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Vishay Siliconix
Designing A Flyback Converter with Si9113
for Feeding the TE from U-Interface In ISDN
Nitin Kalje and Tony Lai
The efficiency of the converter powering the NT is extremely
important, even at power levels of a few milliwatts. To achieve
60% efficiency with an 80-mW output, the allowable power loss
in the converter is less than 54 mW. The components of these
losses include the dc and switching losses in the
semiconductors, the transformer, quiescent current overhead
in the control chip, current and voltage sense networks, power
losses from the ripple current through the input and output
capacitor ESR, resistive losses in the PCB traces, and any
external control circuit operating losses. Built on a proprietary
BiC/DMOS technology, the Si9113 integrates all the functions
necessary to minimize power consumption. Its major features
include:
programmable start/stop
less than 5-A supply current in UVLO mode
internal start-up circuit, programmable soft-start, and
power_good output.
The following sections discuss in detail design considerations
for creating an efficient 800-mW flyback converter with the
Si9113. Refer to the application circuit from Figure 6.
Start/Stop Programming
The European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI)
requires the NT1 and the regenerator directed towards the line
terminal to remain at a high impedance state for as long as the
input line voltage stays below 18 V. The high impedance state
is defined by the maximum leakage current through the
equipment and its minimum input capacitance. In this state the
leakage current must be less than 10 A and the capacitance
more than 1 F.
The Si9113 includes a very high input impedance-window
comparator, which can be programmed to set an accurate
undervoltage lockout (UVLO) level with adequate hysteresis.
The programmable hysteresis avoids unintentional locking of
the system during start up, especially when the system is fed
from long loops of telephone line. The comparators need a
mere 0.05-A input bias current. Moreover, when in UVLO
mode, the Si9113 disables the internal reference generator,
soft-start, oscillator circuit, and most of the control section to
reduce the supply current below 5 A. This keeps the total
current drawn by the converter below 10 A and meets the
ETSI standard. See Figure 1 for the current behavior of the
Si9113 with respect to the input voltage. When the converter
is on, the VCC is supplied by the boot-strap winding and the
internal depletion MOSFET opens.
Figure 2 shows how the hysteresis is achieved. Refer to
equations 1 and 2 to calculate the resistor values for proper
undervoltage lockout and the hysteresis.
V START R3 R4 R5 8.8
R5
(1)
V STOP R3 R5 8.8
R5
(2)
InputCurrent InputVoltage
Into +VIN
at +VIN
A
V
1.4 m
23.5
18.0
100 10 Time
HiZ
Shutdown
Operating
HiZ
Shutdown
FIGURE 1. Input Current Behaviour
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VIN
not be able to deliver enough power to the load. Normally, it is
recommended to derate the resistor by 20% of the value
required to deliver the full power.
R3
Taking this in account the RSENSE value shall be estimated by
equation 3.
STOP
8.8 V
R4
–
+
ENABLE
R SENSE START
START/STOP
Comparator
R5
0.2 V IN(min) D MAX h
(3)
P OUT
where, DMAX = Maximum Duty Ratio
POUT = Output Power (W)
h = Converter Efficiency
VIN(min) = Minimum Input Voltage (V)
Ideally, when the flyback converter is in discontinuous mode,
current rises at the rate determined by the input voltage and the
primary inductance of the transformer (Figure 3). In the real
world, however, a leading-edge spike is always created by the
MOSFET gate and output capacitance, the interlayer
capacitance of the primary and secondaries, the reverse
recovery of their respective rectifiers, and the inductive nature
of the current sense resistor. This leading edge spike may
cause the switch to turn off prematurely unless it is filtered out
by a low pass RC filter.
FIGURE 2. Start/Stop Programming
Current Sense
The Si9113 has two integrated comparators. The PWM
comparator, which is relatively slow, performs the current
mode control function by comparing the output of the error
amplifier with the current in the transformer primary. The
overcurrent limit comparator is a faster channel from the
current sense to the output driver and has a 100-ns typical
propagation time.
The leading edge spike includes a distinct component with a
period equal to the fall time of the MOSFET drain along with the
lower frequency oscillations. Obviously, it is difficult to estimate
the amplitude and burst-width of these spikes. One easy
approach is to measure on the oscilloscope, with a high
sampling rate, the total width and amplitude of the burst under
high-line and full-load conditions. Then design the RC network
to integrate all these spikes in the burst. Usually, for the 20-kHz
to 100-kHz converters, 200-ns to 50-ns time constants are a
good compromise.
With the current sense resistor in the primary path, a voltage
signal which is proportional to the primary current is available
to control the switch-on period. This signal is used by the PWM
comparator as well as the overcurrent comparator. Selecting
the right value and type of resistor is very important, as it
determines the amount of power delivered to the load during
fault conditions. At the same time, a higher resistor value can
terminate the switching cycle prematurely and the circuit may
3.6 V
Error Amplifier
Output
PWM Comparator
–
+
OC Comparator
0.6 V
(A)
(B)
–
+
(C)
FIGURE 3. Low Pass RC Filter at Current Sense
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Compensation
P IN + 1 LPǒI PKǓ 2 f s
2
Compensating the loop at one particular line and load is not
sufficient to ensure that the power supply will be equally stable
under other line and load conditions. The loop can be
compensated for all real-world conditions, but the margins will
not be consistent.
P OUT
1
ǒ Ǔ2
h + 2 LP IPK f s
(7)
or
I pk +
The Si9113 is designed with a high open loop gain (up to
60 dB) and 1.3-MHz unity gain bandwidth. A fast inner control
loop reduces propagation delays to achieve a good phase
margin at high crossover frequencies. This reduces the
compensation to the Type 2 network, where the low-frequency
zero is introduced at the power stage low-frequency pole and
the high-frequency pole is introduced at the output capacitor
ESR zero. This high-frequency pole makes the compensation
independent of the capacitor ESR and temperature, and also
prevents thin high-frequency noise spikes from being
amplified and transferred to the output.
Use the following guidelines to compensate the loop for the
Si9113 multi-output converter:
Ǹ
2 POUT
LP fs h
+ 192.45 mA
With the current sensing resistor R7= 2 W, a 1-mV change in
the error voltage will result in a 0.5-mA change in the peak
primary current. All other parameters remaining same, the
increase in the output power is:
P O ) DP O + 1 LPǒI PK ) DI PKǓ 2
2
ǒ
Ǔ
C4
(4)
+ 246.6 mF
h
(9)
For a fixed effective impedance REFF,
Calculate the effective output filter capacity Ceff and the
effective load resistor Reff of all the outputs at full load,
reflected to the main output through the turns ratio. Use these
values to locate the low-frequency power stage filter pole.
(Refer to Figure 6)
C10 ) NS1 ) NS3
NS1
fs
+ 0.80416
V O ) DV O +
C EFF + C11 ) NS2
NS1
(8)
ǸǒPO ) DPOǓ
R EFF
(10)
+ 3.3083 V
The low frequency power stage gain + 20 Log
DV O
1 mV
(11)
+ 18.4 dB
Plots of proposed close loop frequency response and power
stage frequency response (Figure 4) suggest the nature of the
error amplifier frequency response in terms of the location of
low-frequency zero at Fz and its gain at Fz.
For 800 mW of output power,
50
2
V
R EFF + 3.3 V
P OUT
+ 13.61 W
40
(5)
Closed Loop Gain
30
Error Amp Gain
From equation 4 and 5, the power stage low-frequency pole is
calculated as:
FPP +
1
2p R EFF C EFF
(6)
+ 47 Hz
Gain (dB)
20
10
0
–10
Power Stage Gain
–20
–30
Calculate the power stage low-frequency gain.
The
low-frequency power stage gain is equal to the change in the
power output per unit change in the error voltage, reflected by
the change in peak primary current. Or keeping the REFF the
same, the change in the output voltage per unit change in the
error amplifier output voltage. The energy transferred to the
output during the off cycle is equal to the amount of energy
stored in the transformer multiplied by the transformer and
secondary circuit efficiency. The power input to the converter
input is proportional to square of peak primary current (I-pk).
Document Number: 71120
29-Feb-00
–40
–50
10
100
1,000
10,000
50,000
Frequency (Hz)
FIGURE 4. Calculated Loop Gain
The error amplifier low-frequency gain required from Figure 4
(DGain) = 23 dB.
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10 DGain
20
R2 + R9
(15)
(12)
+ 282 k
Phase Margin + 90 * tan–1
Use 300 k
60
180
50
150
40
120
30
10
60
30
Gain
0
0
–10
–30
–20
–60
–30
–90
–40
–120
–50
–150
–60
10
100
Phase
Gain (dB)
The same procedure should be repeated for 30% of the output
power to make sure that the feedback loop is stable with
enough margin. Figure 5 shows the actual closed loop gain
and phase characteristics.
90
Phase
20
1,000
10,000
FCO
F
F
) tan–1 CO * tan–1 CO
Fp_esr
Fz
Fpp
where, CEFF — Effective Output filter Capacity (F)
REFF — Effictive Output Load Resistance (R)
IPK — Peak Primary Current (A)
LP — Transformer Primary Inductance (H)
h — Converter Efficiency
fs — Switching Frequency (Hz)
FPP — Power Stage Low Frequency Pole (Hz)
fZ — Error Amp Low Frequency Zero (Hz)
fco — Close Loop Cross Over Frequency (Hz)
fp_esr — Capacitor ESR Zero (Hz)
–180
50,000
Power Loss Consideration
Frequency (Hz)
FIGURE 5. Measured Loop Gain
In the restricted power mode of TE, every milliwatt of power
loss counts. Use the following guidelines to reduce the power
loses to a minimum, especially at high line:
Introduce the error amplifier low–frequency zero at 47 Hz.
C8 +
1
fz
2p
R2
(13)
+ 0.011 mF
Use 0.01 mF
Normally, capacitor manufacturers quote the capacitor ESR
values as maximums possible at a given frequency and
temperature. The actual ESR figure is unknown and also
varies with temperature. To make circuit stability independent
of ESR zero, add a high frequency pole below the worst-case
capacitor ESR zero location.
Fp_esr +
+
1
2p R2 C3
2p
1
300 k
(14)
D Transformer: With an operating frequency range of
20 kHz, dc losses in the winding will usually be dominant.
Leakage inductor spikes from charging the MOSFET
output capacitor can also contribute to the losses, even
though these are very low at lower switching frequencies.
Select a core geometry and winding technique that
achieves a good coupling between the primary and
highest power output secondary. Refer to Vishay Siliconix
application note AN713 for flyback transformer design
guidelines.
100 pF
+ 5.3 kHz
Accounting for the phase lag, which results from the phase
inversion, the output filter, the error amplifier pole at the origin
and at the high frequency, and the phase lead resulting from
the error amplifier zero the phase margin can be estimated.
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D Switching Frequency: The switching losses incurred in
the transformer leakage inductance, the MOSFET gate,
MOSFET drain voltage and current cross over, the output
diode reverse recovery, and the control circuitry, are
proportional to the switching frequency. The lowest
possible operating frequency for a given form factor
should be used to keep the switching losses to a
minimum.
D MOSFET switch: The dc and ac losses of the MOSFET
switch should be balanced. The low gate charge and low
gate-to-drain capacity MOSFET for a given rDS(on) should
be selected to keep the gate charge loss and drain
voltage and current cross over loss down. The Si3420DV,
a 200-V LITTLE FOOTR TSOP-6 device, is the best
choice for this application.
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Quiescent Current: The Si9113 uses a BiCMOS process
to keep the control circuit operating current at low level.
The power dissipated in the controller and MOSFET
driver is equivalent to VCC multiplied by ICC. Keep the
worst-case low value of VCC just above the internal
regulator voltage of 9.5 V. Also, make sure that the
bootstrap voltage is always more than the maximum
value of the internal regulator. Otherwise, more power will
28 – 99 V
+VIN
4
3
–VIN
be dissipated in the internal depletion MOSFET.
Other-Care should be taken to restrict the losses in the
current and voltage sensing network, secondary
rectifiers, and input and output capacitors. Refer to
Vishay Siliconix application note AN704 for instructions
on calculating power loss in the converter.
T1
XFMR_LPE9080
D2
1
BR1
AC +
AC –
40 V/12 mA
1
+ C1
22 mF
160 V
2
ESIG
DF02S
D1
R13
2.7 W
3.3 V/120 mA
C4
1 mF
C10
NS2
2.2 mF
50 V
3
6
7
ESIG
NS3
D3
9
3
+
D4*
BZX84C43
1
COM2
NP
5
B130LB
C12
0.1 mF
C5
0.1 mF
R9
20 kW
R1
R10
13 kW
1 MW
C7
8
9
6
OSCOUT
12
Q01 Si3420DV
4 (Q01)
GND
4
PWR_G
VREF
FB
ICS
COMP
VIN
START
STOP
13
14
R2
C8
300 kW 0.01 mF
3
R11
2
1 kW
C9
0.01 mF
1
Si9113
C13
100 pF
1, 2, 5, 6, (Q01)
5
SS
0.1 mF
3 (Q01)
COM1
DR
10
11
8
7
VCC
OSCIN
0.001 mF
C6
C11
220 mF
6.3 V
C3
220 pF
R7
2W
1/ W
2
R3
5.1 MW
R4
1 MW
R5
3.96 MW
FIGURE 6. Dual Output Flyback converter with Tightly Regulated Main Output
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90
VIN = 48 V
Efficiency %
80
70
VIN = 28 V
60
VIN = 99 V
50
40
0
200
400
600
800
1000
WO (mW)
FIGURE 7. Efficiency vs. Output Power
Ch1: Switch Current Before RC (0.1 A/div)
Ch3: Switch Current After RC (0.1 A/div)
FIGURE 8. Switch Current Waveform Before and After RC Network
VIN = 99 V
Output = 850 mW
Ch1: Switch Current (0.25 A/div)
Ch3: Drain Voltage (50 V/div)
FIGURE 9. Drain Switching Waveform
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VIN = 48 V
IO @ 3.3 V = Step – 12 to 120 mA
IO @ 40 V = 12 mA
Ch1: VO = 3.3 V (50 mV/div)
Ch4: IO = 3.3 V (50 mA/div)
FIGURE 10.
Transient Response—Main Output (3.3 V)
ISDN CONCEPT
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a combination of
technology standards and regulations for digital
telecommunications first proposed by the international
telecommunications regulatory body, CCITT, in 1980.
Intended to enable end-to-end digital communication of voice
and data, the ISDN subscriber loop is key to the successful
ISDN implementation because it must:
Provide the user with a flexible digital interface with
access to a wide variety of present and future services;
Allow the evolution of the individual network services to
progress towards achieving an ISDN according to the
different strategies of the networks operators.
In analog transmission systems, the transmitted signals may
represent analog or digital data. In either case, the signals are
subject to attenuation, limiting the length of the transmission
link. Even with repeaters, the signal-to-noise ratio still suffers
Phone
over long distances. Digital signals, by contrast, are
significantly more accurate.
Most of today’s public switched telephone networks (PSTN)
are digital, but the connection to end-customer telephone
equipment—often called the subscriber loop—mostly
employs analog techniques. The connection becomes
dedicated for the duration of a call. For data terminals, packet
switching is commonly used to support multiple logical
connections and thus makes more efficient use of the
connection bandwidth. Similar to the telephone network, the
telex network also uses circuit switching but at a much slower
speed. Consequently there is a tremendous pressure to
integrate the series to achieve an efficient digital network.
As shown in Figure 11, the ISDN central office connects the
numerous subscriber loops to the digital network. This
provides access to a variety of lower OSI layers.
ISDN
Subscriber
Loop
ISDN
Subscriber
Loop
Phone
Telephone Network
PC
PC
Packet -Switched Data Network
ISDN
Exchange
ISDN
Exchange
Telex Network
Special Terminal
Special Terminal
Signaling Network
Telex
Telex
FIGURE 11.
Document Number: 71120
29-Feb-00
Integrated Digital Network
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110/220 VAC
TE1
Battery Voltage
(48- to 60-V Typ.)
Needed Only
for Long Loops
110/220 VAC
TE1
S
Si9113
U
dc-dc Converter
Central
Office
Switch
Transmission
Line
Local Telephone
Exchange
NT
R
TE2
U
RG
TA
Customer
Premises
FIGURE 12.
ISDN Functional Groups and Reference Points
ISDN REFERENCE MODEL
Figure 12 is a reference model and shows how various
functional groups are connected together to gain access to the
ISDN network. The points which divide the functional groups
are referred to as reference (interface) points, and will typically
correspond to a particular physical interface connecting two
pieces of equipment.
The S-interface is also known as the user-network interface
(UNI) as it represents the common interface at which terminal
equipment (TE) can be connected to the ISDN. The functions
are:
Terminal equipment, type 1 (TE1): examples are
telephones, fax machines and videophones which can be
directly connected to the S-interface and have the ability
to establish and terminate a call.
Terminal equipment, type 2 (TE2): examples are analog
phones, computers, and communications terminal
equipment. TE2’s do not have an ISDN UNI and rely on a
terminal adapter (TA) to operate as the TE1 functional
group in order to connect to S-interface.
Terminal adapter (TA): adapts a non-ISDN terminal to the
ISDN. It will contain functions which include layer 1
(physical layer) and higher layers (including call
processing) of the OSI reference model.
Network Termination, type 1 (NT1): It marks the point at
which the public network ends and the customer premise
begins. NT1 equipment provides a conversion at the
physical layer between S-interface that runs inside a
customer premise and the subscriber loop cable at the
U-interface that connects to the local exchange. An
important function of NT1 is to feed power to the TE
either from the local mains supply or from the network as
a backup when the mains power fails.
Network Termination, type 2 (NT2): Unlike NT1
equipment that provides only a physical translation
between S- and U-interfaces, NT2 equipment may also
incorporate more complex functions such as switching
and multiplexing. A private branch exchange (PBX),
inside customer premises, routes calls and provides its
users with internal voice services, as well as access to
external lines connected to the ISDN. Such an
ISDN-based PBX belongs to the NT2.
Line Termination (LT): LT marks the end of the ISDN subscriber
loop. It is typically located within the local exchange equipment
as a line card containing the terminations for a number of
subscriber lines. If the distance between LT and NT is greater
than that supported by the U-interface, a signal regenerator
(RG) is required.
U-Interface
To NT
Protection
Circuit
Protection
Circuit
dc Voltage
Sink
dc Voltage
Source
FIGURE 13.
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To Local
Exchange
Power Feed Configuration at the U-Interface
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POWER FEEDING TO NT
POWER FEEDING TO TE
Figure 13 illustrates the method used to provide a power feed
across the U-interface from the local exchange to the NT1. The
two conductors on the U-interface are separated with a
capacitor to allow a dc voltage to be applied and to enable ac
signals to pass without attenuation. Protection circuitry is
added as needed.
Power is fed from NT1 to TE in two configurations (Figure 14).
In the first configuration, power source 1 (PS1) feeds power to
the transformer at the NT, where the signal is injected. The
signal is then recovered from the transformer at the TE. A dc-dc
converter is used to power the TE circuitry.
Under normal conditions, the S-interface may be powered
locally from the NT1 using mains or batteries, and is backed up
with remote power from the network under emergency power
conditions where the local power source fails.
In the second configuration, power source 2 (PS2) feeds
power through a separate pair of conductors within the
S-cable. These conductors are independent of the transmit
and receive signal conductors. PS2 is capable of delivering
higher levels of power to TEs. Power feeding designs and
configurations vary among network operators and between
different countries and regions.
When active, the NT1 must consume no more than 500 mW
of power from the network, and in a deactivated state must
consume no more than 120 mW. Under emergency power
conditions when NT1 is expected to also power the user’s
designated TE across the S-interface, then the power
consumption of an active NT1 is allowed to rise to a maximum
of 1.1 W (although this varies between different ISDNs due to
different safety requirements and subscriber loop
configurations). The minimum voltage required for correct
operation at the NT1 is 28 V, while the feed voltage at the
exchange may vary among networks from 51 V to 115 V.
Table 1 shows how a dc-dc converter feeds power to the
S-interface on an NT1 board. Under normal conditions, the TE
power comes from an ac-dc converter via a relay. In a mains
failure condition, the relay switches the connection over to the
dc-dc converter and polarity reverses. Such polarity reversal
causes the TE to operate in restricted mode to minimize power
drawn from U-interface.
Signal
Transformer
Signal
Transformer
TE
NT
+
c
RX
TX
–
Power
Source 1
+
d
Power
Source 1
Power Feed
e
+
TX
RX
f
–
–
g
Power
Source 2
h
Power
Source 2
Power Feed
FIGURE 14.
Document Number: 71120
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Power Feed Configurations at the S-Interface
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TE POWER STATES
Two states exist in which power is supplied to TE: normal and
restricted. The state determines the maximum power levels
supplied to TE by the power sources.
Under normal conditions, PS1 will deliver up to 1 W of power
to an activated terminal on the S-interface. The restricted
condition may be enforced under emergency conditions when
the network or NT is forced to supply power in the event of a
mains supply failure.
When supplying power via PS1, NT indicates this condition to
TE by reversing the voltage polarity. This causes the attached
TEs to enter a restricted mode of operation in which the
designated TE can consume only 380 mW of power to remain
operable. The power capabilities of PS1 and PS2 in normal
and restricted modes are given in Table 1.
TABLE 1 . POWER SOURCES SPECIFICATION
Condition
Power Source 1
ITU-T/ETSI, Nominal 40 V
Power Source 2
ITU-T/ETSI, Nominal 40 V
Voltage/Power at NT in Normal Mode
34 to 42 V at up to max. power (1 W)
42-V max. Min defined by TE requirements.
Max. power 8 W(ETSI-7 W)
Voltage/Power at NT in Restricted Mode
34 to 42 V at up to 420 mW
42-V max. Min defined by TE requirements.
Min. power 2 W
Voltage/Power at TE in Normal Mode
24 to 42 V at up to 1 W
32 to 42 V at min. power of 7 W
Voltage/Power at TE in Restricted Mode
32 to 42 V at up to 401 mW. (380 mW for a designated
at TE plus 21 mW for all other TEs combined)
32 to 42 V at min. power of 2 W
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Nick Burd, The ISDN subscriber loop; Chapman & Hall
2. Power Integrated Circuit; Vishay Siliconix
3. Switching Power Supply Design; Abraham Pressman
4. G Dicenet, Design and prospects for the ISDN; Artech House
5. ETS 300 012-1 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), Basic User Network Interface (UNI) Part 1: Layer 1 specification;
ETSI
6. ETR 080 Transmission and Multiplexing (TM); Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) basic rate access; Digital
transmission system on metallic local lines; ETSI
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