MCP73831/2 Miniature Single-Cell, Fully Integrated Li-Ion, Li-Polymer Charge Management Controllers Features Description: • Linear Charge Management Controller: - Integrated Pass Transistor - Integrated Current Sense - Reverse Discharge Protection • High Accuracy Preset Voltage Regulation: + 0.75% • Four Voltage Regulation Options: - 4.20V, 4.35V, 4.40V, 4.50V • Programmable Charge Current: 15 mA to 500 mA • Selectable Preconditioning: - 10%, 20%, 40%, or Disable • Selectable End-of-Charge Control: - 5%, 7.5%, 10%, or 20% • Charge Status Output - Tri-State Output - MCP73831 - Open-Drain Output - MCP73832 • Automatic Power-Down • Thermal Regulation • Temperature Range: -40°C to +85°C • Packaging: - 8-Lead, 2 mm x 3 mm DFN - 5-Lead, SOT-23 The MCP73831/2 devices are highly advanced linear charge management controllers for use in space-limited, cost-sensitive applications. The MCP73831/2 are available in an 8-Lead, 2 mm x 3 mm DFN package or a 5-Lead, SOT-23 package. Along with their small physical size, the low number of external components required make the MCP73831/2 ideally suited for portable applications. For applications charging from a USB port, the MCP73831/2 adhere to all the specifications governing the USB power bus. Applications • • • • • • • Lithium-Ion/Lithium-Polymer Battery Chargers Personal Data Assistants Cellular Telephones Digital Cameras MP3 Players Bluetooth Headsets USB Chargers Typical Application 4.7 μF 4 V DD 1 STAT + Single Li-Ion - Cell 5 470Ω VSS 2 The MCP73831/2 devices are fully specified over the ambient temperature range of -40°C to +85°C. Package Types VDD 1 VBAT 3 4.7 μF PROG Several options are available for the preconditioning threshold, preconditioning current value, charge termination value and automatic recharge threshold. The preconditioning value and charge termination value are set as a ratio, or percentage, of the programmed constant current value. Preconditioning can be disabled. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for available options and the “Product Identification System” for standard options. MCP73831/2 2×3 DFN* 500 mA Li-Ion Battery Charger VIN The MCP73831/2 employ a constant-current/constantvoltage charge algorithm with selectable preconditioning and charge termination. The constant voltage regulation is fixed with four available options: 4.20V, 4.35V, 4.40V or 4.50V, to accommodate new, emerging battery charging requirements. The constant current value is set with one external resistor. The MCP73831/ 2 devices limit the charge current based on die temperature during high power or high ambient conditions. This thermal regulation optimizes the charge cycle time while maintaining device reliability. VDD 2 VBAT 3 VBAT 4 2 kΩ 8 PROG EP 9 7 NC 6 VSS MCP73831/2 SOT-23-5 STAT 1 VSS 2 VBAT 3 5 PROG 4 VDD 5 STAT * Includes Exposed Thermal Pad (EP); see Table 3-1. MCP73831 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21984E-page 1 MCP73831/2 Functional Block Diagram VDD 6 mA DIRECTION CONTROL VBAT G=0.001 6 mA PROG 0.5 mA + - REFERENCE GENERATOR CA MCP73831 ONLY 43.6 kΩ VREF(1.22V) 361 kΩ 89 kΩ VDD 3.9 kΩ + - PRECONDITION 182.3 kΩ 111 kΩ 7 kΩ + TERMINATION + CHARGE 15 kΩ STAT + - VA 190 kΩ 111 kΩ + - 0.5 mA VBAT 477 kΩ VSS 255 kΩ DS21984E-page 2 100 kΩ SHDN + - DIRECTION CONTROL + - UVLO © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS † Notice: Stresses above those listed under “Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Absolute Maximum Ratings† VDD...................................................................................7.0V All Inputs and Outputs w.r.t. VSS ............... -0.3 to (VDD+0.3)V Maximum Junction Temperature, TJ ............ Internally Limited Storage temperature .....................................-65°C to +150°C ESD protection on all pins: Human Body Model (1.5 kΩ in Series with 100 pF).......≥ 4 kV Machine Model (200 pF, No Series Resistance) .............400V DC CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD= [VREG(typical) + 0.3V] to 6V, TA = -40°C to +85°C. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (typical) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym. Min. Typ. Max. Units Conditions Supply Voltage VDD 3.75 — 6 V Supply Current ISS — 510 1500 µA Charging — 53 200 µA Charge Complete, No Battery — 25 50 µA PROG Floating Supply Input — 1 5 µA VDD < (VBAT - 50 mV) — 0.1 2 µA VDD < VSTOP UVLO Start Threshold VSTART 3.3 3.45 3.6 V VDD Low-to-High UVLO Stop Threshold VSTOP 3.2 3.38 3.5 V VDD High-to-Low UVLO Hysteresis VHYS — 70 — mV 4.168 4.20 4.232 V MCP7383X-2 4.317 4.35 4.383 V MCP7383X-3 4.367 4.40 4.433 V MCP7383X-4 4.466 4.50 4.534 V MCP7383X-5 Voltage Regulation (Constant-Voltage Mode) Regulated Output Voltage VREG VDD = [VREG(typical)+1V] IOUT = 10 mA TA = -5°C to +55°C Line Regulation |(ΔVBAT/ VBAT)/ΔVDD| — 0.09 0.30 %/V Load Regulation |ΔVBAT/VBAT| — 0.05 0.30 % IOUT = 10 mA to 50 mA VDD = [VREG(typical)+1V] PSRR — 52 —- dB IOUT=10 mA, 10Hz to 1 kHz — 47 — dB IOUT=10 mA, 10Hz to 10 kHz — 22 — dB IOUT=10 mA, 10Hz to 1 MHz Supply Ripple Attenuation VDD = [VREG(typical)+1V] to 6V, IOUT = 10 mA Current Regulation (Fast Charge Constant-Current Mode) Fast Charge Current Regulation IREG 90 100 110 mA PROG = 10 kΩ 450 505 550 mA PROG = 2.0 kΩ, Note 1 12.5 14.5 16.5 mA PROG = 67 kΩ TA = -5°C to +55°C Note 1: Not production tested. Ensured by design. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21984E-page 3 MCP73831/2 DC CHARACTERISTICS (CONTINUED) Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD= [VREG(typical) + 0.3V] to 6V, TA = -40°C to +85°C. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (typical) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym. Min. Typ. Max. Units Conditions Preconditioning Current Regulation (Trickle Charge Constant-Current Mode) Precondition Current Ratio IPREG / IREG 7.5 10 12.5 % PROG = 2.0 kΩ to 10 kΩ 15 20 25 % PROG = 2.0 kΩ to 10 kΩ 30 40 50 % PROG = 2.0 kΩ to 10 kΩ — 100 — % No Preconditioning TA = -5°C to +55°C Precondition Voltage Threshold Ratio Precondition Hysteresis VPTH / VREG 64 66.5 69 % VBAT Low-to-High 69 71.5 74 % VBAT Low-to-High VPHYS — 110 — mV VBAT High-to-Low ITERM / IREG 3.75 5 6.25 % 5.6 7.5 9.4 % PROG = 2.0 kΩ to 10 kΩ 8.5 10 11.5 % PROG = 2.0 kΩ to 10 kΩ 15 20 25 % PROG = 2.0 kΩ to 10 kΩ Charge Termination Charge Termination Current Ratio PROG = 2.0 kΩ to 10 kΩ TA = -5°C to +55°C Automatic Recharge Recharge Voltage Threshold Ratio VRTH / VREG 91.5 94.0 96.5 % VBAT High-to-Low 94 96.5 99 % VBAT High-to-Low RDSON — 350 — mΩ VDD = 3.75V, TJ = 105°C IDISCHARGE — 0.15 2 µA PROG Floating Pass Transistor ON-Resistance ON-Resistance Battery Discharge Current Output Reverse Leakage Current — 0.25 2 µA VDD Floating — 0.15 2 µA VDD < VSTOP — -5.5 -15 µA Charge Complete mA Status Indicator – STAT Sink Current ISINK — — 25 Low Output Voltage VOL — 0.4 1 V ISOURCE — — 35 mA VOH — VDD-0.4 VDD - 1 V ISOURCE = 4 mA (MCP73831) ILK — 0.03 1 µA High-Impedance Charge Impedance Range RPROG 2 — 67 kΩ Minimum Shutdown Impedance RPROG 70 — 200 kΩ Automatic Power Down Entry Threshold VPDENTER VDD<(VBAT +20 mV) VDD<(VBAT +50 mV) — 3.5V ≤ VBAT ≤ VREG VDD Falling Automatic Power Down Exit Threshold VPDEXIT — VDD<(VBAT +150 mV) VDD<(VBAT +200 mV) 3.5V ≤ VBAT ≤ VREG VDD Rising Die Temperature TSD — 150 — °C Die Temperature Hysteresis TSDHYS — 10 — °C Source Current High Output Voltage Input Leakage Current ISINK = 4 mA PROG Input Automatic Power Down Thermal Shutdown Note 1: Not production tested. Ensured by design. DS21984E-page 4 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 AC CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD = [VREG (typical) + 0.3V] to 12V, TA = -40°C to +85°C. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (typical) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym. Min. Typ. Max. Units tSTART — — 5 ms VDD Low-to-High tDELAY — — 1 ms VBAT < VPTH to VBAT > VPTH Current Rise Time Out of Preconditioning tRISE — — 1 ms IOUT Rising to 90% of IREG Termination Comparator Filter tTERM 0.4 1.3 3.2 ms Average IOUT Falling tCHARGE 0.4 1.3 3.2 ms Average VBAT Status Output turn-off tOFF — — 200 µs ISINK = 1 mA to 0 mA Status Output turn-on tON — — 200 µs ISINK = 0 mA to 1 mA UVLO Start Delay Conditions Constant-Current Regulation Transition Time Out of Preconditioning Charge Comparator Filter Status Indicator TEMPERATURE SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD = [VREG (typical) + 0.3V] to 12V. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (typical) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym. Min. Typ. Max. Units Conditions Temperature Ranges Specified Temperature Range TA -40 — +85 °C Operating Temperature Range TJ -40 — +125 °C Storage Temperature Range TA -65 — +150 °C 5-Lead, SOT-23 θJA — 230 — °C/W 4-Layer JC51-7 Standard Board, Natural Convection (Note 2) 8-Lead, 2 mm x 3 mm, DFN θJA — 76 — °C/W 4-Layer JC51-7 Standard Board, Natural Convection (Note 1) Thermal Package Resistances Note 1: 2: This represents the minimum copper condition on the PCB (Printed Circuit Board). With large copper area on the PCB, the SOT-23-5 thermal resistance ( θJA ) can reach a typical value of 130°C/W or better. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21984E-page 5 MCP73831/2 NOTES: DS21984E-page 6 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 2.0 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES Note: The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore outside the warranted range. 4.210 MCP73831-2 4.205 IOUT = 10 mA 4.200 Charge Current (mA) Battery Regulation Voltage (V) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = [VREG(typical) + 1V], IOUT = 10 mA and TA= +25°C, Constant-Voltage mode. 4.195 4.190 IOUT = 100 mA 4.185 IOUT = 450 mA 4.180 4.175 4.170 4.50 4.75 5.00 5.25 5.50 5.75 6.00 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2 Supply Voltage (V) 4.210 104 Charge Current (mA) 4.200 IOUT = 10 mA 4.195 4.190 4.185 IOUT = 100 mA 4.180 4.175 FIGURE 2-4: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Programming Resistor (RPROG). MCP73831-2 4.205 IOUT = 450 mA RPROG = 10 kΩ 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 96 4.50 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 10 -10 -20 -30 4.170 -40 Battery Regulation Voltage (V) FIGURE 2-1: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). 7 12 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 52 57 62 67 Programming Resistor (kΩ) 4.75 +85°C 0.30 0.20 0.15 5.50 516 0.40 0.25 5.25 -40°C +25°C 0.10 0.05 0.00 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.20 Battery Regulation Voltage (V) FIGURE 2-3: Output Leakage Current (IDISCHARGE) vs. Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT). © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.75 6.00 FIGURE 2-5: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). Charge Current (mA) Output Leakage Current (µA) FIGURE 2-2: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). 0.35 5.00 Supply Voltage (V) Ambient Temperature (°C) RPROG = 2 kΩ 514 512 510 508 506 504 502 500 4.50 4.75 5.00 5.25 5.50 5.75 6.00 Supply Voltage (V) FIGURE 2-6: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). DS21984E-page 7 MCP73831/2 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES (CONTINUED) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = [VREG(typical) + 1V], IOUT = 10 mA and TA= +25°C, Constant-Voltage mode. 525 RPROG = 10 kΩ 103 Charge Current (mA) 102 101 100 99 98 97 RPROG = 2 kΩ 450 375 300 225 150 75 0 -10 Attenuation (dB) 512 510 508 506 504 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 10 -10 -20 -30 0.1 FIGURE 2-8: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). 0 -10 Attenuation (dB) 90 75 60 45 30 15 155 145 135 125 115 105 95 85 75 65 55 45 0 35 10 155 145 135 115 125 100 1000 FIGURE 2-11: Power Supply Ripple Rejection (PSRR). RPROG = 10 kΩ 25 1 Frequency (kHz) Ambient Temperature (°C) Charge Current (mA) 95 -40 -60 0.01 Junction Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-9: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Junction Temperature (TJ). DS21984E-page 8 105 -30 500 105 85 -20 -50 120 75 VAC = 100 mVp-p IOUT = 10 mA COUT = 4.7 µF, X7R Ceramic 502 -40 Charge Current (mA) FIGURE 2-10: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Junction Temperature (TJ). RPROG = 2 kΩ 514 65 Junction Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-7: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). 516 55 25 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 10 -10 -20 -30 -40 Ambient Temperature (°C) 45 0 96 35 Charge Current (mA) 104 VAC = 100 mVp-p IOUT = 100 mA COUT = 4.7 µF, X7R Ceramic -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Frequency (kHz) FIGURE 2-12: Power Supply Ripple Rejection (PSRR). © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES (CONTINUED) 1.40 0.10 0.05 1.20 0.05 10 0.00 1.00 0.00 8 -0.05 0.80 -0.05 6 -0.10 0.60 -0.10 4 -0.15 0.40 -0.15 2 -0.20 0.20 -0.20 0 200 180 160 -0.08 -0.10 COUT = 4.7 µF, X7R Ceramic 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 -0.12 0 -0.05 Time (µs) FIGURE 2-15: Load Transient Response. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 200 180 160 140 120 80 300 2.0 200 MCP73831-2AC/IOT VDD = 5.2V RPROG = 2 kΩ 1.0 100 0.0 Charge Current (mA) 0.05 3.0 0 240 -0.06 210 -0.04 0.10 180 0.15 400 150 -0.02 500 4.0 120 0.20 5.0 60 0.00 600 30 0.25 6.0 0 0.02 FIGURE 2-17: Complete Charge Cycle (180 mAh Li-Ion Battery). Battery Voltage (V) 0.04 0.30 Output Ripple (V) Output Current (A) Line Transient Response. 90 120 100 80 60 40 20 140 Time (minutes) 0.35 0.00 20 0 Time (µs) FIGURE 2-14: 40 MCP73831-2AC/IOT VDD = 5.2V RPROG = 10 kΩ 1.0 0.0 -0.30 0 -2 2.0 Charge Current (mA) -0.25 60 180 -0.20 IOUT = 100 mA COUT = 4.7 µF, X7R Ceramic 3.0 160 -0.15 140 -0.10 4 80 120 6 4.0 100 -0.05 80 8 100 60 0.00 120 5.0 40 10 Load Transient Response. 6.0 20 0.05 FIGURE 2-16: Battery Voltage (V) 0.10 Output Ripple (V) Source Voltage (V) Line Transient Response. 12 0 -0.30 Time (µs) 14 2 100 40 0 Time (µs) FIGURE 2-13: -0.25 COUT = 4.7 µF, X7R Ceramic -0.20 200 180 160 140 120 80 100 60 40 20 -0.30 0 -2 0.00 60 -0.25 20 IOUT = 10 mA COUT = 4.7 µF, X7R Ceramic 0 Output Ripple (V) 0.10 12 Output Current (A) 14 Output Ripple (V) Source Voltage (V) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = [VREG(typical) + 1V], IOUT = 10 mA and TA= +25°C, Constant-Voltage mode. Time (minutes) FIGURE 2-18: Complete Charge Cycle (1000 mAh Li-Ion Battery). DS21984E-page 9 MCP73831/2 NOTES: DS21984E-page 10 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 3.0 PIN DESCRIPTION The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 3-1. TABLE 3-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLES Pin No. DFN 3.1 SOT-23-5 Symbol Function 1 4 VDD Battery Management Input Supply 2 — VDD Battery Management Input Supply 3 3 VBAT Battery Charge Control Output 4 — VBAT Battery Charge Control Output 5 1 STAT Charge Status Output 6 2 VSS Battery Management 0V Reference 7 — NC No Connection 8 5 PROG 9 — EP Current Regulation Set and Charge Control Enable Exposed Thermal Pad (EP); must be connected to VSS. Battery Management Input Supply (VDD) A supply voltage of [VREG (typical) + 0.3V] to 6V is recommended. Bypass to VSS with a minimum of 4.7 µF. 3.2 Battery Charge Control Output (VBAT) 3.4 Battery Management 0V Reference (VSS) Connect to negative terminal of battery and input supply. 3.5 Current Regulation Set (PROG) Preconditioning, fast charge and termination currents are scaled by placing a resistor from PROG to VSS. Connect to positive terminal of battery. Drain terminal of internal P-channel MOSFET pass transistor. Bypass to VSS with a minimum of 4.7 µF to ensure loop stability when the battery is disconnected. The charge management controller can be disabled by allowing the PROG input to float. 3.3 There is an internal electrical connection between the Exposed Thermal Pad (EP) and the VSS pin; they must be connected to the same potential on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB). Charge Status Output (STAT) STAT is an output for connection to an LED for charge status indication. Alternatively, a pull-up resistor can be applied for interfacing to a host microcontroller. STAT is a tri-state logic output on the MCP73831 and an open-drain output on the MCP73832. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.6 Exposed Thermal Pad (EP) Vias are recommended to add from land area of EP to a copper layer on the other side of the PCB for better thermal performance. DS21984E-page 11 MCP73831/2 NOTES: DS21984E-page 12 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 4.0 DEVICE OVERVIEW The MCP73831/2 are highly advanced linear charge management controllers. Figure 4-1 depicts the operational flow algorithm from charge initiation to completion and automatic recharge. The UVLO circuit is always active. Whenever the input supply is below the UVLO threshold or within +50 mV of the voltage at the VBAT pin, the MCP73831/2 are placed in a Shutdown mode. SHUTDOWN MODE VDD < VUVLO VDD < VBAT or PROG > 200 kΩ STAT = Hi-Z During any UVLO condition, the battery reverse discharge current will be less than 2 µA. VBAT < VPTH PRECONDITIONING MODE Charge Current = IPREG STAT = LOW VBAT > VPTH FAST CHARGE MODE Charge Current = IREG STAT = LOW VBAT > VPTH VBAT < VRTH VBAT = VREG CONSTANT VOLTAGE MODE Charge Voltage = VREG STAT = LOW IBAT < ITERM CHARGE COMPLETE MODE No Charge Current STAT = HIGH (MCP73831) STAT = Hi-Z (MCP73832) FIGURE 4-1: 4.1 Flowchart. Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO) An internal UVLO circuit monitors the input voltage and keeps the charger in Shutdown mode until the input supply rises above the UVLO threshold. The UVLO circuitry has a built in hysteresis of 100 mV. In the event a battery is present when the input power is applied, the input supply must rise 150 mV above the battery voltage before the MCP73831/2 becomes operational. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. The UVLO circuit places the device in Shutdown mode if the input supply falls to within +50 mV of the battery voltage. Again, the input supply must rise to a level 150 mV above the battery voltage before the MCP73831/2 become operational. 4.2 Charge Qualification For a charge cycle to begin, all UVLO conditions must be met and a battery or output load must be present. A charge current programming resistor must be connected from PROG to VSS. If the PROG pin is open or floating, the MCP73831/2 are disabled and the battery reverse discharge current is less than 2 µA. In this manner, the PROG pin acts as a charge enable and can be used as a manual shutdown. 4.3 Preconditioning If the voltage at the VBAT pin is less than the preconditioning threshold, the MCP73831/2 enter a preconditioning or Trickle Charge mode. The preconditioning threshold is factory set. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for preconditioning threshold options and the Product Identification System for standard options. In this mode, the MCP73831/2 supply a percentage of the charge current (established with the value of the resistor connected to the PROG pin) to the battery. The percentage or ratio of the current is factory set. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for preconditioning current options and the ”Product Identification System” for standard options. When the voltage at the VBAT pin rises above the preconditioning threshold, the MCP73831/2 enter the Constant-Current or Fast Charge mode. 4.4 Fast Charge Constant-Current Mode During the Constant-Current mode, the programmed charge current is supplied to the battery or load. The charge current is established using a single resistor from PROG to VSS. Constant-Current mode is maintained until the voltage at the VBAT pin reaches the regulation voltage, VREG. DS21984E-page 13 MCP73831/2 Constant-Voltage Mode When the voltage at the VBAT pin reaches the regulation voltage, VREG, constant voltage regulation begins. The regulation voltage is factory set to 4.2V, 4.35V, 4.40V, or 4.50V with a tolerance of ±0.75%. Thermal Regulation The MCP73831/2 limit the charge current based on the die temperature. The thermal regulation optimizes the charge cycle time while maintaining device reliability. Figure 4-2 depicts the thermal regulation for the MCP73831/2. Charge Termination 525 RPROG = 2 kΩ 450 375 300 225 150 75 FIGURE 4-2: 4.7 4.9 The MCP73831/2 continuously monitor the voltage at the VBAT pin in the Charge Complete mode. If the voltage drops below the recharge threshold, another charge cycle begins and current is once again supplied to the battery or load. The recharge threshold is factory set. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for recharge threshold options and the ”Product Identification System” for standard options. DS21984E-page 14 155 145 135 125 115 95 105 85 75 65 55 Junction Temperature (°C) The charge current is latched off and the MCP73831/2 enter a Charge Complete mode. Automatic Recharge 45 0 35 The charge cycle is terminated when, during ConstantVoltage mode, the average charge current diminishes below a percentage of the programmed charge current (established with the value of the resistor connected to the PROG pin). A 1 ms filter time on the termination comparator ensures that transient load conditions do not result in premature charge cycle termination. The percentage or ratio of the current is factory set. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for charge termination current options and the ”Product Identification System” for standard options. 25 4.6 4.8 Charge Current (mA) 4.5 Thermal Regulation. Thermal Shutdown The MCP73831/2 suspend charge if the die temperature exceeds 150°C. Charging will resume when the die temperature has cooled by approximately 10°C. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 5.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION 5.2 5.1 Analog Circuitry 5.2.1 5.1.1 BATTERY MANAGEMENT INPUT SUPPLY (VDD) The VDD input is the input supply to the MCP73831/2. The MCP73831/2 automatically enter a Power-Down mode if the voltage on the VDD input falls below the UVLO voltage (VSTOP). This feature prevents draining the battery pack when the VDD supply is not present. 5.1.2 CURRENT REGULATION SET (PROG) Fast charge current regulation can be scaled by placing a programming resistor (RPROG) from the PROG input to VSS. The program resistor and the charge current are calculated using the following equation: 1000VI REG = ---------------R PROG Where: Digital Circuitry STATUS INDICATOR (STAT) The charge status output of the MCP73831 has three different states: High (H), Low (L), and High-Impedance (Hi-Z). The charge status output of the MCP73832 is open-drain, and, as such, has two different states: Low (L), and High-Impedance (Hi-Z). The charge charge status output can be used to illuminate 1, 2, or tri-color LEDs. Optionally, the charge status output can be used as an interface to a host microcontroller. Table 5-1 summarize the state of the status output during a charge cycle.. TABLE 5-1: STATUS OUTPUT Charge Cycle State STAT1 MCP73831 MCP73832 Shutdown Hi-Z Hi-Z No Battery Present Hi-Z Hi-Z Preconditioning L L L L RPROG = kOhms Constant-Current Fast Charge IREG = milliampere Constant Voltage L L Charge Complete – Standby H Hi-Z The preconditioning trickle charge current and the charge termination current are ratiometric to the fast charge current based on the selected device options. 5.1.3 BATTERY CHARGE CONTROL OUTPUT (VBAT) The battery charge control output is the drain terminal of an internal P-channel MOSFET. The MCP73831/2 provide constant current and voltage regulation to the battery pack by controlling this MOSFET in the linear region. The battery charge control output should be connected to the positive terminal of the battery pack. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.2.2 DEVICE DISABLE (PROG) The current regulation set input pin (PROG) can be used to terminate a charge at any time during the charge cycle, as well as to initiate a charge cycle or initiate a recharge cycle. Placing a programming resistor from the PROG input to VSS enables the device. Allowing the PROG input to float or by applying a logic-high input signal, disables the device and terminates a charge cycle. When disabled, the device’s supply current is reduced to 25 µA, typically. DS21984E-page 15 MCP73831/2 NOTES: DS21984E-page 16 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 6.0 APPLICATIONS cells constant current followed by constant voltage. Figure 6-1 depicts a typical stand-alone application circuit, while Figures 6-2 and 6-3 depict the accompanying charge profile. The MCP73831/2 are designed to operate in conjunction with a host microcontroller or in a stand-alone application. The MCP73831/2 provide the preferred charge algorithm for Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Polymer Li-Ion Battery Charger 4 VDD VBAT 3 RLED CIN COUT STAT REGULATED WALL CUBE PROG + Single Li-Ion - Cell 5 LED RPROG 1 VSS 2 MCP73831 120 6.0 600 5.0 100 5.0 500 4.0 80 4.0 400 3.0 60 3.0 300 6.1 240 210 180 150 120 90 0 Time (minutes) FIGURE 6-3: Typical Charge Profile in Thermal Regulation (1000 mAh Battery). Application Circuit Design Due to the low efficiency of linear charging, the most important factors are thermal design and cost, which are a direct function of the input voltage, output current and thermal impedance between the battery charger and the ambient cooling air. The worst-case situation is when the device has transitioned from the Preconditioning mode to the Constant-Current mode. In this situation, the battery charger has to dissipate the maximum power. A trade-off must be made between the charge current, cost and thermal requirements of the charger. 6.1.1 100 0.0 Time (minutes) FIGURE 6-2: Typical Charge Profile (180 mAh Battery). 200 MCP73831-2AC/IOT VDD = 5.2V RPROG = 2 kΩ 1.0 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.0 2.0 60 20 30 40 MCP73831-2AC/IOT VDD = 5.2V RPROG = 10 kΩ 1.0 0 2.0 Battery Voltage (V) 6.0 Charge Current (mA) Typical Application Circuit. Charge Current (mA) Battery Voltage (V) FIGURE 6-1: 188.8.131.52 Current Programming Resistor (RPROG) The preferred fast charge current for Lithium-Ion cells is at the 1C rate, with an absolute maximum current at the 2C rate. For example, a 500 mAh battery pack has a preferred fast charge current of 500 mA. Charging at this rate provides the shortest charge cycle times without degradation to the battery pack performance or life. COMPONENT SELECTION Selection of the external components in Figure 6-1 is crucial to the integrity and reliability of the charging system. The following discussion is intended as a guide for the component selection process. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21984E-page 17 MCP73831/2 184.108.40.206 Thermal Considerations 220.127.116.11 The worst-case power dissipation in the battery charger occurs when the input voltage is at the maximum and the device has transitioned from the Preconditioning mode to the Constant-Current mode. In this case, the power dissipation is: PowerDissipation = ( V DDMAX –V PTHMIN )×I REGMAX Where: VDDMAX = the maximum input voltage IREGMAX = the maximum fast charge current VPTHMIN = the minimum transition threshold voltage Power dissipation with a 5V, ±10% input voltage source is: PowerDissipation = ( 5.5V – 2.7V ) × 550mA = 1.54W This power dissipation with the battery charger in the SOT-23-5 package will cause thermal regulation to be entered as depicted in Figure 6-3. Alternatively, the 2mm x 3mm DFN package could be utilized to reduce charge cycle times. 18.104.22.168 External Capacitors The MCP73831/2 are stable with or without a battery load. In order to maintain good AC stability in the Constant-Voltage mode, a minimum capacitance of 4.7 µF is recommended to bypass the VBAT pin to VSS. This capacitance provides compensation when there is no battery load. In addition, the battery and interconnections appear inductive at high frequencies. These elements are in the control feedback loop during Constant-Voltage mode. Therefore, the bypass capacitance may be necessary to compensate for the inductive nature of the battery pack. Virtually any good quality output filter capacitor can be used, independent of the capacitor’s minimum Effective Series Resistance (ESR) value. The actual value of the capacitor (and its associated ESR) depends on the output load current. A 4.7 µF ceramic, tantalum or aluminum electrolytic capacitor at the output is usually sufficient to ensure stability for output currents up to a 500 mA. 22.214.171.124 Reverse-Blocking Protection The MCP73831/2 provide protection from a faulted or shorted input. Without the protection, a faulted or shorted input would discharge the battery pack through the body diode of the internal pass transistor. DS21984E-page 18 Charge Inhibit The current regulation set input pin (PROG) can be used to terminate a charge at any time during the charge cycle, as well as to initiate a charge cycle or initiate a recharge cycle. Placing a programming resistor from the PROG input to VSS enables the device. Allowing the PROG input to float or by applying a logic-high input signal, disables the device and terminates a charge cycle. When disabled, the device’s supply current is reduced to 25 µA, typically. 126.96.36.199 Charge Status Interface A status output provides information on the state of charge. The output can be used to illuminate external LEDs or interface to a host microcontroller. Refer to Table 5-1 for a summary of the state of the status output during a charge cycle. 6.2 PCB Layout Issues For optimum voltage regulation, place the battery pack as close as possible to the device’s VBAT and VSS pins. This is recommended to minimize voltage drops along the high current-carrying PCB traces. If the PCB layout is used as a heatsink, adding many vias in the heatsink pad can help conduct more heat to the backplane of the PCB, thus reducing the maximum junction temperature. Figures 6-4 and 6-5 depict a typical layout with PCB heatsinking. RLED LED VSS VBAT FIGURE 6-4: RPROG COUT MCP73831 C IN VDD Typical Layout (Top). VSS VBAT FIGURE 6-5: VDD Typical Layout (Bottom). © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 7.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 7.1 Package Marking Information Example: 8-Lead DFN (2 mm x 3 mm) Device XXX YWW NN Code MCP73831T-2ACI/MC AAE MCP73831T-2ATI/MC AAF MCP73831T-2DCI/MC AAG MCP73831T-3ACI/MC AAH MCP73831T-4ADI/MC AAJ MCP73831T-5ACI/MC AAK MCP73832T-2ACI/MC AAL MCP73832T-2ATI/MC AAM MCP73832T-2DCI/MC AAP MCP73832T-3ACI/MC AAQ MCP73832T-4ADI/MC AAR MCP73832T-5ACI/MC AAS AAE 739 25 Note: Applies to 8-Lead DFN Example: 5-Lead SOT-23 Device XXNN Code MCP73831T-2ACI/OT KDNN MCP73831T-2ATI/OT KENN MCP73831T-2DCI/OT KFNN MCP73831T-3ACI/OT KGNN MCP73831T-4ADI/OT KHNN MCP73831T-5ACI/OT KJNN MCP73832T-2ACI/OT KKNN MCP73832T-2ATI/OT KLNN MCP73832T-2DCI/OT KMNN MCP73832T-3ACI/OT KPNN MCP73832T-4ADI/OT KQNN MCP73832T-5ACI/OT KRNN MCP73832T-2DFI/OT LUNN KD25 Note: Applies to 5-Lead SOT-23 Legend: XX...X Y YY WW NNN e3 * Note: Customer-specific information Year code (last digit of calendar year) Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year) Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’) Alphanumeric traceability code Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn) This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 ) can be found on the outer packaging for this package. In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available characters for customer-specific information. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21984E-page 19 MCP73831/2 /HDG3ODVWLF'XDO)ODW1R/HDG3DFNDJH0&±[[PP%RG\>')1@ 1RWH - $# *... D e b N N L K E2 E EXPOSED PAD NOTE 1 2 1 NOTE 1 1 2 D2 BOTTOM VIEW TOP VIEW A A3 A1 NOTE 2 / !2 4 $0220$%+%,# $04 4 45$ $"6 9 5; " :9: :<: :: # " ::: :: ::' )+ " ::,%- 52 ! ::(#) 5= % %2 ! : > %= % ': > <: :9 :' :: )2 2 :: : : :': )@@% F :: > > )= :':(#) ::(#) 1RWHV !"#$%& '$ (#)* (!+ ,%-* ,! ?' $ + ! ): @( DS21984E-page 20 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 /HDG3ODVWLF'XDO)ODW1R/HDG3DFNDJH0&±[[PP%RG\>')1@ 1RWH - $# *... © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21984E-page 21 MCP73831/2 /HDG3ODVWLF6PDOO2XWOLQH7UDQVLVWRU27>627@ 1RWH - $# *... b N E E1 3 2 1 e e1 D A2 A c φ A1 L L1 / !2 4 $0220$%+%,# $04 45$ $"6 4 ' 2 :<'(#) 5 2 5; " :<: > $+ " :9< > : # " ::: > :' 5= % : > : $= % : > 9: 52 ! ?: > : <:(#) ' -2 2 :: > :H: - 2 :' > :9: -" :J > :J 2+ ::9 > :H 2= :: > :' 1RWHV !!% $ :? !"#$%& '$ (#)* (!+ $ + ! ): @:<( DS21984E-page 22 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 APPENDIX A: REVISION HISTORY Revision E (September 2008) The following is the list of modifications: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Package Types: Changed DFN pinout diagram. 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics”: Changed “Charge Impedance Range from 20 kΩ to 67 kΩ. 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics”: Misc. Formatting changes. Section 2.0 “Typical Performance Curves”: Updated Figure 2-4. Section 3.0 “Pin Description”: Added Exposed Pad pin to table and added Section 3.6 “Exposed Thermal Pad (EP)”. Updated Appendix A: “Revision History” Added Land Patttern Package Outline Drawing for 2x3 DFN package. Pagination fixes throughout document per Marcom Standards. Revision D (April 2008) The following is the list of modifications: 1. Changed Charge Termination Current Ratio to 8.5% minimum and 11.5% maximum. Revision C (October 2007) The following is the list of modifications: 1. 2. 3. Numerous edits throughout document. Added note to Temperature Specifications table. Updated Figure 2-4. Revision B (March 2006) The following is the list of modifications: 1. Added MCP73832 through document. Revision A (November 2005) • Original Release of this Document. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21984E-page 19 MCP73831/2 NOTES: DS21984E-page 20 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73831/2 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO. X XX Examples: * /XX X a) Device VREG Options Temperature Package Range b) c) Device: MCP73831: MCP73831T: Single-Cell Charge Controller Single-Cell Charge Controller (Tape and Reel) Single-Cell Charge Controller Single-Cell Charge Controller (Tape and Reel) MCP73832 MCP73832T: Regulation Voltage: Code VREG 2 3 4 5 4.20V 4.35V 4.40V 4.50V d) a) b) c) d) = = = = a) b) Options: * Code AC AD AT DC IPREG/IREG VPTH/VREG ITERM/IREG VRTH/VREG 10 10 10 100 66.5 66.5 71.5 x 7.5 7.5 20 7.5 96.5 94 94 96.5 * Consult Factory for Alternative Device Options c) d) a) b) Temperature Range: I Package: MC OT = -40°C to +85°C (Industrial) c) d) = Dual-Flat, No-Lead (2x3 mm body), 8-Lead = Small Outline Transistor (SOT23), 5-Lead a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) MCP73831-2ACI/OT: 4.20V VREG, Options AC, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73831T-2ACI/OT: Tape and Reel, 4.20V VREG, Options AC, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73832-2ACI/MC: 4.20V VREG, Options AC, 8LD DFN Package MCP73832T-2ACI/MC: Tape and Reel, 4.20V VREG, Options AC, 8LD DFN Package MCP73831-2ATI/OT: 4.20V VREG, Options AT, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73831T-2ATI/OT: Tape and Reel, 4.20V VREG, Options AT, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73832-2ATI/MC: 4.20V VREG, Options AT, 8LD DFN Package MCP73832T-2ATI/MC: Tape and Reel, 4.20V VREG, Options AT, 8LD DFN Package MCP73831-2DCI/OT: 4.20V VREG, Options DC, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73831T-2DCI/OT: Tape and Reel, 4.20V VREG, Options DC, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73832-2DCI/MC: 4.20V VREG, Options DC, 8LD DFN Package MCP73832T-2DCI/MC: Tape and Reel, 4.20V VREG, Options DC, 8LD DFN Package MCP73831-3ACI/OT: 4.35V VREG, Options AC, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73831T-3ACI/OT: Tape and Reel, 4.35V VREG, Options AC, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73832-3ACI/MC: 4.35V VREG, Options AC, 8LD DFN Package MCP73832T-3ACI/MC: Tape and Reel, 4.35V VREG, Options AC, 8LD DFN Package MCP73831-4ADI/OT: 4.40V VREG, Options AD, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73831T-4ADI/OT: Tape and Reel, 4.40V VREG, Options AD, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73832-4ADI/MC: 4.40V VREG, Options AD, 8LD DFN Package MCP73832T-4ADI/MC: Tape and Reel, 4.40V VREG, Options AD, 8LD DFN Package MCP73831-5ACI/OT: 4.50V VREG, Options AC, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73831T-5ACI/OT: Tape and Reel, 4.50V VREG, Options AC, 5LD SOT23 Pkg MCP73832-5ACI/MC: 4.50V VREG, Options AC, 8LD DFN Package MCP73832T-5ACI/MC: Tape and Reel, 4.50V VREG, Options AC, 8LD DFN Package * Consult Factory for Alternate Device Options © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21984E-page 21 MCP73831/2 NOTES: DS21984E-page 22 © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, Accuron, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, rfPIC, SmartShunt and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Linear Active Thermistor, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL, SmartSensor and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICtail, PIC32 logo, PowerCal, PowerInfo, PowerMate, PowerTool, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2008, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. © 2008 Microchip Technology Inc. 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