Freescale Semiconductor Advance Information Document Number: MC33931 Rev. 2.0, 12/2008 5.0 A Throttle Control H-bridge 33931 The 33931 is a monolithic H-bridge Power IC in a robust thermally enhanced package. It is designed primarily for automotive electronic throttle control, but is applicable to any low-voltage DC servo motor control application within the current and voltage limits stated in this specification. The 33931 H-bridge is able to control inductive loads with currents up to 5.0 A peak. RMS current capability is subject to the degree of heatsinking provided to the device package. Internal peak-current limiting (regulation) is activated at load currents above 6.5 A ±1.5 A. Output loads can be pulse width modulated (PWM-ed) at frequencies up to 11 kHz. A load current feedback feature provides a proportional (0.24% of the load current) current output suitable for monitoring by a microcontroller’s A/D input. A Status Flag output reports under-voltage, over-current, and over-temperature fault conditions. Two independent inputs provide polarity control of two half-bridge totem-pole outputs. The disable inputs are provided to force the Hbridge outputs to tri-state (high-impedance off-state). THROTTLE CONTROL H-BRIDGE VW SUFFIX (PB-FREE) 98ARH98330A 44-PIN HSOP WITH PROTRUDING HEAT SINK ORDERING INFORMATION Features Temperature Device • 8.0 V to 28 V continuous operation (transient operation from Range (TA) 5.0 V to 40 V) MC33931VW/R2 -40°C to 125°C • 235 mΩ maximum RDS(ON) @ Tj=150°C (each H-bridge MOSFET) • 3.0 V and 5.0 V TTL / CMOS logic compatible inputs • Over-current limiting (regulation) via internal constant-off-time PWM • Output short-circuit protection (short to VPWR or GND) • Temperature-dependant current-limit threshold reduction • All inputs have an internal source/sink to define the default (floating input) states • Sleep mode with current draw < 50 µA (each half with inputs floating or set to match default logic states) VPWR VDD 33931 SF VPWR FB CCP OUT1 IN1 MCU MOTOR IN2 OUT2 D1 EN/D2 PGND AGND Figure 1. MC33931 Simplified Application Diagram * This document contains certain information on a new product. Specifications and information herein are subject to change without notice. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2008. All rights reserved. Package 44 HSOP INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM VPWR LOGIC SUPPLY CCP VDD VCP CHARGE PUMP HS1 HS2 OUT1 TO GATES OUT2 HS1 IN1 LS1 IN2 HS2 EN/D2 D1 SF FB GATE DRIVE AND PROTECTION LOGIC LS1 LS2 PGND LS2 VSENSE ILIM PWM CURRENT MIRROR AND CONSTANT OFF-TIME PWM CURRENT REGULATOR AGND PGND Figure 2. 33931 Simplified Internal Block Diagram 33931 2 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor PIN CONNECTIONS PIN CONNECTIONS AGND Tab 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 D1 FB EN/D2 VPWR VPWR VPWR OUT1 OUT1 OUT1 PGND PGND N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 SF IN1 IN2 CCP VPWR VPWR OUT2 OUT2 OUT2 PGND PGND N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C N/C Tab Figure 3. 33931 Pin Connections Table 1. 33931 Pin Definitions A functional description of each pin can be found in the Functional Description section beginning on page 11. Pin Pin Name Pin Function 1 D1 2 Formal Name Definition Logic Input Disable Input 1 (Active High) When D1 is logic HIGH, both OUT1 and OUT2 are tri-stated. Schmitt trigger input with ~80 μA source so default condition = disabled. FB Analog Output Feedback The load current feedback output provides ground referenced 0.24% of the high side output current. (Tie to GND through a resistor if not used.) 3 EN/D2 Logic Input Enable Input When EN/D2 is logic HIGH the H-bridge is operational. When EN/D2 is logic LOW, the H-bridge outputs are tri-stated and placed in Sleep mode. (logic input with ~ 80 μA sink so default condition = Sleep mode.) 4-6,40,39 VPWR Power Input Positive Power Supply These pins must be connected together physically as close as possible and directly soldered down to a wide, thick, low resistance supply plane on the PCB. 7-9 OUT1 Power Output H-bridge Output 1 10,11,34,35 PGND Power Ground Power Ground 36-38 OUT2 Power Output H-bridge Output 2 Source of high side MOSFET1 and drain of low side MOSFET1. High-current power ground pins must be connected together physically as close as possible and directly soldered down to a wide, thick, low resistance ground plane on the PCB. Source of high side MOSFET2 and drain of low side MOSFET2. 33931 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor 3 PIN CONNECTIONS Table 1. 33931 Pin Definitions (continued) A functional description of each pin can be found in the Functional Description section beginning on page 11. Pin Pin Name Pin Function Formal Name 41 CCP Analog Output Charge Pump Capacitor 42 IN2 Logic Input Input 2 Logic input control of OUT2;e.g., when IN2 is logic HIGH, OUT2 is set to VPWR, and when IN2 is logic LOW, OUT2 is set to PGND. (Schmitt trigger Input with ~ 80 μA source so default condition = OUT2 HIGH.) 43 IN1 Logic Input Input 1 Logic input control of OUT1; e.g., when IN1 is logic HIGH, OUT1 is set to VPWR, and when IN1 is logic LOW, OUT1 is set to PGND. (Schmitt trigger Input with ~ 80 μA source so default condition = OUT1 HIGH.) 44 SF Logic Output - Status Flag (Active Low) Open Drain TAB AGND Analog Ground Analog Signal Ground 12-33 N/C None No Connect Definition External reservoir capacitor connection for the internal charge pump; connected to VPWR. Allowable values are 30 nF to 100 nF. Note: This capacitor is required for the proper performance of the device. Open drain active LOW Status Flag output (requires an external pull-up resistor to VDD. Maximum permissible load current < 0.5 mA. Maximum VCEsat < 0.4 V @ 0.3 mA. Maximum permissible pull-up voltage < 7.0 V.) The low-current analog signal ground must be connected to PGND via lowimpedance path (<10 mΩ, 0 Hz to 20 kHz). Exposed TAB is also the main heatsinking path for the device. Pin is not used 33931 4 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS MAXIMUM RATINGS ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS MAXIMUM RATINGS Table 2. Maximum Ratings All voltages are with respect to ground unless otherwise noted. Exceeding these ratings may cause a malfunction or permanent damage to the device. These parameters are not production tested. Ratings Symbol Value Unit VPWR(SS) VPWR(T) - 0.3 to 28 Logic Input Voltage(2) VIN - 0.3 to 7.0 V SF Output(3) V SF - 0.3 to 7.0 V IOUT(CONT) 5.0 A Human Body Model VESD1 Machine Model VESD2 ± 2000 ± 200 ELECTRICAL RATINGS Power Supply Voltage V Normal Operation (Steady-state) Transient Over-voltage(1) Continuous Output Current(4) - 0.3 to 40 ESD Voltage(5) V Charge Device Model Corner Pins (1,22,23,44) ±750 All Other Pins ±500 THERMAL RATINGS Storage Temperature Operating Temperature - 65 to 150 TA - 40 to 125 TJ - 40 to 150 TPPRT Note 8 °C RθJC < 1.0 °C/W °C Ambient Junction Peak Package Reflow Temperature During Reflow Approximate Junction-to-Case Thermal °C TSTG (6) (7),(8) Resistance(9) Notes 1. Device will survive repetitive transient over-voltage conditions for durations not to exceed 500 ms @ duty cycle not to exceed 10%. External protection is required to prevent device damage in case of a reverse battery condition. 2. Exceeding the maximum input voltage on IN1, IN2, EN/D2 or D1 may cause a malfunction or permanent damage to the device. 3. Exceeding the pull-up resistor voltage on the open drain SF pin may cause permanent damage to the device. 4. Continuous output current capability is dependent on sufficient package heatsinking to keep junction temperature ≤ 150°C. 5. ESD testing is performed in accordance with the Human Body Model (CZAP = 100 pF, RZAP = 1500 Ω), Machine Model (CZAP = 200 pF, RZAP = 0 Ω), and the Charge Device Model (CDM), Robotic (CZAP = 4.0 pF). 6. 7. 8. 9. The limiting factor is junction temperature, taking into account the power dissipation, thermal resistance, and heat sinking provided. Brief non-repetitive excursions of junction temperature above 150°C can be tolerated, provided the duration does not exceed 30 seconds maximum. (Non-repetitive events are defined as not occurring more than once in 24 hours.) Pin soldering temperature limit is for 10 seconds maximum duration. Not designed for immersion soldering. Exceeding these limits may cause malfunction or permanent damage to the device. Freescale’s Package Reflow capability meets Pb-free requirements for JEDEC standard J-STD-020C. For Peak Package Reflow Temperature and Moisture Sensitivity Levels (MSL), Go to www.freescale.com, search by part number [e.g. remove prefixes/suffixes and enter the core ID to view all orderable parts. (i.e. MC33xxxD enter 33xxx), and review parametrics. Exposed heatsink pad plus the power and ground pins comprise the main heat conduction paths. The actual RθJB (junction-to-PC board) values will vary depending on solder thickness and composition and copper trace thickness and area. Maximum current at maximum die temperature represents ~16 W of conduction loss heating in the diagonal pair of output MOSFETs. Therefore, the RθJA must be < 5.0°C/W for maximum current at 70°C ambient. Module thermal design must be planned accordingly. 33931 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor 5 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Table 3. Static Electrical Characteristics Characteristics noted under conditions 8.0 V ≤ VPWR ≤ 28 V, - 40°C ≤ TA ≤ 125°C, GND = 0 V, unless otherwise noted. Typical values noted reflect the approximate parameter means at TA = 25°C under nominal conditions, unless otherwise noted. Characteristic Symbol Min Typ Max VPWR(SS) 8.0 – 28 VPWR(t) – – 40 VPWR(QF) 5.0 – 8.0 Unit POWER INPUTS (VPWR) Operating Voltage Range(10) Steady-state Transient (t < 500 ms)(11) Quasi-Functional (RDS(ON) May Increase by 50%) Sleep State Supply Current(12) V Standby Supply Current (Part Enabled) μA IPWR(SLEEP) EN/D2 = Logic , IN1, IN2, D1 = Logic , and IOUT = 0A – – 50 – – 20 IPWR(STANDBY) IOUT = 0 A, VEN = 5.0 V mA Under-voltage Lockout Thresholds VPWR(falling) VUVLO(ACTIVE) 4.15 – – V VPWR(rising) VUVLO(INACTIVE) – – 5.0 V Hysteresis VUVLO(HYS) 150 200 350 mV VPWR = 5.0 V 3.5 – – VPWR = 28 V – – 12 CHARGE PUMP Charge Pump Voltage (CP Capacitor = 33 nF), No PWM Charge Pump Voltage (CP Capacitor = 33 nF), PWM = 11 kHz, VCP - VPWR V VCP - VPWR V VPWR = 5.0 V 3.5 – – VPWR = 28 V – – 12 VI – – 5.5 V VIH 2.0 – – V CONTROL INPUTS Operating Input Voltage (IN1, IN2, D1, EN/D2) Input Voltage (IN1, IN2, D1, EN/D2) Logic Threshold HIGH Logic Threshold LOW Hysteresis Logic Input Currents, VPWR = 8.0 V Input EN/D2 (internal pull-downs), VIH = 5.0 V Inputs IN1, IN2, D1 (internal pull-ups), VIL = 0 V VIL – – 1.0 V VHYS 250 400 – mV 20 80 200 -200 -80 -20 μA IIN Notes 10. Device specifications are characterized over the range of 8.0 V ≤ VPWR ≤ 28 V. Continuous operation above 28 V may degrade device reliability. Device is operational down to 5.0 V, but below 8.0 V the output resistance may increase by 50 percent. 11. Device will survive the transient over-voltage indicated for a maximum duration of 500 ms. Transient not to be repeated more than once every 10 seconds. 12. IPWR(SLEEP) is with Sleep Mode activated and EN/ D2, = logic , and IN1, IN2, D1 = logic  or with these inputs left floating. 33931 6 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS STATIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Table 3. Static Electrical Characteristics (continued) Characteristics noted under conditions 8.0 V ≤ VPWR ≤ 28 V, - 40°C ≤ TA ≤ 125°C, GND = 0 V, unless otherwise noted. Typical values noted reflect the approximate parameter means at TA = 25°C under nominal conditions, unless otherwise noted. Characteristic Symbol Min Typ Max Unit – 120 – VPWR = 8.0 V, TJ = 150°C – – 235 VPWR = 5.0 V, TJ = 150°C – – 325 5.2 6.5 8.0 – 4.2 – ISCH 11 13 16 A ISCL 9.0 11 14 A POWER OUTPUTS OUT1, OUT2 Output-ON Resistance(14), ILOAD = 3.0 A RDS(ON) VPWR = 8.0 V, TJ = 25°C Output Current Regulation Threshold ILIM TJ < TFB TJ ≥ TFB (Foldback Region - see Figure 9 and Figure 11)(13) High Side Short Circuit Detection Threshold (Short Circuit to Ground)(13) Low Side Short Circuit Detection Threshold (Short Circuit to VPWR) Output Leakage Current mΩ (15) , Outputs off, VPWR = 28 V (13) A μA IOUTLEAK VOUT = VPWR – – 100 –60 – – VF – – 2.0 Thermal Limit @ TJ TLIM 175 – 200 Hysteresis @ TJ THYS – 12 – TFB 165 – 185 °C TSEP 10 – 15 °C μA VOUT = Ground Output MOSFET Body Diode Forward Voltage Drop, IOUT = 3.0 A Over-temperature Shutdown (13) °C Current Foldback at TJ(13) Current Foldback to Thermal Shutdown V Separation(13) HIGH SIDE CURRENT SENSE FEEDBACK Feedback Current (pin FB sourcing current)(16) I FB I OUT = 0 mA 0.0 – 50 I OUT = 300 mA 0.0 270 750 μA I OUT = 500 mA 0.35 0.775 1.56 mA I OUT = 1.5 A 2.86 3.57 4.28 mA I OUT = 3.0 A 5.71 7.14 8.57 mA I OUT = 6.0 A 11.43 14.29 17.15 mA – – 5.0 STATUS FLAG(17) Status Flag Leakage Current(18) Status Flag SET Voltage(19) VSFLOW I SF = 300 µA Notes 13. 14. 15. 16. μA ISFLEAK V SF = 5.0 V V – – 0.4 This parameter is Guaranteed By Design. Output-ON resistance as measured from output to VPWR and from output to GND. Outputs switched OFF via D1 or EN/D2. Accuracy is better than 20% from 0.5 A to 6.0 A. Recommended terminating resistor value: RFB = 270 Ω. 17. Status Flag output is an open drain output requiring a pull-up resistor to logic VDD. 18. 19. Status Flag Leakage Current is measured with Status Flag HIGH and not SET. Status Flag Set Voltage measured with Status Flag LOW and SET with I SF = 300 μA. Maximum allowable sink current from this pin is < 500 μA . Maximum allowable pull-up voltage < 7.0 V. 33931 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor 7 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS DYNAMIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS DYNAMIC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Table 4. Dynamic Electrical Characteristics Characteristics noted under conditions 8.0 V ≤ VPWR ≤ 28 V, - 40°C ≤ TA ≤ 125°C, GND = 0 V, unless otherwise noted. Typical values noted reflect the approximate parameter means at TA = 25°C under nominal conditions, unless otherwise noted. Characteristic Symbol Min Typ Max Unit PWM Frequency(20) f PWM – – 11 kHz Maximum Switching Frequency During Current Limit Regulation(21) f MAX – – 20 kHz Output ON Delay(22) t DON – – 18 – – 12 TIMING CHARACTERISTICS VPWR = 14 V Output OFF Delay(22) μs μs t DOFF VPWR = 14 V ILIM Output Constant-OFF Time(23) tA 15 20.5 32 μs ILIM Blanking Time(24) tB 12 16.5 27 μs t DDISABLE – – 8.0 μs t F, t R 1.5 3.0 8.0 μs t FAULT – – 8.0 μs t POD – 1.0 5.0 ms tRR 75 100 150 ns fCP – 7.0 – MHz Disable Delay Time(25) Output Rise and Fall Time (26) Short-circuit / Over-temperature Turn-OFF (Latch-OFF) Time Power-ON Delay Time(28) Output MOSFET Body Diode Reverse Recovery Charge Pump Operating Frequency(28) Time(28) (27),(28) Notes 20. The maximum PWM frequency should be limited to frequencies < 11 kHz in order to allow the internal high side driver circuitry time to fully enhance the high side MOSFETs. 21. The internal current limit circuitry produces a constant-OFF-time Pulse Width Modulation of the output current. The output load’s inductance, capacitance, and resistance characteristics affect the total switching period (OFF-time + ON-time), and thus the PWM frequency during current limit. 22. * Output Delay is the time duration from 1.5 V on the IN1 or IN2 input signal to the 20% or 80% point (dependent on the transition direction) of the OUT1 or OUT2 signal. If the output is transitioning HIGH-to-LOW, the delay is from 1.5 V on the input signal to the 80% point of the output response signal. If the output is transitioning LOW-to-HIGH, the delay is from 1.5 V on the input signal to the 20% point of the output response signal. See Figure 4, page 9. 23. The time during which the internal constant-OFF time PWM current regulation circuit has tri-stated the output bridge. 24. The time during which the current regulation threshold is ignored so that the short-circuit detection threshold comparators may have time to act. 25. * Disable Delay Time measurement is defined in Figure 5, page 9. 26. Rise Time is from the 10% to the 90% level and Fall Time is from the 90% to the 10% level of the output signal with VPWR = 14 V, RLOAD = 3.0 ohm. See Figure 6, page 9. 27. Load currents ramping up to the current regulation threshold become limited at the ILIM value (see Figure 7). The short-circuit currents possess a di/dt that ramps up to the ISCH or ISCL threshold during the ILIM blanking time, registering as a short-circuit event detection and causing the shutdown circuitry to force the output into an immediate tri-state latch-OFF (see Figure 8). Operation in Current Limit mode may cause junction temperatures to rise. Junction temperatures above ~160°C will cause the output current limit threshold to “fold back”, or decrease, until ~175°C is reached, after which the TLIM thermal latch-OFF will occur. Permissible operation within this fold back region is limited to non-repetitive transient events of duration not to exceed 30 seconds (see Figure 9). 28. Parameter is Guaranteed By Design. 33931 8 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS TIMING DIAGRAMS VIN1, IN2 (V) 5.0 VOUT1, 2 (V) TIMING DIAGRAMS VPWR 1.5 V 1.5 V 0 t DON t DOFF 80% 20% 0 TIME 5.0 V 1.5 V 0V IO = 100 mA VOUT1, 2 VD1, EN/D2 (V) Figure 4. Output Delay Time tDDISABLE 90% 0V TIME Figure 5. Disable Delay Time VOUT1, 2 (V) . tF VPWR tR 90% 90% 10% 0 10% TIME Figure 6. Output Switching Time Overload Condition IOUT, CURRENT (A) 9.0 ISC Short Circuit Detection Threshold tB 6.5 tB = Ilim Blanking Time tA = Constant-OFF Time (OUT1 and OUT2 Tri-Stated) tA Ilim 0.0 5.0 t ON TIME Figure 7. Current Limit Blanking Time and Constant-OFF Time 33931 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor 9 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS TIMING DIAGRAMS Short-circuit Condition t FAULT IOUT, CURRENT (A) 9.0 ISC Short-circuit Detection Threshold Hard Short Occurs tB 6.5 OUT1, OUT2 Tri-stated, SF set Low Ilim 0.0 5.0 t B (~16 μs) TIME Figure 8. Short-circuit Detection Turn-OFF Time tFAULT . Current Limit Threshold Foldback. Operation within this region must be limited to non-repetitive events not to exceed 30 s per 24 hr. ILIM, CURRENT (A) 6.5 4.2 TSEP TLIM Thermal Shutdown THYS TFB TLIM Figure 9. Output Current Limiting Foldback Region 33931 10 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION INTRODUCTION FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION INTRODUCTION Numerous protection and operational features (speed, torque, direction, dynamic breaking, PWM control, and closed-loop control) make the 33931 a very attractive, costeffective solution for controlling a broad range of small DC motors. The 33931 outputs are capable of supporting peak DC load currents of up to 5.0 A from a 28 V VPWR source. An internal charge pump and gate drive circuitry are provided that can support external PWM frequencies up to 11 kHz. The 33931 has an analog feedback (current mirror) output pin (the FB pin) that provides a constant-current source ratioed to the active high side MOSFETs’ current. This can be used to provide “real time” monitoring of output current to facilitate closed-loop operation for motor speed/torque control, or for the detection of open load conditions. Two independent inputs, IN1 and IN2, provide control of the two totem-pole half-bridge outputs. Two independent disable inputs, D1 and EN/D2, provide the means to force the H-bridge outputs to a high-impedance state (all H-bridge switches OFF). The EN/D2 pin also controls an enable function that allows the IC to be placed in a power-conserving Sleep mode. The 33931 has output current limiting (via constant OFFtime PWM current regulation), output short-circuit detection with latch-OFF, and over-temperature detection with latchOFF. Once the device is latched-OFF due to a fault condition, either of the Disable inputs (D1 or EN/D2), or VPWR must be “toggled” to clear the status flag. Current limiting (Load Current Regulation) is accomplished by a constant-OFF time PWM method using current limit threshold triggering. The current limiting scheme is unique in that it incorporates a junction temperaturedependent current limit threshold. This means that the current limit threshold is “reduced to around 4.2 A” as the junction temperature increases above 160°C. When the temperature is above 175°C, over-temperature shutdown (latch-OFF) will occur. This combination of features allows the device to continue operating for short periods of time (< 30 seconds) with unexpected loads, while still retaining adequate protection for both the device and the load. FUNCTIONAL PIN DESCRIPTION POWER GROUND AND ANALOG GROUND (PGND AND AGND) supply IPWR(STANDBY) current is reduced to a few mA. Refer to Table 3, Static Electrical Characteristics, page 6. The power and analog ground pins should be connected together with a very low-impedance connection. H-BRIDGE OUTPUT (OUT1, OUT2) POSITIVE POWER SUPPLY (VPWR) VPWR pins are the power supply inputs to the device. All VPWR pins must be connected together on the printed circuit board with as short as possible traces, offering as low an impedance as possible between pins. STATUS FLAG (SF) This pin is the device fault status output. This output is an active LOW open drain structure requiring a pull-up resistor to VDD. The maximum VDD is < 7.0 V. Refer to Table 5, Truth Table, page 15 for the SF Output status definition. INPUT 1,2 AND DISABLE INPUT 1 (IN1, IN2, AND D1) These pins are input control pins used to control the outputs. These pins are 3.0 V/ 5.0 V CMOS-compatible inputs with hysteresis. IN1 and IN2 independently control OUT1 and OUT2, respectively. D1 input is used to tri-state disable the H-bridge outputs. When D1 is SET (D1 = logic HIGH) in the disable state, outputs OUT1 and OUT2 are both tri-state disabled; however, the rest of the device circuitry is fully operational and the These pins are the outputs of the H-bridge with integrated free-wheeling diodes. The bridge output is controlled using the IN1, IN2, D1, and EN/D2 inputs. The outputs have PWM current limiting above the ILIM threshold. The outputs also have thermal shutdown (tri-state latch-OFF) with hysteresis as well as short circuit latch-OFF protection. A disable timer (time t b) is incorporated to distinguish between load currents that are higher than the ILIM threshold and short circuit currents. This timer is activated at each output transition. CHARGE PUMP CAPACITOR (CCP) This pin is the charge pump output pin and connection for the external charge pump reservoir capacitor. The allowable value is from 30 nF to 100 nF. This capacitor must be connected from the CCP pin to the VPWR pin. The device cannot operate properly without the external reservoir capacitor. ENABLE INPUT/DISABLE INPUT 2 (EN/D2) The EN/D2 pin performs the same function as D1 pin, when it goes to a logic LOW the outputs are immediately tristated. It is also used to place the device in a Sleep mode so as to consume very low currents. When the EN/D2 pin voltage is a logic LOW state, the device is in the Sleep mode. 33931 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor 11 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONAL PIN DESCRIPTION The device is enabled and fully operational when the EN pin voltage is logic HIGH. An internal pull-down resistor maintains the device in Sleep mode in the event EN is driven through a high-impedance I/O or an unpowered microcontroller, or the EN/D2 input becomes disconnected. FEEDBACK (FB) The 33931 has a feedback output (FB) for “real time” monitoring of H-bridge high side output currents to facilitate closed-loop operation for motor speed and torque control. The FB pin provides current sensing feedback of the H-bridge high side drivers. When running in the forward or reverse direction, a ground-referenced 0.24% of load current is output to this pin. Through the use of an external resistor to ground, the proportional feedback current can be converted to a proportional voltage equivalent and the controlling microcontroller can “read” the current proportional voltage with its analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This is intended to provide the user with only first-order motor current feedback for motor torque control. The resistance range for the linear operation of the FB pin is 100 Ω < RFB < 300 Ω. If PWM-ing is implemented using the disable pin input (only D1), a small filter capacitor (~1.0 µF) may be required in parallel with the RFB resistor to ground for spike suppression. 33931 12 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONAL INTERNAL BLOCK DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONAL INTERNAL BLOCK DESCRIPTION 33931 CURRENT SENSE VOLTAGE REGULATION TEMPERATURE CHARGE SENSE PUMP ANALOG CONTROL AND PROTECTION PWM CONTROLLER MCU INTERFACE H-BRIDGE OUTPUT DRIVERS OUT1 - OUT2 COMMAND AND FAULT REGISTERS PROTECTION LOGIC CONTROL GATE CONTROL LOGIC Figure 10. Functional Internal Block Diagram ANALOG CONTROL AND PROTECTION CIRCUITRY: An on-chip voltage regulator supplies the internal logic. The charge pump provides gate drive for the H-bridge MOSFETs. The Current and Temperature sense circuitry provides detection and protection for the output drivers. Output under-voltage protection shuts down the MOSFETS. GATE CONTROL LOGIC: The 33931 is a monolithic H-bridge Power IC designed primarily for any low-voltage DC servo motor control application within the current and voltage limits stated for the device. Two independent inputs provide polarity control of two half-bridge totem-pole outputs. Two independent disable inputs are provided to force the H-bridge outputs to tri-state (high-impedance off-state). H-BRIDGE OUTPUT DRIVERS: OUT1 AND OUT2 The H-bridge is the power output stage. The current flow from OUT1 to OUT2 is reversible and under full control of the user by way of the Input Control Logic. The output stage is designed to produce full load control under all system conditions. All protective and control features are integrated into the Control and Protection blocks. The sensors for current and temperature are integrated directly into the output MOSFET for maximum accuracy and dependability. 33931 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor 13 FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION OPERATIONAL MODES FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION SF LOGIC OUT EN/D2 LOGIC IN D1 LOGIC IN INn LOGIC IN ILOAD OUTPUT CURRENT (A) OPERATIONAL MODES 9.0 Typical Short-circuit Detection Threshold 6.5 Typical Current Limit Threshold PWM Current Limiting High Current Load Being Regulated via Constant-OFF-Time PWM Moderate Current Load Hard Short Detection and Latch-OFF 0   IN1 IN2 IN1 or IN2 IN1 or IN2 IN2 or IN1 IN2 or IN1      Outputs  Tri-stated Outputs Operation (per Input Control Condition) Outputs Tri-stated Time Figure 11. Operating States 33931 14 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION LOGIC COMMANDS AND REGISTERS LOGIC COMMANDS AND REGISTERS Table 5. Truth Table The tri-state conditions and the status flag are reset using D1 or EN/D2. The truth table uses the following notations: L = LOW, H = HIGH, X = HIGH or LOW, and Z = High-impedance. All output power transistors are switched off. Input Conditions Device State EN/D2 D1 Status IN1 IN2 Outputs SF OUT1 OUT2 Forward H L H L H H L Reverse H L L H H L H Free Wheeling Low H L L L H L L Free Wheeling High H L H H H H H Disable 1 (D1) H H X X L Z Z IN1 Disconnected H L Z X H H X IN2 Disconnected H L X Z H X H H Z X X L Z Z D1 Disconnected Under-voltage Lockout (29) H X X X L Z Z Over-temperature(30) H X X X L Z Z Short-circuit(30) H X X X L Z Z Sleep Mode EN/D2 L X X X H Z Z EN/D2 Disconnected Z X X X H Z Z Notes 29. In the event of an under-voltage condition, the outputs tri-state and status flag is SET logic LOW. Upon under-voltage recovery, status flag is reset automatically or automatically cleared and the outputs are restored to their original operating condition. 30. When a short-circuit or over-temperature condition is detected, the power outputs are tri-state latched-OFF independent of the input signals and the status flag is latched to logic LOW. To reset from this condition requires the toggling of either D1, EN/D2, or VPWR. Forward Load Current OFF OUT2 ON OFF OFF ON ON OUT1 OUT1 LOAD OUT2 ON OUT2 LOAD ON OFF PGND VPWR VPWR Load Current ON LOAD Low-Side Recirculation (Forward) V PW R V PW R VPWR VPWR Load Current OUT1 Reverse High-Side Recirculation (Forward) V PW R V PW R OUT1 LOAD OUT2 Load Current ON PGND PGND OFF OFF OFF PGND OFF ON PGND PGND PGND PGND Figure 12. 33931 Power Stage Operation 33931 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor 15 FUNCTIONAL DEVICE OPERATION PROTECTION AND DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES PROTECTION AND DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION If an output short-circuit condition is detected, the power outputs tri-state (latch-OFF) independent of the input (IN1 and IN2) states, and the fault status output flag (SF) is SET to logic LOW. If the D1 input changes from logic HIGH to logic LOW, or if the EN/D2 input changes from logic LOW to logic HIGH, the output bridge will become operational again and the fault status flag will be reset (cleared) to a logic HIGH state. The output stage will always switch into the mode defined by the input pins (IN1, IN2, D1, and EN/D2), provided the device junction temperature is within the specified operating temperature range. OVER-TEMPERATURE SHUTDOWN AND HYSTERESIS If an over-temperature condition occurs, the power outputs are tri-stated (latched-OFF) and the fault status flag (SF) is SET to logic LOW. To reset from this condition, D1 must change from logic HIGH to logic LOW, or EN/D2 must change from logic LOW to logic HIGH. When reset, the output stage switches ON again, provided that the junction temperature is now below the over-temperature threshold limit minus the hysteresis. Important Resetting from the fault condition will clear the fault status flag. Powering down and powering up the device will also reset the 33931 from the fault condition. INTERNAL PWM CURRENT LIMITING The maximum current flow under normal operating conditions should be less than 5.0 A. The instantaneous load currents will be limited to ILIM via the internal PWM current limiting circuitry. When the ILIM threshold current value is reached, the output stages are tri-stated for a fixed time (T A) of 20 µs typical. Depending on the time constant associated with the load characteristics, the output current decreases during the tri-state duration until the next output ON cycle occurs. The PWM current limit threshold value is dependent on the device junction temperature. When - 40°C < TJ < 160°C, ILIM is between the specified minimum/maximum values. When TJ exceeds 160°C, the ILIM threshold decreases to 4.2 A. Shortly above 175°C the device over-temperature circuit will detect TLIM and an over-temperature shutdown will occur. This feature implements a graceful degradation of operation before thermal shutdown occurs, thus allowing for intermittent unexpected mechanical loads on the motor’s gear-reduction train to be handled. Important Die temperature excursions above 150°C are permitted only for non-repetitive durations < 30 seconds. Provision must be made at the system level to prevent prolonged operation in the current-foldback region. OUTPUT AVALANCHE PROTECTION If VPWR were to become an open circuit, the outputs would likely tri-state simultaneously due to the disable logic. This could result in an unclamped inductive discharge. The VPWR input to the 33931 should not exceed 40 V during this transient condition, to prevent electrical overstress of the output drivers.This can be accomplished with a zener clamp or MOV, and/or an appropriately valued input capacitor with sufficiently low ESR (see Figure 13). VPW R VPW R Bulk Low ESR Cap. 100nF OUT1 M 9 I/Os OUT2 AGND PGND Figure 13. Avalanche Protection 33931 16 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor TYPICAL APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION TYPICAL APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION A typical application schematic is shown in Figure 14. For precision high-current applications in harsh, noisy environments, the VPWR by-pass capacitor may need to be substantially larger. VPWR 100 μF 100 nF VPWR 33nF LOGIC SUPPLY CCP VDD VCP CHARGE PUMP HS1 HS2 OUT1 M TO GATES OUT2 HS1 IN1 IN2 EN/D2 D1 +5.0 V STATUS FLAG TO ADC RFB 270 Ω LS1 LS2 LS1 HS2 GATE DRIVE AND PROTECTION LOGIC SF PGND LS2 VSENSE ILIM PWM FB CURRENT MIRRORS AND CONSTANT OFF-TIME PWM CURRENT REGULATOR 1.0 μF AGND PGND Figure 14. 33931 Typical Application Schematic 33931 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor 17 PACKAGING PACKAGE DIMENSIONS PACKAGING PACKAGE DIMENSIONS For the most current package revision, visit www.freescale.com and perform a keyword search using the 98Axxxxxxxxx listed below. VW SUFFIX 44-PIN 98ARH98330A REVISION B 33931 18 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor PACKAGING PACKAGE DIMENSIONS VW SUFFIX 44-PIN 98ARH98330A REVISION B 33931 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor 19 REVISION HISTORY REVISION HISTORY REVISION DATE DESCRIPTION 1.0 2/2008 • Initial Release 2.0 12/2008 • • • • • • Updated Freescale for and style Removed PC33931VW/R2 from the ordering information and added MC33931VW/R2 Changes Max RDS(ON) from 225 to 235 mOhm in the document Changed Peak Package Reflow Temperature During Reflow(7),(8) Changed Approximate Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance(9) In SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION, changed D2 to EN/D2 33931 20 Analog Integrated Circuit Device Data Freescale Semiconductor How to Reach Us: Home Page: www.freescale.com Web Support: http://www.freescale.com/support USA/Europe or Locations Not Listed: Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 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