MCP73123/223 Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Battery Charge Management Controller with Input Overvoltage Protection Features • Backup Energy Storages • Complete Linear Charge Management Controller: - Integrated Input Overvoltage Protection - Integrated Pass Transistor - Integrated Current Sense - Integrated Reverse Discharge Protection • Constant Current / Constant Voltage Operation with Thermal Regulation • 4.15V Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO) • 18V Absolute Maximum Input with OVP: - 6.5V - MCP73123 - 13V - MCP73223 • High Accuracy Preset Voltage Regulation Through Full Temperature Range (-5°C to +55°C): - + 0.5% - MCP73123 - + 0.6% - MCP73223 • Battery Charge Voltage Options: - 3.6V - MCP73123 - 7.2V - MCP73223 • Resistor Programmable Fast Charge Current: - 130 mA - 1100 mA • Preconditioning of Deeply Depleted Cells: - Available Options: 10% or Disable • Integrated Precondition Timer: - 32 Minutes or Disable • Automatic End-of-Charge Control: - Selectable Minimum Current Ratio: 5%, 7.5%, 10% or 20% - Elapse Safety Timer: 4 HR, 6 HR, 8 HR or Disable • Automatic Recharge: - Available Options: 95% or Disable • Factory Preset Charge Status Output: - On/Off or Flashing • Soft Start • Temperature Range: -40°C to +85°C • Packaging: DFN-10 (3 mm x 3 mm) Description Applications • Low-Cost LiFePO4 Battery Chargers • Power Tools • Toys © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. The MCP73123/223 is a highly integrated Lithium Iron Phosphate(LiFePO4) battery charge management controller for use in space-limited and cost-sensitive applications. The MCP73123/223 provides specific charge algorithms for LiFePO4 batteries to achieve optimal capacity and safety in the shortest charging time possible. Along with its small physical size, the low number of external components makes the MCP73123/223 ideally suitable for various applications. The absolute maximum voltage, up to 18V, allows the use of MCP73123/223 in harsh environments, such as low cost wall wart or voltage spikes from plug/unplug. The MCP73123/223 employs a constant current / constant voltage charge algorithm. The 3.6V per cell factory preset reference voltage simplifies design with 2V preconditioning threshold. The fast charge, constant current value is set with one external resistor from 130 mA to 1100 mA. The MCP73123/223 also limits the charge current based on die temperature during high power or high ambient conditions. This thermal regulation optimizes the charge cycle time while maintaining device reliability. The PROG pin of the MCP73123/223 also serves as enable pin. When high impedance is applied, the MCP73123/223 will be in standby mode. The MCP73123/223 is fully specified over the ambient temperature range of -40°C to +85°C. The MCP73123/ 223 is available in a 10 lead, DFN package. Package Types (Top View) MCP73123/223 3x3 DFN * VDD 1 VDD 2 VBAT 3 VBAT 4 NC 5 10 PROG EP 11 9 VSS 8 VSS 7 STAT 6 NC * Includes Exposed Thermal Pad (EP); see Table 3-1. DS22191A-page 1 MCP73123/223 Typical Application MCP73123 Typical Application 1 Ac-dc-Adapter VDD VBAT 2 VDD VBAT 3 4 + 4.7 µF 4.7 µF 7 PROG STAT 1-Cell LiFePO4 Battery 10 1 kΩ 5 NC VSS 6 NC TABLE 1: VSS - 8 AVAILABLE FACTORY PRESET OPTIONS Precondition Timer Elapse Timer End-ofCharge Control Automatic Recharge Output Status 2V Disable / 32 Minimum Disable / 4 HR / 6 HR / 8 HR 5% / 7.5% / 10% / 20% No / Yes Type 1 / Type 2 4V Disable / 32 Minimum Disable / 4 HR / 6 HR / 8 HR 5% / 7.5% / 10% / 20% No / Yes Type 1 / Type 2 Charge Voltage OVP Preconditioning Charge Current Preconditioning Threshold 3.6V 6.5V Disable / 10% 7.2V 13V Disable / 10% Note 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 1.15 kΩ 9 IREG: Regulated fast charge current. VREG: Regulated charge voltage. IPREG/IREG: Preconditioning charge current; ratio of regulated fast charge current. ITERM/IREG: End-of-Charge control; ratio of regulated fast charge current. VRTH/VREG: Recharge threshold; ratio of regulated battery voltage. VPTH/VREG: Preconditioning threshold voltage TABLE 2: STANDARD SAMPLE OPTIONS Part Number VREG OVP IPREG/IREG Pre-charge Timer Elapse Timer MCP73123-22S/MF 3.6V 6.5V 10% 32 Min. 6 HR 10% 95% 2V Type 1 MCP73223-C2S/MF 7.2V 6.5V 10% 32 Min. 6 HR 10% 95% 4V Type 1 Note 1: ITERM/IREG VRTH/VREG VPTH/VREG Output Status Customers should contact their distributor, representatives or field application engineer (FAE) for support and sample. Local sales offices are also available to help customers. A listing of sales offices and locations is included in the back of this document. Technical support is available through the web site at: http//support.microchip.com DS22191A-page 2 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 Functional Block Diagram VOREG Direction Control VBAT VDD + VREF Current Limit - PROG + Reference, VREF (1.21V) Bias, UVLO, and SHDN VOREG CA - + UVLO - Precondition + Term + STAT Charge Control, Timer, and Status Logic Charge + VA - VSS 6.5V / 13V + VDD OverVP + Thermal Regulation © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 95% VREG + 110°C TSD - Input VBAT *Recharge *Only available on selected options DS22191A-page 3 MCP73123/223 NOTES: DS22191A-page 4 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS † Notice: Stresses above those listed under “Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Absolute Maximum Ratings† VDD ................................................................................18.0V VPROG ..............................................................................6.0V All Inputs and Outputs w.r.t. VSS ............... -0.3 to (VDD+0.3)V Maximum Junction Temperature, TJ ............ Internally Limited Storage temperature .....................................-65°C to +150°C ESD protection on all pins Human Body Model (1.5 kW in Series with 100 pF) ......≥ 4 kV Machine Model (200pF, No Series Resistance) ..............300V DC CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD= [VREG(Typical) + 0.3V] to 12V, TA = -40°C to +85°C. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (Typical) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units VDD 4 — 16 V Conditions Supply Input Input Voltage Range Operating Supply Voltage VDD 4.2 — 6.5 V MCP73123 Operating Supply Voltage VDD 4.2 — 13.0 V MCP73223 Supply Current ISS — 4 5.5 µA Shutdown (VDD ≤ VBAT - 150 mV) — 700 1500 µA Charging — 30 100 µA Standby (PROG Floating) — 50 150 µA Charge Complete; No Battery; VDD < VSTOP — 0.5 2 µA Standby (PROG Floating) — 0.5 2 µA Shutdown (VDD ≤ VBAT, or VDD < VSTOP) — 6 17 µA Charge Complete; VDD is present V Battery Discharge Current Output Reverse Leakage Current IDISCHARGE Undervoltage Lockout UVLO Start Threshold VSTART 4.10 4.15 4.25 UVLO Stop Threshold VSTOP 4.00 4.05 4.15 V UVLO Hysteresis VHYS — 100 — mV VOVP 6.4 6.5 6.6 V MCP73123 VOVP 12.8 13 13.2 V MCP73223 VOVPHYS — 150 — mV 3.582 3.60 3.618 V Overvoltage Protection OVP Start Threshold OVP Start Threshold OVP Hysteresis Voltage Regulation (Constant Voltage Mode) TA= -5°C to +55°C, IOUT = 50 mA Regulated Output Voltage VREG Output Voltage Tolerance VRTOL -0.5 — +0.5 % TA= -5°C to +55°C Regulated Output Voltage VREG 7.157 7.20 7.243 V TA= -5°C to +55°C, IOUT = 50 mA TA= -5°C to +55°C VRTOL -0.6 — +0.6 % Line Regulation |(ΔVBAT/ VBAT)/ΔVDD| — 0.05 0.20 %/V Load Regulation |ΔVBAT/VBAT| — 0.05 0.20 % IOUT = 50 mA - 150 mA VDD = [VREG(Typical)+1V] PSRR — -46 — dB IOUT = 20 mA, 10 Hz to 1 kHz — -30 — dB IOUT = 20 mA, 10 Hz to 10 kHz Output Voltage Tolerance Supply Ripple Attenuation Note 1: VDD = [VREG(Typical)+1V] to 6V - MCP73123 VDD = [VREG(Typical)+1V] to 12V - MCP73223 IOUT = 50 mA Not production tested. Ensured by design. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22191A-page 5 MCP73123/223 DC CHARACTERISTICS (CONTINUED) Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD= [VREG(Typical) + 0.3V] to 12V, TA = -40°C to +85°C. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (Typical) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units Conditions VSHORT 1.40 1.45 1.50 V MCP73123 BSP Start Threshold VSHORT 2.80 2.90 3.00 V MCP73223 BSP Hysteresis VBSPHYS — 150 — mV ISHORT — 25 — mA 130 — 1100 mA TA=-5°C to +55°C 117 130 143 mA PROG = 10 kΩ 900 1000 1100 mA PROG = 1.1 kΩ Battery Short Protection BSP Start Threshold BSP Regulation Current Current Regulation (Fast Charge, Constant-Current Mode) Fast Charge Current Regulation IREG Preconditioning Current Regulation (Trickle Charge Constant Current Mode) Precondition Current Ratio IPREG / IREG — 10 — % PROG = 1 kΩ to 10 kΩ TA=-5°C to +55°C — 100 — % No Preconditioning Precondition Voltage Threshold Ratio VPTH VPTH 1.9 2.0 2.1 V MCP73123, VBAT Low-to-High 3.8 4.0 4.2 V MCP73223, VBAT Low-to-High Precondition Hysteresis VPHYS — 100 — mV % PROG = 1 kΩ to 10 kΩ TA=-5°C to +55°C % VBAT High-to-Low No Automatic Recharge VBAT High-to-Low (Note 1) Charge Termination Charge Termination Current Ratio ITERM / IREG 3.7 5 6.3 5.6 7.5 9.4 7.5 10 12.5 15 20 25 93 95 97 — 0 — RDSON — 350 — mΩ Automatic Recharge Recharge Voltage Threshold Ratio VRTH / VREG Pass Transistor ON-Resistance ON-Resistance VDD = 4.5V, TJ = 105°C (Note 1) Status Indicator - STAT Sink Current ISINK — 20 35 mA Low Output Voltage VOL — 0.2 0.5 V ISINK = 4 mA Input Leakage Current ILK — 0.001 1 μA High Impedance, VDD on pin PROG Input Charge Impedance Range RPROG 1 — 21 kΩ Shutdown Impedance RPROG — 200 — kΩ PROG Voltage Range VPROG 0 — 5 V Automatic Power Down Entry Threshold VPDENTRY VBAT + 10 mV VBAT + 50 mV — V VDD Falling Automatic Power Down Exit Threshold VPDEXIT — VBAT + 150 mV VBAT + 250 mV V VDD Rising Die Temperature TSD — 150 — °C Die Temperature Hysteresis TSDHYS — 10 — °C Impedance for Shutdown Automatic Power Down Thermal Shutdown Note 1: Not production tested. Ensured by design. DS22191A-page 6 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 AC CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise specified, all limits apply for VDD= [VREG(Typical)+0.3V] to 6V, TA=-40°C to +85°C. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD= [VREG(Typical)+1.0V] Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units tELAPSED — 0 — Hours 3.6 4.0 4.4 Hours 5.4 6.0 6.6 Hours 7.2 8.0 8.8 Hours Conditions Elapsed Timer Elapsed Timer Period Timer Disabled Preconditioning Timer Preconditioning Timer Period tPRECHG — 0 — Hours 0.4 0.5 0.6 Hours µs Disabled Timer Status Indicator Status Output turn-off tOFF — — 500 Status Output turn-on, tON — — 500 Note 1: ISINK = 1 mA to 0 mA (Note 1) ISINK = 0 mA to 1 mA (Note 1) Not production tested. Ensured by design. TEMPERATURE SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD = [VREG (Typical) + 0.3V] to 6V. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (Typical) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units Specified Temperature Range TA -40 — +85 °C Operating Temperature Range TJ -40 — +125 °C Storage Temperature Range TA -65 — +150 °C θJA — 43 — °C/W Conditions Temperature Ranges Thermal Package Resistances Thermal Resistance, DFN-10 (3x3) © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 4-Layer JC51-7 Standard Board, Natural Convection DS22191A-page 7 MCP73123/223 NOTES: DS22191A-page 8 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 2.0 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES Note: The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore outside the warranted range. 3.66 3.65 3.64 3.63 3.62 3.61 3.60 3.59 3.58 3.57 3.56 3.55 Battery Regulation Voltage (V) Battery Regulation Voltage (V) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = [VREG(Typical) + 1V], IOUT = 50 mA and TA= +25°C, Constant-voltage mode. ILOAD = 150 mA VBAT = 3.6V TA = +25°C 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.0 7.24 7.23 7.22 7.21 7.20 7.19 ILOAD = 50 mA VDD = 9.2V 7.18 7.17 7.16 -5 0 Supply Voltage (V) FIGURE 2-4: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). Battery Regulation Voltage (V) Battery Regulation Voltage (V) ILOAD = 50 mA VBAT = 3.6V TA = +25°C 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.0 3.620 3.615 3.610 3.605 3.600 3.595 3.590 3.580 -5 Charge Current (mA) Battery Regulation Voltage (V) 7.23 7.22 7.21 7.20 7.19 ILOAD = 50 mA VBAT = 7.2V TA = +25°C 7.16 9.0 9.6 10.2 10.8 11.4 12.0 Supply Voltage (V) FIGURE 2-3: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 FIGURE 2-5: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). 7.24 8.4 0 Ambient Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-2: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). 7.17 ILOAD = 150 mA VDD = 5.2V 3.585 Supply Voltage (V) 7.18 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Ambient Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-1: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). 3.65 3.64 3.63 3.62 3.61 3.60 3.59 3.58 3.57 3.56 3.55 5 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 VDD = 5.2V TA = +25°C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617181920 Programming Resistor (kΩ) FIGURE 2-6: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Programming Resistor (RPROG). DS22191A-page 9 MCP73123/223 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES (CONTINUED) 950 930 910 890 870 850 830 810 790 770 750 Fast Charge (mA) Charge Current (mA) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = [VREG(Typical) + 1V], IOUT = 10 mA and TA= +25°C, Constant-voltage mode. RPROG = 1.33 kΩ TA = +25°C 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 150 144 138 132 126 120 114 108 102 96 90 RPROG = 10 kΩ TA = +25°C 4.5 6.0 4.8 5.1 Supply Voltage (V) 675 655 635 615 595 575 555 535 515 495 475 6.0 950 930 RPROG = 2 kΩ TA = +25°C 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 4.8 850 830 810 RPROG = 1.33 kΩ VDD = 5.2V 790 -5 5.4 5 15 25 35 45 55 FIGURE 2-11: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). Discharge Current (uA) 5.1 5.7 6.0 Supply Voltage (V) FIGURE 2-9: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Programming Resistor (RPROG). DS22191A-page 10 870 Ambient Temperature (°C) RPROG = 5 kΩ TA = +25°C 4.5 890 750 6.0 FIGURE 2-8: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Programming Resistor (RPROG). 350 330 310 290 270 250 230 210 190 170 150 910 770 Supply Voltage (V) Charge Current (mA) 5.7 FIGURE 2-10: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Programming Resistor (RPROG). Charge Current (mA) Charge Current (mA) FIGURE 2-7: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Programming Resistor (RPROG). 5.4 Supply Voltage (V) 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 End of Charge 4.0 3.0 2.0 VDD < VBAT 1.0 0.0 VDD < VSTOP -1.0 -5.0 5.0 15.0 25.0 35.0 45.0 55.0 Ambient Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-12: Output Leakage Current (IDISCHARGE) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES (CONTINUED) 7.0 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 Thermal Regulation 6.0 Battery Voltage (V) Charge Current Input Voltage Battery Voltage 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 VDD = 5V RPROG = 1 kΩ 1100 mAh LiFePO4 Battery 1.0 0.2 0.1 0 0.0 0 FIGURE 2-13: (50 ms/Div). Overvoltage Protection Start 10 20 30 40 50 Time (Minutes) 60 Supply Current (A) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = [VREG(Typical) + 1V], IOUT = 10 mA and TA= +25°C, Constant-voltage mode. 70 FIGURE 2-16: Complete Charge Cycle (1100 mAh LiFePO4 Battery). Input Voltage Source Voltage (V) Battery Voltage Charge Current Output Ripple (mV) FIGURE 2-14: (50 ms/Div). Overvoltage Protection Stop Output Ripple (mV) FIGURE 2-17: Line Transient Response (ILOAD = 10 mA, Source Voltage: 2V/Div, Output Ripple: 100 mV/Div, Time: 100 µs/Div). Source Voltage (V) Output Current (mA) Output Ripple (mV) FIGURE 2-15: Load Transient Response (ILOAD = 50 mA, Output Ripple: 100 mV/Div, Output Current: 50 mA/Div, Time: 100 µs/Div). © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 2-18: Line Transient Response (ILOAD = 100 mA, Source Voltage: 2V/Div, Output Ripple: 100 mV/Div, Time: 100 µs/Div). DS22191A-page 11 MCP73123/223 NOTES: DS22191A-page 12 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 3.0 PIN DESCRIPTION The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 3-1. TABLE 3-1: MCP73123/223 DFN-10 3.1 PIN FUNCTION TABLES Symbol I/O Description 1, 2 VDD I 3, 4 VBAT I/O Battery Management Input Supply 5, 6 NC - No Connection Battery Charge Control Output 7 STAT O Battery Charge Status Output 8, 9 VSS - Battery Management 0V Reference 10 PROG I/O Battery Charge Current Regulation Program and Charge Control Enable 11 EP — Exposed Pad Battery Management Input Supply (VDD) A supply voltage of [VREG (Typical) + 0.3V] to 6.0V is recommended for MCP73123, while a supply voltage of [VREG (Typical) + 0.3V] to 12.0V is recommended for MCP73223. Bypass to VSS with a minimum of 1 µF. The VDD pin is rated 18V absolute maximum to prevent suddenly rise of input voltage from spikes or low cost ac-dc wall adapter. 3.2 Battery Charge Control Output (VBAT) Connect to the positive terminal of the battery. Bypass to VSS with a minimum of 1 µF to ensure loop stability when the battery is disconnected. The MCP73123 is designed to provide 3.6V battery regulation voltage for LiFePO4 batteries. Undercharge may occur if a typical Li-Ion or Li-Poly battery is used. 3.3 No Connect (NC) No connect. 3.4 3.5 Battery Management 0V Reference (VSS) Connect to the negative terminal of the battery and input supply. 3.6 Current Regulation Set (PROG) The fast charge current is set by placing a resistor from PROG to VSS during constant current (CC) mode. PROG pin also serves as charge control enable. When a typical 200 kΩ impedance is applied to PROG pin, the MCP73123/223 is disabled until the high impedance is removed. Refer to Section 5.5 “Constant Current MODE - Fast Charge” for details. 3.7 Exposed Pad (EP) The Exposed Thermal Pad (EP) shall be connected to the exposed copper area on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) for the thermal enhancement. Additional vias on the copper area under the MCP73123/223 device can improve the performance of heat dissipation and simplify the assembly process. Status Output (STAT) STAT is an open-drain logic output for connection to an LED for charge status indication in standalone applications. Alternatively, a pull-up resistor can be applied for interfacing to a host microcontroller. Refer to Table 5-1 for a summary of the status output during a charge cycle. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22191A-page 13 MCP73123/223 NOTES: DS22191A-page 14 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 4.0 DEVICE OVERVIEW The MCP73123/223 are simple, but fully integrated linear charge management controllers. Figure 4-1 depicts the operational flow algorithm. SHUTDOWN MODE VDD < VUVLO VDD < VPD or PROG > 200 kΩ STAT = HI-Z VBAT < VPTH VDD < VOVP PRECONDITIONING MODE Charge Current = IPREG STAT = LOW Timer Reset Timer Enable Timer Expired TIMER FAULT No Charge Current STAT = Flashing (Op.1) STAT = Hi-Z (Op.2) Timer Suspended VDD > VOVP VDD > VOVP VBAT > VPTH VBAT > VPTH FAST CHARGE MODE Charge Current = IREG STAT = LOW Timer Reset Timer Enabled OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION No Charge Current STAT = Hi-Z Timer Suspended VDD < VOVP VDD > VOVP VDD < VOVP VBAT = VREG Timer Expired VBAT < VRTH TIMER FAULT No Charge Current STAT = Flashing (Op.1) STAT = Hi-Z (Op.2) Timer Suspended CONSTANT VOLTAGE MODE Charge Voltage = VREG STAT = LOW VBAT < ITERM Die Temperature < TSDHYS Charge Mode Resume CHARGE COMPLETE MODE No Charge Current STAT = HI-Z Timer Reset Die Temperature > TSD VBAT < VSHORT TEMPERATURE FAULT No Charge Current STAT = Flashing (Op.1) STAT = Hi-Z (Op.2) Timer Suspended FIGURE 4-1: VBAT > VSHORT Charge Mode Resume BATTERY SHORT PROTECTION Charge Current = ISHORT STAT = Flashing (Op.1) STAT = Hi-Z (Op.2) Timer Suspended The MCP73123/223 Flow Chart. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22191A-page 15 MCP73123/223 NOTES: DS22191A-page 16 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 5.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION 5.3.2 5.1 Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO) The battery charge control output is the drain terminal of an internal P-channel MOSFET. The MCP73123/223 provides constant current and voltage regulation to the battery pack by controlling this MOSFET in the linear region. The battery charge control output should be connected to the positive terminal of the battery pack. An internal undervoltage lockout (UVLO) circuit monitors the input voltage and keeps the charger in shutdown mode until the input supply rises above the UVLO threshold. In the event a battery is present when the input power is applied, the input supply must rise approximately 150 mV above the battery voltage before the MCP73123/223 device become operational. The UVLO circuit places the device in shutdown mode if the input supply falls to approximately 150 mV above the battery voltage.The UVLO circuit is always active. At any time, the input supply is below the UVLO threshold or approximately 150 mV of the voltage at the VBAT pin, the MCP73123/223 device is placed in a shutdown mode. 5.2 Overvoltage Protection (OVP) An internal overvoltage protection (OVP) circuit monitors the input voltage and keeps the charger in shutdown mode when the input supply rises above the OVP threshold. The hysteresis of OVP is approximately 150 mV for the MCP73123/223 device. The MCP73123/223 device is operational between UVLO and OVP threshold. The OVP circuit is also recognized as overvoltage lock out (OVLO). 5.3 Charge Qualification When the input power is applied, the input supply must rise 150 mV above the battery voltage before the MCP73123/223 becomes operational. The automatic power down circuit places the device in a shutdown mode if the input supply falls to within +50 mV of the battery voltage. The automatic circuit is always active. At any time the input supply is within +50 mV of the voltage at the VBAT pin, the MCP73123/223 is placed in a shutdown mode. For a charge cycle to begin, the automatic power down conditions must be met and the charge enable input must be above the input high threshold. Note: 5.3.1 In order to extend the battery cycle life, the charge will initiate only when battery voltage is below 3.4V per cell. BATTERY MANAGEMENT INPUT SUPPLY (VDD) The VDD input is the input supply to the MCP73123/ 223. The MCP73123/223 automatically enters a Power-down mode if the voltage on the VDD input falls to within +50 mV of the battery voltage. This feature prevents draining the battery pack when the VDD supply is not present. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.3.3 BATTERY CHARGE CONTROL OUTPUT (VBAT) BATTERY DETECTION The MCP73123/223 detects the battery presence with charging of the output capacitor. The charge flow will initiate when the voltage on VBAT is pulled below the VRECHARGE threshold. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for VRECHARGE values. The value will be the same for non-rechargeable device. When VBAT > VREG + Hysteresis, the charge will be suspended or not start, depends on the condition to prevent over charge that may occur. 5.4 Preconditioning If the voltage at the VBAT pin is less than the preconditioning threshold, the MCP73123/223 device enters a preconditioning mode. The preconditioning threshold is factory set. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for preconditioning threshold options. In this mode, the MCP73123/223 device supplies 10% of the fast charge current (established with the value of the resistor connected to the PROG pin) to the battery. When the voltage at the VBAT pin rises above the preconditioning threshold, the MCP73123/223 device enters the constant current (fast charge) mode. Note: 5.4.1 The MCP73123/223 also offer options with no preconditioning. TIMER EXPIRED DURING PRECONDITIONING MODE If the internal timer expires before the voltage threshold is reached for fast charge mode, a timer fault is indicated and the charge cycle terminates. The MCP73123/223 device remains in this condition until the battery is removed or input power is cycled. If the battery is removed, the MCP73123/223 device enters the Stand-by mode where it remains until a battery is reinserted. Note: The typical preconditioning timer for MCP73123/223 is 32 minutes. The MCP73123/223 also offer options with no preconditioning timer. DS22191A-page 17 MCP73123/223 5.5 Constant Current MODE - Fast Charge During the constant current mode, the programmed charge current is supplied to the battery or load. The charge current is established using a single resistor from PROG to VSS. The program resistor and the charge current are calculated using the following equation: EQUATION 5-1: I REG = 1104 × R – 0.93 Where: RPROG = kilo-ohms (kΩ) IREG = milliampere (mA) 5.5.1 TIMER EXPIRED DURING CONSTANT CURRENT - FAST CHARGE MODE If the internal timer expires before the recharge voltage threshold is reached, a timer fault is indicated and the charge cycle terminates. The MCP73123/223 device remains in this condition until the battery is removed. If the battery is removed or input power is cycled. The MCP73123/223 device enters the Stand-by mode where it remains until a battery is reinserted. 5.6 Constant Voltage Mode When the voltage at the VBAT pin reaches the regulation voltage, VREG, constant voltage regulation begins. The regulation voltage is factory set to 3.6V for single cell or 7.2V for dual cell with a tolerance of ± 0.5%. EQUATION 5-2: R PROG = 10 Constant current mode is maintained until the voltage at the VBAT pin reaches the regulation voltage, VREG. When constant current mode is invoked, the internal timer is reset. ( log 1104 ) ⁄ ( – 0.93 ) Where: RPROG = kilo-ohms (kΩ) IREG = milliampere (mA) 5.7 Table 5-1 provides commonly seen E96 (1%) and E24 (5%) resistors for various charge current to reduce design time. TABLE 5-1: RESISTOR LOOKUP TABLE Charge Recommended Recommended Current (mA) E96 Resistor (Ω) E24 Resistor (Ω) 130 10k 10k 150 8.45k 8.20k 200 6.20k 6.20k 250 4.99k 5.10k 300 4.02k 3.90k 350 3.40k 3.30k 400 3.00k 3.00k 450 2.61k 2.70k 500 2.32k 2.37k 550 2.10k 2.20k 600 1.91k 2.00k 650 1.78k 1.80k 700 1.62k 1.60k 750 1.50k 1.50k 800 1.40k 1.50k 850 1.33k 1.30k 900 1.24k 1.20k 950 1.18k 1.20k 1000 1.10k 1.10k 1100 1.00k 1.00k DS22191A-page 18 Charge Termination The charge cycle is terminated when, during constant voltage mode, the average charge current diminishes below a threshold established with the value of 5%, 7.5%, 10% or 20% of fast charge current or internal timer has expired. A 1 ms filter time on the termination comparator ensures that transient load conditions do not result in premature charge cycle termination. The timer period is factory set and can be disabled. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for timer period options. 5.8 Automatic Recharge The MCP73123/223 device continuously monitors the voltage at the VBAT pin in the charge complete mode. If the voltage drops below the recharge threshold, another charge cycle begins and current is once again supplied to the battery or load. The recharge threshold is factory set. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for recharge threshold options. Note: The MCP73123/223 also offer options with no automatic recharge. For the MCP73123/223 device with no recharge option, the MCP73123/223 will go into standby mode when termination condition is met. The charge will not restart until following condition has met: • Battery is removed from system and insert again. • VDD is removed and plug in again • RPROG is disconnected (or high impedance) and reconnect © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 5.9 Thermal Regulation The MCP73123/223 shall limit the charge current based on the die temperature. The thermal regulation optimizes the charge cycle time while maintaining device reliability. Figure 5-1 depicts the thermal regulation for the MCP73123/223 device. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for thermal package resistances and Section 220.127.116.11 “Thermal Considerations” for calculating power dissipation. . Status Indicator The charge status outputs are open-drain outputs with two different states: Low (L), and High Impedance (Hi-Z). The charge status outputs can be used to illuminate LEDs. Optionally, the charge status outputs can be used as an interface to a host microcontroller. Table 5-2 summarize the state of the status outputs during a charge cycle. TABLE 5-2: STATUS OUTPUTS CHARGE CYCLE STATE 600 Charge Current (mA) 5.11 STAT 500 Shutdown Hi-Z 400 Standby Hi-Z 300 200 100 L Charge Complete - Standby 0 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 105 115 125 135 145 Junction Temperature (°C) 5.10 L Constant Current Fast Charge Constant Voltage VDD = 5.2V RPROG = 2 kΩ FIGURE 5-1: Preconditioning Thermal Regulation Thermal Shutdown The MCP73123/223 suspends charge if the die temperature exceeds +150°C. Charging will resume when the die temperature has cooled by approximately 10°C. The thermal shutdown is a secondary safety feature in the event that there is a failure within the thermal regulation circuitry. L Hi-Z Temperature Fault 1.6 second 50% D.C. Flashing (Type 2) Hi-Z (Type 1) Timer Fault 1.6 second 50% D.C. Flashing (Type 2) Hi-Z (Type 1) Preconditioning Timer Fault 1.6 second 50% D.C. Flashing (Type 2) Hi-Z (Type 1) 5.12 BATTERY SHORT PROTECTION Once a lithium iron phosphate battery is detected, an internal battery short protection (BSP) circuit starts monitoring the battery voltage. When VBAT falls below a typical 1.7V battery short protection threshold voltage per cell, the charging behavior is postponed. 25 mA (typical) detection current is supplied for recovering from battery short condition. Preconditioning mode resumes when VBAT raises above battery short protection threshold. The battery voltage must rise approximately 150 mV above the battery short protection voltage before the MCP73123/ 223 device become operational. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22191A-page 19 MCP73123/223 NOTES: DS22191A-page 20 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 6.0 APPLICATIONS The MCP73123/223 is designed to operate in conjunction with a host microcontroller or in stand-alone applications. The MCP73123/223 provides the preferred charge algorithm for lithium iron phosphate cells Constant-current followed by Constant-voltage. Figure 6-1 depicts a typical stand-alone application circuit, while Figure 6-2 depict the accompanying charge profile. MCP73123 Typical Application 1 Ac-dc-Adapter VDD VBAT 2 VDD VBAT 3 4 4.7 µF + 4.7 µF 7 STAT PROG 1-Cell LiFePO4 Battery 10 1 kΩ 5 NC 6 NC 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 Thermal Regulation Battery Voltage (V) 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 VDD = 5V RPROG = 1 kΩ 1100 mAh LiFePO4 Battery 1.0 0.2 0.1 0 0.0 0 10 1.15 kΩ - 8 Typical Application Circuit. 7.0 2.0 VSS 9 20 30 40 50 Time (Minutes) 60 Supply Current (A) FIGURE 6-1: VSS 70 FIGURE 6-2: Typical Charge Profile for Single-Cell LiFePO4 Battery). © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22191A-page 21 MCP73123/223 6.1 Application Circuit Design Due to the low efficiency of linear charging, the most important factors are thermal design and cost, which are a direct function of the input voltage, output current and thermal impedance between the battery charger and the ambient cooling air. The worst-case situation is when the device has transitioned from the preconditioning mode to the constant-current mode. In this situation, the battery charger has to dissipate the maximum power. A trade-off must be made between the charge current, cost and thermal requirements of the charger. 6.1.1 COMPONENT SELECTION Selection of the external components in Figure 6-1 is crucial to the integrity and reliability of the charging system. The following discussion is intended as a guide for the component selection process. 18.104.22.168 Charge Current The recommended fast charge current should be obtained from battery manufacturer. For example, a 1000 mAh battery pack with 2C preferred fast charge current has a charge current of 1000 mA. Charging at this rate provides the shortest charge cycle times without degradation to the battery pack performance or life. Note: 22.214.171.124 Please consult with your battery supplier or refer to battery data sheet for preferred charge rate. Thermal Considerations The worst-case power dissipation in the battery charger occurs when the input voltage is at the maximum and the device has transitioned from the Preconditioning mode to the Constant-current mode. In this case, the power dissipation is: EQUATION 6-1: PowerDissipation = ( V DDMAX – V PTHMIN ) × I REGMAX Where: VDDMAX = the maximum input voltage IREGMAX = the maximum fast charge current VPTHMIN = the minimum transition threshold voltage DS22191A-page 22 Power dissipation with a 5V, ±10% input voltage source, 500 mA ±10% and preconditioning threshold voltage at 2V is: EQUATION 6-2: PowerDissipation = ( 5.5V – 2V ) × 550mA = 1.925W This power dissipation with the battery charger in the DFN-10 package will result approximately 83°C above room temperature. 126.96.36.199 External Capacitors The MCP73123/223 is stable with or without a battery load. In order to maintain good AC stability in the Constant-voltage mode, a minimum capacitance of 1 µF is recommended to bypass the VBAT pin to VSS. This capacitance provides compensation when there is no battery load. In addition, the battery and interconnections appear inductive at high frequencies. These elements are in the control feedback loop during Constant-voltage mode. Therefore, the bypass capacitance may be necessary to compensate for the inductive nature of the battery pack. A minimum of 16V rated 1 µF, is recommended to apply for output capacitor and a minimum of 25V rated 1 µF, is recommended to apply for input capacitor for typical applications. TABLE 6-1: MLCC CAPACITOR EXAMPLE MLCC Capacitors Temperature Range X7R -55°C to +125°C ±15% X5R -55°C to +85°C ±15% Tolerance Virtually any good quality output filter capacitor can be used, independent of the capacitor’s minimum Effective Series Resistance (ESR) value. The actual value of the capacitor (and its associated ESR) depends on the output load current. A 1 µF ceramic, tantalum or aluminum electrolytic capacitor at the output is usually sufficient to ensure stability. 188.8.131.52 Reverse-Blocking Protection The MCP73123/223 provides protection from a faulted or shorted input. Without the protection, a faulted or shorted input would discharge the battery pack through the body diode of the internal pass transistor. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 6.2 PCB Layout Issues For optimum voltage regulation, place the battery pack as close as possible to the device’s VBAT and VSS pins, recommended to minimize voltage drops along the high current-carrying PCB traces. If the PCB layout is used as a heatsink, adding many vias in the heatsink pad can help conduct more heat to the backplane of the PCB, thus reducing the maximum junction temperature. Figure 6-4 and Figure 6-5 depict a typical layout with PCB heatsinking. FIGURE 6-5: Typical Layout (Bottom). MCP73X23EV-LFP FIGURE 6-3: Typical Layout (Top). FIGURE 6-4: Typical Layout (Top Metal). © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22191A-page 23 MCP73123/223 NOTES: DS22191A-page 24 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 7.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 7.1 Package Marking Information Example: 10-Lead DFN (3x3) Standard * XXXX Part Number YYWW MCP73123-22SI/MF MCP73223-C2SI/MF NNN Legend: XX...X Y YY WW NNN e3 * Note: Code 77HI X7HI 77HI 0923 256 Customer-specific information Year code (last digit of calendar year) Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year) Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’) Alphanumeric traceability code Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn) This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 ) can be found on the outer packaging for this package. In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available characters for customer-specific information. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22191A-page 25 MCP73123/223 % !"#$ 2 %& %!%*") ' % *$% %"% %%133)))& &3* D e b N N L K E E2 EXPOSED PAD NOTE 1 1 2 2 1 NOTE 1 D2 BOTTOM VIEW TOP VIEW A A1 A3 NOTE 2 4% & 5&% 6!&( $ 55,, 6 6 67 8 % 79% : ./0 %" $$ . 0 %%* + ,2 75% ,# ""5% 7;"% , ,# "";"% , .: . ( : . + 0 %%5% 5 + . 0 %%% ,# "" < = = 0 %%;"% +/0 +. : +/0 % !"#$%!&'(!%&! %( %")%%%" *& & # "%( %" + * ) !%" & "% ,-. /01 / & %#%! ))% !%% ,21 $& '! !)% !%% '$ $ &% ! ) 0>+/ DS22191A-page 26 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 % !"#$ 2 %& %!%*") ' % *$% %"% %%133)))& &3* © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22191A-page 27 MCP73123/223 NOTES: DS22191A-page 28 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 APPENDIX A: REVISION HISTORY Revision A (July 2009) • Original Release of this Document. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22191A-page 29 MCP73123/223 NOTES: DS22191A-page 30 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73123/223 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO. X XX Device Temperature Range Package Device: MCP73123: MCP73123T: MCP73223: MCP73223T: Temperature Range: I Package: MF Examples: a) b) Single Cell Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Device Single Cell Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Device, Tape and Reel Dual Cell Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Device Dual Cell Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Device, Tape and Reel a) b) MCP73123-22SI/MF: Single Cell Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Device MCP73123T-22SI/MF: Tape and Reel, Single Cell Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Device MCP73223-C2SI/MF: Dual Cell Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Device MCP73223T-C2SI/MF:Tape and Reel, Dual Cell Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Device = -40°C to +85°C (Industrial) = Plastic Dual Flat No Lead, 3x3 mm Body (DFN), 10-Lead © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22191A-page 31 MCP73123/223 NOTES: DS22191A-page 32 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICtail, PIC32 logo, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance, TSHARC, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2009, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 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