRR5
UBRR4
UBRR3
UBRR2
UBRR1
UBRR0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
UBRR1L
UBRR1 is a 12-bit register which contains the USART baud rate. The UBRR1H
contains the four most significant bits, and the UBRR1L contains the eight least
significant bits of the USART baud rate. Ongoing transmissions by the Transmitter and
Receiver will be corrupted if the baud rate is changed. Writing UBRR1L will trigger an
immediate update of the baud rate prescaler.
• Bit 7:0 – UBRR7:0 - USART Baud Rate Register
These bits represent bits [7:0] of the Baud Rate Register. Sample values for commonly
used clock frequencies can be found in section "Examples of Baud Rate Setting".
23.11 Examples of Baud Rate Setting
For standard crystal and resonator frequencies, the most commonly used baud rates for
asynchronous operation can be generated by using the UBRR settings in Table 23-14
below to Table 23-16 on page 371. UBRR values which yield an actual baud rate
differing less than 0.5% from the target baud rate, are bold in the table. Higher error
ratings are acceptable, but the Receiver will have less noise resistance when the error
ratings are high, especially for large serial frames (see "Asynchronous Operational
Range" on page 357). The error values are calculated using the following equation:
 BaudRate Closest Match

Error [% ] = 
− 1 ⋅ 100 %
BaudRate


Table 23-14. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies
fOSC = 1.8432 MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
U2Xn = 0
fOSC = 2.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
fOSC = 3.6864 MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
2400
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
4800
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
9600
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
14.4k
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
19.2k
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
28.8k
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
38.4k
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
2
8.5%
6
-7.0%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
369
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
fOSC = 1.8432 MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
U2Xn = 0
fOSC = 2.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
fOSC = 3.6864 MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
57.6k
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
76.8k
1
-25.0%
2
0.0%
1
-18.6%
2
8.5%
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
115.2k
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
230.4k
-
-
0
0.0%
-
-
-
-
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
250k
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
0.0%%
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
Max.
(1)
Notes:
115.2 kbps
230.4 kbps
125 kbps
230.4 kbps
250 kbps
460.8 kbps
1. UBRR = 0, Error = 0.0%
Table 23-15. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies (Continued)
fOSC = 4.0000 MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
U2Xn = 0
fOSC = 7.3728 MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
fOSC = 8.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
2400
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
191
0.0%
383
0.0%
207
0.2%
416
-0.1%
4800
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
9600
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
14.4k
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
31
0.0%
63
0.0%
34
-0.8%
68
0.6%
19.2k
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
28.8k
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
38.4k
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
57.6k
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
76.8k
2
8.5%
6
-7.0%
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
6
-7.0%
12
0.2%
115.2k
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
230.4k
0
8.5%
1
8.5%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
1
8.5%
3
8.5%
250k
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
1
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
0.5M
-
-
0
0.0%
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
-7.8%
-
-
0
0.0%
1M
Max.
(1)
Notes:
370
250 kbps
0.5 Mbps
460.8 kbps
921.6 kbps
0.5 Mbps
1 Mbps
1. UBRR = 0, Error = 0.0%
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Table 23-16. Examples of UBRRn Settings for Commonly Used Oscillator Frequencies (Continued)
fOSC = 11.0592 MHz
Baud
Rate
(bps)
U2Xn = 0
fOSC = 14.7456 MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
fOSC = 16.0000 MHz
U2Xn = 1
U2Xn = 0
U2Xn = 1
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
UBRR
Error
2400
287
0.0%
575
0.0%
383
0.0%
767
0.0%
416
-0.1%
832
0.0%
4800
143
0.0%
287
0.0%
191
0.0%
383
0.0%
207
0.2%
416
-0.1%
9600
71
0.0%
143
0.0%
95
0.0%
191
0.0%
103
0.2%
207
0.2%
14.4k
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
63
0.0%
127
0.0%
68
0.6%
138
-0.1%
19.2k
35
0.0%
71
0.0%
47
0.0%
95
0.0%
51
0.2%
103
0.2%
28.8k
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
31
0.0%
63
0.0%
34
-0.8%
68
0.6%
38.4k
17
0.0%
35
0.0%
23
0.0%
47
0.0%
25
0.2%
51
0.2%
57.6k
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
15
0.0%
31
0.0%
16
2.1%
34
-0.8%
76.8k
8
0.0%
17
0.0%
11
0.0%
23
0.0%
12
0.2%
25
0.2%
115.2k
5
0.0%
11
0.0%
7
0.0%
15
0.0%
8
-3.5%
16
2.1%
230.4k
2
0.0%
5
0.0%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
3
8.5%
8
-3.5%
250k
2
-7.8%
5
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
6
5.3%
3
0.0%
7
0.0%
0.5M
-
-
2
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
3
-7.8%
1
0.0%
3
0.0%
-
-
-
-
0
-7.8%
1
-7.8%
0
0.0%
1
0.0%
1M
Max.
(1)
Notes:
691.2 kbps
1.3824 Mbps
921.6 kbps
1.8432 Mbps
1 Mbps
2 Mbps
1. UBRR = 0, Error = 0.0%
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24 USART in SPI Mode
The Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous Serial Receiver and Transmitter
(USART) can be set to a master SPI compliant mode of operation. The Master SPI
Mode (MSPIM) has the following features:
• Full duplex, three-wire synchronous data transfer
• Master operation
• Supports all four SPI modes of operation (mode 0, 1, 2, and 3)
• LSB first or MSB first data transfer (configurable data order)
• Queued operation (double buffered)
• High resolution baud rate generator
• High speed operation (fXCK,MAX = fCK/2)
• Flexible interrupt generation
24.1 Overview
Setting both UMSELn1:0 bits to one enables the USART in MSPIM logic. In this mode
of operation the SPI master control logic takes direct control over the USART
resources. These resources include the transmitter and receiver shift register and
buffers, and the baud rate generator. The parity generator and checker, the data and
clock recovery logic, and the RX and TX control logic is disabled. The USART RX and
TX control logic is replaced by a common SPI transfer control logic. However, the pin
control logic and interrupt generation logic is identical in both modes of operation.
The I/O register locations are the same in both modes. However, some of the
functionality of the control registers changes when using MSPIM.
24.2 USART MSPIM vs. SPI
The ATmega128RFA1 USART in MSPIM mode is fully compatible with the
ATmega128RFA1 SPI regarding:
• Master mode timing diagram.
• The UCPOLn bit functionality is identical to the SPI CPOL bit.
• The UCPHAn bit functionality is identical to the SPI CPHA bit.
• The UDORDn bit functionality is identical to the SPI DORD bit.
However, since the USART in MSPIM mode reuses the USART resources, the use of
the USART in MSPIM mode is somewhat different compared to the SPI. In addition to
differences of the control register bits, and that only master operation is supported by
the USART in MSPIM mode, the following features differ between the two modules:
• The USART in MSPIM mode includes (double) buffering of the transmitter. The SPI
has no buffer.
• The USART in MSPIM mode receiver includes an additional buffer level.
• The SPI WCOL (Write Collision) bit is not included in USART in MSPIM mode.
• The SPI double speed mode (SPI2X) bit is not included. However, the same effect is
achieved by setting UBRRn accordingly.
• Interrupt timing is not compatible.
• Pin control differs due to the master only operation of the USART in MSPIM mode.
A comparison of the USART in MSPIM mode and the SPI pins is shown in Table 24–3
on page 377.
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24.2.1 Clock Generation
The Clock Generation logic generates the base clock for the Transmitter and Receiver.
For USART MSPIM mode of operation only internal clock generation (i.e. master
operation) is supported. The Data Direction Register for the XCKn pin (DDR_XCKn)
must therefore be set to one (i.e. as output) for the USART in MSPIM to operate
correctly. Preferably the DDR_XCKn should be set up before the USART in MSPIM is
enabled (i.e. TXENn and RXENn bit set to one).
The internal clock generation used in MSPIM mode is identical to the USART
synchronous master mode. The baud rate or UBRRn setting can therefore be
calculated using the same equations, see Table 24-1 below:
Table 24-1. Equations for Calculating Baud Rate Register Setting
Operating Mode
Equation for Calculating
(1)
Baud Rate
Synchronous Master mode
BAUD =
Note:
f OSC
2(UBRRn + 1)
Equation for Calculating
UBRR Value
UBRRn =
f OSC
−1
2 BAUD
The Baud rate is defined to be the transfer rate in bit per second (bps)
BAUD Baud rate (in bits per second, bps)
fOSC
System Oscillator clock frequency
UBRRn Contents of the UBRRHn and UBRRLn Registers, (0-4095)
24.3 SPI Data Modes and Timing
There are four combinations of XCKn (SCK) phase and polarity with respect to serial
data, which are determined by control bits UCPHAn and UCPOLn. The data transfer
timing diagrams are shown in Figure 24-1 below. Data bits are shifted out and latched
in on opposite edges of the XCKn signal, ensuring sufficient time for data signals to
stabilize. The UCPOLn and UCPHAn functionality is summarized in Table 24-2 below.
Note that changing the setting of any of these bits will corrupt all ongoing
communication for both the receiver and transmitter.
Figure 24-1. UCPHAn and UCPOLn data transfer timing diagrams
UCPHA=0
UCPHA=1
UCPOL=0
UCPOL=1
XCK
XCK
Data setup (TXD)
Data setup (TXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Data sample (RXD)
XCK
XCK
Data setup (TXD)
Data setup (TXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Data sample (RXD)
Table 24-2. UCPOLn and UCPHAn Functionality
UCPOLn
UCPHAn
SPI Mode
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
0
0
0
Sample (Rising)
Setup (Falling)
0
1
1
Setup (Rising)
Sample (Falling)
1
0
2
Sample (Falling)
Setup (Rising)
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UCPOLn
UCPHAn
SPI Mode
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
1
1
3
Setup (Falling)
Sample (Rising)
24.4 Frame Formats
A serial frame for the MSPIM is defined to be one character of 8 data bits. The USART
in MSPIM mode has two valid frame formats:
• 8-bit data with MSB first
• 8-bit data with LSB first
A frame starts with the least or most significant data bit. Then the next data bits, up to a
total of eight, are succeeding, ending with the most or least significant bit accordingly.
When a complete frame is transmitted, a new frame can directly follow it, or the
communication line can be set to an idle (high) state.
The UDORDn bit in UCSRnC sets the frame format used by the USART in MSPIM
mode. The Receiver and Transmitter use the same setting. Note that changing the
setting of any of these bits will corrupt all ongoing communication for both the Receiver
and Transmitter.
16-bit data transfer can be achieved by writing two data bytes to UDRn. A UART
transmit complete interrupt will then signal that the 16-bit value has been shifted out.
24.4.1 USART MSPIM Initialization
The USART in MSPIM mode has to be initialized before any communication can take
place. The initialization process normally consists of setting the baud rate, setting
master mode of operation (by setting DDR_XCKn to one), setting frame format and
enabling the Transmitter and the Receiver. Only the transmitter can operate
independently. For interrupt driven USART operation, the Global Interrupt Flag should
be cleared (and thus interrupts globally disabled) when doing the initialization.
Note:
To ensure immediate initialization of the XCKn output the baud-rate register
(UBRRn) must be zero at the time the transmitter is enabled. Contrary to the
normal mode USART operation the UBRRn must then be written to the desired
value after the transmitter is enabled, but before the first transmission is
started. Setting UBRRn to zero before enabling the transmitter is not necessary
if the initialization is done immediately after a reset since UBRRn is reset to
zero.
Before doing a re-initialization with changed baud rate, data mode, or frame format, be
sure that there is no ongoing transmissions during the period the registers are changed.
The TXCn Flag can be used to check that the Transmitter has completed all transfers,
and the RXCn Flag can be used to check that there are no unread data in the receive
buffer. Note that the TXCn Flag must be cleared before each transmission (before
UDRn is written) if it is used for this purpose.
The following simple USART initialization code examples show one assembly and one
C function that are equal in functionality. The examples assume polling (no interrupts
enabled). The baud rate is given as a function parameter. For the assembly code, the
baud rate parameter is assumed to be stored in the r17:r16 registers.
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Assembly Code Example
USART_Init:
(1)
clr r18
out UBRRnH,r18
out UBRRnL,r18
; Setting the XCKn port pin as output, enables master mode.
sbi XCKn_DDR, XCKn
; Set MSPI mode of operation and SPI data mode 0.
ldi r18, (1<<UMSELn1)|(1<<UMSELn0)|(0<<UCPHAn)|(0<<UCPOLn)
out UCSRnC,r18
; Enable receiver and transmitter.
ldi r18, (1<<RXENn)|(1<<TXENn)
out UCSRnB,r18 ; Set baud rate.
; IMPORTANT:
; The Baud Rate must be set after the transmitter is enabled!
out UBRRnH, r17
out UBRRnL, r18
ret
(1)
C Code Example
void USART_Init( unsigned int baud )
{
UBRRn = 0;
/* Setting the XCKn port pin as output, enables master mode. */
XCKn_DDR |= (1<<XCKn);
/* Set MSPI mode of operation and SPI data mode 0. */
UCSRnC = (1<<UMSELn1)|(1<<UMSELn0)|(0<<UCPHAn)|(0<<UCPOLn);
/* Enable receiver and transmitter. */
UCSRnB = (1<<RXENn)|(1<<TXENn);
/* Set baud rate. */
/* IMPORTANT:
*/
/* The Baud Rate must be set after the transmitter is enabled */
UBRRn = baud;
}
Note:
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8
24.5 Data Transfer
Using the USART in MSPI mode requires the Transmitter to be enabled, i.e. the TXENn
bit in the UCSRnB register is set to one. When the Transmitter is enabled, the normal
port operation of the TxDn pin is overridden and given the function as the Transmitter's
serial output. Enabling the receiver is optional and is done by setting the RXENn bit in
the UCSRnB register to one. When the receiver is enabled, the normal pin operation of
the RxDn pin is overridden and given the function as the Receiver's serial input. The
XCKn will in both cases be used as the transfer clock.
After initialization the USART is ready for doing data transfers. A data transfer is
initiated by writing to the UDRn I/O location. This is the case for both sending and
receiving data since the transmitter controls the transfer clock. The data written to
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UDRn is moved from the transmit buffer to the shift register when the shift register is
ready to send a new frame.
Note:
To keep the input buffer in sync with the number of data bytes transmitted, the
UDRn register must be read once for each byte transmitted. The input buffer
operation is identical to normal USART mode, i.e. if an overflow occurs the
character last received will be lost, not the first data in the buffer. This means
that if four bytes are transferred, byte 1 first, then byte 2, 3, and 4, and the
UDRn is not read before all transfers are completed, then byte 3 to be received
will be lost, and not byte 1.
The following code examples show a simple USART in MSPIM mode transfer function
based on polling of the Data Register Empty (UDREn) Flag and the Receive Complete
(RXCn) Flag. The USART has to be initialized before the function can be used. For the
assembly code, the data to be sent is assumed to be stored in Register r16 and the
data received will be available in the same register (r16) after the function returns.
The function simply waits for the transmit buffer to be empty by checking the UDREn
Flag, before loading it with new data to be transmitted. The function then waits for data
to be present in the receive buffer by checking the RXCn Flag, before reading the buffer
and returning the value.
(1)
Assembly Code Example
USART_MSPIM_Transfer:
; Wait for empty transmit buffer
sbis UCSRnA, UDREn
rjmp USART_MSPIM_Transfer
; Put data (r16) into buffer, sends the data
out UDRn,r16
; Wait for data to be received
USART_MSPIM_Wait_RXCn:
sbis UCSRnA, RXCn
rjmp USART_MSPIM_Wait_RXCn
; Get and return received data from buffer
in r16, UDRn
ret
(1)
C Code Example
unsigned char USART_Receive( void )
{
/* Wait for empty transmit buffer */
while ( !( UCSRnA & (1<<UDREn)) );
/* Put data into buffer, sends the data */
UDRn = data;
/* Wait for data to be received */
while ( !(UCSRnA & (1<<RXCn)) );
/* Get and return received data from buffer */
return UDRn;
}
Notes:
376
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8
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24.5.1 Transmitter and Receiver Flags and Interrupts
The RXCn, TXCn, and UDREn flags and corresponding interrupts in USART in MSPIM
mode are identical in function to the normal USART operation. However, the receiver
error status flags (FE, DOR, and PE) are not in use and are always read as zero.
24.5.2 Disabling the Transmitter or Receiver
The disabling of the transmitter or receiver in USART in MSPIM mode is identical in
function to the normal USART operation.
24.6 USART MSPIM Register Description
The following section describes the registers used for SPI operation using the USART.
24.6.1 UDRn – USART MSPIM I/O Data Register
The function and bit description of the USART data register (UDRn) in MSPI mode is
identical to normal USART operation. See "UDR0 – USART0 I/O Data Register" on
page 360.
24.6.2 UBRRnL and UBRRnH – USART MSPIM Baud Rate Registers
The function and bit description of the baud rate registers in MSPI mode is identical to
normal USART operation. See "UBRR0L – USART0 Baud Rate Register Low Byte" on
page 364 and "UBRR0H – USART0 Baud Rate Register High Byte" on page 364.
Table 24–3. Comparison of USART in MSPIM mode and SPI pins
USART_MSPIM
SPI
Comment
TxDn
MOSI
Master Out only
RxDn
MISO
Master In only
XCKn
SCK
(Functional identical)
(N/A)
SS
¯¯
Not supported by USART in MSPIM
24.6.3 UCSR0A – USART0 MSPIM Control and Status Register A
Bit
NA ($C0)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
RXC0
TXC0
UDRE0
R
0
RW
0
R
0
4
3
2
1
0
UCSR0A
• Bit 7 – RXC0 - USART Receive Complete
This flag bit is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when
the receive buffer is empty (i.e., does not contain any unread data). If the Receiver is
disabled, the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXC0 bit will become
zero. The RXC0 Flag can be used to generate a Receive Complete interrupt (see
description of the RXCIE0 bit).
• Bit 6 – TXC0 - USART Transmit Complete
This flag bit is set when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift Register has been shifted
out and there are no new data currently present in the transmit buffer (UDR0). The
TXC0 Flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is executed,
or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The TXC0 Flag can generate a
Transmit Complete interrupt (see description of the TXCIE0 bit).
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• Bit 5 – UDRE0 - USART Data Register Empty
The UDRE0 Flag indicates if the transmit buffer (UDR0) is ready to receive new data. If
UDRE0 is one, the buffer is empty, and therefore ready to be written. The UDRE0 Flag
can generate a Data Register Empty interrupt (see description of the UDRIE0 bit).
UDRE0 is set after a reset to indicate that the Transmitter is ready.
24.6.4 UCSR0B – USART0 MSPIM Control and Status Register B
Bit
NA ($C1)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
RXCIE0
TXCIE0
UDRIE0
RXEN0
TXEN0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
0
2
1
0
UCSR0B
• Bit 7 – RXCIE0 - RX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the RXC0 Flag. A USART Receive Complete
interrupt will be generated only if the RXCIE0 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the RXC0 bit in UCSR0A is set.
• Bit 6 – TXCIE0 - TX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the TXC0 Flag. A USART Transmit Complete
interrupt will be generated only if the TXCIE0 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the TXC0 bit in UCSR0A is set.
• Bit 5 – UDRIE0 - USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the UDRE0 Flag. A Data Register Empty
interrupt will be generated only if the UDRIE0 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the UDRE0 bit in UCSR0A is set.
• Bit 4 – RXEN0 - Receiver Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Receiver in MSPIM mode. The Receiver will
override normal port operation for the RxD0 pin when enabled. Disabling the Receiver
will flush the receive buffer. Only enabling the receiver in MSPI mode (i.e. setting
RXEN0=1 and TXEN0=0) has no meaning since it is the transmitter that controls the
transfer clock and since only master mode is supported.
• Bit 3 – TXEN0 - Transmitter Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Transmitter. The Transmitter will override
normal port operation for the TxD0 pin when enabled. The disabling of the Transmitter
(writing TXEN0 to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending
transmissions are completed, i.e., when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer
Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter will no
longer override the TxD0 port.
24.6.5 UCSR0C – USART0 MSPIM Control and Status Register C
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($C2)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
UDORD0 UCPHA0 UCPOL0
RW
1
RW
1
UCSR0C
RW
0
• Bit 2 – UDORD0 - Data Order
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When set to one the LSB of the data word is transmitted first. When set to zero the
MSB of the data word is transmitted first. Refer to section "Frame Formats" for details.
• Bit 1 – UCPHA0 - Clock Phase
The UCPHA0 bit setting determines if data is sampled on the leading (first) or tailing
(last) edge of XCK0. Refer to the section "SPI Data Modes and Timing" for details.
• Bit 0 – UCPOL0 - Clock Polarity
The UCPOL0 bit sets the polarity of the XCK0 clock. The combination of the UCPOL0
and UCPHA0 bit settings determine the timing of the data transfer. Refer to the section
"SPI Data Modes and Timing" for details.
24.6.6 UCSR1A – USART1 MSPIM Control and Status Register A
Bit
NA ($C8)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
RXC1
TXC1
UDRE1
R
0
RW
0
R
0
4
3
2
1
0
UCSR1A
• Bit 7 – RXC1 - USART Receive Complete
This flag bit is set when there are unread data in the receive buffer and cleared when
the receive buffer is empty (i.e., does not contain any unread data). If the Receiver is
disabled, the receive buffer will be flushed and consequently the RXC1 bit will become
zero. The RXC1 Flag can be used to generate a Receive Complete interrupt (see
description of the RXCIE1 bit).
• Bit 6 – TXC1 - USART Transmit Complete
This flag bit is set when the entire frame in the Transmit Shift Register has been shifted
out and there are no new data currently present in the transmit buffer (UDR1). The
TXC1 Flag bit is automatically cleared when a transmit complete interrupt is executed,
or it can be cleared by writing a one to its bit location. The TXC1 Flag can generate a
Transmit Complete interrupt (see description of the TXCIE1 bit).
• Bit 5 – UDRE1 - USART Data Register Empty
The UDRE1 Flag indicates if the transmit buffer (UDR1) is ready to receive new data. If
UDRE1 is one, the buffer is empty, and therefore ready to be written. The UDRE1 Flag
can generate a Data Register Empty interrupt (see description of the UDRIE1 bit).
UDRE1 is set after a reset to indicate that the Transmitter is ready.
24.6.7 UCSR1B – USART1 MSPIM Control and Status Register B
Bit
NA ($C9)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
RXCIE1
TXCIE1
UDRIE1
RXEN1
TXEN1
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
0
2
1
0
UCSR1B
• Bit 7 – RXCIE1 - RX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the RXC1 Flag. A USART Receive Complete
interrupt will be generated only if the RXCIE1 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the RXC1 bit in UCSR1A is set.
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• Bit 6 – TXCIE1 - TX Complete Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the TXC1 Flag. A USART Transmit Complete
interrupt will be generated only if the TXCIE1 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the TXC1 bit in UCSR1A is set.
• Bit 5 – UDRIE1 - USART Data Register Empty Interrupt Enable
Writing this bit to one enables interrupt on the UDRE1 Flag. A Data Register Empty
interrupt will be generated only if the UDRIE1 bit is written to one, the Global Interrupt
Flag in SREG is written to one and the UDRE1 bit in UCSR1A is set.
• Bit 4 – RXEN1 - Receiver Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Receiver in MSPIM mode. The Receiver will
override normal port operation for the RxD1 pin when enabled. Disabling the Receiver
will flush the receive buffer. Only enabling the receiver in MSPI mode (i.e. setting
RXEN1=1 and TXEN1=0) has no meaning since it is the transmitter that controls the
transfer clock and since only master mode is supported.
• Bit 3 – TXEN1 - Transmitter Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the USART Transmitter. The Transmitter will override
normal port operation for the TxD1 pin when enabled. The disabling of the Transmitter
(writing TXEN1 to zero) will not become effective until ongoing and pending
transmissions are completed, i.e., when the Transmit Shift Register and Transmit Buffer
Register do not contain data to be transmitted. When disabled, the Transmitter will no
longer override the TxD1 port.
24.6.8 UCSR1C – USART1 MSPIM Control and Status Register C
Bit
7
6
5
NA ($CA)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
UDORD1 UCPHA1 UCPOL1
RW
1
RW
1
UCSR1C
RW
0
• Bit 2 – UDORD1 - Data Order
When set to one the LSB of the data word is transmitted first. When set to zero the
MSB of the data word is transmitted first. Refer to section "Frame Formats" for details.
• Bit 1 – UCPHA1 - Clock Phase
The UCPHA1 bit setting determines if data is sampled on the leading (first) or tailing
(last) edge of XCK1. Refer to the section "SPI Data Modes and Timing" for details.
• Bit 0 – UCPOL1 - Clock Polarity
The UCPOL1 bit sets the polarity of the XCK1 clock. The combination of the UCPOL1
and UCPHA1 bit settings determine the timing of the data transfer. Refer to the section
"SPI Data Modes and Timing" for details.
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25 2-wire Serial Interface
25.1 Features
• Simple yet powerful and flexible communication interface, only two bus lines
needed
• Both master and slave operation supported
• Device can operate as transmitter or receiver
• 7-bit address space allows up to 128 different slave addresses
• Multi-master arbitration support
• Up to 400 kHz data transfer speed
• Slew-rate limited output drivers
• Noise suppression circuitry rejects spikes on bus lines
• Fully programmable slave address with general call support
• Address recognition causes wake-up when microcontroller is in sleep mode
25.2 2-wire Serial Interface Bus Definition
The 2-wire Serial Interface (TWI) is ideally suited for typical microcontroller applications.
The TWI protocol allows the systems designer to interconnect up to 128 different
devices using only two bi-directional bus lines, one for clock (SCL) and one for data
(SDA). The only external hardware needed to implement the bus is a single pull-up
resistor for each of the TWI bus lines. All devices connected to the bus have individual
addresses, and mechanisms for resolving bus contention are inherent in the TWI
protocol.
Figure 25-1. TWI Bus Interconnection
DEVDD
Device 1
Device 2
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
25.2.1 TWI Terminology
The following definitions are frequently encountered in this section.
Table 25-1. TWI Terminology
Term
Description
Master
The device that initiates and terminates a transmission. The Master also
generates the SCL clock.
Slave
The device addressed by a Master.
Transmitter
The device placing data on the bus.
Receiver
The device reading data from the bus.
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The Power Reduction TWI bit, PRTWI bit in "PRR0 – Power Reduction Register0" on
page 171 must be written to zero to enable the 2-wire Serial Interface.
25.2.2 Electrical Interconnection
As depicted in Figure 25-1 on page 381, both bus lines are connected to the positive
supply voltage through pull-up resistors. The bus drivers of all TWI-compliant devices
are open-drain or open-collector. This implements a wired-AND function which is
essential to the operation of the interface. A low level on a TWI bus line is generated
when one or more TWI devices output a zero. A high level is output when all TWI
devices trim-state their outputs, allowing the pull-up resistors to pull the line high. Note
that all AVR devices connected to the TWI bus must be powered in order to allow any
bus operation.
The number of devices that can be connected to the bus is only limited by the bus
capacitance limit of 400 pF and the 7-bit slave address space. A detailed specification
of the electrical characteristics of the TWI is given in "2-wire Serial Interface
Characteristics" on page 517. Two different sets of specifications are presented there,
one relevant for bus speeds below 100 kHz, and one valid for bus speeds up to 400
kHz.
25.3 Data Transfer and Frame Format
25.3.1 Transferring Bits
Each data bit transferred on the TWI bus is accompanied by a pulse on the clock line.
The level of the data line must be stable when the clock line is high. The only exception
to this rule is for generating start and stop conditions.
Figure 25-2. Data Validity
SDA
SCL
Data Stable
Data Stable
Data Change
25.3.2 START and STOP Conditions
The Master initiates and terminates a data transmission. The transmission is initiated
when the Master issues a START condition on the bus, and it is terminated when the
Master issues a STOP condition. Between a START and a STOP condition, the bus is
considered busy, and no other master should try to seize control of the bus. A special
case occurs when a new START condition is issued between a START and STOP
condition. This is referred to as a REPEATED START condition, and is used when the
Master wishes to initiate a new transfer without relinquishing control of the bus. After a
REPEATED START, the bus is considered busy until the next STOP. This is identical to
the START behavior, and therefore START is used to describe both START and
REPEATED START for the remainder of this datasheet, unless otherwise noted. As
depicted below, START and STOP conditions are signaled by changing the level of the
SDA line when the SCL line is high.
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Figure 25-3. START, REPEATED START and STOP conditions
SDA
SCL
START
STOP
REPEATED START
START
STOP
25.3.3 Address Packet Format
All address packets transmitted on the TWI bus are 9 bits long, consisting of 7 address
bits, one READ/WRITE control bit and an acknowledge bit. If the READ/WRITE bit is
set, a read operation is to be performed, otherwise a write operation should be
performed. When a Slave recognizes that it is being addressed, it should acknowledge
by pulling SDA low in the ninth SCL (ACK) cycle. If the addressed Slave is busy, or for
some other reason can not service the Master’s request, the SDA line should be left
high in the ACK clock cycle. The Master can then transmit a STOP condition, or a
REPEATED START condition to initiate a new transmission. An address packet
consisting of a slave address and a READ or a WRITE bit is called SLA+R or SLA+W,
respectively.
The MSB of the address byte is transmitted first. Slave addresses can freely be
allocated by the designer, but the address 0000 000 is reserved for a general call.
When a general call is issued, all slaves should respond by pulling the SDA line low in
the ACK cycle. A general call is used when a Master wishes to transmit the same
message to several slaves in the system. When the general call address followed by a
Write bit is transmitted on the bus, all slaves set up to acknowledge the general call will
pull the SDA line low in the ack cycle. The following data packets will then be received
by all the slaves that acknowledged the general call. Note that transmitting the general
call address followed by a Read bit is meaningless, as this would cause contention if
several slaves started transmitting different data.
All addresses of the format 1111 xxx should be reserved for future purposes.
Figure 25-4. Address Packet Format
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
ACK
7
8
9
SDA
SCL
1
2
START
25.3.4 Data Packet Format
All data packets transmitted on the TWI bus are nine bits long, consisting of one data
byte and an acknowledge bit. During a data transfer, the Master generates the clock
and the START and STOP conditions, while the Receiver is responsible for
acknowledging the reception. An Acknowledge (ACK) is signaled by the Receiver
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pulling the SDA line low during the ninth SCL cycle. If the Receiver leaves the SDA line
high, a NACK is signaled. When the Receiver has received the last byte, or for some
reason cannot receive any more bytes, it should inform the Transmitter by sending a
NACK after the final byte. The MSB of the data byte is transmitted first.
Figure 25-5. Data Packet Format
Data MSB
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
Aggregate
SDA
SDA from
Transmitter
SDA from
Receiver
SCL from
Master
1
2
7
SLA+R/W
STOP, REPEATED
START or Next
Data Byte
Data Byte
25.3.5 Combining Address and Data Packets into a Transmission
A transmission basically consists of a START condition, a SLA+R/W, one or more data
packets and a STOP condition. An empty message, consisting of a START followed by
a STOP condition, is illegal. Note that the Wired-ANDing of the SCL line can be used to
implement handshaking between the Master and the Slave. The Slave can extend the
SCL low period by pulling the SCL line low. This is useful if the clock speed set up by
the Master is too fast for the Slave, or the Slave needs extra time for processing
between the data transmissions. The Slave extending the SCL low period will not affect
the SCL high period, which is determined by the Master. As a consequence, the Slave
can reduce the TWI data transfer speed by prolonging the SCL duty cycle.
Figure 25-6 below shows a typical data transmission. Note that several data bytes can
be transmitted between the SLA+R/W and the STOP condition, depending on the
software protocol implemented by the application software.
Figure 25-6. Typical Data Transmission
Addr MSB
Addr LSB
R/W
ACK
Data MSB
7
8
9
1
Data LSB
ACK
8
9
SDA
SCL
1
START
2
SLA+R/W
2
7
Data Byte
STOP
25.4 Multi-master Bus Systems, Arbitration and Synchronization
The TWI protocol allows bus systems with several masters. Special concerns have
been taken in order to ensure that transmissions will proceed as normal, even if two or
more masters initiate a transmission at the same time. Two problems arise in multimaster systems:
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• An algorithm must be implemented allowing only one of the masters to complete the
transmission. All other masters should cease transmission when they discover that
they have lost the selection process. This selection process is called arbitration.
When a contending master discovers that it has lost the arbitration process, it should
immediately switch to Slave mode to check whether it is being addressed by the
winning master. The fact that multiple masters have started transmission at the
same time should not be detectable to the slaves, i.e. the data being transferred on
the bus must not be corrupted.
• Different masters may use different SCL frequencies. A scheme must be devised to
synchronize the serial clocks from all masters, in order to let the transmission
proceed in a lockstep fashion. This will facilitate the arbitration process.
The wired-ANDing of the bus lines is used to solve both these problems. The serial
clocks from all masters will be wired-ANDed, yielding a combined clock with a high
period equal to the one from the Master with the shortest high period. The low period of
the combined clock is equal to the low period of the Master with the longest low period.
Note that all masters listen to the SCL line, effectively starting to count their SCL high
and low time-out periods when the combined SCL line goes high or low, respectively.
Figure 25-7. SCL Synchronization Between Multiple Masters
TA low
TA high
SCL from
Master A
SCL from
Master B
SCL Bus
Line
TBlow
Masters Start
Counting Low Period
TBhigh
Masters Start
Counting High Period
Arbitration is carried out by all masters continuously monitoring the SDA line after
outputting data. If the value read from the SDA line does not match the value the
Master had output, it has lost the arbitration. Note that a Master can only lose arbitration
when it outputs a high SDA value while another Master outputs a low value. The losing
Master should immediately go to Slave mode, checking if it is being addressed by the
winning Master. The SDA line should be left high, but losing masters are allowed to
generate a clock signal until the end of the current data or address packet. Arbitration
will continue until only one Master remains, and this may take many bits. If several
masters are trying to address the same Slave, arbitration will continue into the data
packet.
Note that arbitration is not allowed between:
• A REPEATED START condition and a data bit.
• A STOP condition and a data bit.
• A REPEATED START and a STOP condition.
It is the user software’s responsibility to ensure that these illegal arbitration conditions
never occur. This implies that in multi-master systems, all data transfers must use the
same composition of SLA+R/W and data packets. In other words: All transmissions
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must contain the same number of data packets, otherwise the result of the arbitration is
undefined.
Figure 25-8. Arbitration Between Two Masters
START
Master A Loses
Arbitration, SDAA SDA
SDA from
Master A
SDA from
Master B
SDA Line
Synchronized
SCL Line
25.5 Overview of the TWI Module
The TWI module is comprised of several sub-modules, as shown in Figure 25-9 below.
All registers drawn in a thick line are accessible through the AVR data bus.
Figure 25-9. Overview of the TWI Module
Slew-rate
Control
SDA
Spike
Filter
Slew-rate
Control
Spike
Filter
Bus Interface Unit
START / STOP
Control
Spike Suppression
Arbitration detection
Address/Data Shift
Register (TWDR)
Address Match Unit
Address Register
(TWAR)
Address Comparator
386
Bit Rate Generator
Prescaler
Bit Rate Register
(TWBR)
Ack
Control Unit
Status Register
(TWSR)
Control Register
(TWCR)
State Machine and
Status control
TWI Unit
SCL
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25.5.1 SCL and SDA Pins
These pins interface the AVR TWI with the rest of the MCU system. The output drivers
contain a slew-rate limiter in order to conform to the TWI specification. The input stages
contain a spike suppression unit removing spikes shorter than 50 ns. Note that the
internal pull-ups in the AVR pads can be enabled by setting the PORT bits
corresponding to the SCL and SDA pins, as explained in the I/O Port section. The
internal pull-ups can in some systems eliminate the need for external ones.
25.5.2 Bit Rate Generator Unit
This unit controls the period of SCL when operating in a Master mode. The SCL period
is controlled by settings in the TWI Bit Rate Register (TWBR) and the Prescaler bits in
the TWI Status Register (TWSR). Slave operation does not depend on Bit Rate or
Prescaler settings, but the CPU clock frequency in the Slave must be at least 16 times
higher than the SCL frequency. Note that slaves may prolong the SCL low period,
thereby reducing the average TWI bus clock period. The SCL frequency is generated
according to the following equation:
SCL frequency =
CPU Clock frequency
16 + 2(TWBR ) ⋅ 4 TWPS
• TWBR = Value of the TWI Bit Rate Register.
• TWPS = Value of the prescaler bits in the TWI Status Register.
Note that pull-up resistor values should be selected according to the SCL frequency
and the capacitive bus line load. See in "2-wire Serial Interface Characteristics" on page
517 for value of pull-up resistor.
25.5.3 Bus Interface Unit
This unit contains the Data and Address Shift Register (TWDR), a START/STOP
Controller and Arbitration detection hardware. The TWDR contains the address or data
bytes to be transmitted, or the address or data bytes received. In addition to the 8-bit
TWDR, the Bus Interface Unit also contains a register containing the (N)ACK bit to be
transmitted or received. This (N)ACK Register is not directly accessible by the
application software. However, when receiving, it can be set or cleared by manipulating
the TWI Control Register (TWCR). When in Transmitter mode, the value of the received
(N)ACK bit can be determined by the value in the TWSR.
The START/STOP Controller is responsible for generation and detection of START,
REPEATED START, and STOP conditions. The START/STOP controller is able to
detect START and STOP conditions even when the AVR MCU is in one of the sleep
modes, enabling the MCU to wake up if addressed by a Master.
If the TWI has initiated a transmission as Master, the Arbitration Detection hardware
continuously monitors the transmission trying to determine if arbitration is in process. If
the TWI has lost an arbitration, the Control Unit is informed. Correct action can then be
taken and appropriate status codes generated.
25.5.4 Address Match Unit
The Address Match unit checks if received address bytes match the seven-bit address
in the TWI Address Register (TWAR). If the TWI General Call Recognition Enable
(TWGCE) bit in the TWAR is written to one, all incoming address bits will also be
compared against the General Call address. Upon an address match, the Control Unit
is informed, allowing correct action to be taken. The TWI may or may not acknowledge
its address, depending on settings in the TWCR. The Address Match unit is able to
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compare addresses even if the AVR MCU is in sleep mode, enabling the MCU to wake
up if addressed by a Master. If another interrupt (e.g., INT0) occurs during TWI Powerdown address match and wakes up the CPU, the TWI aborts operation and return to it’s
idle state. If this cause any problems, ensure that TWI Address Match is the only
enabled interrupt when entering Power-down.
25.5.5 Control Unit
The Control unit monitors the TWI bus and generates responses corresponding to
settings in the TWI Control Register (TWCR). When an event requiring the attention of
the application occurs on the TWI bus, the TWI Interrupt Flag (TWINT) is asserted. In
the next clock cycle, the TWI Status Register (TWSR) is updated with a status code
identifying the event. The TWSR only contains relevant status information when the
TWI Interrupt Flag is asserted. At all other times, the TWSR contains a special status
code indicating that no relevant status information is available. As long as the TWINT
Flag is set, the SCL line is held low. This allows the application software to complete its
tasks before allowing the TWI transmission to continue.
The TWINT Flag is set in the following situations:
• After the TWI has transmitted a START/REPEATED START condition.
• After the TWI has transmitted SLA+R/W.
• After the TWI has transmitted an address byte.
• After the TWI has lost arbitration.
• After the TWI has been addressed by own slave address or general call.
• After the TWI has received a data byte.
• After a STOP or REPEATED START has been received while still addressed as a
Slave.
• When a bus error has occurred due to an illegal START or STOP condition.
25.6 Using the TWI
The ATmega128RFA1 TWI is byte-oriented and interrupt based. Interrupts are issued
after all bus events, like reception of a byte or transmission of a START condition.
Because the TWI is interrupt-based, the application software is free to carry on other
operations during a TWI byte transfer. Note that the TWI Interrupt Enable (TWIE) bit in
TWCR together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG allow the application to
decide whether or not assertion of the TWINT Flag should generate an interrupt
request. If the TWIE bit is cleared, the application must poll the TWINT Flag in order to
detect actions on the TWI bus.
When the TWINT Flag is asserted, the TWI has finished an operation and awaits
application response. In this case, the TWI Status Register (TWSR) contains a value
indicating the current state of the TWI bus. The application software can then decide
how the TWI should behave in the next TWI bus cycle by manipulating the TWCR and
TWDR Registers.
Figure 25-10 on page 389 is a simple example of how the application can interface to
the TWI hardware. In this example, a Master wishes to transmit a single data byte to a
Slave. This description is quite abstract, a more detailed explanation follows later in this
section. A simple code example implementing the desired behavior is also presented.
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Application
Action
Figure 25-10. Interfacing the Application to the TWI in a Typical Transmission
1. Application
writes to TWCR to
initiate
transmission of
START
TWI
Hardware
Action
TWI bus
3. Check TWSR to see if START was
sent. Application loads SLA+W into
TWDR, and loads appropriate control
signals into TWCR, makin sure that
TWINT is written to one,
and TWSTA is written to zero.
START
2. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
START condition sent
SLA+W
5. Check TWSR to see if SLA+W was
sent and ACK received.
Application loads data into TWDR, and
loads appropriate control signals into
TWCR, making sure that TWINT is
written to one
A
4. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
SLA+W sent, ACK
received
Data
7. Check TWSR to see if data was sent
and ACK received.
Application loads appropriate control
signals to send STOP into TWCR,
making sure that TWINT is written to one
A
6. TWINT set.
Status code indicates
data sent, ACK received
STOP
Indicates
TWINT set
1. The first step in a TWI transmission is to transmit a START condition. This is done by
writing a specific value into TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to transmit a
START condition. Which value to write is described later on. However, it is important
that the TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag.
The TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set.
Immediately after the application has cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate
transmission of the START condition.
2. When the START condition has been transmitted, the TWINT Flag in TWCR is set,
and TWSR is updated with a status code indicating that the START condition has
successfully been sent.
3. The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that
the START condition was successfully transmitted. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the
application software might take some special action, like calling an error routine.
Assuming that the status code is as expected, the application must load SLA+W into
TWDR. Remember that TWDR is used both for address and data. After TWDR has
been loaded with the desired SLA+W, a specific value must be written to TWCR,
instructing the TWI hardware to transmit the SLA+W present in TWDR. Which value
to write is described later on. However, it is important that the TWINT bit is set in the
value written. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will not start any
operation as long as the TWINT bit in TWCR is set. Immediately after the application
has cleared TWINT, the TWI will initiate transmission of the address packet.
4. When the address packet has been transmitted, the TWINT Flag in TWCR is set,
and TWSR is updated with a status code indicating that the address packet has
successfully been sent. The status code will also reflect whether a Slave
acknowledged the packet or not.
5. The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that
the address packet was successfully transmitted, and that the value of the ACK bit
was as expected. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the application software might take
some special action, like calling an error routine. Assuming that the status code is as
expected, the application must load a data packet into TWDR. Subsequently, a
specific value must be written to TWCR, instructing the TWI hardware to transmit the
data packet present in TWDR. Which value to write is described later on. However, it
is important that the TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one to TWINT
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clears the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT bit in
TWCR is set. Immediately after the application has cleared TWINT, the TWI will
initiate transmission of the data packet.
6. When the data packet has been transmitted, the TWINT Flag in TWCR is set, and
TWSR is updated with a status code indicating that the data packet has successfully
been sent. The status code will also reflect whether a Slave acknowledged the
packet or not.
7. The application software should now examine the value of TWSR, to make sure that
the data packet was successfully transmitted, and that the value of the ACK bit was
as expected. If TWSR indicates otherwise, the application software might take some
special action, like calling an error routine. Assuming that the status code is as
expected, the application must write a specific value to TWCR, instructing the TWI
hardware to transmit a STOP condition. Which value to write is described later on.
However, it is important that the TWINT bit is set in the value written. Writing a one
to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will not start any operation as long as the TWINT
bit in TWCR is set. Immediately after the application has cleared TWINT, the TWI
will initiate transmission of the STOP condition. Note that TWINT is NOT set after a
STOP condition has been sent.
Even though this example is simple, it shows the principles involved in all TWI
transmissions. These can be summarized as follows:
• When the TWI has finished an operation and expects application response, the
TWINT Flag is set. The SCL line is pulled low until TWINT is cleared.
• When the TWINT Flag is set, the user must update all TWI Registers with the value
relevant for the next TWI bus cycle. As an example, TWDR must be loaded with the
value to be transmitted in the next bus cycle.
• After all TWI Register updates and other pending application software tasks have
been completed, TWCR is written. When writing TWCR, the TWINT bit should be
set. Writing a one to TWINT clears the flag. The TWI will then commence executing
whatever operation was specified by the TWCR setting.
In the following an assembly and C implementation of the example is given. Note that
the code below assumes that several definitions have been made, for example by using
include-files.
Table 25-2. Code example
1
Assembly Code Example
C Example
Comments
ldi
r16,(1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWSTA)|
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWSTA)|
Send START condition
(1<<TWEN)
(1<<TWEN)
out TWCR, r16
2
wait1:
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)));
Wait for TWINT Flag set. This
indicates that the START condition
has been transmitted
if ((TWSR & 0xF8) != START)
Check value of TWI Status Register.
Mask prescaler bits. If status different
from START go to ERROR
in r16,TWCR
sbrs r16,TWINT
rjmp wait1
3
in r16,TWSR
andi r16, 0xF8
ERROR();
cpi r16, START
brne ERROR
ldi r16, SLA_W
TWDR = SLA_W;
out TWDR, r16
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN);
ldi r16, (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN)
Load SLA_W into TWDR Register.
Clear TWINT bit in TWCR to start
transmission of address
out TWCR, r16
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4
Assembly Code Example
C Example
Comments
wait2:
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)));
Wait for TWINT Flag set. This
indicates that the SLA+W has been
transmitted, and ACK/NACK has
been received.
if ((TWSR & 0xF8) != MT_SLA_ACK)
Check value of TWI Status Register.
Mask prescaler bits. If status different
from MT_SLA_ACK go to ERROR
in r16,TWCR
sbrs r16,TWINT
rjmp wait2
5
in r16,TWSR
andi r16, 0xF8
ERROR();
cpi r16, MT_SLA_ACK
brne ERROR
ldi r16, DATA
TWDR = DATA;
out TWDR, r16
TWCR = (1<<TWINT) | (1<<TWEN);
ldi r16, (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN)
Load DATA into TWDR Register.
Clear TWINT bit in TWCR to start
transmission of data
out TWCR, r16
6
wait3:
while (!(TWCR & (1<<TWINT)));
Wait for TWINT Flag set. This
indicates that the DATA has been
transmitted, and ACK/NACK has
been received.
if ((TWSR & 0xF8) != MT_DATA_ACK)
Check value of TWI Status Register.
Mask prescaler bits. If status different
from MT_DATA_ACK go to ERROR
in r16,TWCR
sbrs r16,TWINT
rjmp wait3
7
in r16,TWSR
andi r16, 0xF8
ERROR();
cpi r16, MT_DATA_ACK
brne ERROR
ldi r16,(1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN)|
(1<<TWSTO)
TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN)|
(1<<TWSTO);
Transmit STOP condition
out TWCR, r16
25.7 Transmission Modes
The TWI can operate in one of four major modes. These are named Master Transmitter
(MT), Master Receiver (MR), Slave Transmitter (ST) and Slave Receiver (SR). Several
of these modes can be used in the same application. As an example, the TWI can use
MT mode to write data into a TWI EEPROM, MR mode to read the data back from the
EEPROM. If other masters are present in the system, some of these might transmit
data to the TWI, and then SR mode would be used. It is the application software that
decides which modes are legal.
The following sections describe each of these modes. Possible status codes are
described along with figures detailing data transmission in each of the modes. These
figures contain the following abbreviations:
S:
R:
Data:
SLA:
_
A:
START condition
Rs:
REPEATED START condition
Read bit (high level at SDA)
W:
Write bit (low level at SDA)
8-bit data byte
P:
STOP condition
Slave Address
A:
Acknowledge bit (low level at SDA)
Not acknowledge bit (high level at SDA)
In Figure 25-12 on page 393 to Figure 25-18 on page 403 circles are used to indicate
that the TWINT Flag is set. The numbers in the circles show the status code held in
TWSR, with the prescaler bits masked to zero. At these points, actions must be taken
by the application to continue or complete the TWI transfer. The TWI transfer is
suspended until the TWINT Flag is cleared by software.
When the TWINT Flag is set, the status code in TWSR is used to determine the
appropriate software action. For each status code, the required software action and
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details of the following serial transfer are given in Table 25-3 on page 394 to Table 25-6
on page 402. Note that the prescaler bits are masked to zero in these tables.
25.7.1 Master Transmitter Mode
In the Master Transmitter mode, a number of data bytes are transmitted to a Slave
Receiver (see Figure 25-11 below). In order to enter a Master mode, a START
condition must be transmitted. The format of the following address packet determines
whether Master Transmitter or Master Receiver mode is to be entered. If SLA+W is
transmitted, MT mode is entered, if SLA+R is transmitted, MR mode is entered. All
status codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler bits are zero or are
masked to zero.
Figure 25-11. Data Transfer in Master Transmitter Mode
DEVDD
Device 1
Device 2
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
SLAVE
RECEIVER
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
A START condition is sent by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Value
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
TWEN must be set to enable the 2-wire Serial Interface, TWSTA must be written to one
to transmit a START condition and TWINT must be written to one to clear the TWINT
Flag. The TWI will then test the 2-wire Serial Bus and generate a START condition as
soon as the bus becomes free. After a START condition has been transmitted, the
TWINT Flag is set by hardware, and the status code in TWSR will be 0x08 (see Table
25-3 on page 394). In order to enter MT mode, SLA+W must be transmitted. This is
done by writing SLA+W to TWDR. Thereafter the TWINT bit should be cleared (by
writing it to one) to continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing the following
value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Value
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
When SLA+W have been transmitted and an acknowledgement bit has been received,
TWINT is set again and a number of status codes in TWSR are possible. Possible
status codes in Master mode are 0x18, 0x20, or 0x38. The appropriate action to be
taken for each of these status codes is detailed in Table 25-3 on page 394.
When SLA+W has been successfully transmitted, a data packet should be transmitted.
This is done by writing the data byte to TWDR. TWDR must only be written when
TWINT is high. If not, the access will be discarded, and the Write Collision bit (TWWC)
will be set in the TWCR Register. After updating TWDR, the TWINT bit should be
cleared (by writing it to one) to continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing the
following value to TWCR:
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TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Value
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
This scheme is repeated until the last byte has been sent and the transfer is ended by
generating a STOP condition or a repeated START condition. A STOP condition is
generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Value
1
X
0
1
X
1
0
X
A REPEATED START condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
Value
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
TWIE
After a REPEATED START condition (state 0x10) the 2-wire Serial Interface can
access the same Slave again, or a new Slave without transmitting a STOP condition.
Repeated START enables the Master to switch between Slaves, Master Transmitter
mode and Master Receiver mode without losing control of the bus.
Figure 25-12. Formats and States in the Master Transmitter Mode
MT
Successful
transmission
to a slave
receiver
S
SLA
$08
W
A
DATA
$18
A
P
$28
Next transfer
started with a
repeated start
condition
RS
SLA
W
$10
Not acknowledge
received after the
slave address
A
R
P
$20
MR
Not acknowledge
received after a data
byte
A
P
$30
Arbitration lost in slave
address or data byte
A or A
Other master
continues
$38
Arbitration lost and
addressed as slave
A
$68
From master to slave
From slave to master
A or A
Other master
continues
$38
Other master
continues
$78
DATA
To corresponding
states in slave mode
$B0
A
n
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-Wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
393
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Table 25-3. Status codes for Master Transmitter Mode
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler
Bits are 0
Status of the 2-wire
Serial Bus and 2-wire
Serial Interface
Hardware
0x08
A START condition has
been transmitted
A repeated START
condition has been
transmitted
SLA+W has been
transmitted; ACK has
been received
0x10
0x18
0x20
0x28
0x30
0x38
SLA+W has been
transmitted; NOT ACK
has been received
Data byte has been
transmitted; ACK has
been received
Data byte has been
transmitted; NOT ACK
has been received
Arbitration lost in SLA+W
or data bytes
Application Software Response
To TWCR
STA
STO
TWINT
TWEA
Load SLA+W
0
0
1
X
Load SLA+W or
0
0
1
X
Load SLA+R
0
0
1
X
Load data byte o
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
0
1
1
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
0
1
1
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
0
1
1
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Load data byte or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
0
1
1
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action
1
0
1
X
To/from TWDR
Next Action Taken by TWI
Hardware
SLA+W will be transmitted; ACK or
NOT ACK will be received
SLA+W will be transmitted; ACK or
NOT ACK will be received
SLA+R will be transmitted; Logic will
switch to Master Receiver mode
Data byte will be transmitted and
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted
and TWSTO Flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START
condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO Flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted
and TWSTO Flag will be rese
STOP condition followed by a START
condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO Flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted
and TWSTO Flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START
condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO Flag will be reset
Data byte will be transmitted and
ACK or NOT ACK will be received
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted
and TWSTO Flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a START
condition will be transmitted and
TWSTO Flag will be reset
2-wire Serial Bus will be released and
not addressed Slave mode entered
A START condition will be
transmitted when the bus be-comes
free
25.7.2 Master Receiver Mode
In the Master Receiver mode, a number of data bytes are received from a Slave
Transmitter (for Slave see Figure 25-13 on page 395). In order to enter a Master mode,
a START condition must be transmitted. The format of the following address packet
determines whether Master Transmitter or Master Receiver mode is to be entered. If
SLA+W is transmitted, MT mode is entered, if SLA+R is transmitted, MR mode is
entered. All the status codes mentioned in this section assume that the prescaler bits
are zero or are masked to zero.
394
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Figure 25-13. Data Transfer in Master Receiver Mode
DEVDD
Device 1
Device 2
MASTER
RECEIVER
SLAVE
TRANSMITTER
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
A START condition is sent by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Value
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the 2-wire Serial Interface, TWSTA must be
written to one to transmit a START condition and TWINT must be set to clear the
TWINT Flag. The TWI will then test the 2-wire Serial Bus and generate a START
condition as soon as the bus becomes free. After a START condition has been
transmitted, the TWINT Flag is set by hardware, and the status code in TWSR will be
0x08 (see Table 25-4 on page 396). In order to enter MR mode, SLA+R must be
transmitted. This is done by writing SLA+R to TWDR. Thereafter the TWINT bit should
be cleared (by writing it to one) to continue the transfer. This is accomplished by writing
the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Value
1
X
0
0
X
1
0
X
When SLA+R have been transmitted and an acknowledgement bit has been received,
TWINT is set again and a number of status codes in TWSR are possible. Possible
status codes in Master mode are 0x38, 0x40, or 0x48. The appropriate action to be
taken for each of these status codes is detailed in Table 25-4 on page 396. Received
data can be read from the TWDR Register when the TWINT Flag is set high by
hardware. This scheme is repeated until the last byte has been received. After the last
byte has been received, the MR should inform the ST by sending a NACK after the last
received data byte. The transfer is ended by generating a STOP condition or a repeated
START condition. A STOP condition is generated by writing the following value to
TWCR:
TWCR
value
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
1
X
0
1
X
1
0
X
A REPEATED START condition is generated by writing the following value to TWCR:
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Value
1
X
1
0
X
1
0
X
After a repeated START condition (state 0x10) the 2-wire Serial Interface can access
the same Slave again, or a new Slave without transmitting a STOP condition. Repeated
395
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
START enables the Master to switch between Slaves, Master Transmitter mode and
Master Receiver mode without losing control over the bus.
Table 25-4. Status codes for Master Receiver Mode
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler
Bits are 0
Status of the 2-wire
Serial Bus and 2-wire
Serial Interface Hardware
0x08
A START condition has
been transmitted
A repeated START
condition has been
transmitted
Arbitration lost in SLA+R
or NOT ACK bit
0x10
0x38
0x40
0x48
0x50
0x58
396
Application Software Response
To TWCR
To/from TWDR
STA
STD
TWINT
TWEA
Load SLA+R
0
0
1
X
Load SLA+R or
0
0
1
X
Load SLA+W
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
X
No TWDR action
1
0
1
X
SLA+R has been
transmitted; ACK has
been received
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
0
No TWDR action
0
0
1
1
SLA+R has been
transmitted; NOT ACK
has been received
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
X
No TWDR action or
0
1
1
X
No TWDR action
1
1
1
X
Data byte has been
received; ACK has been
returned
Read data byte or
0
0
1
0
Read data byte
0
0
1
1
Data byte has been
received; NOT ACK has
been returned
Read data byte or
1
0
1
X
Read data byte or
0
1
1
X
Read data byte
1
1
1
X
Next Action Taken by TWI
Hardware
SLA+R will be transmitted ACK or
NOT ACK will be received
SLA+R will be transmitted ACK or
NOTACK will be received
SLA+W will be transmitted Logic will
switch to Master Transmitter mode
2-wire Serial Bus will be released
and not addressed Slave mode will
be entered
A START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
Data byte will be received and NOT
ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK
will be returned
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted
and TWSTO Flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a
START condition will be transmitted
and TWSTO Flag will be reset
Data byte will be received and NOT
ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK
will be returned
Repeated START will be transmitted
STOP condition will be transmitted
and TWSTO Flag will be reset
STOP condition followed by a
START condition will be transmitted
and TWSTO Flag will be reset
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Figure 25-14. Formats and States in the Master Receiver Mode
MR
Successful
reception
from a slave
receiver
S
SLA
R
A
DATA
A
$40
$08
DATA
A
$50
P
$58
Next transfer
started with a
repeated start
condition
RS
SLA
R
$10
Not acknowledge
received after the
slave address
A
W
P
$48
MT
Arbitration lost in slave
address or data byte
A or A
Other master
continues
A
$38
Arbitration lost and
addressed as slave
A
$68
$38
Other master
continues
$78
DATA
From master to slave
From slave to master
Other master
continues
To corresponding
states in slave mode
$B0
A
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-Wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
n
25.7.3 Slave Receiver Mode
In the Slave Receiver mode, a number of data bytes are received from a Master
Transmitter (see Figure 25-15 below). All the status codes mentioned in this section
assume that the prescaler bits are zero or are masked to zero.
Figure 25-15. Data transfer in Slave Receiver mode
DEVDD
Device 1
Device 2
SLAVE
RECEIVER
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
To initiate the Slave Receiver mode, TWAR and TWCR must be initialized as follows:
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
Value
Device’s Own Slave Address
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
397
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
The upper 7 bits are the address to which the 2-wire Serial Interface will respond when
addressed by a Master. If the LSB is set, the TWI will respond to the general call
address (0x00), otherwise it will ignore the general call address.
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Value
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the TWI. The TWEA bit must be written to one
to enable the acknowledgement of the device’s own slave address or the general call
address. TWSTA and TWSTO must be written to zero.
When TWAR and TWCR have been initialized, the TWI waits until it is addressed by its
own slave address (or the general call address if enabled) followed by the data direction
bit. If the direction bit is “0” (write), the TWI will operate in SR mode, otherwise ST mode
is entered. After its own slave address and the write bit have been received, the TWINT
Flag is set and a valid status code can be read from TWSR. The status code is used to
determine the appropriate software action. The appropriate action to be taken for each
status code is detailed in Table 25-5 below. The Slave Receiver mode may also be
entered if arbitration is lost while the TWI is in the Master mode (see states 0x68 and
0x78).
If the TWEA bit is reset during a transfer, the TWI will return a “Not Acknowledge” (“1”)
to SDA after the next received data byte. This can be used to indicate that the Slave is
not able to receive any more bytes. While TWEA is zero, the TWI does not
acknowledge its own slave address. However, the 2-wire Serial Bus is still monitored
and address recognition may resume at any time by setting TWEA. This implies that the
TWEA bit may be used to temporarily isolate the TWI from the 2-wire Serial Bus.
In all sleep modes other than Idle mode, the clock system to the TWI is turned off. If the
TWEA bit is set, the interface can still acknowledge its own slave address or the
general call address by using the 2-wire Serial Bus clock as a clock source. The part
will then wake up from sleep and the TWI will hold the SCL clock low during the wake
up and until the TWINT Flag is cleared (by writing it to one). Further data reception will
be carried out as normal, with the AVR clocks running as normal. Observe that if the
AVR is set up with a long start-up time, the SCL line may be held low for a long time,
blocking other data transmissions.
Note that the 2-wire Serial Interface Data Register – TWDR does not reflect the last
byte present on the bus when waking up from these Sleep modes.
Table 25-5. Status Codes for Slave Receiver Mode
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler
Bits are 0
Status of the 2-wire
Serial Bus and 2-wire
Serial Interface
Hardware
0x60
Own SLA+W has been
received; ACK has been
returned
Arbitration lost in
SLA+R/W as Master;
own SLA+W has been
received; ACK has been
returned
General call address has
been received; ACK has
been returned
0x68
0x70
398
Application Software Response
To TWCR
STA
STO
TWINT
TWEA
No TWDR action or
X
0
1
0
No TWDR action
X
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
X
0
1
0
No TWDR action
X
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
X
0
1
0
No TWDR action
X
0
1
1
To/from TWDR
Next Action Taken by TWI
Hardware
Data byte will be received and NOT
ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK
will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT
ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK
will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT
ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK
will be returned
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
0x78
0x80
0x88
0x90
0x98
Arbitration lost in
SLA+R/W as Master;
General call address has
been received; ACK has
been returned
Previously addressed
with own SLA+W; data
has been received; ACK
has been returned
Previously addressed
with own SLA+W; data
has been received; NOT
ACK has been returned
Previously addressed
with general call; data
has been received; ACK
has been returned
Previously addressed
with general call; data
has been received; NOT
ACK has been returned
No TWDR action or
X
0
1
0
No TWDR action
X
0
1
1
Read data byte or
X
0
1
0
Read data byte
X
0
1
1
Read data byte or
0
0
1
0
Read data byte or
0
0
1
1
Read data byte or
1
0
1
0
Read data byte
1
0
1
1
Read data byte or
X
0
1
0
Read data byte
X
0
1
1
Read data byte or
0
0
1
0
Read data byte or
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
Read data byte or
Read data byte
Data byte will be received and NOT
ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK
will be returned
Data byte will be received and NOT
ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK
will be returned
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; no recognition of own SLA or
GCA
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE =
“1”
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; no recognition of own SLA or
GCA; a START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE =
“1”; a START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
Data byte will be received and NOT
ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK
will be returned
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; no recognition of own SLA or
GCA
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE =
“1”
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; no recognition of own SLA or
GCA; a START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE =
“1”; a START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
399
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
0xA0
A STOP condition or
repeated START
condition has been
received while still
addressed as Slave
No action
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; no recognition of own SLA or
GCA
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE =
“1”
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; no recognition of own SLA or
GCA; a START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE =
“1”; a START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
Figure 25-16. Formats and States in the Slave Receiver Mode
Reception of the own
slave address and one or
more data bytes. All are
acknowledged
S
SLA
W
A
DATA
$60
A
DATA
$80
Last data byte received
is not acknowledged
A
P or S
$80
$A0
A
P or S
$88
Arbitration lost as master
and addressed as slave
A
$68
Reception of the general call
address and one or more data
bytes
General Call
A
DATA
$70
A
DATA
$90
Last data byte received is
not acknowledged
A
P or S
$90
$A0
A
P or S
$98
Arbitration lost as master and
addressed as slave by general call
A
$78
From master to slave
From slave to master
DATA
A
n
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-Wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
25.7.4 Slave Transmitter Mode
In the Slave Transmitter mode, a number of data bytes are transmitted to a Master
Receiver (see Figure 25-17 on page 401). All the status codes mentioned in this section
assume that the prescaler bits are zero or are masked to zero.
400
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Figure 25-17. Data Transfer in Slave Transmitter Mode
DEVDD
Device 1
Device 2
SLAVE
TRANSMITTER
MASTER
RECEIVER
Device 3
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
To initiate the Slave Transmitter mode, TWAR and TWCR must be initialized as follows:
TWAR
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
Value
Device’s Own Slave Address
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
The upper seven bits are the address to which the 2-wire Serial Interface will respond
when addressed by a Master. If the LSB is set, the TWI will respond to the general call
address (0x00), otherwise it will ignore the general call address.
TWCR
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
–
TWIE
Value
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
X
TWEN must be written to one to enable the TWI. The TWEA bit must be written to one
to enable the acknowledgement of the device’s own slave address or the general call
address. TWSTA and TWSTO must be written to zero.
When TWAR and TWCR have been initialized, the TWI waits until it is addressed by its
own slave address (or the general call address if enabled) followed by the data direction
bit. If the direction bit is “1” (read), the TWI will operate in ST mode, otherwise SR mode
is entered. After its own slave address and the write bit have been received, the TWINT
Flag is set and a valid status code can be read from TWSR. The status code is used to
determine the appropriate software action. The appropriate action to be taken for each
status code is detailed in Table 25-6 on page 402. The Slave Transmitter mode may
also be entered if arbitration is lost while the TWI is in the Master mode (see state
0xB0).
If the TWEA bit is written to zero during a transfer, the TWI will transmit the last byte of
the transfer. State 0xC0 or state 0xC8 will be entered, depending on whether the
Master Receiver transmits a NACK or ACK after the final byte. The TWI is switched to
the not addressed Slave mode, and will ignore the Master if it continues the transfer.
Thus the Master Receiver receives all “1” as serial data. State 0xC8 is entered if the
Master demands additional data bytes (by transmitting ACK), even though the Slave
has transmitted the last byte (TWEA zero and expecting NACK from the Master).
While TWEA is zero, the TWI does not respond to its own slave address. However, the
2-wire Serial Bus is still monitored and address recognition may resume at any time by
setting TWEA. This implies that the TWEA bit may be used to temporarily isolate the
TWI from the 2-wire Serial Bus.
In all sleep modes other than Idle mode, the clock system to the TWI is turned off. If the
TWEA bit is set, the interface can still acknowledge its own slave address or the
general call address by using the 2-wire Serial Bus clock as a clock source. The part
401
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
will then wake up from sleep and the TWI will hold the SCL clock will low during the
wake up and until the TWINT Flag is cleared (by writing it to one). Further data
transmission will be carried out as normal, with the AVR clocks running as normal.
Observe that if the AVR is set up with a long start-up time, the SCL line may be held
low for a long time, blocking other data transmissions.
Note that the 2-wire Serial Interface Data Register – TWDR does not reflect the last
byte present on the bus when waking up from these sleep modes.
Table 25-6. Status Code for Slave Transmitter Mode
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler
Bits are 0
0xA8
0xB0
0xB8
0xC0
0xC8
402
Status of the 2-wire
Serial Bus and 2-wire
Serial Interface
Hardware
Application Software Response
To TWCR
To/from TWDR
STA
STD
TWINT
TWEA
Own SLA+R has been
received; ACK has been
returned
Load data byte or
X
0
1
0
Load data byte
X
0
1
1
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W
as Master; own SLA+R has
been received; ACK has
been returned
Data byte in TWDR has
been transmitted; ACK has
been received
Load data byte or
X
0
1
0
Load data byte
X
0
1
1
Load data byte or
X
0
1
0
Load data byte
X
0
1
1
Data byte in TWDR has
been transmitted; NOT
ACK has been received
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
0
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
0
No TWDR action
1
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
0
No TWDR action or
0
0
1
1
No TWDR action or
1
0
1
0
No TWDR action
1
0
1
1
Last data byte in TWDR
has been transmitted
(TWEA = “0”); ACK has
been received
Next Action Taken by TWI
Hardware
Last data byte will be transmitted and
NOT ACK should be received Data
byte will be transmitted and ACK
should be received
Last data byte will be transmitted and
NOT ACK should be received Data
byte will be transmitted and ACK
should be received
Last data byte will be transmitted and
NOT ACK should be received
Data byte will be transmitted and
ACK should be received
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; no recognition of own SLA or
GCA
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE =
“1”
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; no recognition of own SLA or
GCA; a START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE =
“1”; a START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; no recognition of own SLA or
GCA
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE =
“1”
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; no recognition of own SLA or
GCA; a START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
Switched to the not addressed Slave
mode; own SLA will be recognized;
GCA will be recognized if TWGCE =
“1”; a START condition will be
transmitted when the bus becomes
free
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Figure 25-18. Formats and States in the Slave Transmitter Mode
Reception of the own
slave address and one or
more data bytes
S
SLA
R
A
DATA
A
$A8
Arbitration lost as master
and addressed as slave
DATA
$B8
A
P or S
$C0
A
$B0
Last data byte transmitted.
Switched to not addressed
slave (TWEA = ’0’)
A
All 1’s
P or S
$C8
DATA
From master to slave
A
From slave to master
Any number of data bytes
and their associated acknowledge bits
This number (contained in TWSR) corresponds
to a defined state of the Two-Wire Serial Bus. The
prescaler bits are zero or masked to zero
n
25.7.5 Miscellaneous States
There are two status codes that do not correspond to a defined TWI state, see Table
25-7 below.
Status 0xF8 indicates that no relevant information is available because the TWINT Flag
is not set. This occurs between other states, and when the TWI is not involved in a
serial transfer.
Status 0x00 indicates that a bus error has occurred during a 2-wire Serial Bus transfer.
A bus error occurs when a START or STOP condition occurs at an illegal position in the
format frame. Examples of such illegal positions are during the serial transfer of an
address byte, a data byte, or an acknowledge bit. When a bus error occurs, TWINT is
set. To recover from a bus error, the TWSTO Flag must set and TWINT must be
cleared by writing a logic one to it. This causes the TWI to enter the not addressed
Slave mode and to clear the TWSTO Flag (no other bits in TWCR are affected). The
SDA and SCL lines are released, and no STOP condition is transmitted.
Table 25-7. Miscellaneous States
Status Code
(TWSR)
Prescaler
Bits are 0
0xF8
0x00
Status of the 2-wire
Serial Bus and 2-wire
Serial Interface Hardware
No relevant state
information available
Bus error due to an illegal
START or STOP condition
Application Software Response
To TWCR
To/from TWDR
STA
TWDR action
No TWCR action
No TWDR action
STO
0
1
TWINT
TWEA
Next Action Taken by TWI
Hardware
Wait or proceed current transfer
1
X
Only the internal hardware is
affected, no STOP condition is sent
on the bus. In all cases, the bus is
released and TWSTO is cleared.
25.7.6 Combining Several TWI Modes
In some cases, several TWI modes must be combined in order to complete the desired
action. Consider for example reading data from a serial EEPROM. Typically, such a
transfer involves the following steps:
1. The transfer must be initiated.
2. The EEPROM must be instructed what location should be read.
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3. The reading must be performed.
4. The transfer must be finished.
Note that data is transmitted both from Master to Slave and vice versa. The Master
must instruct the Slave what location it wants to read, requiring the use of the MT mode.
Subsequently, data must be read from the Slave, implying the use of the MR mode.
Thus, the transfer direction must be changed. The Master must keep control of the bus
during all these steps, and the steps should be carried out as an atomic operation. If
this principle is violated in a multi-master system, another Master can alter the data
pointer in the EEPROM between steps 2 and 3, and the Master will read the wrong data
location. Such a change in transfer direction is accomplished by transmitting a
REPEATED START between the transmission of the address byte and reception of the
data. After a REPEATED START, the Master keeps ownership of the bus. The following
figure shows the flow in this transfer.
Figure 25-19. Combining Several TWI Modes to Access a Serial EEPROM
Master Transmitter
S
SLA+W
A
ADDRESS
S = START
Master Receiver
A
Rs
SLA+R
A
DATA
Rs = REPEATED START
Transmitted from master to slave
A
P
P = STOP
Transmitted from slave to master
25.8 Multi-master Systems and Arbitration
If multiple masters are connected to the same bus, transmissions may be initiated
simultaneously by one or more of them. The TWI standard ensures that such situations
are handled in such a way that one of the masters will be allowed to proceed with the
transfer, and that no data will be lost in the process. An example of an arbitration
situation is depicted below, where two masters are trying to transmit data to a Slave
Receiver.
Figure 25-20. An Arbitration Example
DEVDD
Device 1
Device 2
Device 3
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
SLAVE
RECEIVER
........
Device n
R1
R2
SDA
SCL
Several different scenarios may arise during arbitration, as described below:
• Two or more masters are performing identical communication with the same Slave.
In this case, neither the Slave nor any of the masters will know about the bus
contention.
• Two or more masters are accessing the same Slave with different data or direction
bit. In this case, arbitration will occur, either in the READ/WRITE bit or in the data
bits. The masters trying to output a one on SDA while another Master outputs a zero
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will lose the arbitration. Losing masters will switch to not addressed Slave mode or
wait until the bus is free and transmit a new START condition, depending on
application software action.
• Two or more masters are accessing different slaves. In this case, arbitration will
occur in the SLA bits. Masters trying to output a one on SDA while another Master
outputs a zero will lose the arbitration. Masters losing arbitration in SLA will switch to
Slave mode to check if they are being addressed by the winning Master. If
addressed, they will switch to SR or ST mode, depending on the value of the
READ/WRITE bit. If they are not being addressed, they will switch to not addressed
Slave mode or wait until the bus is free and transmit a new START condition,
depending on application software action.
This is summarized in Figure 25-21 below. Possible status values are given in circles.
Figure 25-21. Possible Status Codes Caused by Arbitration
START
SLA
Data
Arbitration lost in SLA
Own
Address / General Call
received
No
STOP
Arbitration lost in Data
38
TWI bus will be released and not addressed slave mode will be entered
A START condition will be transmitted when the bus becomes free
Yes
Direction
Write
68/78
Read
B0
Data byte will be received and NOT ACK will be returned
Data byte will be received and ACK will be returned
Last data byte will be transmitted and NOT ACK should be received
Data byte will be transmitted and ACK should be received
25.9 Register Description
25.9.1 TWBR – TWI Bit Rate Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($B8)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TWBR7:0
RW
0
TWBR
The SCL period is controlled by settings in the TWI Bit Rate Register (TWBR) and the
Prescaler bits in the TWI Status Register (TWSR). Slave operation does not depend on
Bit Rate or Prescaler settings, but the CPU clock frequency in the Slave must be at
least 16 times higher than the SCL frequency.
• Bit 7:0 – TWBR7:0 - TWI Bit Rate Register Value
The TWBR register selects the division factor for the bit rate generator. The bit rate
generator is a frequency divider which generates the SCL clock frequency in the Master
modes. See section "Bit Rate Generator Unit" for calculating bit rates.
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25.9.2 TWCR – TWI Control Register
Bit
NA ($BC)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWINT
TWEA
TWSTA
TWSTO
TWWC
TWEN
Res
TWIE
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
TWCR
The TWCR is used to control the operation of the TWI. It is used to enable the TWI, to
initiate a Master access by applying a START condition to the bus, to generate a
Receiver acknowledge, to generate a stop condition, and to control halting of the bus
while the data to be written to the bus are put into the TWDR. It also indicates a write
collision if data writing to TWDR is attempted while the register is inaccessible.
• Bit 7 – TWINT - TWI Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware when the TWI has finished its current job and expects
application software response. If the I-bit in SREG and TWIE in TWCR are set, the
MCU will jump to the TWI Interrupt Vector. While the TWINT Flag is set, the SCL low
period is stretched. The TWINT Flag must be cleared by software by writing a logic one
to it. Note that this flag is not automatically cleared by hardware when executing the
interrupt routine. Also note that clearing this flag starts the operation of the TWI. So all
accesses to the TWI Address Register (TWAR), TWI Status Register (TWSR) and TWI
Data Register (TWDR) must be complete before clearing this flag.
• Bit 6 – TWEA - TWI Enable Acknowledge Bit
The TWEA bit controls the generation of the acknowledge pulse. If the TWEA bit is
written to one, the ACK pulse is generated on the TWI bus if the following conditions
are met: 1. The devices own slave address has been received; 2. A general call has
been received, while the TWGCE bit in the TWAR is set. 3. A data byte has been
received in Master Receiver or Slave Receiver mode. By writing the TWEA bit to zero,
the device can be virtually disconnected from the 2-wire Serial Bus temporarily.
Address recognition can then be resumed by writing the TWEA bit to one again.
• Bit 5 – TWSTA - TWI START Condition Bit
The application writes the TWSTA bit to one when it desires to become a Master on the
2-wire Serial Bus. The TWI hardware checks if the bus is available and generates a
START condition on the bus if it is free. However, if the bus is not free, the TWI waits
until a STOP condition is detected and then generates a new START condition to claim
the bus Master status. TWSTA must be cleared by software when the START condition
has been transmitted.
• Bit 4 – TWSTO - TWI STOP Condition Bit
Writing the TWSTO bit to one in Master mode will generate a STOP condition on the 2wire Serial Bus. When the STOP condition is executed on the bus, the TWSTO bit is
cleared automatically. In Slave mode, setting the TWSTO bit can be used to recover
from an error condition. This will not generate a STOP condition, but the TWI returns to
a well-defined not-addressed Slave mode and releases the SCL and SDA lines to a
high impedance state.
• Bit 3 – TWWC - TWI Write Collision Flag
The TWWC bit is set when attempting to write to the TWI Data Register TWDR when
TWINT is low. This flag is cleared by writing the TWDR Register when TWINT is high.
• Bit 2 – TWEN - TWI Enable Bit
The TWEN bit enables TWI operation and activates the TWI interface. When TWEN is
written to one, the TWI takes control over the I/O ports connected to the SCL and SDA
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pins enabling the slew-rate limiters and spike filters. If this bit is written to zero, the TWI
is switched off and all TWI transmissions are terminated regardless of any ongoing
operation.
• Bit 1 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 0 – TWIE - TWI Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in SREG is set, the TWI interrupt request will
be activated for as long as the TWINT Flag is high.
25.9.3 TWSR – TWI Status Register
Bit
NA ($B9)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWS7
TWS6
TWS5
TWS4
TWS3
Res
TWPS1
TWPS0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
TWSR
• Bit 7:3 – TWS4:0 - TWI Status
These 5 bits reflect the status of the TWI logic and the 2-wire Serial Bus. The different
status codes for both transmitter and receiver mode are described in the following table.
Note that the value read from TWSR contains both the 5-bit status value and the 2-bit
prescaler value. The application designer should mask the prescaler bits to zero when
checking the Status bits. This makes status checking independent of prescaler setting.
This approach is used in this datasheet, unless otherwise noted.
Table 25-8 TWS Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
TWS4:0
0x00
Bus error due to illegal START or STOP
condition.
0x08
A START condition has been transmitted.
0x10
A repeated START condition has been
transmitted.
0x18
SLA+W has been transmitted; ACK has
been received.
0x20
SLA+W has been transmitted; NOT ACK has
been received.
0x28
Data byte has been transmitted; ACK has
been received.
0x30
Data byte has been transmitted; NOT ACK
has been received.
0x38
Arbitration lost in SLA+W or data bytes
(Transmitter); Arbitration lost in SLA+R or
NOT ACK bit (Receiver).
0x40
SLA+R has been transmitted; ACK has been
received.
0x48
SLA+R has been transmitted; NOT ACK has
been received.
0x50
Data byte has been received; ACK has been
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Register Bits
Value
Description
returned.
0x58
Data byte has been received; NOT ACK has
been returned.
0x60
Own SLA+W has been received; ACK has
been returned.
0x68
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W as Master; own
SLA+W has been received; ACK has been
returned.
0x70
General call address has been received;
ACK has been returned.
0x78
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W as Master;
general call address has been received;
ACK has been returned.
0x80
Previously addressed with own SLA+W; data
has been received; ACK has been returned.
0x88
Previously addressed with own SLA+W; data
has been received; NOT ACK has been
returned.
0x90
Previously addressed with general call; data
has been received; ACK has been returned.
0x98
Previously addressed with general call; data
has been received; NOT ACK has been
returned.
0xA0
A STOP condition or repeated START
condition has been received while still
addressed as Slave.
0xA8
Own SLA+R has been received; ACK has
been returned.
0xB0
Arbitration lost in SLA+R/W as Master; own
SLA+R has been received; ACK has been
returned.
0xB8
Data byte in TWDR has been transmitted;
ACK has been received.
0xC0
Data byte in TWDR has been transmitted;
NO ACK has been received.
0xC8
Last data byte in TWDR has been
transmitted (TWEA = 0); ACK has been
received.
0xF8
No relevant state information available;
TWINT = 0.
• Bit 2 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 1:0 – TWPS1:0 - TWI Prescaler Bits
These bits can be read and written and control the bit rate of the prescaler.
Table 25-9 TWPS Register Bits
408
Register Bits
Value
Description
TWPS1:0
0x00
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Register Bits
Value
Description
0x01
4
0x02
16
0x03
64
25.9.4 TWDR – TWI Data Register
Bit
NA ($BB)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWD7
TWD6
TWD5
TWD4
TWD3
TWD2
TWD1
TWD0
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
RW
1
Read/Write
Initial Value
TWDR
In Transmit mode, TWDR contains the next byte to be transmitted. In Receive mode,
the TWDR contains the last byte received. It is writable while the TWI is not in the
process of shifting a byte. This occurs when the TWI Interrupt Flag (TWINT) is set by
hardware. Note that the Data Register cannot be initialized by the user before the first
interrupt occurs. The data in TWDR remains stable as long as TWINT is set. While data
is shifted out, data on the bus is simultaneously shifted in. TWDR always contains the
last byte present on the bus, except after a wake up from a sleep mode by the TWI
interrupt. In this case, the contents of TWDR is undefined. In the case of a lost bus
arbitration, no data is lost in the transition from Master to Slave. Handling of the ACK bit
is automatically controlled by the TWI logic. The CPU cannot access the ACK bit
directly.
• Bit 7:0 – TWD7:0 - TWI Data Register Byte
25.9.5 TWAR – TWI (Slave) Address Register
Bit
NA ($BA)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWA6
TWA5
TWA4
TWA3
TWA2
TWA1
TWA0
TWGCE
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
TWAR
The TWAR should be loaded with the 7-bit Slave address (in the seven most significant
bits of TWAR) to which the TWI will respond when programmed as a Slave Transmitter
or Receiver. This register is not needed in the Master modes. In multi-master systems
TWAR must be set in Masters which can be addressed as Slaves by other Masters.
The LSB of TWAR is used to enable the recognition of the general call address (0x00).
There is an associated address comparator that looks for the slave address (or general
call address if enabled) in the received serial address. If a match is found, an interrupt
request is generated.
• Bit 7:1 – TWA6:0 - TWI (Slave) Address
These bits contain the TWI address operated as a Slave device.
• Bit 0 – TWGCE - TWI General Call Recognition Enable Bit
If set, this bit enables the recognition of a General Call given over the 2-wire Serial Bus.
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25.9.6 TWAMR – TWI (Slave) Address Mask Register
Bit
NA ($BD)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
TWAM6
TWAM5
TWAM4
TWAM3
TWAM2
TWAM1
TWAM0
Res
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
R
0
TWAMR
• Bit 7:1 – TWAM6:0 - TWI Address Mask
The TWAMR can be loaded with a 7-bit Slave Address mask. Each of the bits in
TWAMR can mask (disable) the corresponding address bit in the TWI Address Register
(TWAR). If the mask bit is set to one then the address match logic ignores the compare
between the incoming address bit and the corresponding bit in TWAR.
• Bit 0 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
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26 AC – Analog Comparator
The Analog Comparator compares the input values on the positive pin AIN0 and
negative pin AIN1. When the voltage on the positive pin AIN0 is higher than the voltage
on the negative pin AIN1, the Analog Comparator output, ACO, is set. The comparator’s
output can be set to trigger the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture function. In addition, the
comparator can trigger a separate interrupt, exclusive to the Analog Comparator. The
user can select Interrupt triggering on comparator output rise, fall or toggle. A block
diagram of the comparator and its surrounding logic is shown in Figure 26-1 below.
The Power Reduction ADC bit PRADC in PRR0 (see "PRR0 – Power Reduction
Register0" on page 171) must be disabled by writing a logical zero to be able to use the
ADC input multiplexer.
Figure 26-1. Analog Comparator Block Diagram
Note:
1. See Table 26-1 below.
2. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2 and Table 14-9 en page 201 for Analog Comparator
pin placement.
26.1 Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
It is possible to select any of the ADC7:0 pins as the negative input of the Analog
Comparator. The ADC multiplexer is used to select this input and consequently the
ADC must be switched off to utilize this feature. If the Analog Comparator Multiplexer
Enable bit (ACME in ADCSRB) is set and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is
zero), MUX5 and MUX2:0 in ADMUX select the input pin to replace the negative input
to the Analog Comparator, as shown in Table 26-1 below. If ACME is cleared or ADEN
is set, AIN1 is applied to the negative input to the Analog Comparator.
Table 26-1. Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input
ACME
ADEN
MUX5
MUX2:0
Analog Comparator Negative Input
0
x
x
xxx
AIN1
1
1
x
xxx
AIN1
1
0
0
000
ADC0
1
0
0
001
ADC1
1
0
0
010
ADC2
1
0
0
011
ADC3
1
0
0
100
ADC4
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ACME
ADEN
MUX5
MUX2:0
Analog Comparator Negative Input
1
0
0
101
ADC5
1
0
0
110
ADC6
1
0
0
111
ADC7
26.2 Register Description
26.2.1 ACSR – Analog Comparator Control And Status Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
$30 ($50)
ACD
ACBG
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
RW
0
ACO
ACI
ACIE
ACIC
ACIS1
ACIS0
R
NA
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
ACSR
• Bit 7 – ACD - Analog Comparator Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the power to the Analog Comparator is switched off.
This bit can be set at any time to turn off the Analog Comparator. This will reduce power
consumption in Active and Idle mode. When changing the ACD bit, the Analog
Comparator Interrupt must be disabled by clearing the ACIE bit in ACSR. Otherwise an
interrupt can occur when the bit is changed.
• Bit 6 – ACBG - Analog Comparator Bandgap Select
When this bit is set, a fixed bandgap reference voltage connects to the positive input of
the Analog Comparator. When this bit is cleared, AIN0 is applied to the positive input of
the Analog Comparator. When the bandgap reference is used as the input of the
Analog Comparator, it will take a certain time for the voltage to stabilize. If not
stabilized, the first comparison may give a wrong value. See section "Internal Voltage
Reference" for details.
• Bit 5 – ACO - Analog Compare Output
The output of the analog comparator is synchronized and then directly connected to
ACO. The synchronization introduces a delay of 1-2 clock cycles.
• Bit 4 – ACI - Analog Comparator Interrupt Flag
This bit is set by hardware when a comparator output event triggers the interrupt mode
defined by ACIS1 and ACIS0. The Analog Comparator Interrupt routine is executed if
the ACIE bit is set and the I-bit in SREG is set. ACI is cleared by hard-ware when
executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, ACI is cleared by
writing a logic one to the flag.
• Bit 3 – ACIE - Analog Comparator Interrupt Enable
When the ACIE bit is written logic one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the
analog comparator interrupt is activated. When written logic zero, the interrupt is
disabled.
• Bit 2 – ACIC - Analog Comparator Input Capture Enable
When written logic one, this bit enables the input capture function in Timer/Counter1 to
be triggered by the Analog Comparator. The comparator output is in this case directly
connected to the input capture front-end logic, making the comparator utilize the noise
canceler and edge select features of the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture interrupt. When
written logic zero, no connection between the Analog Comparator and the input capture
function exists. To make the comparator trigger the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture
interrupt, the ICIE1 bit in the Timer Interrupt Mask Register (TIMSK1) must be set.
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• Bit 1:0 – ACIS1:0 - Analog Comparator Interrupt Mode Select
These bits determine which comparator events that trigger the Analog Comparator
interrupt. The different settings are shown in the following table. When changing the
ACIS1/ACIS0 bits, the Analog Comparator Interrupt must be disabled by clearing its
Interrupt Enable bit in the ACSR Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the
bits are changed.
Table 26-2 ACIS Register Bits
Register Bits
Value
Description
ACIS1:0
0x00
Interrupt on Toggle
0x01
Reserved
0x02
Interrupt on Falling Edge
0x03
Interrupt on Rising Edge
26.2.2 ADCSRB – ADC Control and Status Register B
Bit
7
NA ($7B)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ACME
Read/Write
Initial Value
ADCSRB
RW
0
• Bit 6 – ACME - Analog Comparator Multiplexer Enable
When this bit is written logic one and the ADC is switched off (ADEN in ADCSRA is
zero), the ADC multiplexer defines the negative input of the Analog Comparator. When
this bit is written logic zero, AIN1 is applied to the negative input of the Analog
Comparator. For a detailed description of this bit, see section "Analog Comparator
Multiplexed Input".
26.2.3 DIDR1 – Digital Input Disable Register 1
Bit
7
6
5
4
NA ($7F)
Read/Write
Initial Value
3
2
1
0
AIN1D
AIN0D
RW
0
RW
0
DIDR1
• Bit 1 – AIN1D - AIN1 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the AIN1 pin is disabled. The
corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an
analog signal is applied to the AIN1 pin and the digital input from this pin is not needed,
this bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in the digital input
buffer.
• Bit 0 – AIN0D - AIN0 Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the AIN0 pin is disabled. The
corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is set. When an
analog signal is applied to the AIN0 pin and the digital input from this pin is not needed,
this bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in the digital input
buffer.
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27 ADC – Analog to Digital Converter
27.1 Features
• 10-bit Resolution
• Differential Non-Linearity is less than ± 0.5 LSB
• 2 LSB Integral Non-Linearity
• 3 - 240 µs Conversion Time
• Up to 330 kSPS (Up to 570 kSPS with 8-bit Resolution)
• 8 Multiplexed Single Ended Input Channels
• 11 Differential Input Channels
• 2 Differential Input Channels with an Optional Gain of 10x and 200x
• Internal Linear Temperature Sensor
• Optional Left Adjustment for ADC Result Readout
• 0 - VAVDD ADC Input Voltage Range
• 0 - VEVDD Differential ADC Input Voltage Range
• Selectable 1.5V, 1.6V or VAVDD ADC Reference Voltage
• Free Running or Single Conversion Mode
• Interrupt on ADC Conversion Complete
• Sleep Mode Noise Canceller
The ATmega128RFA1 features a 10-bit successive approximation ADC. The ADC is
connected to an 8-channel Analog Multiplexer which allows eight single-ended voltage
inputs constructed from the pins of Port F. The single-ended voltage inputs refer to 0V
(AVSS).
The device also supports multiple differential voltage input combinations. Two of the
differential inputs (ADC1 & ADC0 and ADC3 & ADC2) are equipped with a
programmable gain stage, providing amplification steps of 0 dB (1x), 20 dB (10x) or 46
dB (200x) on the differential input voltage before the A/D conversion. The differential
input channels are constructed of pairs out of the 8 single-ended inputs. They share a
common negative terminal (ADC0, ADC1 or ADC2), while most of the other ADC inputs
can be selected as the positive input terminal. If 1x or 10x gain is used, 8 bit resolution
can be expected. If 200x gain is used, 6 bit resolution can be expected.
The ADC contains a Sample and Hold circuit which ensures that the input voltage to the
ADC is held at a constant level during conversion. A block diagram of the ADC is shown
in Figure 27-1 on page 415.
The analog components of the ADC are supplied from the analog supply voltage AVDD.
AVDD is generated from EVDD by an internal voltage generator. The logic part of the
ADC is supplied from the digital supply voltage DVDD. DVDD is generated from
DEVDD also by an internal voltage generator.
Internal reference voltages of nominally 1.5V, 1.6V or AVDD (1.8V) are provided onchip. The 1.6V reference is calibrated to ± 1 LSB during manufacturing. The reference
voltage can be monitored at the AREF pin. Additional de-coupling capacitance at AREF
is not required. A high capacitive loading of AREF will de-stabilize the internal reference
voltage generation. An external reference voltage in the range of 0 < VAREF,EXT ≤ VAVDD
may be used but must be supplied with a very low impedance.
The Power Reduction ADC bit, PRADC (see "PRR0 – Power Reduction Register0" on
page 171) must be disabled by writing a logical zero to enable the ADC.
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ATmega128RFA1
Figure 27-1. Analog to Digital Converter Block Schematic
AD C ON VER SION
C OMPLETE IRQ
INTE RRUP T
FLAGS
ADTS [2:0]
TRIGGER
SELECT
ADC[9:0]
ADIF
0
AD C DATA R EG ISTER
(ADC H/AD CL)
ADFR
ADSC
ADPS[2:0]
ADIF
ADEN
ACCH
DIFF / GAIN SELECT
CHANNEL SELECTION
INTERNAL
REFERENCE
(1.5V/1.6V)
15
AD C C TRL & STATUS
REGISTER A (AD CSR A)
PR ESC ALER
M UX D EC ODER
AVD D
ADSUT[4:0]
AD C C TRL & STATU S
REG ISTER C (ADC SR C)
ADTHT[1:0]
AD C CTRL & STATUS
R EGISTER B (ADC SR B)
MUX[5]
ADLAR
MUX[4:0]
REFS[1:0]
ADC MULTIPLEXER
SELECT (ADMU X)
ADIE
8-BIT D ATABU S
STA RT
C ON VER SION LOGIC
AREF
10-bit DAC
SAMPLE & H OLD
CO MPARATOR
ADC[2:0]
GAIN
AMPLIFIER
AD C[7:0]
BA NDGAP
REFERE NCE
1.2V
TEM PE RA TURE
S ENS OR
CLAMP
AD C
MULTIPLEXER
OUTPUT
DRT VO LTA GE
SRAM 2
AVSS
27.2 Operation
The ADC converts an analog input voltage to a 10-bit digital value through successive
approximation. The minimum value represents 0V (conversion result 0x000) and the
maximum value in single ended mode represents the reference voltage minus 1 LSB
(conversion result 0x3FF). The reference voltage can be measured at the AREF pin.
The internal, generated reference voltage can have the values 1.5V, 1.6V or AVDD
where the 1.6V has the highest absolute accuracy. The reference voltage is selected by
writing to the REFSn bits in the ADMUX Register. An external reference voltage can
also be selected. Such an external voltage must be supplied with a very low impedance
RAREF,EXT (see "ADC Characteristics" on page 520). The load current IL,AREF (see "ADC
Characteristics" on page 520) seen by the external source is code dependent and
changes in the course of the successive approximation process (load current steps).
The internal voltage reference (except AVDD) must not be decoupled by an external
capacitor. Adding unnecessary external capacitance at the AREF pin will cause instable
operation of the internal reference voltage buffer and will not improve noise immunity.
The analog input channel is selected by writing to the MUX bits in ADMUX and
ADCSRB. Any of the ADC input pins, as well as AVSS and a fixed bandgap voltage
reference can be selected as single ended inputs to the ADC. A choice of ADC input
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
pins can be selected as positive and negative inputs to the differential amplifier.
Furthermore the temperature sensor and the DRT voltages of SRAM2 can also be
processed with the ADC.
If differential channels are selected, the amplified voltage difference between the
selected input channel pair then becomes the input of the ADC. The respective pin
voltages for a differential measurement can be in the range from 0V to EVDD. In this
way it is possible to handle differential input voltages with a common mode value higher
than AVDD e.g. process a 50mV differential signal with a 2.5V common mode voltage.
If single ended channels are used, the gain amplifier is bypassed altogether. Any ADC
input voltage (single-ended or amplified-differential) exceeding AVDD will be internally
clamped to AVDD to avoid damaging the ADC circuitry. Note that the pin input current
will not increase if the clamp circuit is active.
The ADC is enabled by setting ADEN bit in ADCSRA. Voltage reference and input
channel selections will not go into effect until ADEN is set. The ADC does not consume
power when ADEN is cleared. It is required to disable the ADC before entering power
saving sleep modes.
The ADC generates a 10-bit result which is presented in the ADC Data Registers,
ADCH and ADCL. By default, the result is presented right adjusted, but can optionally
be presented left adjusted by setting the ADLAR bit in ADMUX.
If the result is left adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision is required, it is sufficient to
read ADCH. Otherwise, ADCL must be read first, then ADCH, to ensure that the
content of the Data Registers belongs to the same conversion. Once ADCL is read,
ADC access to Data Registers is blocked. This means that if ADCL has been read, and
a conversion completes before ADCH is read, neither register is updated and the result
from the conversion is lost. When ADCH is read, ADC access to the ADCH and ADCL
Registers is re-enabled.
The ADC has its own interrupt which can be triggered when a conversion completes.
When ADC access to the Data Registers is prohibited between reading of ADCH and
ADCL, the interrupt will trigger even if the result is lost.
27.3 ADC Start-Up
After the ADC is enabled by setting ADEN, it will go through a start-up phase. The
analog supply voltage AVDD is turned on. It takes time tAVREG (see "Power Management
Electrical Characteristics" on page 516) µs for AVDD to stabilize. A stable AVDD
voltage is indicated by the AVDDOK bit in ADCSRB. After this the ADC and, for
differential input channels also the gain amplifier, is powered up. The duration of this
phase depends on the ADC clock period and the configuration of the Start-Up and
Track-And–Hold Time bits, ADSUT and ADTHT in ADCSRC. For details about the startup timing refer to section "Pre-scaling and Conversion Timing" on page 417.
During the ADC start-up phase a conversion start can already be requested by writing a
logical one to the ADC Start Conversion bit, ADSC in ADCSRA. In this case a
conversion is started directly after the start-up phase. During the start-up phase it is still
possible to change the analog input channel until the AVDDOK bit changes to logic one
or, if the AVDDOK bit is one, until the ADSC bit is set.
27.4 Starting a Conversion
A single conversion is started by writing a logical one to the ADC Start Conversion bit,
ADSC. This bit stays high as long as the conversion is in progress and will be cleared
by hardware when the conversion is completed. If a different data channel is selected
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while a conversion is in progress, the ADC will finish the current conversion before
performing the channel change.
Alternatively, a conversion can be triggered automatically by various sources. Auto
Triggering is enabled by setting the ADC Auto Trigger Enable bit, ADATE in ADCSRA.
The trigger source is selected by setting the ADC Trigger Select bits, ADTS in ADCSRB
(See description of the ADTS bits for a list of the trigger sources). When a positive edge
occurs on the selected trigger signal, the ADC prescaler is reset and a conversion is
started. This provides a method of starting conversions at fixed intervals. If the trigger
signal still is set when the conversion completes, a new conversion will not be started. If
another positive edge occurs on the trigger signal during conversion, the edge will be
ignored. Note that an Interrupt Flag will be set even if the specific interrupt is disabled or
the Global Interrupt Enable bit in SREG is cleared. A conversion can thus be triggered
without causing an interrupt. However, the Interrupt Flag must be cleared in order to
trigger a new conversion at the next interrupt event.
Figure 27-2. ADC Auto Trigger Logic
ADTS[2:0]
PRESCALER
START
ADIF
CLKADC
ADATE
SOURCE 1
.
.
.
.
SOURCE n
CONVERSION
LOGIC
EDGE
DETECTOR
ADSC
Using the ADC Interrupt Flag as a trigger source makes the ADC start a new
conversion as soon as the ongoing conversion has finished. The ADC then operates in
Free Running mode, constantly sampling and updating the ADC Data Register. The first
conversion must be started by writing a logical one to the ADSC bit in ADCSRA. In this
mode the ADC will perform successive conversions independently of whether the ADC
Interrupt Flag, ADIF is cleared or not.
If Auto Triggering is enabled, single conversions can be started by writing ADSC in
ADCSRA to one. ADSC can also be used to determine if a conversion is in progress.
The ADSC bit will be read as one during a conversion, independently of how the
conversion was started.
27.5 Pre-scaling and Conversion Timing
27.5.1 Prescaler
By default, the successive approximation circuitry requires an input clock frequency
between 50 kHz and 4 MHz. If a lower resolution than 10 bits is needed, the input clock
frequency to the ADC can be as high as 8 MHz to get a higher sample rate. For
differential input channels the ADC clock speed is restricted to a maximum of 2 MHz.
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Figure 27-3. ADC Prescaler
ADEN
START
Reset
7-BIT ADC PRESCALER
CK/64
CK/128
CK/32
CK/8
CK/16
CK/4
CK/2
CK
ADPS0
ADPS1
ADPS2
ADC CLOCK SOURCE
The ADC module contains a prescaler, which generates an acceptable ADC clock
frequency from any CPU frequency above 100 kHz. The pre-scaling is set by the ADPS
bits in ADCSRA. The prescaler starts counting from the moment when the ADC is
enabled. The prescaler keeps running for as long as the ADEN bit is set, and is
continuously reset when ADEN is low.
27.5.2 Start-Up Timing
The ADC is enabled by setting the ADEN bit in ADCSRA. First the analog voltage
regulator is powered up which takes tAVREG (see "Power Management Electrical
Characteristics" on page 516). A stable AVDD is indicated by the AVDDOK bit in
ADCSRB.
After AVDD has stabilized, the ADC is started. The ADC start-up time has a length of
tADSU and can be adjusted by the Start-Up time bits ADSUT4:0 in ADCSRC. If
differential input channels are used, then an additional initialization period tAINIT is
required by the gain amplifier. This period is configured by the Track-And-Hold Time
bits, ADTHT1:0 in ADCSRC. ADSUT4:0 and ADTHT1:0 are fixed numbers of ADC
clock cycles and can be setup for different ADC clock speeds.
The minimum required ADC start-up time is 20 µs. Note that for the maximum ADC
speed of 8 MHz the start-up time can not be set higher than 16 µs in ADSUT4:0. Under
this condition the user has either to ensure that a conversion is not started earlier than
20 µs after the ADC is enabled or the first conversion result should be discarded.
For a summary of start-up times and sequences see Table 27-1 below, Table 27-2
below, Figure 27-4 on page 419 and Figure 27-5 on page 419.
Table 27-1. Start-Up Time, Single Ended Channels
Parameter
Duration in ADC Clock Cycles
ADC Start-Up Time tADSU
4(ADSUT+1), minimum 20 µs
Table 27-2. Start-Up Time, Differential Channels
418
Parameter
Duration in ADC Clock Cycles
ADC Start-Up Time tADSU
4(ADSUT+1), minimum 20 µs
Gain Amplifier Initialization Time tAINIT
2(ADTHT+2)
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Figure 27-4. ADC Timing Diagram, Start-Up for Single Ended Channels
AVDD
P o w e r -U p
ADC
S t a rt -U p
C o n v e rs io n
A D C C lo c k
ADEN
AVDDOK
ADSC
A D IF
ADCH
S ig n a n d M S B o f R e s u lt
ADCL
L S B o f R e s u lt
tAV PU
tA D S U
11 T ADC_CLK
C o n v e rs io n
C o m p le te
S a m p le
& H o ld
M U X a n d R E F S U p d a te
Figure 27-5. ADC Timing Diagram, Start-Up for Differential Channels
AVDD
P o w e r -U p
ADC
S ta rt - U p
A m p lifie r
In it
C o n v e r s io n
A D C C lo c k
ADEN
AVDDOK
ADSC
A D IF
S ig n a n d M S B
ADCH
L S B o f R e s u lt
ADCL
tA V P U
tA D S U
t A IN IT
1 1 T AD C_CLK
S a m p le
& H o ld
M U X a n d R E F S U p d a te
C o n v e r s io n
C o m p le te
27.5.3 Conversion Timing
The delay from requesting a conversion start by setting the ADSC bit in ADCSRA to the
moment where the sample-and-hold takes place is fixed. The same fixed delay also
applies for auto triggered conversions. In this case three additional CPU clock cycles
are used for the trigger event synchronization logic. The delay depends on the
prescaler configuration ADPS and if single-ended or differential channels are used. A
summary is given in Table 27-3 below. All conversions take 11 ADC clock cycles.
When a conversion is complete, the result is written to the ADC Data Registers, and
ADIF is set. In Single Conversion mode, ADSC is cleared simultaneously. The software
may then set ADSC again, and a new conversion will be initiated at the earliest after the
following tracking phase. The tracking phase is required after each conversion. Its
duration can be adjusted according to the ADC clock speed by the ADTHT bits in
ADCSRC and is different for single-ended and differential channels. For details see
Table 27-4 on page 420.
In Free Running mode, a new conversion will be started immediately after the tracking
phase of the previous conversion while ADSC remains high. The calculation of the
resulting sample rate is given in Table 27-5 on page 420.
For timing diagrams of single and auto triggered and free running conversions see
Figure 27-6 on page 420 to Figure 27-8 on page 421.
Table 27-3. Conversion Start Delay
Channel
ADPS
Delay from Conversion Start Request to Sample &
Hold tSCSMP
Single-Ended
0, 1
2 CPU clock cycles
2
4 CPU clock cycles
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Channel
Differential
ADPS
Delay from Conversion Start Request to Sample &
Hold tSCSMP
3
0 CPU clock cycles
4…7
0 CPU clock cycles
0…7
2 ADC clock cycles
Table 27-4. Tracking Time
Channel
Tracking Phase Duration tTRCK in ADC Clock Cycles
Single-Ended
ADTHT+1, minimum 500 ns
Differential
2ADTHT+3
Table 27-5. Sample Rate in Free Running Mode
Channel
Sample Rate in ADC Clock Cycles
Single-Ended
ADTHT+12
Differential
2ADTHT+14
Figure 27-6. ADC Timing Diagram, Single Conversion
C o n v e rsio n
T ra c k in g
C o n v e rs io n
A D C C lo c k
AD EN
AD SC
A D IF
ADCH
S ig n a n d M S B o f R e s u lt
ADCL
L S B o f R e s u lt
tSC SM P
M U X a n d R E F S U p d a te
1 1 T A DC_CLK
P re s ca le r R e se t
and
S a m p le & H o ld
C o n v e rsio n
C o m p le te
tTR C K
tSC SM P
P re s c a le r
R e se t
and
S a m p le
& H o ld
M U X a n d R E F S U p d a te
Figure 27-7. ADC Timing Diagram, Auto Triggered Conversion
C o n ve rs io n
T ra c kin g
C o n v e rs io n
A D C C lo ck
AD EN
T rig g e r S o u rce
AD ATE
A D IF
ADCH
S ig n a n d M S B o f R e s u lt
ADCL
L S B o f R e su lt
tSC SM P
M U X a n d R E F S U p d a te
420
1 1 T ADC_CLK
P re s ca le r R e s e t
and
S a m p le & H o ld
C o n v e rsio n
C o m p le te
tT R C K
tSC SM P
M U X a n d R E F S U p d a te
P re s ca le r
R e se t
and
S a m p le
& H o ld
ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
Figure 27-8. ADC Timing Diagram, Free Running Conversion
C o n v e rs io n
T ra c k in g
C o n v e rs io n
A D C C lo c k
A D T S [2 :0 ]
0
ADSC
A D IF
ADCH
S ig n a n d M S B o f R e s u lt
ADCL
L S B o f R e s u lt
tT RC K
11 TADC_CLK
C o n v e rs io n
C o m p le te
M U X a n d R E F S U p d a te
1 1 T A D C _C L K
S a m p le & H o ld
27.6 Changing Channel or Reference Selection
The MUXn and REFSn bits in the ADMUX and ADCSRB Register are single buffered
through a temporary register to which the CPU has random access. This ensures that
the channels and reference selection only takes place at a safe point during the
conversion. The channel and reference selection is continuously updated either during
the AVDD power-up phase or until a conversion is started by setting ADSC. After this
the channel and reference selection is locked to ensure a sufficient initialization and
sampling time for the ADC. Continuous updating of the channel selection resumes after
the conversion has completed (ADIF in ADCSRA is set).
If Auto Triggering is used, the exact time of the triggering event can be undetermined.
Special care must be taken when updating the ADMUX Register, in order to control
which conversion will be affected by the new settings.
If both ADATE and ADEN in the ADSCRA Register are written to one, an interrupt
event can occur at any time. If the ADMUX Register is changed in this period, the user
cannot tell if the next conversion is based on the old or the new settings. ADMUX can
be safely updated in the following ways:
1. When ADATE or ADEN is cleared.
2. During a conversion
3. After a conversion, before the Interrupt Flag used as trigger source is cleared.
When updating ADMUX in one of these conditions, the new settings will affect the next
A/D conversion.
After the channel or reference voltage selection is updated a settling time is required for
the ADC and the gain amplifier or the reference voltage to stabilize. When changing
the channel selection while the ADC is enabled the required settling phase is
automatically inserted by the ADC interface, see section "ADC Input Channels" on page
422. For consideration on changing the reference voltage selection please refer to
section "ADC Voltage Reference" on page 423.
27.6.1 Accessing the ADMUX Register
The channel selection bits MUX4:0 and MUX5 are located in two different register, the
ADMUX and the ADCSRB register. To ensure that changes go only into effect after
both register have been changed they are internally buffered (see Figure 27-9 on page
422 and Figure 27-10 on page 423). The MUX5 bit has to written first followed by a
write access to the MUX4:0 bits which triggers the update of the internal buffer. If only
the MUX4:0 bits need to be modified then a write access to the MUX4:0 bits is
sufficient.
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27.6.2 ADC Input Channels
The ADC input channels can be changed while the ADC is running under the condition
that the previous channel was a single-ended one. Changing between differential
channels however requires that the ADC is disabled and enabled again to make the
ADC go through the initial start-up phase.
If changing from single-ended to single-ended or from single-ended to differential input
channels a settling phase is automatically inserted by the ADC interface logic after the
input channel is modified. The settling phase is required by the ADC and the gain
amplifier to stabilize. If a conversions start is requested during this settling phase, by
setting ADSC or by a trigger event in Auto Triggered mode then the conversion is
started only after the settling phase has completed.
In case the MUXn bits are altered during an ongoing conversion, the ADC input channel
is changed after the conversion has completed. MUXn changes occurring during the
tracking phase, which follows a conversion, will stop the tracking phase and the ADC
settling phase will be entered.
In Free Running mode MUXn can also be modified. In this case the ADC input channel
is changed after the conversion end or from the subsequent tracking phase. As a
consequence the time from one conversion to the next is extended by the duration of
the ADC settling phase.
The ADC settling time tASET depends on the previous and the new channel and on the
configuration of the ADSUT and ADTHT bits as shown in Table 27-6 below. Additionally
a synchronization delay tCHDLY from 2 CPU to 2 ADC Clock cycles is required between
changing the ADC input channel selection and the beginning of the settling phase. For
details see the timing diagrams Figure 27-9 below and Figure 27-10 on page 423.
Table 27-6. Settling Time after Channel Changes
Channel Transition
Settling Time tASET in ADC Clock Cycles
Single-Ended to Single-Ended
ADTHT+2
Differential to Single-Ended
ADTHT+2
Differential to Differential
Single-Ended to Differential
Requires the ADC to be disabled and enabled
again.
Figure 27-9. ADC Timing Diagram, Changing MUXn after a Conversion
C o n v e rs io n
A D C S e ttlin g
A D C C lo c k
M U X 5 :0
O ld C h a n n e l
M U X 5 :0 in te rn a l
N ew C hannel
O ld C h a n n e l
N ew C hannel
A D IF
ADCH
S ig n a n d M S B o f R e s u lt
ADCL
L S B o f R e s u lt
tA S E T
C o n v e rs io n
C o m p le te
422
tC HD LY
A D C In p u t
C h a n n e l is
changed
N e w C o n v e rs io n
c a n b e s ta rte d
fro m h e re
ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
Figure 27-10. ADC Timing Diagram, Changing MUXn during a Conversion
C o n ve rsio n
A D C S e ttlin g
A D C C lo ck
M U X 5 :0
M U X 5 :0 in te rn a l
O ld C h a n n e l
N ew C hannel
O ld C h a n n e l
N ew C hannel
A D IF
ADCH
S ig n a n d M S B o f R e su lt
ADCL
L S B o f R e su lt
1 1 T A D C_C LK
C o n ve rsio n
C o m p le te
tA S E T
tC H D L Y
A D C In p u t
C h a n n e l is
ch a n g e d
N e w C o n ve rsio n
ca n b e sta rte d
fro m h e re
27.6.3 ADC Voltage Reference
The reference voltage for the ADC (VREF) indicates the conversion range for the ADC.
Single ended channels that exceed VREF will result 0x3FF. VREF can be selected by the
REFSn bits in the ADMUX register as either AVDD (1.8V), internal 1.5V or 1.6V
reference or an external voltage at the AREF pin.
AVDD is connected to the ADC through a passive switch. The internal 1.5V and 1.6V
references are generated from a bandgap reference (VBG) through an amplifier. In
either case, the external AREF pin is directly connected to the ADC and the reference
voltage can be measured at the AREF pin with a high impedance voltmeter. When
using the internal 1.5V or 1.6V references no external de-coupling capacitor must be
connected to AREF. High capacitive loading will de-stabilize the internal voltage
amplifier. The 1.6V reference voltage is calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 1 LSB
during the manufacturing process.
If the user has a fixed voltage source connected to the AREF pin, the user may not use
the other reference voltage options in the application, as they will be shorted to the
external voltage. An external reference voltage must be supplied with a very low
impedance RAREF,EXT (see "ADC Characteristics" on page 520). The load current IL,AREF
(see "ADC Characteristics" on page 520) seen by the external source is code
dependent and changes (current steps) in the course of the successive approximation
process. If no external voltage is applied to the AREF pin, the user may switch between
AVDD, 1.5V and 1.6V as reference selection.
Changes of the reference selection bits REFSn will only take effect until the first
conversion start is requested by setting ADSC in ADCSRA. After this the ADC has to be
disabled and enabled again for new reference selections. For internal references a
stable voltage is indicated by the REFOK bit in ADCSRB.
27.7 ADC Noise Canceller
The ADC features a noise canceller that enables conversion during sleep mode to
reduce noise induced from the CPU core and other I/O peripherals. The noise canceller
can be used with ADC Noise Reduction and Idle mode. To make use of this feature, the
following procedure should be used:
1. Make sure that the ADC is enabled and is not busy converting. Single Conversion
mode must be selected and the ADC Conversion Complete interrupt must be
enabled.
2. Enter ADC Noise Reduction mode (or Idle mode). The ADC will start a conversion
once the CPU has been halted.
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3. If no other interrupts occur before the A/D conversion completes, the ADC interrupt
will wake up the CPU and execute the ADC Conversion Complete interrupt routine.
If another interrupt wakes up the CPU before the A/D conversion is complete, that
interrupt will be executed, and an ADC Conversion Complete interrupt request will
be generated when the A/D conversion completes. The CPU will remain in active
mode until a new sleep command is executed.
Note that the ADC will not be automatically turned off when entering other sleep modes
than Idle mode and ADC Noise Reduction mode. The user is advised to write zero to
ADEN before entering such sleep modes to avoid excessive power consumption.
27.7.1 Analog Input Circuitry
The analog input circuitry for single ended channels is illustrated in Figure 27-11 below.
An analog source applied to ADCn is subjected to the pin capacitance and input
leakage of that pin, regardless of whether that channel is selected as input for the ADC.
When the channel is selected, the source must drive the S/H capacitor through the
series resistance (combined resistance in the input path).
The ADC is optimized for analog signals having output impedance ZOUT of
approximately 3 kΩ or less. If such a source is used, the sampling time will be
negligible. If a source with higher impedance is used, the correct sampling time will
depend on how much time is needed to charge the S/H capacitor, which can vary
widely. The user is recommended to only use low impedance sources with slowly
varying signals, since this minimizes the required charge transfer to the S/H capacitor.
The required tracking time (input sampling switch closed) tDTRCK to settle to within 1 LSB
can be estimated to
t DTRCK = ( Z OUT / kΩ + 2000) ⋅ 0.097ns
for ZOUT > 3kΩ (worst case: maximum input step). A minimum tracking time of 500ns is
guaranteed by the conversion logic. Based on the ADC clock frequency the bits
ADTHT[1:0] of register ADCSRC allow the adjustment of the tracking time to the user’s
requirements.
Tracking time requirements should also be considered for the differential mode. The
input signal is sampled by the gain amplifier. The value of the input capacitance CS/H
depends on the selected gain (~7pF for 200x gain, <1pF otherwise). The tracking is
equal to 50% of the clock period of CKADC2. Hence in differential mode a slower clock
frequency is required for input sources with high impedance.
Figure 27-11. Analog Input Circuitry
I IH
2k
ADCn
C S /H = 1 4 p F
I IL
V A V D D /2
Signal components higher than the Nyquist frequency (fADC/2) should not be present for
either kind of channels, to avoid distortion from unpredictable signal convolution. The
user is advised to remove high frequency components with a low-pass filter before
applying the signals as inputs to the ADC.
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27.7.2 Analog Noise Canceling Techniques
Digital circuitry inside and outside the device generates EMI which might affect the
accuracy of analog measurements. If conversion accuracy is critical, the noise level can
be reduced by applying the following techniques:
1. Keep analog signal paths as short as possible. Make sure analog tracks run over the
ground plane, and keep them well away from high-speed switching digital tracks.
2. Use the ADC noise canceller function to reduce induced noise from the CPU.
3. If any ADC port pins are used as digital outputs, it is essential that these do not
switch while a conversion is in progress.
27.7.3 Offset Compensation Schemes
The differential amplifier has a built-in offset cancellation circuitry that nulls the offset of
differential measurements as much as possible. The remaining offset in the analog path
can be measured directly by selecting the same channel for both differential inputs. This
offset residue can then be subtracted in software from the measurement results. The
offset on any channel can be reduced below one LSB using this kind of software based
offset correction.
27.7.4 Differential Amplifier Limitations
The programmable gain, differential amplifier (PGA) converts a differential input voltage
to a single-ended output voltage that is further processed with the 10 bit ADC. The
performance of the PGA is determined by the physical properties of its operational
amplifier:
• The noise of PGA adds to the random error of the ADC conversation result.
However the PGA noise enables the application of oversampling techniques to
recover or even increase the ADC resolution.
• The gain of the PGA falls if the output voltage of the operational amplifier
approaches the supply rails (AVSS) resulting in an increased non-linearity. Hence
for reasonable INL and DNL performance the input voltage range must be limited.
27.7.5 ADC Accuracy Definitions
n
An n-bit single-ended ADC converts a voltage linearly between 0V and VREF in 2 steps
n
(LSB’s). The lowest code is read as 0, and the highest code is read as 2 -1.
Several parameters describe the deviation from the ideal behavior:
• Offset: The deviation of the first transition (0x000 to 0x001) compared to the ideal
transition (at 0.5 LSB). Ideal value: 0 LSB.
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Figure 27-12. Offset Error
Output Code
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
Offset
Error
VREF Input Voltage
• Gain Error: After adjusting for offset, the Gain Error is found as the deviation of the
last transition (0x3FE to 0x3FF) compared to the ideal transition (at 1.5 LSB below
maximum). Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 27-13. Gain Error
Output Code
Gain
Error
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF Input Voltage
• Integral Non-linearity (INL): After adjusting for offset and gain error, the INL is the
maximum deviation of an actual transition compared to an ideal transition for any
code. Ideal value: 0 LSB.
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Figure 27-14. Integral Non-linearity (INL)
Output Code
INL
Ideal ADC
Actual ADC
VREF
Input Voltage
• Differential Non-linearity (DNL): The maximum deviation of the actual code width
(the interval between two adjacent transitions) from the ideal code width (1 LSB).
Ideal value: 0 LSB.
Figure 27-15. Differential Non-linearity (DNL)
Output Code
0x3FF
1 LSB
DNL
0x000
0
VREF Input Voltage
• Quantization Error: Due to the quantization of the input voltage into a finite number
of codes, a range of input voltages (1 LSB wide) will code to the same value. It is
always ±0.5 LSB.
• Absolute Accuracy: The maximum deviation of an actual (unadjusted) transition
compared to an ideal transition for any code. This is the compound effect of offset,
gain error, differential error, non-linearity, and quantization error. Ideal value: ±0.5
LSB.
27.8 ADC Conversion Result
After the conversion is complete (ADIF is high), the conversion result can be found in
the ADC Result Registers (ADCL, ADCH).
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For single ended conversion, the result is
ADC =
VIN ⋅1024
VREF
where VIN is the voltage on the selected input pin and VREF the selected voltage
reference (see "Table 27-10" on page 433 and "Table 27-11" on page 434). 0x000
represents analog ground, and 0x3FF represents the selected reference voltage minus
one LSB.
If differential channels are used, the result is
ADC =
(VPOS − VNEG ) ⋅ GAIN ⋅ 512
VREF
where VPOS is the voltage on the positive input pin, VNEG the voltage on the negative
input pin, and VREF the selected voltage reference. The result is presented in two’s
complement form, from 0x200 (-512d) through 0x1FF (+511d). Note that if the user
wants to perform a quick polarity check of the result, it is sufficient to read the MSB of
the result (ADC9 in ADCH). If the bit is one, the result is negative, and if this bit is zero,
the result is positive. Figure 27-16 below shows the decoding of the differential input
range.
Table 27-7 on page 429 shows the resulting output codes if the differential input
channel pair (ADCn - ADCm) is selected with a gain of GAIN and a reference voltage of
VREF.
Figure 27-16. Differential Measurement Range
Output code
0x1FF
0x000
- V REF/GAIN
0x3FF
0
VREF/GAIN
Differential Input
voltage (Volts)
0x200
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Table 27-7. Correlation Between Input Voltage and Output Codes
VADCn
Read Code
Corresponding Decimal Value
VADCm + VREF / GAIN
0x1FF
511
VADCm + 0.999 VREF / GAIN
0x1FF
511
VADCm + 0.998 VREF / GAIN
0x1FE
510
…
…
VADCm + 0.001 VREF / GAIN
0x001
1
VADCm
0x000
0
VADCm - 0.001 VREF / GAIN
0x3FF
-1
…
…
…
VADCm - 0.999 VREF / GAIN
0x201
-511
VADCm - VREF / GAIN
0x200
-512
…
Example:
ADMUX = 0xED (ADC3 - ADC2, 10x gain, 1.6V reference, left adjusted result)
The voltage on ADC3 is 300 mV; the voltage on ADC2 is 425 mV.
ADCR = 512 * 10 * (300 - 425) / 1600 = -400 = 0x270.
ADCL will thus read 0x00, and ADCH will read 0x9C. Writing zero to ADLAR right
adjusts the result: ADCL = 0x70, ADCH = 0x02.
27.9 Internal Temperature Measurement
The on-chip temperature can be measured using a special setup of the A/D converter
inputs. The integrated temperature sensor provides a linear, medium-accurate voltage
proportional to the absolute temperature (in Kelvin). This voltage is first amplified with
the programmable gain amplifier and then processed with the A/D converter. A low
frequency of the conversion clock must be selected due to the nature of the input
signal.
The absolute accuracy of the temperature measurement is limited by manufacturing
tolerances, noise from supply and ground voltages and the exactness of the reference
voltage. One time calibration at room temperature can easily compensate this
distribution.
The resolution of the temperature reading can be improved (<1K) by averaging (using
float numbers) or decimation (based on integer numbers) of multiple A/D conversion
results. In this way the impact of noise is reduced (see measurement results
"Temperature Sensor" on page 546 and "Differential Amplifier Limitations" on page
425).
The following table summarizes the preferred setup of the temperature measurement:
Table 27-8. Recommended ADC Setup for Temperature Measurement
Parameter
Register
Recommended Setup
ADC Channel
ADMUX,
ADCSRB
Select the Temperature Sensor, MUX4:0 = 01001;
MUX5 = 1;
ADC Clock
ADCSRA
Select a clock frequency of 500 kHz or lower;
VREF
ADMUX
Select the internal 1.6V reference voltage;
Start-up time
ADCSRC
Standard requirement of 20 µs is sufficient;
Tracking time
ADCSRC
Setting ADTHT = 0 is sufficient;
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Assembly Code Example
(1)
…
ldi
r17,(1<<ADEN)+(4<<ADPS0)
sts
ADCSRA, temp
wait_avdd_ok:
lds
; enable the ADC, prescaler = 16
; wait for AVDD to come up
r17, ADCSRB
sbrs r17, AVDDOK
rjmp wait_avdd_ok
; set start-up time to 80us (500kHz ADC clock)
ldi
r17, 10<<ADSUT0
sts
ADCSRC, temp
ldi
r17, 1<<MUX5
sts
ADCSRB, temp
; set MUX5 before MUX4:1
; 1.6V reference voltage + temperature sensor channel
ldi
r17, (3<<REFS0)+(9<<MUX0)
sts
ADMUX, temp
wait_vref_ok:
lds
r17, ADCSRB
; wait for reference voltage
sbrs r17, REFOK
rjmp wait_vref_ok
ldi
run_cmd, (1<<ADEN)+(1<<ADSC)+(4<<ADPS0)
run_conversion:
sts
ADCSRA, run_cmd
wait_adsc:
lds
r17, ADCSRA
sbrc r17, ADSC
; flag cleared at conversion complete
rjmp wait_adsc
lds
r18, ADCL
lds
r19, ADCH
; measured temperature in ADCL and ADCH
…
The above Assembly code example enables the temperature measurement step by
step. Waiting for AVDDOK and REFOK is optional. The conversion will not start before
the two bits are set. The wait time can be extended if necessary or choose a longer
start-up time. An 8 MHz CPU clock is assumed.
C Code Example
(1)
uint16_t adc_meastemp (void)
{
ADCSRC = 10<<ADSUT0;
// set start-up time
ADCSRB = 1<<MUX5;
// set MUX5 first
ADMUX
// store new ADMUX, 1.6V AREF
= (3<<REFS0) + (9<<MUX0);
// switch ADC on, set prescaler, start conversion
ADCSRA = (1<<ADEN) + (1<<ADSC) + (4<<ADPS0);
do
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{} while( (ADCSRA & (1<<ADSC))); // wait for conversion end
ADCSRA
= 0;
// disable the ADC
return (ADC);
}
Notes:
1. See section "About Code Examples" on page 8.
The C Code Example fully relies on the integrated start-up mechanism of the A/D
converter. The accuracy can be increased by averaging and/or oversampling. In
addition a dummy conversion can be inserted before the first temperature measurement
is assessed.
The A/D conversion result ADCTEMP will always be a positive number. The ideal result
can be calculated when using the internal 1.6V reference voltage according to the
following equation:
ADCTEMP = 241.4 + 0.885 ⋅θ / °C
Similar the Celsius-temperature θ can be extracted from the A/D conversion result with
this formula:
θ / °C = 1.13 ⋅ ADCTEMP − 272.8
Note that the above equations are only valid in the allowed operating temperature
range. The translation of the A/D measurement result to a Celsius-temperature value
can be easily achieved with a look-up table in software. The temperature sensor is
connected to a differential input channel with a gain of 10. The voltage offset error of
the differential signal processing can be corrected to the first order by using an
appropriate similar channel (e.g. MUX4:0=01000, MUX5=0, see Table 27-11 on page
434). The ADC result of this channel is then subtracted from the ADC result of the
temperature sensor. Offset errors are typically only +1 bit (ADC = 0x001) or -1 bit (ADC
= 0x3ff).
Note that changing between the temperature sensor channel and the channel for the
offset error correction can lead to a large difference of the analog input voltage.
Therefore it is recommended to disable the ADC, select the new channel and then
enable the ADC again, or discard the first conversion result from the new input channel.
27.10 SRAM DRT Voltage Measurement
The decrease of the supply voltage of SRAM block 2 for the leakage current reduction
can also be measured using a special setup of the A/D converter inputs. The details of
the SRAM leakage current reduction are described in section "SRAM with Data
Retention" on page 167. The supply voltage of a disabled SRAM block can be reduced
to save leakage power while maintaining data retention. This feature applies to all four
SRAM blocks however only the voltage of SRAM block 2 can be verified using the A/D
converter.
The default factory setting for the data retention (DRT) voltage normally guarantees the
best leakage performances. Other values are nevertheless possible and can be
selected by the application software. The true value of the supply voltage reduction is
depending on the manufacturing process and environmental conditions like
temperature. The A/D converter allows determining the value of the DRT voltage of
SRAM block 2. The same voltage setting results for all practical purposes in the same
supply voltage for all other SRAM blocks.
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Care must be taken when verifying the DRT voltage of SRAM block 2 with the A/D
converter because it will be put into sleep mode and hence it is not available for the
application program. Addressing the disabled SRAM will return invalid data (all data
read zero). The voltage measurement is split into two parts. One setting allows
measuring the voltage drop from DVDD. The other setting allows verifying the voltage
shift from DVSS. Both measurements are differential and use the programmable gain
amplifier. A low frequency of the conversion clock must be selected due to the highimpedance nature of the input signal. Accurate and stable voltage readings may just be
available after a long waiting time of up to 100 ms. This limitation is the consequence of
the small leakage currents that discharge the internal de-coupling capacitances before
the supply voltage settles to the DRT value. The following table summarizes the
preferred setup of the DRT voltage measurement:
Table 27-9. Recommended ADC Setup for DRT Voltage Measurements
Parameter
Register
Recommended Setup
SRAM DRT on
DRTRAM2
Set bits DISPC and ENDRT to 1;
ADC Channel
ADMUX,
ADCSRB
Select MUX4:0 = 10100 to measure VDRTBBP;
Select MUX4:0 = 11101 to measure VDRTBBN;
MUX5 = 1;
ADC Clock
ADCSRA
Select a clock frequency of 500kHz or lower;
VREF
ADMUX
Select the internal 1.6V reference voltage;
Start-up time
ADCSRC
Standard requirement of 20µs is sufficient;
Tracking time
ADCSRC
Setting ADTHT = 0 is sufficient;
The A/D conversion result will always be a positive number for both VDRTBBP and
VDRTBBN. The SRAM supply voltage is easily calculated according to the following
equation (see chapter "SRAM with Data Retention" on page 167):
VDD , SRAM , DRT = VDD − (VDRTBBP + VDRTBBN )
The conversion result is coded as described in "ADC Conversion Result" on page 427
with a GAIN of 0.5. It is not possible to read both VDRTBBP and VDRTBBN at the same time.
However the time required for the A/D conversion is short compared to the time
constant of a DRT voltage change.
27.11 Register Description
27.11.1 ADMUX – ADC Multiplexer Selection Register
Bit
NA ($7C)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
REFS1
REFS0
ADLAR
MUX4
MUX3
MUX2
MUX1
MUX0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
ADMUX
• Bit 7:6 – REFS1:0: Reference Selection Bits
These bits select the voltage reference for the ADC, as shown in the following table.
Changes of these bits will only take effect until the first conversion start is requested by
setting ADSC. After this the ADC has to be disabled and enabled again for new
reference selections. The internal voltage reference options may not be used if an
external reference voltage is being applied to the AREF pin.
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Table 27-10. Reference Voltage Selections for ADC
REFS1
REFS0
Reference Voltage Selection
0
0
AREF, Internal VREF turned off
0
1
AVDD (1.8V)
1
0
Internal 1.5V Voltage Reference (no external capacitor at AREF pin)
1
1
Internal 1.6V Voltage Reference (no external capacitor at AREF pin)
• Bit 5 – ADLAR: ADC Left Adjust Result
The ADLAR bit affects the presentation of the A/D conversion result in the ADC Data
Register. Write one to ADLAR to left adjust the result. Otherwise, the result is right
adjusted. Changing the ADLAR bit will affect the ADC Data Register immediately,
regardless of any ongoing conversions. For a complete description of this bit, see
"ADCL and ADCH – The ADC Data Register" on page 437.
• Bits 4:0 – MUX4:0: Analog Channel and Gain Selection Bits
The value of these bits selects which combination of analog inputs is connected to the
ADC. See Table 27-11 on page 434 for details. If these bits are changed during a
conversion, the change will not go in effect until this conversion is complete (ADIF in
ADCSRA is set). Note that the MUX5 bit is located in the ADCSRB register. A write
access to the MUX4:0 bits triggers the update of the internally buffered MUX5 bit, see
"Accessing the ADMUX Register" on page 421 .
27.11.2 ADCSRB – ADC Control and Status Register B
Bit
NA ($7B)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
AVDDOK
ACME
REFOK
ACCH
MUX5
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
R
0
R/W
0
R
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
ADCSRB
• Bit 7 – AVDDOK: AVDD Supply Voltage OK
The analog functions of the ADC are powered from the AVDD domain. AVDD is
supplied from an internal voltage regulator. Setting the ADEN bit in register ADCSRA
will power-up the AVDD domain if not already requested by another functional group of
the device. The bit allows the user to monitor (poll) the status of the AVDD domain. A
status of 1 indicates that AVDD has been powered-up.
• Bit 6 – ACME: Analog Comparator Multiplexer Enable
This bit is used for the Analog Comparator only. See "ADCSRB – ADC Control and
Status Register B" on page 413 for details.
• Bit 5 – REFOK: Reference Voltage OK
The status of the internal generated reference voltage can be monitored through this
bit. Setting the ADEN bit in register ADCSRA will enable the reference voltage for the
ADC according to the REFSn bits in the ADMUX register. The reference voltage will be
available after a start-up delay. A REFOK value of 1 indicates that the internal
generated reference voltage is approaching final levels.
• Bit 4 – ACCH: Analog Channel Change
Refer to "Errata" on page 554 first. The user can force a reset of the analog blocks by
setting this bit to 1 without requesting a different channel. The analog blocks of the ADC
will be reset to handle possible new voltage ranges. Such a reset phase is especially
important for the gain amplifier. It could be temporarily disabled by a large step of its
input common voltage leading to erroneous A/D conversion results. ACCH will read as
one until the reset phase of the analog blocks can be entered.
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• Bit 3 – MUX5: Analog Channel and Gain Selection Bit
This bit is used together with MUX4:0 in ADMUX to select the analog input signals
connected to the ADC. See the following table for details. If this bit is changed during a
conversion, the change will not go in effect until this conversion is complete. Note that
the MUX5 bit is internally buffered and a write access to the MUX4:0 bits is required to
trigger the update of the MUX5 bit, see "Accessing the ADMUX Register" on page 421 .
Table 27-11. Input Channel Selections
MUX5:0
000000
ADC0
000001
ADC1
000010
ADC2
000011
ADC3
000100
ADC4
000101
ADC5
000110
ADC6
000111
ADC7
Positive Differential
Input
Negative Differential
Input
Gain
N/A
001000
ADC0
ADC0
10x
001001
ADC1
ADC0
10x
001010
ADC0
ADC0
200x
ADC1
ADC0
200x
ADC2
ADC2
10x
001101
ADC3
ADC2
10x
001110
ADC2
ADC2
200x
001011
001100
N/A
001111
ADC3
ADC2
200x
010000
ADC0
ADC1
1x
010001
ADC1
ADC1
1x
010010
ADC2
ADC1
1x
ADC3
ADC1
1x
010011
010100
N/A
ADC4
ADC1
1x
010101
ADC5
ADC1
1x
010110
ADC6
ADC1
1x
010111
ADC7
ADC1
1x
011000
ADC0
ADC2
1x
011001
ADC1
ADC2
1x
011010
ADC2
ADC2
1x
ADC3
ADC2
1x
011100
ADC4
ADC2
1x
011101
ADC5
ADC2
1x
011011
434
Single Ended
Input
N/A
011110
1.2V (VBG)
011111
0V (AVSS)
100000
Reserved
100001
Reserved
100010
Reserved
N/A
N/A
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MUX5:0
Single Ended
Input
100011
Reserved
100100
Reserved
100101
Reserved
100110
Reserved
100111
Reserved
Positive Differential
Input
Negative Differential
Input
101000
Reserved
101001
Temperature Sensor
101010
Reserved
101011
101100
Reserved
N/A
Reserved
101101
Reserved
101110
Reserved
101111
Reserved
110000
Reserved
110001
Reserved
110010
Reserved
110011
110100
Reserved
N/A
SRAM Back-bias Voltage VDRTBBP
110101
Reserved
110110
Reserved
110111
Reserved
111000
Reserved
111001
Reserved
111010
111011
Reserved
N/A
Reserved
111100
Reserved
111101
SRAM Back-bias Voltage VDRTBBN
111110
Reserved
111111
Reserved
Gain
N/A
• Bits 2:0 – ADTS2:0: ADC Auto Trigger Source
If ADATE in ADCSRA is written to one, the value of these bits selects which source will
trigger an A/D conversion. If ADATE is cleared, the ADTS2:0 settings will have no
effect. A conversion will be triggered by the rising edge of the selected Interrupt Flag.
Note that switching from a trigger source that is cleared, to a trigger source that is set,
will generate a positive edge on the trigger signal. If ADEN in ADCSRA is set, this will
start a conversion. Switching to Free Running mode (ADTS2:0=0) will not cause a
trigger event, even if the ADC Interrupt Flag is set.
Table 27-12. ADC Auto Trigger Source Selections
ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Trigger Source
0
0
0
Free Running mode
0
0
1
Analog Comparator
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ADTS2
ADTS1
ADTS0
Trigger Source
0
1
0
External Interrupt Request 0
0
1
1
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A
1
0
0
Timer/Counter0 Overflow
1
0
1
Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B
1
1
0
Timer/Counter1 Overflow
1
1
1
Timer/Counter1 Capture Event
27.11.3 ADCSRA – ADC Control and Status Register A
Bit
NA ($7A)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADEN
ADSC
ADATE
ADIF
ADIE
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
R/W
0
ADCSRA
• Bit 7 – ADEN: ADC Enable
Writing this bit to one enables the ADC. The AVDD supply voltage will also be enabled
if not already available. By writing it to zero, the ADC is turned off. Turning the ADC off
while a conversion is in progress will terminate this conversion.
• Bit 6 – ADSC: ADC Start Conversion
In Single Conversion mode, write this bit to one to start each conversion. In Free
Running mode, write this bit to one to start the first conversion. The first conversion
after ADSC has been written after the ADC has been enabled, or if ADSC is written at
the same time as the ADC is enabled, will include a start-up time to initialize the analog
blocks of the ADC. The start-up time is defined by the ADSUT bits of register ADCSRC.
ADSC will read as one as long as a conversion is in progress. When the conversion is
complete, it returns to zero. Writing zero to this bit has no effect.
• Bit 5 – ADATE: ADC Auto Trigger Enable
When this bit is written to one, Auto Triggering of the ADC is enabled. The ADC will
start a conversion on a positive edge of the selected trigger signal. The trigger source is
selected by setting the ADC Trigger Select bits, ADTS in ADCSRB.
• Bit 4 – ADIF: ADC Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when an A/D conversion is completed and the Data Register are updated.
The ADC Conversion Complete Interrupt is executed if the ADIE bit and the I-bit in
SREG are set. ADIF is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt
handling vector. Alternatively, ADIF is cleared by writing a logical one to the flag.
Beware that if doing a Read-Modify-Write on ADCSRA, a pending interrupt can be
disabled. This also applies if the SBI and CBI instructions are used.
• Bit 3 – ADIE: ADC Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in SREG is set, the ADC Conversion
Complete Interrupt is activated.
• Bits 2:0 – ADPS2:0: ADC Prescaler Select Bits
These bits determine the division factor between the CPU frequency and the input clock
to the ADC.
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Table 27-13. ADC Prescaler Selections
ADPS2
ADPS1
ADPS0
Division Factor
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
4
0
1
1
8
1
0
0
16
1
0
1
32
1
1
0
64
1
1
1
128
27.11.4 ADCSRC – ADC Control and Status Register C
Bit
NA ($77)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
ADTHT1 ADTHT0
RW
0
RW
1
5
Res0
RW
0
4
3
2
1
0
ADSUT4 ADSUT3 ADSUT2 ADSUT1 ADSUT0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
ADCSRC
RW
0
This register defines the track-and-hold time for sampling the analog input voltage of
the ADC and it defines the start-up time for the analog blocks based on a number of
ADC clock cycles. The ADC clock is generated from the system clock with the ADC
prescaler. The bits ADPS2:0 of register ADCSRA set the prescaler ratio. Correct startup and track-and-hold times are important for precise conversion results.
• Bits 7:6 – ADTHT1:0: ADC Track-and-Hold Time
These bits define the number of ADC clock cycles for the sampling time of the analog
input voltage. For a complete description of this bit, see "Pre-scaling and Conversion
Timing" on page 417.
• Bit 5 – Res0: Reserved
• Bits 4:0 – ADSUT4:0: ADC Start-up Time
These bits define the number of ADC clock cycles for the start-up time of the analog
blocks. For a complete description of this bit, see "Pre-scaling and Conversion Timing"
on page 417.
27.11.5 ADCL and ADCH – The ADC Data Register
27.11.5.1 ADLAR = 0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
NA ($79)
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADC9
ADC8
ADCH
NA ($78)
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADC1
ADC0
ADCL
7
R
6
R
5
R
4
R
3
R
2
R
1
R
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
27.11.5.2 ADLAR = 1
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
NA ($79)
ADC9
ADC8
ADC7
ADC6
ADC5
ADC4
ADC3
ADC2
ADCH
NA ($78)
ADC1
ADC0
–
–
–
–
–
–
ADCL
7
R
6
R
5
R
4
R
3
R
2
R
1
R
0
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
Initial Value
When an A/D conversion is complete, the result is found in these two registers. If
differential channels are used, the result is presented in two’s complement form.
When ADCL is read, the ADC Data Register is not updated until ADCH is read.
Consequently, if the result is left adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision (7 bit + sign
bit for differential input channels) is required, it is sufficient to read ADCH. Otherwise,
ADCL must be read first, then ADCH.
The ADLAR bit in ADMUX, and the MUXn bits in ADMUX affect the way the result is
read from the registers. If ADLAR is set, the result is left adjusted. If ADLAR is cleared
(default), the result is right adjusted.
• ADC9:0: A/D Conversion Result
These bits represent the result from the conversion as detailed in "ADC Conversion
Result" on page 427.
27.11.6 DIDR0 – Digital Input Disable Register 0
Bit
NA ($7E)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC7D
ADC6D
ADC5D
ADC4D
ADC3D
ADC2D
ADC1D
ADC0D
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
DIDR0
• Bits 7:0 – ADC7D:ADC0D: Digital Input Disable
When this bit is written logic one, the digital input buffer on the corresponding ADC pin
is disabled. The corresponding PIN Register bit will always read as zero when this bit is
set. When an analog signal is applied to the ADC7:0 pin and the digital input from this
pin is not needed, this bit should be written logic one to reduce power consumption in
the digital input buffer.
27.11.7 DIDR2 – Digital Input Disable Register 2
Bit
NA ($7D)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
4
3
2
ADC15D ADC14D ADC13D ADC12D ADC11D ADC10D
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
1
0
ADC9D
ADC8D
RW
0
RW
0
DIDR2
Reserved for future use.
• Bit 7:0 – ADC15D:ADC8D - Reserved Bits
This bit is reserved for future use. For ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit
must be written to zero.
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27.11.8 BGCR – Reference Voltage Calibration Register
Bit
7
6
5
4
Res
BGCAL_FINE3
BGCAL_FINE2
BGCAL_FINE1
Read/Write
Initial Value
R
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
Bit
3
2
1
0
BGCAL_FINE0
BGCAL2
BGCAL1
BGCAL0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
NA ($67)
NA ($67)
Read/Write
Initial Value
BGCR
BGCR
This register contains the calibration values of the reference voltage of the ADC. The
values are loaded from the fuse memory after power-up. They can be corrected by the
application software e.g. to compensate for temperature changes. The internal 1.6V
reference voltage is calibrated and has therefore the highest accuracy compared to the
1.5V or AVDD reference.
• Bit 7 – Res - Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved for future use. A read access always will return zero. A write access
does not modify the content.
• Bit 6:3 – BGCAL_FINE3:0 - Fine Calibration Bits
These bits allow the calibration of the AREF voltage with a resolution of 2mV.
Table 27-14 BGCAL_FINE Register Bits
Register Bits
BGCAL_FINE3:0
Value
Description
0
Center value
1
Voltage step up
8
Voltage step down
7
Setting for highest voltage
15
Setting for lowest voltage
• Bit 2:0 – BGCAL2:0 - Coarse Calibration Bits
These bits allow the calibration of the AREF voltage with a resolution of 10mV.
Table 27-15 BGCAL Register Bits
Register Bits
BGCAL2:0
Value
Description
4
Center value
3
Voltage step up
5
Voltage step down
0
Setting for highest voltage
7
Setting for lowest voltage
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28 JTAG Interface and On-chip Debug System
28.1 Features
• JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 Compliant) Interface
• Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the IEEE std. 1149.1 (JTAG)
Standard
• Debugger Access to:
o All Internal Peripheral Units
o Internal and External RAM
o The Internal Register File–Program Counter
o EEPROM and Flash Memories
• Extensive on-chip debug Support for Break Conditions, Including
o AVR Break Instruction
o Break on Change of Program Memory Flow
o Single Step Break
o Program Memory Breakpoints on Single Address or Address Range
o Data Memory Breakpoints on Single Address or Address Range
• Programming of Flash, EEPROM, Fuses, and Lock Bits through the JTAG
Interface
• On-chip debugging Supported by AVR Studio
®
28.2 Overview
The AVR IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant JTAG interface can be used for
• Testing PCBs by using the JTAG Boundary-scan capability
• Programming the non-volatile memories, Fuses and Lock bits
• On-chip debugging
A brief description is given in the following sections. Detailed descriptions for
Programming via the JTAG interface, and using the Boundary-scan Chain can be found
in the sections "Programming via the JTAG Interface" on page 488 and "Programming
via the JTAG Interface" on page 488, respectively. The on-chip debug support is
considered being private JTAG instructions, and distributed within ATMEL and to
selected third party vendors only.
Figure 28-1 on page 441 shows a block diagram of the JTAG interface and the on-chip
debug system. The TAP Controller is a state machine controlled by the TCK and TMS
signals. The TAP Controller selects either the JTAG Instruction Register or one of
several Data Registers as the scan chain (Shift Register) between the TDI – input and
TDO – output. The Instruction Register holds JTAG instructions controlling the behavior
of a Data Register.
The ID-Register, Bypass Register, and the Boundary-scan Chain are the Data
Registers used for board-level testing. The JTAG Programming Interface (actually
consisting of several physical and virtual Data Registers) is used for serial programming
via the JTAG interface. The internal scan-chain and breakpoint scan-chain are used for
on-chip debugging only.
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Figure 28-1. Block Diagram
I/O PORT 0
DEVICE BOUNDARY
BOUNDARY SCAN CHAIN
TDI
TDO
TCK
TMS
JTAG PROGRAMMING
INTERFACE
TAP
CONTROLLER
FLASH
MEMORY
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER
ID
REGISTER
M
U
X
Address
Data
BREAKPOINT
UNIT
BYPASS
REGISTER
INTERNAL
SCAN
CHAIN
AVR CPU
PC
Instruction
FLOW CONTROL
UNIT
DIGITAL
PERIPHERAL
UNITS
ANALOG
PERIPHERAL
UNITS
Analog inputs
BREAKPOINT
SCAN CHAIN
ADDRESS
DECODER
JTAG / AVR CORE
COMMUNICATION
INTERFACE
OCD STATUS
AND CONTROL
Control & Clock lines
I/O PORT n
28.3 TAP - Test Access Port
The JTAG interface is accessed through four of the AVR’s pins. In JTAG terminology,
these pins constitute the Test Access Port – TAP. These pins are:
• TMS: Test mode select. This pin is used for navigating through the TAP-controller
state machine.
• TCK: Test Clock. JTAG operation is synchronous to TCK.
• TDI: Test Data In. Serial input data to be shifted in to the Instruction Register or Data
Register (Scan Chains).
• TDO: Test Data Out. Serial output data from Instruction Register or Data Register.
The IEEE std. 1149.1 also specifies an optional TAP signal; TRST – Test ReSeT –
which is not provided.
When the JTAGEN Fuse is un-programmed, these four TAP pins are normal port pins,
and the TAP controller is in reset. When programmed the input TAP signals are
internally pulled high and the JTAG is enabled for Boundary-scan and programming.
The device is shipped with this fuse programmed.
For the on-chip debug system, in addition to the JTAG interface pins, the RESET pin is
monitored by the debugger to be able to detect external reset sources. The debugger
can also pull the RESET pin low to reset the whole system, assuming only open
collectors on the reset line are used in the application.
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Figure 28-2. TAP Controller State Diagram
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
0
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR Scan
1
Select-IR Scan
0
1
0
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
Shift-DR
Shift-IR
0
1
1
1
Exit1-IR
0
0
Pause-DR
0
0
Pause-IR
1
1
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
1
0
1
Exit1-DR
0
1
Update-IR
0
1
0
28.4 TAP Controller
The TAP controller is a 16-state finite state machine that controls the operation of the
Boundary-scan circuitry, JTAG programming circuitry, or on-chip debug system. The
state transitions depicted in Figure 28-2 above depend on the signal present on TMS
(shown adjacent to each state transition) at the time of the rising edge at TCK. The
initial state after a Power-on Reset is Test-Logic-Reset.
As a definition in this document, the LSB is shifted in and out first for all Shift Registers.
Assuming Run-Test/Idle is the present state, a typical scenario for using the JTAG
interface is:
• At the TMS input, apply the sequence 1, 1, 0, 0 at the rising edges of TCK to enter
the Shift Instruction Register – Shift-IR state. While in this state, shift the four bits of
the JTAG instructions into the JTAG Instruction Register from the TDI input at the
rising edge of TCK. The TMS input must be held low during input of the 3 LSBs in
order to remain in the Shift-IR state. The MSB of the instruction is shifted in when
this state is left by setting TMS high. While the instruction is shifted in from the TDI
pin, the captured IR-state 0x01 is shifted out on the TDO pin. The JTAG Instruction
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selects a particular Data Register as path between TDI and TDO and controls the
circuitry surrounding the selected Data Register.
• Apply the TMS sequence 1, 1, 0 to re-enter the Run-Test/Idle state. The instruction
is latched onto the parallel output from the Shift Register path in the Update-IR state.
The Exit-IR, Pause-IR, and Exit2-IR states are only used for navigating the state
machine.
• At the TMS input, apply the sequence 1, 0, 0 at the rising edges of TCK to enter the
Shift Data Register – Shift-DR state. While in this state, upload the selected Data
Register (selected by the present JTAG instruction in the JTAG Instruction Register)
from the TDI input at the rising edge of TCK. In order to remain in the Shift-DR state,
the TMS input must be held low during input of all bits except the MSB. The MSB of
the data is shifted in when this state is left by setting TMS high. While the Data
Register is shifted in from the TDI pin, the parallel inputs to the Data Register
captured in the Capture-DR state is shifted out on the TDO pin.
• Apply the TMS sequence 1, 1, 0 to re-enter the Run-Test/Idle state. If the selected
Data Register has a latched parallel-output, the latching takes place in the UpdateDR state. The Exit-DR, Pause-DR, and Exit2-DR states are only used for navigating
the state machine.
As shown in the state diagram, the Run-Test/Idle state need not be entered between
selecting JTAG instruction and using Data Registers, and some JTAG instructions may
select certain functions to be performed in the Run-Test/Idle, making it unsuitable as an
Idle state.
Note that independent of the initial state of the TAP Controller, the Test-Logic-Reset
state can always be entered by holding TMS high for five TCK clock periods. For
detailed information on the JTAG specification, refer to the literature listed in
"Bibliography" on page 445.
28.5 Using the Boundary-scan Chain
A complete description of the Boundary-scan capabilities are given in the section "IEEE
1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan" on page 446.
28.6 Using the On-chip Debug System
The on-chip debug system must be disabled for the best RF performance of the radio
transceiver. As shown in Figure 28-1, the hardware support for on-chip debugging
consists mainly of
• A scan chain on the interface between the internal AVR CPU and the internal
peripheral units.
• Breakpoint unit.
• Communication interface between the CPU and JTAG system.
All read or modify/write operations needed for implementing the debugger are done by
applying AVR instructions via the internal AVR CPU Scan Chain. The CPU sends the
result to an I/O memory mapped location which is part of the communication interface
between the CPU and the JTAG system.
The Breakpoint Unit implements Break on Change of Program Flow, Single Step Break,
two program memory breakpoints and two combined breakpoints. Together, the four
breakpoints can be configured as either:
• 4 single program memory breakpoints;
• 3 single program memory breakpoint + 1 single data memory breakpoint;
• 2 single program memory breakpoints + 2 single data memory breakpoints;
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• 2 single program memory breakpoints + 1 program memory breakpoint with mask
(“range breakpoint”).
• 2 single program memory breakpoints + 1 data memory breakpoint with mask
(“range breakpoint”).
A debugger, like the AVR Studio, may however use one or more of these resources for
its internal purpose, leaving less flexibility to the end-user.
A list of the on-chip debug specific JTAG instructions is given in "On-chip Debug
Specific JTAG Instructions" below.
The JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed to enable the JTAG Test Access Port. In
addition, the OCDEN Fuse must be programmed and no Lock bits must be set for the
on-chip debug system to work. As a security feature, the on-chip debug system is
disabled when either of the LB1 or LB2 Lock-bits are set. Otherwise, the on-chip debug
system would have provided a back-door into a secured device.
The AVR Studio enables the user to fully control execution of programs on an AVR
device with on-chip debug capability, AVR In-Circuit Emulator, or the built-in AVR
Instruction Set Simulator. AVR Studio supports source level execution of Assembly
programs assembled with Atmel Corporation’s AVR Assembler and C programs
compiled with third party vendors’ compilers. For a full description of the AVR Studio,
please refer to the AVR Studio User Guide. Only highlights are presented in this
document.
All necessary execution commands are available in AVR Studio, both on source level
and on disassembly level. The user can execute the program, single step through the
code either by tracing into or stepping over functions, step out of functions, place the
cursor on a statement and execute until the statement is reached, stop the execution,
and reset the execution target. In addition, the user can have an unlimited number of
code breakpoints (using the BREAK instruction) and up to two data memory
Breakpoints, alternatively combined as a mask (range) breakpoint.
28.7 On-chip Debug Specific JTAG Instructions
The on-chip debug support is considered being private JTAG instructions, and
distributed within ATMEL and to selected third party vendors only. Instruction operation
codes are listed for reference.
28.7.1 PRIVATE0; 0x8
Private JTAG instruction for accessing on-chip debug system;
28.7.2 PRIVATE1; 0x9
Private JTAG instruction for accessing on-chip debug system;
28.7.3 PRIVATE2; 0xA
Private JTAG instruction for accessing on-chip debug system;
28.7.4 PRIVATE3; 0xB
Private JTAG instruction for accessing on-chip debug system;
28.8 Using the JTAG Programming Capabilities
Programming of the ATmega128RFA1 via JTAG is performed via the 4-pin JTAG port,
TCK, TMS, TDI, and TDO. These are the only pins that need to be controlled and
observed to perform JTAG programming (in addition to power pins). The JTAGEN Fuse
must be programmed and the JTD bit in the MCUCR Register must be cleared to
enable the JTAG Test Access Port.
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The JTAG programming capability supports:
• Flash programming and verifying.
• EEPROM programming and verifying.
• Fuse programming and verifying.
• Lock bit programming and verifying.
The Lock bit security is exactly as in parallel programming mode. If the Lock bits LB1 or
LB2 are programmed, the OCDEN Fuse cannot be programmed unless first doing a
chip erase. This is a security feature that ensures no back-door exists for reading out
the content of a secured device.
The details on programming through the JTAG interface and programming specific
JTAG instructions are given in the section "Programming via the JTAG Interface" on
page 488.
28.9 Bibliography
For more information about general Boundary-scan, the following literature can be
consulted:
• IEEE: IEEE Std. 1149.1-1990. IEEE Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-scan
Architecture, IEEE, 1993.
• Colin Maunder: The Board Designers Guide to Testable Logic Circuits, AddisonWesley, 1992.
28.10 On-chip Debug Related Register in I/O Memory
28.10.1 OCDR – On-Chip Debug Register
Bit
7
6
5
$31 ($51)
Read/Write
Initial Value
4
3
2
1
0
OCDR7:0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
OCDR
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
The OCDR Register provides a communication channel from the running program in
the microcontroller to the debugger. The CPU can transfer a byte to the debugger by
writing to this location. At the same time, an internal flag; I/O Debug Register Dirty
IDRD is set to indicate to the debugger that the register has been written. When the
CPU reads the OCDR Register the 7 LSB will be from the OCDR Register, while the
MSB is the IDRD bit. The debugger clears the IDRD bit when it has read the
information. In some AVR devices, this register is shared with a standard I/O location.
In this case, the OCDR Register can only be accessed if the OCDEN Fuse is
programmed, and the debugger enables access to the OCDR Register. In all other
cases, the standard I/O location is accessed.
• Bit 7:0 – OCDR7:0 - On-Chip Debug Register Data
Table 28-16 OCDR Register Bits
Register Bits
OCDR7:0
Value
0
Description
Refer to the debugger documentation for
further information on how to use this
register.
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29 IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-scan
29.1 Features
• JTAG (IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant) Interface
• Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard
• Full Scan of all Port Functions as well as Analog Circuitry having Off-chip
Connections
• Supports the Optional IDCODE Instruction
• Additional Public AVR_RESET Instruction to Reset the ATmega128RFA1
29.2 System Overview
The Boundary-scan chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on
the digital I/O pins, as well as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog
circuitry having off-chip connections. At system level, all ICs having JTAG capabilities
are connected serially by the TDI/TDO signals to form a long Shift Register. An external
controller sets up the devices to drive values at their output pins, and observe the input
values received from other devices. The controller compares the received data with the
expected result. In this way, Boundary-scan provides a mechanism for testing
interconnections and integrity of components on Printed Circuits Boards by using the
four TAP signals only.
The four IEEE 1149.1 defined mandatory JTAG instructions IDCODE, BYPASS,
SAMPLE/PRELOAD, and EXTEST, as well as the AVR specific public JTAG instruction
AVR_RESET can be used for testing the Printed Circuit Board. Initial scanning of the
Data Register path will show the ID-Code of the device, since IDCODE is the default
JTAG instruction. It may be desirable to have the AVR device in reset during test mode.
If not reset, inputs to the device may be determined by the scan operations, and the
internal software may be in an undetermined state when exiting the test mode. Entering
reset, the outputs of any port pin will instantly enter the high impedance state, making
the HIGHZ instruction redundant. If needed, the BYPASS instruction can be issued to
make the shortest possible scan chain through the device. The device can be set in the
reset state either by pulling the external RESET pin low, or issuing the AVR_RESET
instruction with appropriate setting of the Reset Data Register.
The EXTEST instruction is used for sampling external pins and loading output pins with
data. The data from the output latch will be driven out on the pins as soon as the
EXTEST instruction is loaded into the JTAG IR-Register. Therefore, the
SAMPLE/PRELOAD should also be used for setting initial values to the scan ring, to
avoid damaging the board when issuing the EXTEST instruction for the first time.
SAMPLE/PRELOAD can also be used for taking a snapshot of the external pins during
normal operation of the part.
The JTAGEN Fuse must be programmed and the JTD bit in the I/O Register MCUCR
must be cleared to enable the JTAG Test Access Port.
When using the JTAG interface for Boundary-scan, using a JTAG TCK clock frequency
higher than the internal chip frequency is possible. The chip clock is not required to run.
29.3 Data Registers
The Data Registers relevant for Boundary-scan operations are:
• Bypass Register
• Device Identification Register
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• Reset Register
• Boundary-scan Chain
29.3.1 Bypass Register
The Bypass Register consists of a single Shift Register stage. When the Bypass
Register is selected as path between TDI and TDO, the register is reset to 0 when
leaving the Capture-DR controller state. The Bypass Register can be used to shorten
the scan chain on a system when the other devices are to be tested.
29.3.2 Device Identification Register
Figure 29-1. The Format of the Device Identification Register
MSB
Bit
Device ID
31
LSB
28
27
12
11
1
0
Version
Part Number
Manufacturer ID
1
4 bits
16 bits
11 bits
1 bit
29.3.2.1 Version
Version is a 4-bit number identifying the revision of the component. The JTAG version
number follows the revision of the device. Revision A is 0x0, revision B is 0x1 and so
on.
29.3.2.2 Part Number
The part number is a 16-bit code identifying the component. The JTAG Part Number for
ATmega128RFA1 is listed in Table 31-6 on page 473.
29.3.2.3 Manufacturer ID
The Manufacturer ID is a 11-bit code identifying the manufacturer. The JTAG
manufacturer ID for ATMEL is listed in Table 31-6 on page 473.
29.3.3 Reset Register
The Reset Register is a test Data Register used to reset the part. Since the AVR tristates Port Pins when reset, the Reset Register can also replace the function of the
unimplemented optional JTAG instruction HIGHZ.
A high value in the Reset Register corresponds to pulling the external Reset low. The
part is reset as long as there is a high value present in the Reset Register. Depending
on the fuse settings for the clock options, the part will remain reset for a reset time-out
period (see "Clock Sources" on page 151) after releasing the Reset Register. The
output from this Data Register is not latched, so the reset will take place immediately,
as shown in Figure 29-2 on page 448.
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Figure 29-2. Reset Register
To
TDO
From Other Internal and
External Reset Sources
From
TDI
D
Q
Internal reset
ClockDR · AVR_RESET
29.3.4 Boundary-scan Chain
The Boundary-scan Chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on
the digital I/O pins, as well as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog
circuitry having off-chip connections.
See "Boundary-scan Chain" on page 449 for a complete description.
29.4 Boundary-scan Specific JTAG Instructions
The Instruction Register is 4-bit wide, supporting up to 16 instructions. Listed below are
the JTAG instructions useful for Boundary-scan operation. Note that the optional HIGHZ
instruction is not implemented, but all outputs with tri-state capability can be set in highimpedance state by using the AVR_RESET instruction, since the initial state for all port
pins is tri-state.
As a definition in this datasheet, the LSB is shifted in and out first for all Shift Registers.
The OPCODE for each instruction is shown behind the instruction name in hex format.
The text describes which Data Register is selected as path between TDI and TDO for
each instruction.
29.4.1 EXTEST; 0x0
Mandatory JTAG instruction for selecting the Boundary-scan Chain as Data Register for
testing circuitry external to the AVR package. For port-pins, Pull-up Disable, Output
Control, Output Data, and Input Data are all accessible in the scan chain. For Analog
circuits having off-chip connections, the interface between the analog and the digital
logic is in the scan chain. The contents of the latched outputs of the Boundary-scan
chain is driven out as soon as the JTAG IR-Register is loaded with the EXTEST
instruction.
The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Data on the external pins are sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain.
• Shift-DR: The Internal Scan Chain is shifted by the TCK input.
• Update-DR: Data from the scan chain is applied to output pins.
29.4.2 IDCODE; 0x1
Optional JTAG instruction selecting the 32 bit ID-Register as Data Register. The IDRegister consists of a version number, a device number and the manufacturer code
chosen by JEDEC. This is the default instruction after power-up.
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The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Data in the IDCODE Register is sampled into the Boundary-scan
Chain.
• Shift-DR: The IDCODE scan chain is shifted by the TCK input.
29.4.3 SAMPLE_PRELOAD; 0x2
Mandatory JTAG instruction for pre-loading the output latches and taking a snap-shot of
the input/output pins without affecting the system operation. However, the output
latches are not connected to the pins. The Boundary-scan Chain is selected as Data
Register.
The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Data on the external pins are sampled into the Boundary-scan Chain.
• Shift-DR: The Boundary-scan Chain is shifted by the TCK input.
• Update-DR: Data from the Boundary-scan chain is applied to the output latches.
However, the output latches are not connected to the pins.
29.4.4 AVR_RESET; 0xC
The AVR specific public JTAG instruction for forcing the AVR device into the Reset
mode or releasing the JTAG reset source. The TAP controller is not reset by this
instruction. The one bit Reset Register is selected as Data Register. Note that the reset
will be active as long as there is a logic “one” in the Reset Chain. The output from this
chain is not latched.
The active states are:
• Shift-DR: The Reset Register is shifted by the TCK input.
29.4.5 BYPASS; 0xF
Mandatory JTAG instruction selecting the Bypass Register for Data Register.
The active states are:
• Capture-DR: Loads a logic “0” into the Bypass Register.
• Shift-DR: The Bypass Register cell between TDI and TDO is shifted.
29.5 Boundary-scan Chain
The Boundary-scan chain has the capability of driving and observing the logic levels on
the digital I/O pins, as well as the boundary between digital and analog logic for analog
circuitry having off-chip connection.
29.5.1 Scanning the Digital Port Pins
Figure 29-3 on page 450 shows the Boundary-scan Cell for a bi-directional port pin. The
pull-up function is disabled during Boundary-scan when the JTAG IC contains EXTEST
or SAMPLE_PRELOAD. The cell consists of a bi-directional pin cell that combines the
three signals Output Control - OCxn, Output Data - ODxn, and Input Data - IDxn, into
only a two-stage Shift Register. The port and pin indexes are not used in the following
description.
The Boundary-scan logic is not included in the figures in the datasheet. Figure 29-4 on
page 451 shows a simple digital port pin as described in the section "I/O-Ports" on page
190. The Boundary-scan details from Figure 29-3 on page 450 replaces the dashed box
in Figure 29-4 on page 451.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
When no alternate port function is present, the Input Data - ID - corresponds to the
PINxn Register value (but ID has no synchronizer), Output Data corresponds to the
PORT Register, Output Control corresponds to the Data Direction - DD Register, and
the Pull-up Enable - PUExn – corresponds to logic expression:
PUD ⋅ DDxn ⋅ PORTxn
Digital alternate port functions are connected outside the dotted box Figure 29-4 on
page 451 to make the scan chain read the actual pin value. For analog function, there is
a direct connection from the external pin to the analog circuit. There is no scan chain on
the interface between the digital and the analog circuitry, but some digital control signal
to analog circuitry are turned off to avoid driving contention on the pads.
When JTAG IR contains EXTEST or SAMPLE_PRELOAD the clock is not sent out on
the port pins even if the CKOUT fuse is programmed. Even though the clock is output
when the JTAG IR contains SAMPLE_PRELOAD, the clock is not sampled by the
boundary scan.
Figure 29-3. Boundary-scan Cell for Bi-directional Port Pin with Pull-up Function
450
ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
Figure 29-4. General Port Pin Schematic Diagram
See Boundary-scan
Description for Details!
PUExn
PUD
Q
D
DDxn
Q CLR
RESET
OCxn
WDx
Q
Pxn
ODxn
D
PORTxn
Q CLR
WRx
IDxn
DATA BUS
RDx
RESET
RRx
SLEEP
SYNCHRONIZER
D
Q
L
Q
D
RPx
Q
PINxn
Q
CLK I/O
PUD:
PUExn:
OCxn:
ODxn:
IDxn:
SLEEP:
PULLUP DISABLE
PULLUP ENABLE for pin Pxn
OUTPUT CONTROL for pin Pxn
OUTPUT DATA to pin Pxn
INPUT DATA from pin Pxn
SLEEP CONTROL
WDx:
RDx:
WRx:
RRx:
RPx:
CLK I/O :
WRITE DDRx
READ DDRx
WRITE PORTx
READ PORTx REGISTER
READ PORTx PIN
I/O CLOCK
29.5.2 Scanning the RSTN, CLKI and TST Pin
An observe-only cell as shown in Figure 29-5 below is inserted for the active low reset
signal RSTN, for the active high programming and test mode enable signal TST and for
the clock input CLKI.
Figure 29-5. Observe-only Cell
To
Next
Cell
ShiftDR
From System Pin
To System Logic
FF1
0
D
Q
1
From
Previous
Cell
ClockDR
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
29.5.3 Scanning the RSTON Pin
For the low-active reset output pin RSTON a boundary-scan cell as shown in Figure
29-6 below is inserted.
Figure 29-6. Boundary-scan Cell for Output Pins without Pull-up Function
29.6 Boundary-scan Related Register in I/O Memory
For detailed register description see chapter "MCUCR – MCU Control Register" on
page 219 and "MCUSR – MCU Status Register" on page 187.
29.6.1 MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit
7
$35 ($55)
JTD
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MCUCR
The MCU Control Register contains control bits for general Microcontroller Unit
functions.
• Bit 7 – JTD - JTAG Interface Disable
When this bit is zero, the JTAG interface is enabled if the JTAGEN Fuse is
programmed. If this bit is one, the JTAG interface is disabled. In order to avoid
unintentional disabling or enabling of the JTAG interface, a timed sequence must be
followed when changing this bit: The application software must write this bit to the
desired value twice within four cycles to change its value. Note that this bit must not be
altered when using the On-chip Debug system.
29.6.2 MCUSR – MCU Status Register
Bit
452
7
6
5
4
$34 ($54)
JTRF
Read/Write
Initial Value
RW
0
3
2
1
0
MCUSR
ATmega128RFA1
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ATmega128RFA1
The MCU Status Register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU
reset.
• Bit 4 – JTRF - JTAG Reset Flag
This bit is set if a reset is being caused by a logic one in the JTAG Reset Register
selected by the JTAG instruction AVR_RESET. This bit is reset by a Power-on Reset,
or by writing a logic zero to the flag.
29.7 Boundary-scan Description Language Files
Boundary-scan Description Language (BSDL) files describe Boundary-scan capable
devices in a standard format used by automated test-generation software. The order
and function of bits in the Boundary-scan Data Register are included in this description.
BSDL files are available for ATmega128RFA1.
29.8 ATmega128RFA1 Boundary-scan Order
Table 29-1 on page 454 shows the Scan order between TDI and TDO when the
Boundary-scan chain is selected as data path. Bit 0 is the LSB; the first bit scanned in,
and the first bit scanned out. The scan order follows the pin-out order. In Figure 29-3 on
page 450, PXn. Data corresponds to FF0, PXn. Control corresponds to FF1, PXn. Bit 4,
5, 6 and 7 of Port F is not in the scan chain, since these pins constitute the TAP pins
when the JTAG is enabled.
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Table 29-1. ATmega128RFA1 Boundary-Scan Order
Bit
Number
Signal Name
0
PF1.Control
1
PF1.Data
2
PF0.Control
Module
Port F
Bit
Number
Signal Name
36
CLKI.Data
37
PD7.Control
38
PD7.Data
Module
Clock Input (Input Only)
3
PF0.Data
39
PD6.Control
4
PE7.Control
40
PD6.Data
5
PE7.Data
41
PD5.Control
6
PE6.Control
42
PD5.Data
7
PE6.Data
43
PD4.Control
8
PE5.Control
44
PD4.Data
9
PE5.Data
45
PD3.Control
10
PE4.Control
46
PD3.Data
11
PE4.Data
47
PD2.Control
12
PE3.Control
48
PD2.Data
13
PE3.Data
49
PD1.Control
14
PE2.Control
50
PD1.Data
15
PE2.Data
51
PD0.Control
16
PE1.Control
52
PD0.Data
17
PE1.Data
53
PG5.Control
18
PE0.Control
54
PG5.Data
19
PE0.Data
55
PG4.Control
20
PB7.Control
56
PG4.Data
21
PB7.Data
57
PG3.Control
22
PB6.Control
58
PG3.Data
23
PB6.Data
59
PG2.Control
24
PB5.Control
60
PG2.Data
25
PB5.Data
61
PG1.Control
26
PB4.Control
62
PG1.Data
27
PB4.Data
63
PG0.Control
28
PB3.Control
64
PG0.Data
29
PB3.Data
65
RSTON.Data
Reset Logic Output (Output Only
without Pull-up)
30
PB2.Control
66
RSTT.Data
Reset Logic (Observe Only)
31
PB2.Data
67
TST.Data
Test and Programming Mode
Enable (Observe Only)
32
PB1.Control
68
PF3.Control
33
PB1.Data
69
PF3.Data
34
PB0.Control
70
PF2.Control
35
PB0.Data
71
PF2.Data
454
Port E
Port B
Port D
Port G
Port F
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ATmega128RFA1
30 Boot Loader Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming
The Boot Loader Support provides a real Read-While-Write Self-Programming
mechanism for downloading and uploading program code by the MCU itself. This
feature allows flexible application software updates controlled by the MCU using a
Flash-resident Boot Loader program. The Boot Loader program can use any available
data interface and associated protocol to read code and write that (program) code into
the Flash memory, or read the code from the program memory. The program code
within the Boot Loader section has the capability to write into the entire Flash, including
the Boot Loader memory. The Boot Loader can thus even modify itself (including
erasing) from the code if the feature is not needed anymore. The size of the Boot
Loader memory is configurable with fuses and the Boot Loader has two separate sets
of Boot Lock bits which can be set independently. This gives the user a unique flexibility
to select different levels of protection.
30.1 Features
• Read-While-Write Self-Programming
• Flexible Boot Memory Size
• High Security (Separate Boot Lock Bits for a Flexible Protection)
• Separate Fuse to Select Reset Vector
(1)
• Optimized Page
Size
• Code Efficient Algorithm
• Efficient Read-Modify-Write Support
Note:
1. A page is a section in the Flash consisting of several bytes (see "Table 31-7" on
page 473) used during programming. The page organization does not affect normal
operation.
30.2 Application and Boot Loader Flash Sections
The Flash memory is organized in two main sections: the Application section and the
Boot Loader section (see Figure 30-2 on page 457). The size of the different sections is
configured by the BOOTSZ Fuses as shown in Table 30-7 on page 467 and Figure 30-2
on page 457. These two sections can have different level of protection since they have
different sets of Lock bits.
30.2.1 Application Section
The Application section is the region of the Flash that is used for storing the application
code. The protection level for the Application section can be selected by the application
Boot Lock bits (Boot Lock bits 0, BLB0), see Table 31-2 on page 470. The Application
section can never store any Boot Loader code since the SPM instruction is disabled
when executed from the Application section.
30.2.2 BLS – Boot Loader Section
While the Application section is used for storing the application code, the Boot Loader
software must be located in the BLS. The SPM instruction can only initiate
programming when executed from the BLS. The SPM instruction can access the entire
Flash, including the BLS itself. The protection level for the Boot Loader section can be
selected by the Boot Loader Lock bits (Boot Lock bits 1, BLB1), see Table 31-2 on page
470.
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30.3 Read-While-Write and No Read-While-Write Flash Sections
Whether the CPU supports Read-While-Write or if the CPU is halted during a Boot
Loader software update is dependent on the address that is being programmed. In
addition to the two sections that are configurable by the BOOTSZ Fuses as described
above, the Flash is also divided into two fixed sections, the Read-While-Write (RWW)
section and the No Read-While-Write (NRWW) section. The limit between the RWWand NRWW sections is given in Table 30-1 on page 457 and Figure 30-1 below. The
main differences between the two sections are:
• When erasing or writing a page located inside the RWW section, the NRWW section
can be read during the operation.
• When erasing or writing a page located inside the NRWW section, the CPU is halted
during the entire operation.
Note that the user software can never read any code that is located inside the RWW
section during a Boot Loader software operation. The syntax “Read-While-Write
section” refers to the section that is being programmed (erased or written) and not to
the section that actually is being read during a Boot Loader software update.
Figure 30-1. Read-While-Write vs. No Read-While-Write
Read-While-Write
(RWW) Section
Z-pointer
Addresses RWW
Section
Z-pointer
Addresses NRWW
Section
No Read-While-Write
(NRWW) Section
CPU is Halted
During the Operation
Code Located in
NRWW Section
Can be Read During
the Operation
30.3.1 RWW – Read-While-Write Section
If a Boot Loader software update is programming a page inside the RWW section, it is
possible to read code from the Flash, but only code that is located in the NRWW
section. During an ongoing programming, the software must ensure that the RWW
section never is being read. If the user software is trying to read code that is located
inside the RWW section (i.e., by load program memory, call, or jump instructions or an
interrupt) during programming, the software might end up in an unknown state. To avoid
this, the interrupts should either be disabled or moved to the Boot Loader section. The
Boot Loader section is always located in the NRWW section. The RWW Section Busy
bit (RWWSB) in the Store Program Memory Control and Status Register (SPMCSR) will
be read as logical one as long as the RWW section is blocked for reading. After a
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ATmega128RFA1
programming is completed, the RWWSB must be cleared by software before reading
code located in the RWW section. See "SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control
Register" on page 467 for details on how to clear RWWSB.
30.3.2 NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section
The code located in the NRWW section can be read when the Boot Loader software is
updating a page in the RWW section. When the Boot Loader code updates the NRWW
section, the CPU is halted during the entire Page Erase or Page Write operation.
Table 30-1. Read-While-Write Features
CPU Halted?
Read-While-Write
Supported?
NRWW Section
No
Yes
None
Yes
No
Which Section does the Z-pointer
Address during the Programming?
Which Section can be Read
during Programming?
RWW Section
NRWW Section
Figure 30-2. Memory Sections
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '10'
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '11'
0x0000
Read-While-Write Section
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
Boot Loader Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Flashend
No Read-While-Write Section
No Read-While-Write Section
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '01'
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
Program Memory
BOOTSZ = '00'
0x0000
Read-While-Write Section
Application Flash Section
End RWW
Start NRWW
Application Flash Section
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
No Read-While-Write Section
No Read-While-Write Section
Read-While-Write Section
0x0000
Note:
End Application
Start Boot Loader
Application Flash Section
End RWW, End Application
Start NRWW, Start Boot Loader
Boot Loader Flash Section
Flashend
1. The parameters in the figure above are given in Table 30-7 on page 467.
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30.4 Boot Loader Lock Bits
If no Boot Loader capability is needed, the entire Flash is available for application code.
The Boot Loader has two separate sets of Boot Lock bits which can be set
independently. This gives the user a unique flexibility to select different levels of
protection.
The user can select:
• To protect the entire Flash from a software update by the MCU.
• To protect only the Boot Loader Flash section from a software update by the MCU.
• To protect only the Application Flash section from a software update by the MCU.
• Allow software update in the entire Flash.
See Table 31-2 on page 470 for further details. The Boot Lock bits can be set in
software and in Serial or Parallel Programming mode, but they can be cleared by a
Chip Erase command only. The general Write Lock (Lock Bit mode 2) does not control
the programming of the Flash memory by SPM instruction. Similarly, the general
Read/Write Lock (Lock Bit mode 1) does not control reading nor writing by
(E)LPM/SPM, if it is attempted.
30.4.1 Entering the Boot Loader Program
Entering the Boot Loader takes place by a jump or call from the application program.
This may be initiated by a trigger such as a command received via USART, or SPI
interface. Alternatively, the Boot Reset Fuse can be programmed so that the Reset
Vector is pointing to the Boot Flash start address after a reset. In this case, the Boot
Loader is started after a reset. After the application code is loaded, the program can
start executing the application code. Note that the fuses cannot be changed by the
MCU itself. This means that once the Boot Reset Fuse is programmed, the Reset
Vector will always point to the Boot Loader Reset and the fuse can only be changed
through the serial or parallel programming interface.
(1)
Table 30-2. Boot Reset Fuse
BOOTRST
Reset Address
1
Reset Vector = Application Reset (address 0x0000)
0
Reset Vector = Boot Loader Reset (see Table 30-7 on page 467)
Note:
1. “1” means unprogrammed, “0” means programmed
30.5 Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming
The Z-pointer is used to address the SPM commands. The Z pointer consists of the Zregisters ZL and ZH in the register file, and RAMPZ in the I/O space. The number of
bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the RAMPZ register is only
implemented when the program space is larger than 64K bytes.
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
RAMPZ1
RAMPZ0
RAMPZ
458
ZH (R31)
Z15
Z14
Z13
Z12
Z11
Z10
Z9
Z8
ZL (R30)
Z7
Z6
Z5
Z4
Z3
Z2
Z1
Z0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Since the Flash is organized in pages (see "Table 31-7" on page 473), the Program
Counter can be treated as having two different sections. One section, consisting of the
least significant bits, is addressing the words within a page, while the most significant
bits are addressing the pages. This is shown in Figure 30-3 below. Note that the Page
Erase and Page Write operations are addressed independently. Therefore it is of major
importance that the Boot Loader software addresses the same page in both the Page
Erase and Page Write operation. Once a programming operation is initiated, the
address is latched and the Z-pointer can be used for other operations.
The (E)LPM instruction uses the Z-pointer to store the address. Since this instruction
addresses the Flash byte-by-byte, also bit Z0 of the Z-pointer is used.
Figure 30-3. Addressing the Flash during SPM
BIT
15
ZPCMSB
ZPAGEMSB
Z - REGISTER
1 0
0
PCMSB
PROGRAM
COUNTER
PAGEMSB
PCPAGE
PAGE ADDRESS
WITHIN THE FLASH
PCWORD
WORD ADDRESS
WITHIN A PAGE
PROGRAM MEMORY
PAGE
PAGE
INSTRUCTION WORD
PCWORD[PAGEMSB:0]:
00
01
02
PAGEEND
Note:
1. The different variables used in Figure 30-3 above are listed in Table 30-6 on
page 466.
30.6 Self-Programming the Flash
The program memory is updated in a page by page fashion. Before programming a
page with the data stored in the temporary page buffer, the page must be erased. The
temporary page buffer is filled one word at a time using SPM. The buffer must be filled
before the Page Write command.
Required sequence for self-programming the Flash:
• Perform a Page Erase,
• Fill temporary page buffer,
• Perform a Page Write;
If only a part of the page needs to be changed, the rest of the page must be stored
before the erase, and then be rewritten. The temporary page buffer can be accessed in
a random sequence. It is essential that the page address used in both the Page Erase
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
and Page Write operation is addressing the same page. For an assembly code example
see "Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader" on page 464.
30.6.1 Performing Page Erase by SPM
To execute Page Erase, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “X0000011” to
SPMCSR and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in
R1 and R0 is ignored. The page address must be written to PCPAGE in the Z-register.
Other bits in the Z-pointer will be ignored during this operation.
• Page Erase to the RWW section: The NRWW section can be read during the Page
Erase.
• Page Erase to the NRWW section: The CPU is halted during the operation.
30.6.2 Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading)
To write an instruction word, set up the address in the Z-pointer and data in R1:R0,
write “00000001” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing
SPMCSR. The content of PCWORD in the Z-register is used to address the data in the
temporary buffer. The temporary buffer will be auto-erased after a Page Write operation
or by writing the RWWSRE bit in SPMCSR. It is also erased after a system reset. Note
that it is not possible to write more than one time to each address without erasing the
temporary buffer.
If the EEPROM is written in the middle of an SPM Page Load operation, all data loaded
is still buffered.
30.6.3 Performing a Page Write
To execute Page Write, set up the address in the Z-pointer, write “X0000101” to
SPMCSR and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing SPMCSR. The data in
R1 and R0 is ignored. The page address must be written to PCPAGE. Other bits in the
Z-pointer must be written to zero during this operation.
• Page Write to the RWW section: The NRWW section can be read during the Page
Write.
• Page Write to the NRWW section: The CPU is halted during the operation.
30.6.4 Using the SPM Interrupt
If the SPM interrupt is enabled, the SPM interrupt will generate a constant interrupt
when the SPMEN bit in SPMCSR is cleared. This means that the interrupt can be used
instead of polling the SPMCSR Register in software. When using the SPM interrupt, the
Interrupt Vectors should be moved to the BLS section to avoid that an interrupt is
accessing the RWW section when it is blocked for reading. How to move the interrupts
is described in "Interrupts" on page 214.
30.6.5 Consideration While Updating BLS
Special care must be taken if the user allows the Boot Loader section to be updated by
leaving Boot Lock bit11 un-programmed. An accidental write to the Boot Loader itself
can corrupt the entire Boot Loader, and further software updates might be impossible. If
it is not necessary to change the Boot Loader software itself, it is recommended to
program the Boot Lock bit11 to protect the Boot Loader software from any internal
software changes.
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ATmega128RFA1
30.6.6 Prevent Reading the RWW Section During Self-Programming
During Self-Programming (either Page Erase or Page Write), the RWW section is
always blocked for reading. The user software itself must prevent that this section is
addressed during the self programming operation. The RWWSB in the SPMCSR will be
set as long as the RWW section is busy. During Self-Programming the Interrupt Vector
table should be moved to the BLS as described in "Interrupts" on page 214, or the
interrupts must be disabled. Before addressing the RWW section after the programming
is completed, the user software must clear the RWWSB by writing the RWWSRE. See
"Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader" on page 464 for an example.
30.6.7 Setting the Boot Loader Lock Bits by SPM
To set the Boot Loader Lock bits and general Lock bits, write the desired data to R0,
write “X0001001” to SPMCSR and execute SPM within four clock cycles after writing
SPMCSR.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
R0
1
1
BLB12
BLB11
BLB02
BLB01
LB2
LB1
See Table 31-2 on page 470 for how the different settings of the Boot Loader bits affect
the Flash access.
If bits 5:0 in R0 are cleared (zero), the corresponding Lock bit will be programmed if an
SPM instruction is executed within four cycles after BLBSET and SPMEN are set in
SPMCSR. The Z-pointer is don’t care during this operation, but for future compatibility it
is recommended to load the Z-pointer with 0x0001 (same as used for reading the Lock
bits). For future compatibility it is also recommended to set bits 7 and 6 in R0 to “1”
when writing the Lock bits. When programming the Lock bits the entire Flash can be
read during the operation.
30.6.8 EEPROM Write Prevents Writing to SPMCSR
Note that an EEPROM write operation will block all software programming to Flash.
Reading the Signature Row, Fuses and Lock bits from software will also be prevented
during the EEPROM write operation. It is recommended that the user checks the status
bit (EEPE) in the EECR Register and verifies that the bit is cleared before writing to the
SPMCSR Register.
30.6.9 Reading the Fuse and Lock Bits from Software
It is possible to read both the Fuse and Lock bits from software. To read the Lock bits,
load the Z-pointer with 0x0001 and set the BLBSET and SPMEN bits in SPMCSR.
When an (E)LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles after the BLBSET and
SPMEN bits are set in SPMCSR, the value of the Lock bits will be loaded in the
destination register. The BLBSET and SPMEN bits will auto-clear upon completion of
reading the Lock bits or if no (E)LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles or
no SPM instruction is executed within four CPU cycles. When BLBSET and SPMEN are
cleared, (E)LPM will work as described in the Instruction Set Manual.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
-
-
BLB12
BLB11
BLB02
BLB01
LB2
LB1
The algorithm for reading the Fuse Low byte is similar to the one described above for
reading the Lock bits. To read the Fuse Low byte, load the Z-pointer with 0x0000 and
set the BLBSET and SPMEN bits in SPMCSR. When an (E)LPM instruction is executed
within three cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in the SPMCSR, the
value of the Fuse Low byte (FLB) will be loaded in the destination register as shown on
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
the next page. Refer to (see "Table 31-5" on page 472) for a detailed description and
mapping of the Fuse Low byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FLB7
FLB6
FLB5
FLB4
FLB3
FLB2
FLB1
FLB0
Similarly, load 0x0003 in the Z-pointer for reading the Fuse High byte. When an (E)LPM
instruction is executed within three cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in
the SPMCSR, the value of the Fuse High byte (FHB) will be loaded in the destination
register as shown below. Refer to "Table 31-4" on page 471 for detailed description and
mapping of the Fuse High byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
FHB7
FHB6
FHB5
FHB4
FHB3
FHB2
FHB1
FHB0
Load 0x0002 in the Z-pointer for reading the Extended Fuse byte. When an (E)LPM
instruction is executed within three cycles after the BLBSET and SPMEN bits are set in
the SPMCSR, the value of the Extended Fuse byte (EFB) will be loaded in the
destination register as shown below. Refer to Table 31-3 on page 471 for detailed
description and mapping of the Extended Fuse byte.
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Rd
-
-
-
-
-
EFB2
EFB1
EFB0
Fuse and Lock bits that are programmed will be read as zero. Fuse and Lock bits that
are un-programmed will be read as one.
30.6.10 Reading the Signature Row from Software
To read the Signature Row from software, load the Z-pointer with the signature byte
address given in Table 30-3 on page 463 and set the SIGRD and SPMEN bits in
SPMCSR. When a LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles after the
SIGRD and SPMEN bits are set in SPMCSR, the signature byte value will be loaded in
the destination register. The SIGRD and SPMEN bits will auto-clear upon completion of
reading the Signature Row or if no LPM instruction is executed within three CPU cycles.
Write access to the register SPMCSR is blocked during the three CPU cycles.
When SIGRD and SPMEN are cleared, LPM will work as described in the Instruction
Set Manual. The Signature Row cannot be read during an EEPROM write/erase
operation.
Assembly Code Example
; - The routine reads the three device signature bytes.
; - At the end the device signature bytes are stored in the CPU
;
register r3, r4 and r5.
; - the nop statements can be replaced by any other statements as
;
long as the blocking condition (respective time) of SPMCSR is
;
respected.
ldi
r16, (1<<SIGRD)|(1<<SPMEN)
out
SPMCSR, r16
lpm
r3, Z+
; Signature lesen
nop
nop
nop
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ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Assembly Code Example
out
SPMCSR, r16
lpm
r4, Z+
; SPMCSR schreiben
nop
nop
nop
out
SPMCSR, r16
lpm
r5, Z+
; SPMCSR schreiben
Table 30-3. Signature Row Addressing
Signature Byte
Z-Pointer Address
Device Signature Byte 1
0x0000
Device Signature Byte 2
0x0002
Device Signature Byte 3
0x0004
RC Oscillator Calibration Byte
0x0001
(2)
– Page 1
0x0100 – 0x01FF
(2)
– Page 2
0x0200 – 0x02FF
(2)
– Page 3
0x0300 – 0x03FF
User Signature Data
User Signature Data
User Signature Data
Note:
(1)
1. All other addresses are reserved for future use.
2. User signature pages must be selected via the NEMCR register for the device
ATmega128RFA1. The Z-pointer address is always 0x0000 – 0x00FF.
30.6.11 Preventing Flash Corruption
During periods of VDEVDD<1.8V, the Flash program can be corrupted because the supply
voltage is too low for the CPU and the Flash to operate properly. These issues are the
same as for board level systems using Flash, and the same design solutions should be
applied.
A Flash program corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too
low. First, a regular write sequence to the Flash requires a minimum voltage to operate
correctly. Secondly, the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly, if the supply
voltage for executing instructions is too low.
Flash corruption can easily be avoided by following these design recommendations
(one is sufficient):
1. If there is no need for a Boot Loader update in the system, program the Boot Loader
Lock bits to prevent any Boot Loader software updates.
2. Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply
voltage. This can be done by enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD) if the
operating voltage matches the detection level. If not, an external low VDEVDD reset
protection circuit can be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress,
the write operation will be completed under the condition that the power supply
voltage is sufficient.
3. Keep the AVR core in Power-down sleep mode during periods of low VDEVDD. This
will prevent the CPU from attempting to decode and execute instructions, effectively
protecting the SPMCSR Register and thus the Flash from unintentional writes.
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
30.6.12 Programming Time for Flash when Using SPM
The calibrated RC Oscillator is used to time Flash accesses. Table 30-4 below shows
the typical programming time for Flash accesses from the CPU.
Table 30-4. SPM Programming Time
Symbol
Min Programming Time
Max Programming Time
Flash write (Page Write, and write
Lock bits by SPM)
3.7 ms
4.5 ms
Flash write (Page Erase)
7.3 ms
8.9 ms
30.6.13 Simple Assembly Code Example for a Boot Loader
Assembly Code Example
(1)
;-the routine writes one page of data from RAM to Flash
; the first data location in RAM is pointed to by the Y pointer
; the first data location in Flash is pointed to by the Z-pointer
;-error handling is not included
;-the routine must be placed inside the Boot space
; (at least the Do_spm sub routine). Only code inside NRWW section
; can be read during Self-Programming (Page Erase and Page Write).
;-registers used: r0, r1, temp1 (r16), temp2 (r17), looplo (r24),
; loophi (r25), spmcrval (r20)
; storing and restoring of registers is not included in the routine
; register usage can be optimized at the expense of code size
;-It is assumed that either the interrupt table is moved to the
; Boot loader section or that the interrupts are disabled.
.equ PAGESIZEB=PAGESIZE*2 ;PAGESIZEB is page in BYTES, not words
.org SMALLBOOTSTART
Write_page:
; Page Erase
ldi spmcrval, (1<<PGERS) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; transfer data from RAM to Flash page buffer
ldi looplo, low(PAGESIZEB)
;init loop variable
ldi loophi, high(PAGESIZEB)
;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
Wrloop:
ld r0, Y+
ld r1, Y+
ldi spmcrval, (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
adiw ZH:ZL, 2
sbiw loophi:looplo, 2
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
brne Wrloop
; execute Page Write
464
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Assembly Code Example
(1)
subi ZL, low(PAGESIZEB)
;restore pointer
sbci ZH, high(PAGESIZEB)
;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
ldi spmcrval, (1<<PGWRT) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
; read back and check, optional
ldi looplo, low(PAGESIZEB)
;init loop variable
ldi loophi, high(PAGESIZEB)
;not required for PAGESIZEB<=256
subi YL, low(PAGESIZEB)
;restore pointer
sbci YH, high(PAGESIZEB)
Rdloop:
elpm r0, Z+
ld r1, Y+
cpse r0, r1
jmp Error
sbiw loophi:looplo, 1
;use subi for PAGESIZEB<=256
brne Rdloop
; return to RWW section
; verify that RWW section is safe to read
Return:
in temp1, SPMCSR
; If RWWSB is set, the RWW section is not ready yet
sbrs temp1, RWWSB
ret
; re-enable the RWW section
ldi spmcrval, (1<<RWWSRE) | (1<<SPMEN)
call Do_spm
rjmp Return
Do_spm:
; check for previous SPM complete
Wait_spm:
in temp1, SPMCSR
sbrc temp1, SPMEN
rjmp Wait_spm
; input: spmcrval determines SPM action
; disable interrupts if enabled, store status
in temp2, SREG
cli
; check that no EEPROM write access is present
Wait_ee:
sbic EECR, EEPE
rjmp Wait_ee
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Assembly Code Example
(1)
; SPM timed sequence
out SPMCSR, spmcrval
spm
; restore SREG (to enable interrupts if originally enabled)
out SREG, temp2
ret
Notes:
1. See "About Code Examples" on page 8.
30.6.14 Boot Loader Parameters for 128 kByte of Flash Memory
In Table 30-5 below through Table 30-7 on page 467, the parameters used in the
description of the Self-Programming are given.
Table 30-5. Read-While-Write Limit with 128 kByte of Flash Memory
Section
(1)
Pages
Address
Read-While-Write section (RWW)
480
0x0000 – 0xEFFF
No Read-While-Write section (NRWW)
32
0xF000 – 0xFFFF
Note:
1. For details about these two sections see "NRWW – No Read-While-Write Section"
on page 457 .
Table 30-6.
Explanation of different variables used in Figure 30-3 on page 459 and
the mapping to the Z-pointer for 128 kByte of Flash Memory
Corresponding
(2)
Z-value
(1)
Variable
Value
PCMSB
15
Most significant bit in the Program Counter.
(The Program Counter is 16 bits PC[15:0])
PAGEMSB
6
Most significant bit which is used to address
the words within one page (128 words in a
page requires seven bits PC [6:0]).
ZPCMSB
Z16
ZPAGEMSB
(3)
Z7
(3)
PCPAGE
PC[15:7]
Z16 :Z8
PCWORD
PC[6:0]
Z7:Z1
Notes:
Description
Bit in Z-pointer that is mapped to PCMSB.
Because Z0 is not used, the ZPCMSB
equals PCMSB + 1.
Bit in Z-pointer that is mapped to PCMSB.
Because Z0 is not used; the ZPAGEMSB
equals PAGEMSB + 1.
Program Counter page address: Page
select, for Page Erase and Page Write.
Program Counter word address: Word
select, for filling temporary buffer (must be
zero during Page Write operation)
1. Z0: should be zero for all SPM commands, byte select for the (E)LPM instruction.
2. See "Addressing the Flash During Self-Programming" on page 458 for details
about the use of Z-pointer during Self-Programming.
3. The Z-register is only 16 bits wide. Bit 16 is located in the RAMPZ register in the
I/O map.
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ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
(1)
Boot Reset Address
(Start Boot Loader
Section)
512
words
4
0x0000 –
0xFDFF
0xFE00 –
0xFFFF
0xFDFF
0xFE00
1
0
1024
words
8
0x0000 –
0xFBFF
0xFC00 –
0xFFFF
0xFBFF
0xFC00
0
1
2048
words
16
0x0000 –
0xF7FF
0xF800 –
0xFFFF
0xF7FF
0xF800
0
0
4096
words
32
0x0000 –
0xEFFF
0xF000 –
0xFFFF
0xEFFF
0xF000
Note:
Application Flash
Section
Pages
Boot Size
Boot Loader Flash
Section
1
BOOTSZ0
1
BOOTSZ1
End Application
Section
Table 30-7. Boot Size Configuration with 128 kByte of Flash Memory
1. The different BOOTSZ Fuse configurations are shown in Figure 30-2 on page 457.
30.7 Register Description
30.7.1 SPMCSR – Store Program Memory Control Register
Bit
$37 ($57)
Read/Write
Initial Value
7
6
5
SPMIE
RWWSB
SIGRD
RW
0
R
0
RW
0
4
3
2
RWWSRE BLBSET PGWRT
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
1
0
PGERS
SPMEN
RW
0
RW
0
SPMCSR
The Store Program Memory Control Register contains the control bits needed to control
the Boot Loader operations. Note: Only one SPM instruction should be active at any
time.
• Bit 7 – SPMIE - SPM Interrupt Enable
When the SPMIE bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set (one),
the SPM ready interrupt will be enabled. The SPM ready Interrupt will be executed as
long as the SPMEN bit in the SPMCR register is cleared.
• Bit 6 – RWWSB - Read While Write Section Busy
When a self-programming (page erase or page write) operation to the RWW section is
initiated, the RWWSB will be set (one) by hardware. When the RWWSB bit is set, the
RWW section cannot be accessed. The RWWSB bit will be cleared if the RWWSRE bit
is written to one after a self-programming operation is completed. Alternatively the
RWWSB bit will automatically be cleared if a page load operation is initiated.
• Bit 5 – SIGRD - Signature Row Read
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next LPM instruction within
three clock cycles will read a byte from the signature row into the destination register. A
SPM instruction within four cycles after SIGRD and SPMEN are set, will have no effect.
This operation is reserved for future use and should not be used.
• Bit 4 – RWWSRE - Read While Write Section Read Enable
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
When programming (page erase or page write) to the RWW section, the RWW section
is blocked for reading (the RWWSB will be set by hardware). To re-enable the RWW
section, the user software must wait until the programming is completed (SPMEN will
be cleared). Then, if the RWWSRE bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN,
the next SPM instruction within four clock cycles re-enables the RWW section. The
RWW section cannot be re-enabled while the Flash is busy with a page erase or a page
write (SPMEN is set). If the RWWSRE bit is written while the Flash is being loaded, the
Flash load operation will abort and the data loaded will be lost.
• Bit 3 – BLBSET - Boot Lock Bit Set
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within
four clock cycles sets Boot Lock bits, according to the data in R0. The data in R1 and
the address in the Z pointer are ignored. The BLBSET bit will automatically be cleared
upon completion of the lock bit set, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock
cycles. A LPM instruction within three cycles after BLBSET and SPMEN are set in the
SPMCR register, will read either the Lock-bits or the Fuse bits (depending on Z0 in the
Z pointer) into the destination register.
• Bit 2 – PGWRT - Page Write
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within
four clock cycles executes page write, with the data stored in the temporary buffer. The
page address is taken from the high part of the Z pointer. The data in R1 and R0 are
ignored. The PGWRT bit will auto-clear upon completion of a page write, or if no SPM
instruction is executed within four clock cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire
page write operation if the NRWW section is addressed.
• Bit 1 – PGERS - Page Erase
If this bit is written to one at the same time as SPMEN, the next SPM instruction within
four clock cycles executes page erase. The page address is taken from the high part of
the Z pointer. The data in R1 and R0 are ignored. The PGERS bit will auto-clear upon
completion of a page erase, or if no SPM instruction is executed within four clock
cycles. The CPU is halted during the entire page write operation if the NRWW section is
addressed.
• Bit 0 – SPMEN - Store Program Memory Enable
This bit enables the SPM instruction for the next four clock cycles. If written to one
together with either RWWSRE, BLB-SET, PGWRT or PGERS, the following SPM
instruction will have a special meaning, see description above. If only SPMEN is written,
the following SPM instruction will store the value in R1:R0 in the temporary page buffer
addressed by the Z pointer. The LSB of the Z pointer is ignored. The SPMEN bit will
auto-clear upon completion of an SPM instruction, or if no SPM instruction is executed
within four clock cycles. During page erase and page write, the SPMEN bit remain high
until the operation is completed. Writing any other combination than "10001", "01001",
"00101", "00011" or "00001" in the lower five bits will have no effect.
30.7.2 NEMCR – Flash Extended-Mode Control-Register
Bit
NA ($75)
Read/Write
Initial Value
468
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Resx7
ENEAM
AEAM1
AEAM0
Resx3
Resx2
Resx1
Resx0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
RW
1
RW
0
NEMCR
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
The Flash Extended-Mode Control-Register handles the extended address-mode of the
extra rows.
• Bit 7 – Resx7 - Reserved
• Bit 6 – ENEAM - Enable Extended Address Mode for Extra Rows
When active high, the extended address mode of the extra rows is enabled. The
address is decoded from bits AEAM1:0 of this register.
• Bit 5:4 – AEAM1:0 - Address for Extended Address Mode of Extra Rows
These bits are only used when bit ENEAM of this register is set high. Then AEAM1:0
are used to decode the addresses of the extra rows. A value of 0 decodes the default
Signature Row that is also accessible when the extended address mode is deactivated.
Table 30-8 AEAM Register Bits
Register Bits
AEAM1:0
Value
Description
0
Signature Row
1
User Row 1
2
User Row 2
3
User Row 3
• Bit 3:0 – Resx3:0 - Reserved
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8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
31 Memory Programming
31.1 Program And Data Memory Lock Bits
The ATmega128RFA1 provides six Lock bits which can be left un-programmed (“1”) or
can be programmed (“0”) to obtain the additional features listed in Table 31-2 below.
The Lock bits can only be erased to “1” with the Chip Erase command.
Table 31-1. Lock Bit Byte
Lock Bit Byte
(1)
Bit No
Description
Default Value
−
7
−
1 (un-programmed)
−
6
−
1 (un-programmed)
BLB12
5
Boot Lock bit
1 (un-programmed)
BLB11
4
Boot Lock bit
1 (un-programmed)
BLB02
3
Boot Lock bit
1 (un-programmed)
BLB01
2
Boot Lock bit
1 (un-programmed)
LB2
1
Lock bit
1 (un-programmed)
LB1
0
Lock bit
1 (un-programmed)
Note:
1. “1” means un-programmed, “0” means programmed.
Table 31-2. Lock Bit Protection Modes
Memory Lock Bits
Protection Type
LB Mode
LB2
LB1
1
1
1
No memory lock features enabled.
0
Further programming of the Flash and EEPROM is
disabled in Parallel, JTAG and Serial Programming
mode. The Fuse bits are locked in Parallel, JTAG and
(1)
Serial Programming mode.
Further programming and verification of the Flash and
EEPROM is disabled in Parallel, JTAG and Serial
Programming mode. The Boot Lock bits and Fuse bits
are locked in Parallel, JTAG and Serial Programming
(1)
mode.
2
1
3
0
0
BLB0 Mode
BL02
BL01
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or (E)LPM accessing the
Application section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Application section,
and (E)LPM executing from the Boot Loader section
is not allowed to read from the Application section. If
Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader
section, interrupts are disabled while executing from
the Application section.
1
(E)LPM executing from the Boot Loader section is not
allowed to read from the Application section. If
Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader
section, interrupts are disabled while executing from
the Application section.
3
4
470
(1)(2)
0
0
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
Memory Lock Bits
Protection Type
BLB1 Mode
BL12
BL11
1
1
1
No restrictions for SPM or (E)LPM accessing the Boot
Loader section.
2
1
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader
section.
0
SPM is not allowed to write to the Boot Loader
section, and (E)LPM executing from the Application
section is not allowed to read from the Boot Loader
section. If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the
Application section, interrupts are disabled while
executing from the Boot Loader section.
1
(E)LPM executing from the Application section is not
allowed to read from the Boot Loader section. If
Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Application
section, interrupts are disabled while executing from
the Boot Loader section.
3
0
4
0
Notes:
1. Program the Fuse bits and Boot Lock bits before programming the LB1 and LB2.
2. “1” means un-programmed, “0” means programmed.
31.2 Fuse Bits
The ATmega128RFA1 has three Fuse bytes. Table 31-3 below – Table 31-5 on page
472 describe briefly the functionality of all the fuses and how they are mapped into the
Fuse bytes. Note that the fuses are read as logical zero, “0”, if they are programmed.
Table 31-3. Extended Fuse Byte
Ext. Fuse Byte
Bit No
Description
−
7
−
1
−
6
−
1
−
5
−
1
−
4
−
1
Reserved
Default Value
3
Do not modify
1 (un-programmed)
BODLEVEL2
(1)
2
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (un-programmed)
BODLEVEL1
(1)
1
Brown-out Detector trigger level
1 (un-programmed)
BODLEVEL0
(1)
0
Brown-out Detector trigger level
0 (programmed)
Notes:
1. See Table 35-22 on page 515 for BODLEVEL Fuse decoding.
Table 31-4. Fuse High Byte
Fuse High Byte
(4)
Bit No
Description
Default Value
OCDEN
7
Enable On-chip debugging
(OCD)
1 (un-programmed, OCD
disabled)
JTAGEN
6
Enable JTAG interface
0 (programmed, JTAG
enabled)
(1)
5
Enable Serial Program and Data
Downloading (SPI)
0 (programmed, SPI
programming enabled)
WDTON
4
Watchdog Timer always on
1 (un-programmed)
EESAVE
3
EEPROM memory is preserved
through the Chip Erase
1 (un-programmed,
EEPROM not preserved)
SPIEN
(3)
471
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
Fuse High Byte
Bit No
Description
Default Value
BOOTSZ1
2
Select Boot Size (see Table 30-7
on page 467 for details)
0 (programmed)
BOOTSZ0
1
Select Boot Size (see Table 30-7
on page 467for details)
0 (programmed)
BOOTRST
0
Select Reset Vector
1 (un-programmed)
Notes:
(2)
(2)
1. The SPIEN Fuse is not accessible in serial programming mode.
2. The default value of BOOTSZ1:0 results in maximum Boot Size. See Table 30-7
on page 467 for details.
3. See "WDTCSR – Watchdog Timer Control Register" on page 188 for details.
4. Never ship a product with the OCDEN Fuse programmed regardless of the setting
of Lock bits and JTAGEN Fuse. A programmed OCDEN Fuse enables some
parts of the clock system to be running in all sleep modes. This may increase the
power consumption.
Table 31-5. Fuse Low Byte
Fuse Low Byte
Description
Default Value
7
Divide clock by 8
0 (programmed)
CKOUT
6
Clock output
1 (un-programmed)
SUT1
5
Select start-up time
1 (un-programmed)
SUT0
4
Select start-up time
0 (programmed)
(4)
(3)
CKDIV8
Bit No
(1)
(2)
CKSEL3
3
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)
CKSEL2
2
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)
CKSEL1
1
Select Clock source
1 (un-programmed)
CKSEL0
0
Select Clock source
0 (programmed)
Notes:
(1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
1. The default value of SUT1:0 results in maximum start-up time for the default clock
source. See "System Control and Reset" on page 180 for details.
2. The default setting of CKSEL3:0 results in internal RC Oscillator @ 8 MHz. See
"Table 11-1" on page 151 for details.
3. The CKOUT Fuse allows the system clock to be output on PORTE7. See "Clock
Output Buffer" on page 155 for details.
4. See "System Clock Prescaler" on page 155 for details.
The status of the Fuse bits is not affected by Chip Erase. Note that the Fuse bits are
locked if Lock bit1 (LB1) is programmed. Program the Fuse bits before programming
the Lock bits.
31.2.1 Latching of Fuses
The fuse values are latched when the device enters programming mode and changes
of the fuse values will have no effect until the part leaves Programming mode. This
does not apply to the EESAVE Fuse which will take effect once it is programmed. The
fuses are also latched on Power-up in Normal mode.
31.3 Signature Bytes
All Atmel microcontrollers have a three-byte signature code which identifies the device.
This code can be read in both serial and parallel mode, also when the device is locked.
The three bytes reside in a separate address space. For the ATmega128RFA1 the
472
ATmega128RFA1
8266F-MCU Wireless-09/14
ATmega128RFA1
signature bytes are given in Table 31-6 below. Accessing the signature bytes from
software is described in section "Reading the Signature Row from Software" on page
462.
Table 31-6. Device and JTAG ID
Signature Byte Number
Part
ATmega128RFA1
JTAG
0
1
2
Part Number
Manufacturer ID
0x1E
0xA7
0x01
0xA701
0x1F
31.4 Calibration Byte
The ATmega128RFA1 has a byte calibration value for the internal RC Oscillator. This
byte resides in the high byte of address 0x000 in the signature address space. During
reset, this byte is automatically written into the OSCCAL Register to ensure correct
frequency of the calibrated RC Oscillator.
31.5 Page Size
Table 31-7. Number of Words in a Page and Number of Pages in the Flash
Flash Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of
Pages
PCPAGE
PCMSB
64k words (128k bytes)
128 words
PC[6:0]
512
PC[15:7]
15
Table 31-8. Number of Bytes in a Page and Number of Pages in the EEPROM
EEPROM Size
Page Size
PCWORD
No. of
Pages
PCPAGE
EEAMSB
4k bytes
8 bytes
EEA[2:0]
512
EEA[11:3]
11
31.6 Parallel Programming Parameters, Pin Mapping, and Commands
This section describes how to parallel program and verify Flash Program memory,
EEPROM D