MICROCHIP PIC16F527_12

PIC16F527
20-Pin, 8-Bit Flash Microcontroller
Processor Features:
Microcontroller Features:
• Interrupt Capability
• PIC16F527 Operating Speed:
- DC – 20 MHz Crystal oscillator
- DC – 200 ns Instruction cycle
• Flash Program Memory:
- 1024 x 12 user execution memory
- 64 x 8 self-writable data memory
- 10K minimum erase/write cycles
• General Purpose Registers (SRAM):
- 68 x 8 for PIC16F527
• Only 36 Single-Word Instructions to Learn:
- Added RETURN and RETFIE instructions
- Added MOVLB instruction
• All Instructions are Single-Cycle except for
Program Branches which are Two-Cycle
• Four-Level Deep Hardware Stack
• Direct, Indirect and Relative Addressing modes
for Data and Instructions
•
•
•
•
Peripheral Features:
CMOS Technology:
• Device Features:
- 1 Input-only pin
- 17 I/Os
- Individual direction control
- High-current source/sink
• 8-Bit Real-Time Clock/Counter (TMR0) with 8-Bit
Programmable Prescaler
• In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™) via Two
External Pin Connections
• Analog Comparator (CMP):
- Two analog comparators
- Absolute and programmable references
• Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC):
- 8-bit resolution
- 8 external input channels
- 1 internal channel to convert comparator
- 0.6V reference input
• Operational Amplifiers (op amps):
- 2 operational amplifiers
- Fully-accessible visibility
• Low-Power, High-Speed CMOS Flash
Technology
• Fully-Static Design
• Wide Operating Voltage and Temperature Range:
- Industrial: 2.0V to 5.5V
- Extended: 2.0V to 5.5V
• Operating Current:
- 170 uA @ 2V, 4 MHz, typical – 15 uA @ 2V,
32 kHz, typical
• Standby Current:
- 100 nA @ 2V, typical
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
•
•
•
•
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Power-on Reset (POR)
Device Reset Timer (DRT)
Watchdog Timer (WDT) with a Dedicated RC
Oscillator
Programmable Code Protection (CP)
Power-Saving Sleep mode with Wake-up on
Change Feature
Selectable Oscillator Options:
- INTOSC: Precision 4 or 8 MHz internal
oscillator
- EXTRC: Low-cost external RC oscillator
- LP: Power-saving, low-frequency crystal
- XT: Standard crystal/resonator
- HS: High-speed crystal/resonator
- EC: High-speed external clock
Variety of Packaging Options:
- 20-Lead PDIP, SOIC, SSOP, QFN
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 1
PIC16F527
Program
Memory
Data Memory
Device
I/O
Flash (words) SRAM (bytes)
PIC16F527
1024
FIGURE 1:
Comparators Timers 8-bit
Flash
(bytes)
68
64
18
2
1
8-bit A/D
Channels
Op Amps
8
2
20-PIN PDIP, SOIC, SSOP DIAGRAM FOR PIC16F527
20-pin PDIP, SSOP, SOIC
FIGURE 2:
1
2
RA4
3
RA3/MCLR/VPP
RC5
4
5
RC4
6
RC3
7
RC6
8
13
RC7
RB7
9
12
11
PIC16F527
VDD
RA5
20
19
VSS
18
17
RA1/ICSPCLK
RA2
RC0
16
15
14
10
RA0/ICSPDAT
RC1
RC2
RB4
RB5
RB6
20-PIN QFN DIAGRAM FOR PIC16F527
DS41652A-page 2
VSS
RA0/ICSPDAT
17
16
VDD
18
8
9
10
12
11
RB5
RB4
RC6
PIC16F527 13
RB6
RC3
RA4
RA5
3
4
5
7
RC4
15
14
6
2
RB7
1
RC5
RC7
RA3/MCLR/VPP
20
19
20-pin QFN
Preliminary
RA1/ICSPCLK
RA2
RC0
RC1
RC2
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
20-PIn PDIP/SOIC/SSOP
20-Pin QFN
Analog
Oscillator
Comparator
Reference
Timers
Op Amp
Clock Reference
ICSP™
Basic
Pull-up
Interrupt-on-Change
20-PIN ALLOCATION TABLE
I/O
TABLE 1:
RA0
19
16
AN0
—
C1IN+
—
—
—
—
ICSPDAT
—
Y
Y
RA1
18
15
AN1
—
C1IN-
CVREF
—
—
—
ICSPCLK
—
Y
Y
RA2
17
14
AN2
—
C1OUT
—
T0CKI
—
—
—
—
—
—
RA3
4
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
MCLR
VPP
Y
Y
RA4
3
20
AN3
OSC2
—
—
—
—
CLKOUT
—
—
Y
Y
RA5
2
19
—
OSC1
—
—
—
—
CLKIN
—
—
—
—
RB4
13
10
—
—
—
—
—
OP2-
—
—
—
—
—
RB5
12
9
—
—
—
—
—
OP2+
—
—
—
—
—
RB6
11
8
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
RB7
10
7
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
RC0
16
13
AN4
—
C2IN+
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
RC1
15
12
AN5
—
C2IN-
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
RC2
14
11
AN6
—
—
—
—
OP2
—
—
—
—
—
RC3
7
4
AN7
—
—
—
—
OP1
—
—
—
—
—
RC4
6
3
—
—
C2OUT
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
RC5
5
2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
RC6
8
5
—
—
—
—
—
OP1-
—
—
—
—
—
RC7
9
6
—
—
—
—
—
OP1+
—
—
—
—
—
VDD
1
18
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
VSS
20
17
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 3
PIC16F527
Table of Contents
1.0 General Description..................................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.0 PIC16F527 Device Varieties .................................................................................... .................................................................. 7
3.0 Architectural Overview ................................................................................................................................................................ 9
4.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................ 15
5.0 Flash Data Memory Control ...................................................................................................................................................... 25
6.0 I/O Port ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
7.0 Timer0 Module and TMR0 Register .......................................................................................................................................... 35
8.0 Special Features of the CPU ..................................................................................................................................................... 41
9.0 Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter.............................................................................................................................................. 59
10.0 Comparator(s) ........................................................................................................................................................................... 63
11.0 Comparator Voltage Reference Module .................................................................................................................................... 69
12.0 Operational Amplifier (OPA) Module ......................................................................................................................................... 71
13.0 Instruction Set Summary ........................................................................................................................................................... 73
14.0 Development Support................................................................................................................................................................ 81
15.0 Electrical Characteristics ........................................................................................................................................................... 85
16.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Charts ........................................................................................................................ 99
17.0 Packaging Information............................................................................................................................................................. 101
Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 113
The Microchip Web Site .................................................................................................................................................................... 115
Customer Change Notification Service ............................................................................................................................................. 115
Customer Support ............................................................................................................................................................................. 115
Reader Response ............................................................................................................................................................................. 116
Product Identification System............................................................................................................................................................ 117
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To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please check with one of the following:
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When contacting a sales office, please specify which device, revision of silicon and data sheet (include literature number) you are
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DS41652A-page 4
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
1.0
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
1.1
The PIC16F527 device from Microchip Technology is a
low-cost, high-performance, 8-bit, fully-static, Flashbased CMOS microcontroller. It employs a RISC
architecture with only 36 single-word/single-cycle
instructions. All instructions are single cycle except for
program branches, which take two cycles. The
PIC16F527 device delivers performance an order of
magnitude higher than its competitors in the same price
category. The 12-bit wide instructions are highly
symmetrical, resulting in a typical 2:1 code
compression over other 8-bit microcontrollers in its
class. The easy-to-use and easy to remember
instruction set reduces development time significantly.
The PIC16F527 product is equipped with special
features that reduce system cost and power
requirements. The Power-on Reset (POR) and Device
Reset Timer (DRT) eliminate the need for external
Reset circuitry. There are several oscillator
configurations to choose from, including INTRC
Internal Oscillator mode and the power-saving LP
(Low-Power) Oscillator mode. Power-Saving Sleep
mode, Watchdog Timer and code protection features
improve system cost, power and reliability.
Applications
The PIC16F527 device fits in applications ranging from
personal care appliances and security systems to lowpower remote transmitters/receivers. The Flash
technology makes customizing application programs
(transmitter codes, appliance settings, receiver
frequencies, etc.) extremely fast and convenient. The
small footprint packages, for through hole or surface
mounting, make these microcontrollers perfect for
applications with space limitations. Low cost, low
power, high performance, ease of use and I/O flexibility
make the PIC16F527 device very versatile, even in
areas where no microcontroller use has been
considered before (e.g., timer functions, logic and
PLDs in larger systems and coprocessor applications).
The PIC16F527 device is available in the cost-effective
Flash programmable version, which is suitable for
production in any volume. The customer can take full
advantage of Microchip’s price leadership in Flash
programmable microcontrollers, while benefiting from
the Flash programmable flexibility.
The PIC16F527 product is supported by a full-featured
macro assembler, a software simulator, an in-circuit
emulator, a ‘C’ compiler, a low-cost development
programmer and a full-featured programmer. All the
tools are supported on IBM® PC and compatible
machines.
TABLE 1-1:
FEATURES AND MEMORY OF PIC16F527
PIC16F527
Clock
Maximum Frequency of Operation (MHz)
Memory
Flash Program Memory
Peripherals
Features
20
1024
SRAM Data Memory (bytes)
68
Flash Data Memory (bytes)
64
Timer Module(s)
TMR0
Wake-up from Sleep on Pin Change
Yes
I/O Pins
17
Input Pins
1
Internal Pull-ups
Yes
In-Circuit Serial ProgrammingTM
Yes
Number of Instructions
36
Packages
20-pin PDIP, SOIC, SSOP, QFN
The PIC16F527 device has Power-on Reset, selectable Watchdog Timer, selectable code-protect, high I/O current capability
and precision internal oscillator.
The PIC16F527 device uses serial programming with the ICSPDAT data pin and the ICSPCLK clock pin.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 5
PIC16F527
NOTES:
DS41652A-page 6
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
2.0
PIC16F527 DEVICE VARIETIES
A variety of packaging options are available.
Depending
on
application
and
production
requirements, the proper device option can be selected
using the information in this section. When placing
orders, please use the PIC16F527 Product
Identification System at the back of this data sheet to
specify the correct part number.
2.1
Quick Turn Programming (QTP)
Devices
2.2
Serialized Quick Turn
ProgrammingSM (SQTPSM) Devices
Microchip offers a unique programming service, where
a few user-defined locations in each device are
programmed with different serial numbers. The serial
numbers may be random, pseudo-random or
sequential.
Serial programming allows each device to have a
unique number, which can serve as an entry code,
password or ID number.
Microchip offers a QTP programming service for
factory production orders. This service is made
available for users who choose not to program
medium-to-high quantity units and whose code
patterns have stabilized. The devices are identical to
the Flash devices but with all Flash locations and fuse
options already programmed by the factory. Certain
code and prototype verification procedures do apply
before production shipments are available. Please
contact your local Microchip Technology sales office for
more details.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 7
PIC16F527
NOTES:
DS41652A-page 8
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
3.0
ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEW
The high performance of the PIC16F527 device can
be attributed to a number of architectural features
commonly found in RISC microprocessors. To begin
with, the PIC16F527 device uses a Harvard
architecture in which program and data are accessed
on separate buses. This improves bandwidth over
traditional von Neumann architectures where program
and data are fetched on the same bus. Separating
program and data memory further allows instructions
to be sized differently than the 8-bit wide data word.
Instruction opcodes are 12 bits wide, making it
possible to have all single-word instructions. A 12-bit
wide program memory access bus fetches a 12-bit
instruction in a single cycle. A two-stage pipeline
overlaps fetch and execution of instructions.
Consequently, all instructions execute in a single
cycle (200 ns @ 20 MHz, 1 s @ 4 MHz) except for
program branches.
The PIC16F527 device contains an 8-bit ALU and
working register. The ALU is a general purpose arithmetic unit. It performs arithmetic and Boolean functions
between data in the working register and any register
file.
The ALU is eight bits wide and capable of addition, subtraction, shift and logical operations. Unless otherwise
mentioned, arithmetic operations are two’s complement in nature. In two-operand instructions, one
operand is typically the W (working) register. The other
operand is either a file register or an immediate
constant. In single operand instructions, the operand is
either the W register or a file register.
The W register is an 8-bit working register used for ALU
operations. It is not an addressable register.
Table 3-1 below lists memory supported by the
PIC16F527 device.
Depending on the instruction executed, the ALU may
affect the values of the Carry (C), Digit Carry (DC) and
Zero (Z) bits in the STATUS register. The C and DC bits
operate as a borrow and digit borrow out bit,
respectively, in subtraction. See the SUBWF and ADDWF
instructions for examples.
TABLE 3-1:
A simplified block diagram is shown in Figure 3-2, with
the corresponding device pins described in Table 3-2.
PIC16F527 MEMORY
Program
Memory
Data Memory
Device
PIC16F527
Flash
(words)
SRAM
(bytes)
Flash
(bytes)
1024
68
64
The PIC16F527 device can directly or indirectly
address its register files and data memory. All Special
Function Registers (SFR), including the PC, are
mapped in the data memory. The PIC16F527 device
has a highly orthogonal (symmetrical) instruction set
that makes it possible to carry out any operation, on
any register, using any Addressing mode. This symmetrical nature and lack of “special optimal situations”
make programming with the PIC16F527 device simple,
yet efficient. In addition, the learning curve is reduced
significantly.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 9
PIC16F527
FIGURE 3-1:
PIC16F527 BLOCK DIAGRAM
11
Flash
1K x 12
Self-write
64x8
Program
Bus
STACK2
STACK3
12
STACK4
RAM Addr
RA0/ICSPDAT
RA1/ICSPCLK
RA2
RA3/MCLR/VPP
RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT
RA5/OSC1/CLKIN
9
PORTB
Addr MUX
Instruction reg
0-4
Direct Addr
3
PORTA
RAM
68
bytes
File
Registers
STACK1
Program
Memory
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
Direct Addr
BSR
0-7
5-7
RB4
RB5
RB6
RB7
Indirect
Addr
FSR reg
PORTC
STATUS reg
8
3
Brown-out
Reset
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Device Reset
Timer
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
MUX
ALU
Power-on
Reset
Timing
Generation
RC0
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RC5
RC6
RC7
8
OPAMP1 & OPAMP2
W reg
Watchdog
Timer
Internal RC
Clock
OP1
OP1OP1+
OP2
OP2OP2+
Timer0
MCLR
Comparator 1
VDD, VSS
T0CKI
VREF
C2IN+
AN0
Comparator 2
AN1
AN2
AN3
C1IN+
C1INC1OUT
8-bit ADC
AN4
CVREF
CVREF
AN5
C2INC2OUT
CVREF
AN6
AN7
VREF
DS41652A-page 10
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
TABLE 3-2:
PIC16F527 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Name
Function
Input Type
Output Type
RA0/AN0/C1IN+/ICSPDAT
RA0
TTL
CMOS
ICSPDAT
ST
CMOS
C1IN+
AN
—
Comparator 1 input.
AN0
AN
—
ADC channel input.
RA1
TTL
CMOS
RA1/AN1/C1IN-/CVREF/
ICSPCLK
Description
Bidirectional I/O pin. It can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up and
wake-up from Sleep on pin change.
ICSP™ mode Schmitt Trigger.
Bidirectional I/O pin. It can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up and
wake-up from Sleep on pin change.
ICSPCLK
ST
—
ICSP™ mode Schmitt Trigger.
C1IN-
AN
—
Comparator 1 input.
CVREF
—
AN
Programmable Voltage Reference output.
AN1
AN
—
RA2
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port.
C1OUT
—
CMOS
Comparator 1 output.
AN2
AN
—
RA2/AN2/C1OUT/T0CKI
ADC channel input.
ADC channel input.
T0CKI
ST
—
Timer0 Schmitt Trigger input pin.
RA3
TTL
—
Standard TTL input with weak pull-up.
MCLR
ST
—
Master Clear (Reset). When configured as
MCLR, this pin is an active-low Reset to the
device. Voltage on MCLR/VPP must not
exceed VDD during normal device operation or
the device will enter Programming mode.
Weak pull-up is always on if configured as
MCLR.
VPP
HV
—
Test mode high-voltage pin.
RA4
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O pin. It can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up and
wake-up from Sleep on pin change.
OSC2
—
XTAL
Oscillator crystal output. Connections to crystal
or resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode (XT, HS
and LP modes only, PORTB in other modes).
CLKOUT
—
CMOS
EXTRC/INTRC CLKOUT pin (FOSC/4).
AN3
AN
—
RA3/MCLR/VPP
RA4/AN3/OSC2/CLKOUT
RA5/OSC1/CLKIN
ADC channel input.
RA5
TTL
CMOS
OSC1
XTAL
—
XTAL oscillator input pin.
CLKIN
ST
—
EXTRC Schmitt Trigger input.
RB4
TTL
CMOS
RB4/OP2RB5/OP2+
OP2-
AN
—
RB5
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port.
Bidirectional I/O port.
Op amp 2 inverting input.
Bidirectional I/O port.
OP2+
AN
—
RB6
TTL
CMOS
RB7
RB7
TTL
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port.
RC0/AN4/C2IN+
RC0
ST
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port.
RB6
Legend:
Op amp 2 non-inverting input.
Bidirectional I/O port.
AN4
AN
—
ADC channel input.
C2IN+
AN
—
Comparator 2 input.
I = Input, O = Output, I/O = Input/Output, P = Power, — = Not Used, TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input,
HV = High Voltage, AN = Analog Voltage
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 11
PIC16F527
TABLE 3-2:
Name
RC1/AN5/C2IN-
RC2/AN6/OP2
RC3/AN7/OP1
RC4/C2OUT
PIC16F527 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Function
Input Type
Output Type
Description
RC1
ST
CMOS
AN5
AN
—
ADC channel input.
C2IN-
AN
—
Comparator 2 input.
RC2
ST
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port.
AN6
AN
—
ADC channel input.
OP2
—
AN
Op amp 2 output.
RC3
ST
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port.
Bidirectional I/O port.
AN7
AN
—
ADC channel input.
OP1
—
AN
Op amp 1 output.
RC4
ST
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port.
C2OUT
—
CMOS
Comparator 2 output.
RC5
RC5
ST
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port.
RC6/OP1-
RC6
ST
CMOS
Bidirectional I/O port.
OP1-
AN
—
RC7
ST
CMOS
OP1+
AN
—
Op amp 1 non-inverting input.
VDD
—
P
Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
VSS
—
P
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
RC7/OP1+
VDD
VSS
Legend:
Op amp 1 inverting input.
Bidirectional I/O port.
I = Input, O = Output, I/O = Input/Output, P = Power, — = Not Used, TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input,
HV = High Voltage, AN = Analog Voltage
DS41652A-page 12
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
3.1
Clocking Scheme/Instruction
Cycle
3.2
Instruction Flow/Pipelining
An instruction cycle consists of four Q cycles (Q1, Q2,
Q3 and Q4). The instruction fetch and execute are
pipelined such that fetch takes one instruction cycle,
while decode and execute take another instruction
cycle. However, due to the pipelining, each instruction
effectively executes in one cycle. If an instruction
causes the PC to change (e.g., GOTO or an interrupt),
then two cycles are required to complete the instruction
(Example 3-1).
The clock input (OSC1/CLKIN pin) is internally divided
by four to generate four non-overlapping quadrature
clocks, namely Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4. Internally, the PC
is incremented every Q1 and the instruction is fetched
from program memory and latched into the instruction
register in Q4. It is decoded and executed during the
following Q1 through Q4. The clocks and instruction
execution flow is shown in Figure 3-2 and Example 3-1.
A fetch cycle begins with the PC incrementing in Q1.
In the execution cycle, the fetched instruction is latched
into the Instruction Register (IR) in cycle Q1. This
instruction is then decoded and executed during the
Q2, Q3 and Q4 cycles. Data memory is read during Q2
(operand read) and written during Q4 (destination
write).
FIGURE 3-2:
CLOCK/INSTRUCTION CYCLE
Q2
Q1
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
OSC1
Q1
Q2
Internal
Phase
Clock
Q3
Q4
PC
PC
PC + 1
Fetch INST (PC)
Execute INST (PC – 1)
EXAMPLE 3-1:
PC + 2
Fetch INST (PC + 1)
Execute INST (PC)
Fetch INST (PC + 2)
Execute INST (PC + 1)
INSTRUCTION PIPELINE FLOW
1. MOVLW 03H
2. MOVWF PORTB
3. CALL SUB_1
Fetch 1
Execute 1
Fetch 2
Execute 2
Fetch 3
Execute 3
Fetch 4
4. BSF PORTB, BIT1
Flush
Fetch SUB_1 Execute SUB_1
All instructions are single cycle, except for any program branches. These take two cycles, since the fetch instruction
is “flushed” from the pipeline, while the new instruction is being fetched and then executed.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 13
PIC16F527
NOTES:
DS41652A-page 14
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
FIGURE 4-1:
4.1
Program Memory Organization for
PIC16F527
The PIC16F527 device has an 11-bit Program Counter
(PC) capable of addressing a 2K x 12 program memory
space. Program memory is partitioned into user memory,
data memory and configuration memory spaces.
The user memory space is the on-chip user program
memory. As shown in Figure 4-1, it extends from 0x000
to 0x3FF and partitions into pages, including an
Interrupt vector at address 0x004 and a Reset vector at
address 0x3FF.
MEMORY MAP
000h
User Memory
Space
Interrupt Vector
Data Memory
Space
The PIC16F527 memories are organized into program
memory and data memory (SRAM).The self-writable
portion of the program memory called self-writable
Flash data memory is located at addresses 400h-43Fh.
All program mode commands that work on the normal
Flash memory, work on the Flash data memory. This
includes bulk erase, row/column/cycling toggles, Load
and Read data commands (Refer to Section 5.0
“Flash Data Memory Control” for more details). For
devices with more than 512 bytes of program memory,
a paging scheme is used. Program memory pages are
accessed using one STATUS register bit. For the
PIC16F527, with data memory register files of more
than 32 registers, a banking scheme is used. Data
memory banks are accessed using the File Select
Register (FSR).
On-chip User
Program
Memory (Page 0)
On-chip User
Program
Memory (Page 1)
Reset Vector
Self-writable
Flash Data Memory
User ID Locations
Backup OSCCAL
Locations
Configuration Memory
Space
4.0
004h
005h
1FFh
200h
3FEh
3FFh
400h
43Fh
440h
443h
444h
447h
448h
Reserved
49Fh
4A0h
Unimplemented
7FEh
Configuration Word
7FFh
The data memory space is the self-writable Flash data
memory block and is located at addresses PC = 400h43Fh. All program mode commands that work on the
normal Flash memory, work on the Flash data memory
block. This includes bulk erase, Load and Read data
commands.
The configuration memory space extends from 0x440
to 0x7FF. Locations from 0x448 through 0x49F are
reserved. The user ID locations extend from 0x440
through 0x443. The Backup OSCCAL locations extend
from 0x444 through 0x447. The Configuration Word is
physically located at 0x7FF.
Refer to “PIC16F527 Memory Programming
Specification” (DS41640) for more details.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 15
PIC16F527
4.2
4.2.1
Data Memory (SRAM and FSRs)
Data memory is composed of registers or bytes of
SRAM. Therefore, data memory for a device is
specified by its register file. The register file is divided
into two functional groups: Special Function Registers
(SFR) and General Purpose Registers (GPR).
The General Purpose Register file is accessed directly
or indirectly. See Section 4.8 “Direct and Indirect
Addressing”.
4.2.2
The Special Function Registers are registers used by
the CPU and peripheral functions for controlling
desired operations of the PIC16F527. See Section 4.3
“STATUS Register” for details.
The Special Function Registers can be classified into
two sets. The Special Function Registers associated
with the “core” functions are described in this section.
Those related to the operation of the peripheral
features are described in the section for each
peripheral feature.
PIC16F527 REGISTER FILE MAP
BSR<1:0>
00
01
10
20h
File Address
40h
11
60h
00h
INDF(1)
INDF(1)
INDF(1)
01h
TMR0
EECON
TMR0
IW
02h
PCL
PCL
PCL
PCL
03h
STATUS
STATUS
STATUS
STATUS
INDF(1)
04h
FSR
FSR
FSR
FSR
05h
OSCCAL
EEDATA
OSCCAL
INTCON1
06h
PORTA
EEADR
PORTA
ISTATUS
07h
PORTB
CM1CON0
PORTB
IFSR
08h
PORTC
CM2CON0
PORTC
IBSR
09h
ADCON0
VRCON
ADCON0
OPACON
0Ah
ADRES
INTCON0
ANSEL
INTCON0
ADRES
INTCON0
4Ch
ANSEL
INTCON0
0Bh
2Ch
0Ch
General
Purpose
Registers
10h
4Fh
30h
General
Purpose
Registers
1Fh
6Fh
50h
General
Purpose
Registers
3Fh
Bank 0
6Ch
Addresses map back to
addresses in Bank 0.
2Fh
0Fh
Note 1:
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
The Special Function Registers (SFRs) are registers
used by the CPU and peripheral functions to control the
operation of the device (Section 4.3 “STATUS Register”).
The PIC16F527 register file is composed of 16 Special
Function Registers and 67 General Purpose Registers.
FIGURE 4-2:
GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER
FILE
70h
General
Purpose
Registers
5Fh
Bank 1
General
Purpose
Registers
7Fh
Bank 2
Bank 3
Not a physical register. See Section 4.8 “Direct and Indirect Addressing”.
DS41652A-page 16
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
TABLE 4-1:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR/BOR
Value on all
other Resets
Bank 0
N/A
W(2)
Working Register (W)
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
N/A
TRIS
I/O Control Registers (TRISA, TRISB, TRISC)
1111 1111
1111 1111
N/A
OPTION
Contains control bits to configure Timer0 and Timer0/WDT prescaler
1111 1111
1111 1111
N/A
BSR(2)
---- -000
---- -0uu
—
—
—
—
—
BSR2
BSR1
BSR0
00h
INDF
Uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
01h
TMR0
Timer0 module Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
02h
PCL(1)
Low-order eight bits of PC
1111 1111
1111 1111
-001 1xxx
-00q qqqq
(2)
03h
STATUS
04h
FSR(2)
05h
OSCCAL
Reserved
—
CAL6
Reserved
PA0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
CAL5
0xxx xxxx
0uuu uuuu
CAL4
CAL3
CAL2
CAL1
CAL0
—
1111 111-
uuuu uuu-
06h
PORTA
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
--xx xxxx
--uu uuuu
07h
PORTB
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
—
—
—
—
xxxx ----
uuuu ----
08h
PORTC
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
09h
ADCON0
ADCS1
ADCS0
CHS3
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
ADON
1111 1100
1111 1100
0Ah
ADRES
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
RAIF
—
—
—
0000 ---0
0000 ---0
0Bh
INTCON0
ADC Conversion Result
ADIF
CWIF
T0IF
GIE
Bank 1
N/A
W(2)
Working Register (W)
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
N/A
TRIS
I/O Control Registers (TRISA, TRISB, TRISC)
1111 1111
1111 1111
N/A
OPTION
Contains control bits to configure Timer0 and Timer0/WDT prescaler
1111 1111
1111 1111
N/A
BSR(2)
---- -000
---- -0uu
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
---0 0000
---0 0000
20h
INDF
21h
EECON
22h
PCL(1)
23h
STATUS(2)
24h
FSR(2)
25h
EEDATA
26h
EEADR
—
—
—
—
—
BSR2
BSR1
BSR0
WR
RD
Uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
—
—
—
FREE
WRERR
WREN
Low-order eight bits of PC
Reserved
—
Reserved
PA0
PD
TO
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
Self Read/Write Data
—
—
Self Read/Write Address
1111 1111
1111 1111
-001 1xxx
-00q qqqq
0xxx xxxx
0uuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
--xx xxxx
--uu uuuu
27h
CM1CON0
C1OUT
C1OUTEN
C1POL
C1T0CS
C1ON
C1NREF
C1PREF
C1WU
1111 1111
quuu uuuu
28h
CM2CON0
C2OUT
C2OUTEN
C2POL
C2PREF2
C2ON
C2NREF
C2PREF1
C2WU
1111 1111
quuu uuuu
29h
VRCON
VREN
VROE
VRR
—
VR3
VR2
VR1
VR0
001- 1111
uuu- uuuu
2Ah
ANSEL
ANS7
ANS6
ANS5
ANS4
ANS3
ANS2
ANS1
ANS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
RAIF
—
—
—
GIE
0000 ---0
0000 ---0
2Bh
INTCON0
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
ADIF
CWIF
T0IF
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented, read as '0' (if applicable), q = value depends on condition.
Shaded cells = unimplemented or unused
The upper byte of the Program Counter is not directly accessible. See Section 4.6 “Program Counter” for an explanation of how to access
these bits.
Registers are implemented as two physical registers. When executing from within an ISR, a secondary register is used at the same logical
location. Both registers are persistent. See Section 8.11 “Interrupts”.
These registers show the contents of the registers in the other context: ISR or main line code. See Section 8.11 “Interrupts”.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 17
PIC16F527
TABLE 4-1:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR/BOR
Value on all
other Resets
Bank 2
N/A
W(2)
Working Register (W)
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
N/A
TRIS
I/O Control Registers (TRISA, TRISB, TRISC)
1111 1111
1111 1111
N/A
OPTION
Contains control bits to configure Timer0 and Timer0/WDT prescaler
1111 1111
1111 1111
N/A
BSR(2)
---- -000
---- -0uu
—
—
—
—
—
BSR2
BSR1
BSR0
40h
INDF
Uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
41h
TMR0
Timer0 module Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
42h
PCL(1)
Low-order eight bits of PC
1111 1111
1111 1111
(2)
Reserved
Reserved
PA0
TO
PD
Z
DC
43h
STATUS
44h
FSR(2)
45h
OSCCAL
46h
PORTA
47h
PORTB
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
—
—
48h
PORTC
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
49h
ADCON0
ADCS1
ADCS0
CHS3
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
4Ah
ADRES
RAIF
—
—
—
4Bh
INTCON0
—
C
Indirect data memory address pointer
-001 1xxx
-00q qqqq
0xxx xxxx
0uuu uuuu
CAL6
CAL5
CAL4
CAL3
CAL2
CAL1
CAL0
—
1111 111-
uuuu uuu-
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
--xx xxxx
--uu uuuu
—
—
xxxx ----
uuuu ----
RC1
RC0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
ADON
1111 1100
1111 1100
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
0000 ---0
0000 ---0
ADC Conversion Result
ADIF
CWIF
T0IF
GIE
Bank 3
N/A
W(2)
Working Register (W)
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
N/A
TRIS
I/O Control Registers (TRISA, TRISB, TRISC)
1111 1111
1111 1111
N/A
OPTION
Contains control bits to configure Timer0 and Timer0/WDT prescaler
1111 1111
1111 1111
N/A
BSR(2)
---- -000
---- -0uu
—
—
—
—
—
BSR2
BSR1
BSR0
60h
INDF
Uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
61h
IW(3)
Interrupt Working Register. (Addressed also as W register when within ISR)
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
62h
PCL(1)
Low-order eight bits of PC
1111 1111
1111 1111
63h
STATUS(2)
-001 1xxx
-00q qqqq
64h
FSR(2)
0xxx xxxx
0uuu uuuu
Reserved
—
Reserved
PA0
—
—
C
ADIE
CWIE
T0IE
RAIE
WUR
0000 ---0
0000 ---0
Reserved
PA0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
-xxx xxxx
-00q qqqq
0xxx xxxx
0uuu uuuu
—
—
BSR2
BSR1
BSR0
---- -0xx
---- -0uu
—
—
—
—
OPA2ON
OPA1ON
---- --00
---- --00
T0IF
RAIF
—
—
—
GIE
0000 ---0
0000 ---0
67h
IFSR(3)
—
68h
IBSR(3)
—
—
—
69h
OPACON
—
—
6Bh
INTCON0
ADIF
CWIF
3:
DC
Reserved
INTCON1
ISTATUS(3)
2:
Z
—
66h
Note 1:
PD
Indirect data memory address pointer
65h
Legend:
TO
Indirect data memory address pointer
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented, read as '0' (if applicable), q = value depends on condition.
Shaded cells = unimplemented or unused
The upper byte of the Program Counter is not directly accessible. See Section 4.6 “Program Counter” for an explanation of how to access
these bits.
Registers are implemented as two physical registers. When executing from within an ISR, a secondary register is used at the same logical
location. Both registers are persistent. See Section 8.11 “Interrupts”.
These registers show the contents of the registers in the other context: ISR or main line code. See Section 8.11 “Interrupts”.
DS41652A-page 18
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
4.3
STATUS Register
This register contains the arithmetic status of the ALU,
the Reset status and the page preselect bit.
The STATUS register can be the destination for any
instruction, as with any other register. If the STATUS
register is the destination for an instruction that affects
the Z, DC or C bits, then the write to these three bits is
disabled. These bits are set or cleared according to the
device logic. Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are not
writable. Therefore, the result of an instruction with the
STATUS register as destination may be different than
intended.
REGISTER 4-1:
For example, CLRF STATUS, will clear the upper three
bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the STATUS register
as 000u u1uu (where u = unchanged).
Therefore, it is recommended that only BCF, BSF and
MOVWF instructions be used to alter the STATUS
register. These instructions do not affect the Z, DC or C
bits from the STATUS register. For other instructions
which do affect Status bits, see Section 13.0
“Instruction Set Summary”.
STATUS: STATUS REGISTER
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R-1
R-1
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
Reserved
Reserved
PA0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-6
Reserved: Read as ‘0’
bit 5
PA0: Program Page Preselect bit
1 = Page 1 (000h-1FFh)
0 = Page 0 (200h-3FFh)
bit 4
TO: Time-Out bit
1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction, or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time-out occurred
bit 3
PD: Power-Down bit
1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 2
Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero
bit 1
DC: Digit carry/borrow bit (for ADDWF and SUBWF instructions)
ADDWF:
1 = A carry from the 4th low-order bit of the result occurred
0 = A carry from the 4th low-order bit of the result did not occur
SUBWF:
1 = A borrow from the 4th low-order bit of the result did not occur
0 = A borrow from the 4th low-order bit of the result occurred
bit 0
C: Carry/borrow bit (for ADDWF, SUBWF and RRF, RLF instructions)
ADDWF: SUBWF: RRF or RLF:
1 = A carry occurred 1 = A borrow did not occur; Load bit with LSb or MSb, respectively
0 = A carry did not occur 0 = A borrow occurred
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 19
PIC16F527
4.4
OPTION Register
The OPTION register is a 8-bit wide, write-only register,
which contains various control bits to configure the
Timer0/WDT prescaler and Timer0.
Note:
By executing the OPTION instruction, the contents of
the W register will be transferred to the OPTION
register. A Reset sets the OPTION <7:0> bits.
REGISTER 4-2:
If TRIS bit is set to ‘0’, the wake-up on
change and pull-up functions are disabled
for that pin (i.e., note that TRIS overrides
Option control of RAPU and RAWU).
OPTION: OPTION REGISTER
W-1
W-1
W-1
W-1
W-1
W-1
W-1
W-1
RAWU(2)
RAPU
T0CS(1)
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
RAWU: Enable PORTA Interrupt Flag on Pin Change bit(2)
1 = Disabled
0 = Enabled
bit 6
RAPU: Enable PORTA Weak Pull-Ups bit
1 = Disabled
0 = Enabled
bit 5
T0CS: Timer0 Clock Source Select bit(1)
1 = Transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKOUT)
bit 4
T0SE: Timer0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on T0CKI pin
bit 3
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler assigned to Timer0
bit 2-0
PS<2:0>: Prescaler Rate Select bits
Note 1:
2:
Bit Value
Timer0 Rate
WDT Rate
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
1:1
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
x = Bit is unknown
If the T0CS bit is set to ‘1’, it will override the TRIS function on the T0CKI pin.
The RAWU bit of the OPTION register must be set to enable the RAIF function in the INTCON0 register.
DS41652A-page 20
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
4.5
OSCCAL Register
The Oscillator Calibration (OSCCAL) register is used
to calibrate the 8 MHz internal oscillator macro. It
contains seven bits of calibration that uses a two’s
complement scheme for controlling the oscillator speed.
See Register 4-3 for details.
REGISTER 4-3:
OSCCAL: OSCILLATOR CALIBRATION REGISTER
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
U-0
CAL6
CAL5
CAL4
CAL3
CAL2
CAL1
CAL0
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-1
CAL<6:0>: Oscillator Calibration bits
0111111 = Maximum frequency
•
•
•
0000001
0000000 = Center frequency
1111111
•
•
•
1000000 = Minimum frequency
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
x = Bit is unknown
DS41652A-page 21
PIC16F527
4.6
4.6.1
Program Counter
EFFECTS OF RESET
As a program instruction is executed, the Program
Counter (PC) will contain the address of the next
program instruction to be executed. The PC value is
increased by one every instruction cycle, unless an
instruction changes the PC.
The PC is set upon a Reset, which means that the PC
addresses the last location in the last page (i.e., the
oscillator calibration instruction). After executing
MOVLW XX, the PC will roll over to location 00h and
begin executing user code.
For a GOTO instruction, bits <8:0> of the PC are
provided by the GOTO instruction word. The Program
Counter (PCL) is mapped to PC<7:0>. Bit 5 of the
STATUS register provides page information to bit 9 of
the PC (Figure 4-3).
The STATUS register page preselect bits are cleared
upon a Reset, which means that page 0 is pre-selected.
For a CALL instruction, or any instruction where the
PCL is the destination, bits <7:0> of the PC again are
provided by the instruction word. However, PC<8>
does not come from the instruction word, but is always
cleared (Figure 4-3).
Instructions where the PCL is the destination, or modify
PCL instructions, include MOVWF PCL, ADDWF PCL
and BSF PCL,5.
Note:
Because bit 8 of the PC is cleared in the
CALL instruction or any modify PCL
instruction, all subroutine calls or computed jumps are limited to the first 256
locations of any program memory page
(512 words long).
FIGURE 4-3:
LOADING OF PC
BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS
GOTO Instruction
10 9 8 7
PC
0
PCL
Instruction Word
PA0
7
Therefore, upon a Reset, a GOTO instruction will
automatically cause the program to jump to page 0 until
the value of the page bits is altered.
4.7
The PIC16F527 device has a 4-deep, 12-bit wide
hardware PUSH/POP stack.
A CALL instruction or an interrupt will PUSH the current
PC value, incremented by one, into Stack Level 1. If there
was a previous value in the Stack 1 location, it will be
pushed into the Stack 2 location. This process will be
continued throughout the remaining stack locations populated with values. If more than four sequential CALLs
are executed, only the most recent four return addresses
are stored.
A RETLW, RETURN or RETFIE instruction will POP
the contents of Stack Level 1 into the PC. If there was
a previous value in the Stack 2 location, it will be copied
into the Stack Level 1 location. This process will be continued throughout the remaining stack locations populated with values. If more than four sequential RETLWs
are executed, the stack will be filled with the address
previously stored in Stack Level 4. Note that the
W register will be loaded with the literal value specified
in the instruction. This is particularly useful for the
implementation of data look-up tables within the program memory.
Note 1: There are no Status bits to indicate Stack
Overflows or Stack Underflow conditions.
0
2: There are no instruction mnemonics
called PUSH or POP. These are actions
that occur from the execution of the
CALL, RETURN, RETFIE and RETLW
instructions.
Status
CALL or Modify PCL Instruction
10 9 8 7
PC
Stack
0
PCL
7
Instruction Word
Reset to ‘0’
PA0
0
Status
DS41652A-page 22
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
4.8
4.8.1
Direct and Indirect Addressing
DIRECT DATA ADDRESSING: BSR
REGISTER
Traditional data memory addressing is performed in
the Direct Addressing mode. In Direct Addressing, the
Bank Select Register bits BSR<1:0>, in the new BSR
register, are used to select the data memory bank. The
address location within that bank comes directly from
the opcode being executed.
BSR<1:0> are the bank select bits and are used to
select the bank to be addressed (00 = Bank 0, 01 =
Bank 1, 10 = Bank 2, 11 = Bank 3).
A new instruction supports the addition of the BSR
register, called the MOVLB instruction. See
Section 13.0 “Instruction Set Summary” for more
information.
4.8.2
INDIRECT DATA ADDRESSING:
INDF AND FSR REGISTERS
The INDF Register is not a physical register.
Addressing INDF actually addresses the register
whose address is contained in the FSR Register (FSR
is a pointer). This is indirect addressing.
Reading INDF itself indirectly (FSR = 0) will produce
00h. Writing to the INDF Register indirectly results in a
no-operation (although Status bits may be affected).
The FSR is an 8-bit wide register. It is used in
conjunction with the INDF Register to indirectly
address the data memory area.
The FSR<6:0> bits are used to select data memory
addresses 00h to 1Fh.
FSR<7> is unimplemented and read as ‘0’.
A simple program to clear RAM locations 10h-1Fh
using indirect addressing is shown in Example 4-1.
EXAMPLE 4-1:
NEXT
MOVLW
MOVWF
CLRF
INCF
BTFSC
GOTO
CONTINUE
:
:
HOW TO CLEAR RAM
USING INDIRECT
ADDRESSING
0x10
FSR
INDF
FSR,F
FSR,4
NEXT
;initialize pointer
;to RAM
;clear INDF
;register
;inc pointer
;all done?
;NO, clear next
;YES, continue
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 23
PIC16F527
FIGURE 4-4:
(BSR)
1
DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING
Direct Addressing
(opcode)
4
0
bank select
3
2
1
Indirect Addressing
(FSR)
0
6
location select
00
01
10
11
5
4
bank
select
3
2
1
0
location select
00h
Data
Memory(1)
0Bh
0Ch
Addresses map back to
addresses in Bank 0.
0Fh
10h
2Fh
4Fh
6Fh
1Fh
3Fh
5Fh
7Fh
Bank 0
Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3
Note 1:For register map detail see Section 4.3 “STATUS Register”.
DS41652A-page 24
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
5.0
FLASH DATA MEMORY
CONTROL
3.
4.
The Flash data memory is readable and writable during
normal operation (full VDD range). This memory is not
directly mapped in the register file space. Instead, it is
indirectly addressed through the Special Function
Registers (SFRs).
5.1
Reading Flash Data Memory
To read a Flash data memory location the user must:
• Write the EEADR register
• Set the RD bit of the EECON register
The value written to the EEADR register determines
which Flash data memory location is read. Setting the
RD bit of the EECON register initiates the read. Data
from the Flash data memory read is available in the
EEDATA register immediately. The EEDATA register
will hold this value until another read is initiated or it is
modified by a write operation. Program execution is
suspended while the read cycle is in progress.
Execution will continue with the instruction following the
one that sets the WR bit. See Example 1 for sample
code.
EXAMPLE 1:
;
MOVF DATA_EE_ADDR, W
;
MOVWF EEADR
;Data Memory
BANKSEL EECON1
;
;EE Read
MOVF EEDATA, W
;W = EEDATA
Writing and Erasing Flash Data
Memory
Generally, the procedure to write a byte of data to Flash
data memory is:
2.
Identify the row containing the address where
the byte will be written.
If there is other information in that row that must
be saved, copy those bytes from Flash data
memory to RAM.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
A row must be manually erased before writing new
data. The following sequence must be performed for a
single row erase.
1.
Load EEADR with an address in the row to be
erased.
Set the FREE bit to enable the erase.
Set the WREN bit to enable write access to the
array.
Set the WR bit to initiate the erase cycle.
2.
3.
4.
If the WREN bit is not set in the instruction cycle after
the FREE bit is set, the FREE bit will be cleared in
hardware.
EXAMPLE 2:
Flash data memory is erased one row at a time and
written one byte at a time. The 64-byte array is made
up of eight rows. A row contains eight sequential bytes.
Row boundaries exist every eight bytes.
1.
ERASING FLASH DATA MEMORY
Program execution is suspended while the erase cycle
is in progress. Execution will continue with the
instruction following the one that sets the WR bit.
Note: Only a BSF command will work to enable
the Flash data memory read documented in
Example 1. No other sequence of
commands will work, no exceptions.
5.2
5.2.1
Sample code that follows this procedure is included in
Example 2.
;Address to read
BSF EECON, RD
To prevent accidental corruption of the Flash data
memory, an unlock sequence is required to initiate a
write or erase cycle. This sequence requires that the bit
set instructions used to configure the EECON register
happen exactly as shown in Example 2 and Example 3,
depending on the operation requested.
If the WR bit is not set in the instruction cycle after the
WREN bit is set, the WREN bit will be cleared in
hardware.
READING FROM FLASH
DATA MEMORY
BANKSEL EEADR
Perform a row erase of the row of interest.
Write the new byte of data and any saved bytes
back to the appropriate addresses in Flash data
memory.
ERASING A FLASH DATA
MEMORY ROW
BANKSEL
EEADR
MOVLW
EE_ADR_ERASE
; LOAD ADDRESS OF ROW TO
MOVWF
EEADR
;
BSF
EECON,FREE
; SELECT ERASE
BSF
EECON,WREN
; ENABLE WRITES
BSF
EECON,WR
; INITITATE ERASE
; ERASE
Note 1: The FREE bit may be set by any command normally used by the core. However, the WREN and WR bits can only be
set using a series of BSF commands, as
documented in Example 1. No other
sequence of commands will work, no
exceptions.
Preliminary
2: Bits <5:3> of the EEADR register indicate
which row is to be erased.
DS41652A-page 25
PIC16F527
5.2.2
WRITING TO FLASH DATA
MEMORY
5.3
Once a cell is erased, new data can be written.
Program execution is suspended during the write cycle.
The following sequence must be performed for a single
byte write.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Load EEADR with the address.
Load EEDATA with the data to write.
Set the WREN bit to enable write access to the
array.
Set the WR bit to initiate the erase cycle.
If the WR bit is not set in the instruction cycle after the
WREN bit is set, the WREN bit will be cleared in
hardware.
Write Verify
Depending on the application, good programming
practice may dictate that data written to the Flash data
memory be verified. Example 4 is an example of a write
verify.
EXAMPLE 4:
WRITE VERIFY OF FLASH
DATA MEMORY
MOVF
EEDATA, W
;EEDATA has not changed
BSF
EECON, RD
;Read the value written
;from previous write
XORWF
EEDATA, W
;
BTFSS
STATUS, Z
;Is data the same
GOTO
WRITE_ERR
;No, handle error
;Yes, continue
Sample code that follows this procedure is included in
Example 3.
EXAMPLE 3:
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
BSF
WRITING A FLASH DATA
MEMORY ROW
EEADR
EE_ADR_WRITE
EEADR
EE_DATA_TO_WRITE
EEDATA
EECON,WREN
EECON,WR
;
;
;
;
;
;
LOAD ADDRESS
LOAD DATA
INTO EEDATA REGISTER
ENABLE WRITES
INITITATE ERASE
Note 1: Only a series of BSF commands will work
to enable the memory write sequence
documented in Example 2. No other
sequence of commands will work, no
exceptions.
2: For reads, erases and writes to the Flash
data memory, there is no need to insert a
NOP into the user code as is done on midrange
devices.
The
instruction
immediately
following
the
“BSF
EECON,WR/RD” will be fetched and
executed properly.
DS41652A-page 26
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
5.4
Register Definitions — Memory Control
REGISTER 5-1:
EEDATA: FLASH DATA REGISTER
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
EEDATA7
EEDATA6
EEDATA5
EEDATA4
EEDATA3
EEDATA2
EEDATA1
EEDATA0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
x = Bit is unknown
EEDATA<7:0>: Eight bits of data to be read from/written to data Flash
REGISTER 5-2:
EEADR: FLASH ADDRESS REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
—
—
EEADR5
EEADR4
EEADR3
EEADR2
EEADR1
EEADR0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’.
bit 5-0
EEADR<5:0>: Six bits of data to be read from/written to data Flash
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
x = Bit is unknown
DS41652A-page 27
PIC16F527
REGISTER 5-3:
EECON: FLASH CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
—
FREE
WRERR
WREN
WR
RD
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
S = Bit can only be set
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’.
bit 4
FREE: Flash Data Memory Row Erase Enable Bit
1 = Program memory row being pointed to by EEADR will be erased on the next write cycle. No write
will be performed. This bit is cleared at the completion of the erase operation.
0 = Perform write only
bit 3
WRERR: Write Error Flag bit
1 = A write operation terminated prematurely (by device Reset)
0 = Write operation completed successfully
bit 2
WREN: Write Enable bit
1 = Allows write cycle to Flash data memory
0 = Inhibits write cycle to Flash data memory
bit 1
WR: Write Control bit
1 = Initiate a erase or write cycle
0 = Write/Erase cycle is complete
bit 0
RD: Read Control bit
1 = Initiate a read of Flash data memory
0 = Do not read Flash data memory
5.5
Code Protection
Code protection does not prevent the CPU from
performing read or write operations on the Flash data
memory. Refer to the code protection chapter for more
information.
DS41652A-page 28
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
6.0
I/O PORT
6.2
As with any other register, the I/O register(s) can be
written and read under program control. However, read
instructions (e.g., MOVF PORTB,W) always read the I/O
pins independent of the pin’s Input/Output modes. On
Reset, all I/O ports are defined as input (inputs are at highimpedance) since the I/O control registers are all set.
6.1
PORTA
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PORTB is a 4-bit I/O register. Only the high-order four
bits are used (RB<7:4>). Bits 0 through 3 are
unimplemented and read as ‘0’s.
6.3
PORTC
PORTC is a 8-bit I/O register.
6.4
PORTA is a 6-bit I/O register. Only the low-order six
bits are used (RA<5:0>). Bits 7 and 6 are
unimplemented and read as ‘0’s. Please note that RA3
is an input-only pin. The Configuration Word can set
several I/Os to alternate functions. When acting as
alternate functions, the pins will read as ‘0’ during a
port read. Pins RA0, RA1, RA3 and RA4 can be
configured with weak pull-ups and also for wake-up on
change. The wake-up on change and weak pull-up
functions are not pin selectable. If RA3/MCLR is
configured as MCLR, weak pull-up is always on and
wake-up on change for this pin is not enabled.
PORTB
TRIS Register
The Output Driver Control register is loaded with the
contents of the W register by executing the TRIS
instruction. A ‘1’ from a TRIS register bit puts the
corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance
mode. A ‘0’ puts the contents of the output data latch
on the selected pins, enabling the output buffer. The
exceptions are RA3, which is input-only and the T0CKI
pin, which may be controlled by the OPTION register
(see Register 4-2).
TRIS registers are “write-only”. Active bits in these
registers are set (output drivers disabled) upon Reset.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 29
PIC16F527
6.5
FIGURE 6-1:
I/O Interfacing
The equivalent circuit for an I/O port pin is shown in
Figure 6-1. All port pins, except the MCLR pin which is
input-only, may be used for both input and output operations. For input operations, these ports are non-latching. Any input must be present until read by an input
instruction (e.g., MOVF PORTB, W). The outputs are
latched and remain unchanged until the output latch is
rewritten. To use a port pin as output, the corresponding direction control bit in TRIS must be cleared (= 0).
For use as an input, the corresponding TRIS bit must
be set. Any I/O pin (except MCLR) can be programmed
individually as input or output.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF I/O
PIN (Example shown of
RA2 with Weak Pull-up
and Wake-up on change)
RxPU
Data
Bus
D
Q
Data
Latch
WR
Port
I/O Pin(1)
Q
CK
W
Reg
D
Q
TRIS
Latch
TRIS ‘f’
Q
CK
Reset
(2)
ADC pin Ebl
(2)
COMP pin Ebl
RD Port
Q
D
CK
Pin Change
ADC
COMP
Note 1:
2:
DS41652A-page 30
Preliminary
I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and
VSS.
Pin enabled as analog for ADC or comparator.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
6.6
Register Definitions — PORT Control
REGISTER 6-1:
PORTA: PORTA REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-0
RA<5:0>: PORTA I/O Pin bits
1 = Port pin is >VIH min.
0 = Port pin is <VIL max.
TABLE 6-1:
x = Bit is unknown
PORTA PINS ORDER OF PRECEDENCE
Priority
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
1
2
3
4
OSC1
CLKIN
TRISA5
—
OSC2
CLKOUT
AN3
TRISA5
RA3/MCLR
—
—
—
AN2
C1OUT
T0CKI
TRISA2
CVREF
AN1
C1INTRISA1
AN0
C1IN+
TRISA0
—
TABLE 6-2:
WEAK PULL-UP ENABLED PINS
Device
RA1 Weak Pull-up RA3 Weak Pull-up(1)
RA0 Weak Pull-up
PIC16F527
Yes
Yes
RA4 Weak Pull-up
Yes
Yes
Note 1: When MCLREN = 1, the weak pull-up on MCLR is always enabled.
REGISTER 6-2:
PORTB: PORTB REGISTER
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-4
RB<7:4>: PORTB I/O Pin bits
1 = Port pin is >VIH min.
0 = Port pin is <VIL max.
bit 3-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
TABLE 6-3:
x = Bit is unknown
PORTB PINS ORDER OF
PRECEDENCE
Priority
RB7
RB6
1
TRISB7
TRISB6
OP2+
OP2-
2
—
—
TRISB5
TRISB4
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
RB5
RB4
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 31
PIC16F527
REGISTER 6-3:
PORTC: PORTC REGISTER
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
x = Bit is unknown
RC<7:0>: PORTC I/O Pin bits
1 = Port pin is >VIH min.
0 = Port pin is <VIL max.
TABLE 6-4:
PORTC PINS ORDER OF PRECEDENCE
Priority
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
1
2
3
OP1+
TRISC7
—
OP1TRISC6
—
TRISC5
—
—
C2OUT
TRISC4
—
OP1
AN7
TRISC3
OP2
AN6
TRISC2
C2INAN5
TRISC1
C2IN+
AN4
TRISC0
REGISTER 6-4:
ANSEL REGISTER
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
ANS7
ANS6
ANS5
ANS4
ANS3
ANS2
ANS1
ANS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
ANS<7:0>: ADC Analog Input Pin Select(1), (2)
0 = Analog function on selected ANx pin is disabled
1 = ANx configured as an analog input
bit 7-0
Note 1: When the ANSx bits are set, the channels selected will automatically be forced into Analog mode,
regardless of the pin function previously defined. The only exception to this is the comparator, where the
analog input to the comparator and the ADC will be active at the same time. It is the user’s responsibility to
ensure that the ADC loading on the comparator input does not affect their application.
2: The ANS<7:0> bits are active regardless of the condition of ADON.
TABLE 6-5:
Address
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE I/O PORTS
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
Power-On
Reset
1111 1111
1111 1111
RA2
RA1
RA0
--xx xxxx
--uu uuuu
I/O Control Registers (TRISA, TRISB, TRISC)(1)
Value on
MCLR and
WDT Reset
N/A
TRIS(1)
06h
PORTA
07h
PORTB
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
—
—
—
—
xxxx ----
uuuu ----
27h
PORTC
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, Shaded cells = unimplemented, read as ‘0’
Note 1:
TRISA3 is read-only ‘1’, and cannot be set as output.
DS41652A-page 32
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
6.7
EXAMPLE 6-1:
I/O Programming Considerations
6.7.1
BIDIRECTIONAL I/O PORTS
Some instructions operate internally as read followed
by write operations. The BCF and BSF instructions, for
example, read the entire port into the CPU, execute the
bit operation and rewrite the result. Caution must be
used when these instructions are applied to a port
where one or more pins are used as input/outputs. For
example, a BSF operation on bit 5 of PORTB will cause
all eight bits of PORTB to be read into the CPU, bit 5 to
be set and the PORTB value to be written to the output
latches. If another bit of PORTB is used as a bidirectional I/O pin (say bit 0) and it is defined as an input at
this time, the input signal present on the pin itself would
be read into the CPU and rewritten to the data latch of
this particular pin, overwriting the previous content. As
long as the pin stays in the Input mode, no problem
occurs. However, if bit 0 is switched into Output mode
later on, the content of the data latch may now be
unknown.
;Initial PORTB Settings
;PORTB<5:3> Inputs
;PORTB<2:0> Outputs
;
;
PORTB latch PORTB pins
;
-------------------BCF
PORTB, 5
;--01 -ppp--11 pppp
BCF
PORTB, 4
;--10 -ppp--11 pppp
MOVLW
007h
;
TRIS
PORTB
;--10 -ppp--11 pppp
;
Note 1: The user may have expected the pin values to
be ‘--00 pppp’. The 2nd BCF caused RB5 to
be latched as the pin value (High).
6.7.2
A pin actively outputting a high or a low should not be
driven from external devices at the same time in order
to change the level on this pin (“wired OR”, “wired
AND”). The resulting high output currents may damage
the chip.
SUCCESSIVE I/O OPERATION
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
PC
Instruction
Fetched
SUCCESSIVE OPERATIONS ON
I/O PORTS
The actual write to an I/O port happens at the end of an
instruction cycle, whereas for reading, the data must be
valid at the beginning of the instruction cycle (Figure 6-2).
Therefore, care must be exercised if a write followed by a
read operation is carried out on the same I/O port. The
sequence of instructions should allow the pin voltage to
stabilize (load dependent) before the next instruction
causes that file to be read into the CPU. Otherwise, the
previous state of that pin may be read into the CPU rather
than the new state. When in doubt, it is better to separate
these instructions with a NOP or another instruction not
accessing this I/O port.
Example 6-1 shows the effect of two sequential
Read-Modify-Write instructions (e.g., BCF, BSF, etc.)
on an I/O port.
FIGURE 6-2:
READ-MODIFY-WRITE
INSTRUCTIONS ON AN
I/O PORT(e.g. PIC16F527)
MOVWF PORTB
PC + 1
MOVF PORTB, W
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
PC + 2
PC + 3
This example shows a write to PORTB
followed by a read from PORTB.
NOP
NOP
Data setup time = (0.25 TCY – TPD)
where: TCY = instruction cycle.
RB<5:0>
TPD = propagation delay
Port pin
written here
Instruction
Executed
MOVWF PORTB
(Write to PORTB)
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Port pin
sampled here
MOVF PORTB,W
(Read PORTB)
Therefore, at higher clock frequencies, a
write followed by a read may be problematic.
NOP
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 33
PIC16F527
NOTES:
DS41652A-page 34
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
7.0
TIMER0 MODULE AND TMR0
REGISTER
There are two types of Counter mode. The first Counter
mode uses the T0CKI pin to increment Timer0. It is
selected by setting the T0CS bit of the OPTION register, setting the C1T0CS bit of the CM1CON0 register
and setting the C1OUTEN bit of the CM1CON0 register. In this mode, Timer0 will increment either on every
rising or falling edge of pin T0CKI. The T0SE bit of the
OPTION register determines the source edge. Clearing
the T0SE bit selects the rising edge. Restrictions on the
external clock input are discussed in detail in
Section 7.1 “Using Timer0 with an External Clock”.
The Timer0 module has the following features:
•
•
•
•
8-bit timer/counter register, TMR0
Readable and writable
8-bit software programmable prescaler
Internal or external clock select:
- Edge select for external clock
Figure 7-1 is a simplified block diagram of the Timer0
module.
The second Counter mode uses the output of the
comparator to increment Timer0. It can be entered in by
setting the T0CS bit of the OPTION register, and
clearing the C1T0CS bit of the CM1CON0 register
(C1OUTEN [CM1CON0<6>] does not affect this mode
of operation). This enables an internal connection
between the comparator and the Timer0.
Timer mode is selected by clearing the T0CS bit of the
OPTION register. In Timer mode, the Timer0 module
will increment every instruction cycle (without prescaler). If TMR0 register is written, the increment is
inhibited for the following two cycles (Figure 7-2 and
Figure 7-3). The user can work around this by writing
an adjusted value to the TMR0 register.
The prescaler may be used by either the Timer0
module or the Watchdog Timer, but not both. The
prescaler assignment is controlled in software by the
control bit, PSA of the OPTION register. Clearing the
PSA bit will assign the prescaler to Timer0. The prescaler is not readable or writable. When the prescaler is
assigned to the Timer0 module, prescale values of 1:2,
1:4,..., 1:256 are selectable. Section 7.2 “Prescaler”
details the operation of the prescaler.
A summary of registers associated with the Timer0
module is found in Table 7-1.
FIGURE 7-1:
TIMER0 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus
Comparator
Output
FOSC/4
0
PSOUT
0
1
1
1
Programmable
Prescaler(2)
T0SE(1)
T0CKI
pin
T0CS(1)
3
0
8
Sync with
Internal
Clocks
TMR0 Reg
PSOUT
(2 cycle delay) Sync
PSA(1)
PS2(1), PS1(1), PS0(1)
(3)
C1T0CS
Note 1: Bits T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2, PS1 and PS0 are located in the OPTION register.
2: The prescaler is shared with the Watchdog Timer.
3: The C1T0CS bit is in the CM1CON0 register.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 35
PIC16F527
FIGURE 7-2:
PC
(Program
Counter)
TIMER0 TIMING: INTERNAL CLOCK/NO PRESCALE
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
PC – 1
Instruction
Fetch
PC
PC + 1
MOVWF TMR0
T0
Timer0
T0 + 1
T0 + 2
Instruction
Executed
Write TMR0
executed
FIGURE 7-3:
PC
(Program
Counter)
PC + 2
PC + 3
PC + 4
PC + 5
PC + 6
MOVF TMR0,W MOVF TMR0,W MOVF TMR0,W MOVF TMR0,W MOVF TMR0,W
NT0 + 1
NT0
Read TMR0
reads NT0
Read TMR0
reads NT0
Read TMR0
reads NT0
NT0 + 2
Read TMR0
Read TMR0
reads NT0 + 1 reads NT0 + 2
TIMER0 TIMING: INTERNAL CLOCK/PRESCALE 1:2
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
PC – 1
Instruction
Fetch
Timer0
PC
PC + 1
MOVWF TMR0
T0
PC + 2
PC + 4
PC + 5
PC + 6
MOVF TMR0,W MOVF TMR0,W MOVF TMR0,W MOVF TMR0,W MOVF TMR0,W
T0 + 1
Instruction
Executed
NT0
Write TMR0
executed
TABLE 7-1:
PC + 3
Read TMR0
reads NT0
Read TMR0
reads NT0
NT0 + 1
Read TMR0
reads NT0
Read TMR0
Read TMR0
reads NT0 + 1 reads NT0 + 2
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Bit 0
Register
on page
Timer0 module Register
—
CM1CON0
C1OUT
C1OUTEN
C1POL
C1T0CS
C1ON
C1NREF
C1PREF
C1WU
66
CM2CON0
C2OUT
C2OUTEN
C2POL
C2PREF2
C2ON
C2NREF
C2PREF1 C2WU
67
OPTION
RAWU
RAPU
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
Name
TMR0
TRIS
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
(1)
Bit 2
Bit 1
PS1
PS0
I/O Control Registers (TRISA, TRISB, TRISC)
Legend: Shaded cells are not used by Timer0. – = unimplemented, x = unknown, u = unchanged.
Note 1: The TRIS of the T0CKI pin is overridden when T0CS = 1.
DS41652A-page 36
Preliminary
20
—
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
7.1
Using Timer0 with an External
Clock
When an external clock input is used for Timer0, it must
meet certain requirements. The external clock
requirement is due to internal phase clock (TOSC)
synchronization. Also, there is a delay in the actual
incrementing of Timer0 after synchronization.
7.1.1
EXTERNAL CLOCK
SYNCHRONIZATION
When no prescaler is used, the external clock input is
the same as the prescaler output. The synchronization
of T0CKI with the internal phase clocks is accomplished by sampling the prescaler output on the Q2 and
Q4 cycles of the internal phase clocks (Figure 7-4).
Therefore, it is necessary for T0CKI to be high for at
least 2 TOSC (and a small RC delay of 2 Tt0H) and low
for at least 2 TOSC (and a small RC delay of 2 Tt0H).
Refer to the electrical specification of the desired
device.
FIGURE 7-4:
When a prescaler is used, the external clock input is
divided by the asynchronous ripple counter-type
prescaler, so that the prescaler output is symmetrical.
For the external clock to meet the sampling requirement, the ripple counter must be taken into account.
Therefore, it is necessary for T0CKI to have a period of
at least 4 TOSC (and a small RC delay of 4 Tt0H) divided
by the prescaler value. The only requirement on T0CKI
high and low time is that they do not violate the
minimum pulse width requirement of Tt0H. Refer to
parameters 40, 41 and 42 in the electrical specification
of the desired device.
7.1.2
TIMER0 INCREMENT DELAY
Since the prescaler output is synchronized with the
internal clocks, there is a small delay from the time the
external clock edge occurs to the time the Timer0
module is actually incremented. Figure 7-4 shows the
delay from the external clock edge to the timer
incrementing.
TIMER0 TIMING WITH EXTERNAL CLOCK
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
External Clock Input or
Prescaler Output (2)
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Small pulse
misses sampling
(1)
External Clock/Prescaler
Output After Sampling
(3)
Increment Timer0 (Q4)
Timer0
Note 1:
T0
T0 + 1
T0 + 2
Delay from clock input change to Timer0 increment is 3 TOSC to 7 TOSC. (Duration of Q = TOSC). Therefore, the error
in measuring the interval between two edges on Timer0 input = ±4 TOSC max.
2:
External clock if no prescaler selected; prescaler output otherwise.
3:
The arrows indicate the points in time where sampling occurs.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 37
PIC16F527
7.2
EXAMPLE 7-1:
Prescaler
An 8-bit counter is available as a prescaler for the
Timer0 module or as a postscaler for the Watchdog
Timer (WDT), respectively (see Section 8.7 “Watchdog Timer (WDT)”). For simplicity, this counter is
being referred to as “prescaler” throughout this data
sheet.
Note:
The prescaler may be used by either the
Timer0 module or the WDT, but not both.
Thus, a prescaler assignment for the
Timer0 module means that there is no
prescaler for the WDT and vice versa.
The PSA and PS<2:0> bits of the OPTION register
determine prescaler assignment and prescale ratio.
When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions
writing to the TMR0 register (e.g., CLRF TMR0,
MOVWF TMR0, etc.) will clear the prescaler. When
assigned to WDT, a CLRWDT instruction will clear the
prescaler along with the WDT. The prescaler is neither
readable nor writable. On a Reset, the prescaler
contains all ‘0’s.
7.2.1
CHANGING PRESCALER
(TIMER0 WDT)
CLRWDT
CLRF
TMR0
MOVLW b'00xx1111'
CLRWDT
MOVLW b'00xx1xxx'
OPTION
;Clear WDT
;Clear TMR0 & Prescaler
;PS<2:0> are 000 or 001
;Set Postscaler to
;desired WDT rate
To change the prescaler from the WDT to the Timer0
module, use the sequence shown in Example 7-2. This
sequence must be used even if the WDT is disabled. A
CLRWDT instruction should be executed before
switching the prescaler.
EXAMPLE 7-2:
CHANGING PRESCALER
(WDT TIMER0)
CLRWDT
MOVLW
b'xxxx0xxx'
;Clear WDT and
;prescaler
;Select TMR0, new
;prescale value and
;clock source
OPTION
SWITCHING PRESCALER
ASSIGNMENT
The prescaler assignment is fully under software
control (i.e., it can be changed “on-the-fly” during
program execution). To avoid an unintended device
Reset,
the
following
instruction
sequence
(Example 7-1) must be executed when changing the
prescaler assignment from Timer0 to the WDT.
DS41652A-page 38
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
FIGURE 7-5:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT PRESCALER
TCY (= FOSC/4)
Data Bus
0
Comparator
Output
0
1
8
M
U
X
1
0
1
T0CKI
Pin
M
U
X
T0SE(1)
T0CS(1)
Sync
2
Cycles
TMR0 Reg
PSA(1)
C1TOCS
0
Watchdog
Timer
1
8-bit Prescaler
M
U
X
8
PS<2:0>(1)
8-to-1 MUX
(1)
PSA
WDT Enable bit
1
0
MUX
PSA(1)
WDT
Time-out
Note 1:
T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS<2:0> are bits in the OPTION register.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 39
PIC16F527
NOTES:
DS41652A-page 40
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
8.0
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE
CPU
What sets a microcontroller apart from other
processors are special circuits that deal with the needs
of
real-time
applications.
The
PIC16F527
microcontrollers have a host of such features intended
to maximize system reliability, minimize cost through
elimination of external components, provide powersaving operating modes and offer code protection.
These features are:
8.1
Configuration Bits
The PIC16F527 Configuration Words consist of 12 bits,
although some bits may be unimplemented and read as
‘1’. Configuration bits can be programmed to select
various device configurations. As an example, three bits
are for the selection of the oscillator type; one bit is the
Watchdog Timer enable bit, one bit is the MCLR enable
bit and one bit is for code protection (Register 8-1).
• Oscillator Selection
• Reset:
- Power-on Reset (POR)
- Brown-out Reset (BOR)
- Device Reset Timer (DRT)
- Wake-up from Sleep on Pin Change
• Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• Sleep
• Code Protection
• ID Locations
• In-Circuit Serial Programming™
• Clock Out
The device has a Watchdog Timer, which can be shut
off only through Configuration bit WDTE. The
Watchdog Timer runs off of its own RC oscillator for
added reliability.
There is also a Device Reset Timer (DRT), intended to
keep the chip in Reset until the crystal oscillator is
stable. The DRT can be enabled with the DRTEN
Configuration bit. For the HS, XT or LP oscillator
options, the 18 ms (nominal) delay is always provided
by the Device Reset Timer and the DRTEN bit is
ignored. When using the EC clock, INTRC or EXTRC
oscillator options, there is a standard delay of 10 us on
power-up, which can be extended to 18 ms with the
use of the DRT timer. With the DRT timer on-chip,
most applications require no additional external Reset
circuitry.
The Sleep mode is designed to offer a very low current
Power-Down mode. The user can wake-up from Sleep
through a change on input pin or through a Watchdog
Timer time-out. Several oscillator options are also
made available to allow the part to fit the application,
including an internal 4/8 MHz oscillator. The EXTRC
oscillator option saves system cost while the LP crystal
option saves power. A set of Configuration bits are
used to select various options.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 41
PIC16F527
8.2
Register Definitions — Configuration Word
REGISTER 8-1:
U-1
U-1
—
—
CONFIG: CONFIGURATION WORD REGISTER
R/P-1
R/P-1
R/P-1
R/P-1
DRTEN BOREN CPSW
R/P-1
IOSCFS MCLRE
R/P-1
R/P-1
R/P-1
CP
WDTE
R/P-1
R/P-1
FOSC2 FOSC1 FOSC0
bit 11
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
P = Programmable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘1’
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
‘1’ = Bit is set
-n = Value when blank or after Bulk Erase
bit 11-10 Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’
bit 9
DRTEN: Device Reset Timer Enable bit
1 = DRT Enabled (18 ms)
0 = DRT Disabled
bit 8
BOREN: Brown-out Reset Enable bit
1 = BOR Enabled
0 = BOR Disabled
bit 7
CPSW: Code Protection bit – Self Writable Memory
1 = Code protection off
0 = Code protection on
bit 6
IOSCFS: Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bit
1 = 8 MHz INTOSC speed
0 = 4 MHz INTOSC speed
bit 5
MCLRE: Master Clear Enable bit
1 = RA3/MCLR pin functions as MCLR
0 = RA3/MCLR pin functions as RA3, MCLR tied internally to VDD
bit 4
CP: Code Protection bit – User Program Memory
1 = Code protection off
0 = Code protection on
bit 3
WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
1 = WDT enabled
0 = WDT disabled
bit 2-0
FOSC<2:0>: Oscillator Selection bits
000 = LP oscillator and automatic 18 ms DRT (DRTEN fuse ignored)
001 = XT oscillator and automatic 18 ms DRT (DRTEN fuse ignored)
010 = HS oscillator and automatic 18 ms DRT (DRTEN fuse ignored)
011 = EC oscillator with RA4 function on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT and 10 us start-up time(2,3)
100 = INTRC with RA4 function on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT and 10 us start-up time(2,3)
101 = INTRC with CLKOUT function on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT and 10 us start-up time(2,3)
110 = EXTRC with RA4 function on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT and 10 us start-up time(2,3)
111 = EXTRC with CLKOUT function on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT and 10 us start-up time(2,3)
Note 1: Refer to the “PIC16F527 Memory Programming Specification”, DS41640 to determine how to access the
Configuration Word.
2: DRT length and start-up time are functions of the Clock mode selection. It is the responsibility of the
application designer to ensure the use of either will result in acceptable operation. Refer to Section 15.0
“Electrical Characteristics” for VDD rise time and stability requirements for this mode of operation.
3: The optional DRTEN fuse can be used to extend the start-up time to 18 ms.
DS41652A-page 42
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
8.3
FIGURE 8-1:
Oscillator Configurations
8.3.1
OSCILLATOR TYPES
The PIC16F527 device can be operated in up to six
different oscillator modes. The user can program up to
three Configuration bits (FOSC<2:0>). To select one of
these modes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
LP:
XT:
HS:
INTRC:
EXTRC:
EC:
8.3.2
CRYSTAL OPERATION
(OR CERAMIC
RESONATOR)
(HS, XT OR LP OSC
CONFIGURATION)
Low-Power Crystal
Crystal/Resonator
High-Speed Crystal/Resonator
Internal 4/8 MHz Oscillator
External Resistor/Capacitor
External High-Speed Clock Input
C1(1)
PIC® Device
Sleep
XTAL
RS(2)
RF(3)
To internal
logic
OSC2
C2(1)
Note 1:
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR/CERAMIC
RESONATORS
In HS, XT or LP modes, a crystal or ceramic resonator
is connected to the OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT
pins to establish oscillation (Figure 8-1). The
PIC16F527 oscillator designs require the use of a
parallel cut crystal. Use of a series cut crystal may give
a frequency out of the crystal manufacturers
specifications. When in HS, XT or LP modes, the
device can have an external clock source drive the
OSC1/CLKIN pin (Figure 8-2). In this mode, the output
drive levels on the OSC2 pin are very weak. If the part
is used in this fashion, then this pin should be left open
and unloaded. Also when using this mode, the external
clock should observe the frequency limits for the Clock
mode chosen (HS, XT or LP).
Note 1: This device has been designed to perform to the parameters of its data sheet.
It has been tested to an electrical
specification designed to determine its
conformance with these parameters.
Due to process differences in the
manufacture of this device, this device
may have different performance characteristics than its earlier version. These
differences may cause this device to
perform differently in your application
than the earlier version of this device.
2: The user should verify that the device
oscillator starts and performs as
expected. Adjusting the loading capacitor values and/or the Oscillator mode
may be required.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
OSC1
2:
3:
See Capacitor Selection tables for
recommended values of C1 and C2.
A series resistor (RS) may be required for AT
strip cut crystals.
RF approx. value = 10 M.
FIGURE 8-2:
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT
OPERATION (HS, XT, LP
OR EC OSC
CONFIGURATION)
EC, HS, XT, LP
Clock From
ext. system
OSC1/CLKIN
PIC® Device
OSC2/CLKOUT
Note 1:
OSC2/CLKOUT(1)
Available in EC mode only.
TABLE 8-1:
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
CERAMIC RESONATORS
Osc
Type
Resonator
Freq.
XT
4.0 MHz
30 pF
30 pF
HS
16 MHz
10-47 pF
10-47 pF
Note 1:
Preliminary
Cap. Range
C1
Cap. Range
C2
These values are for design guidance
only. Since each resonator has its own
characteristics, the user should consult
the resonator manufacturer for
appropriate values of external
components.
DS41652A-page 43
PIC16F527
TABLE 8-2:
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR(2)
Osc
Type
Resonator
Freq.
Cap. Range
C1
Cap. Range
C2
LP
32 kHz(1)
15 pF
15 pF
XT
200 kHz
1 MHz
4 MHz
47-68 pF
15 pF
15 pF
47-68 pF
15 pF
15 pF
20 MHz
15-47 pF
15-47 pF
HS
Note 1:
2:
Figure 8-4 shows a series resonant oscillator circuit.
This circuit is also designed to use the fundamental
frequency of the crystal. The inverter performs a 180degree phase shift in a series resonant oscillator
circuit. The 330  resistors provide the negative
feedback to bias the inverters in their linear region.
FIGURE 8-4:
For VDD > 4.5V, C1 = C2  30 pF is
recommended.
These values are for design guidance
only. Rs may be required to avoid overdriving crystals with low drive level specification. Since each crystal has its own
characteristics, the user should consult
the crystal manufacturer for appropriate
values of external components.
330
EXTERNAL CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
CIRCUIT
Either a prepackaged oscillator or a simple oscillator
circuit with TTL gates can be used as an external
crystal oscillator circuit. Prepackaged oscillators
provide a wide operating range and better stability. A
well-designed crystal oscillator will provide good
performance with TTL gates. Two types of crystal
oscillator circuits can be used: one with parallel
resonance, or one with series resonance.
Figure 8-3 shows implementation of a parallel resonant
oscillator circuit. The circuit is designed to use the
fundamental frequency of the crystal. The 74AS04
inverter performs the 180-degree phase shift that a
parallel oscillator requires. The 4.7 k resistor provides
the negative feedback for stability. The 10 k
potentiometers bias the 74AS04 in the linear region.
This circuit could be used for external oscillator
designs.
FIGURE 8-3:
+5V
To Other
Devices
10k
74AS04
CLKIN
74AS04
PIC® Device
10k
XTAL
74AS04
74AS04
CLKIN
0.1 mF
PIC® Device
XTAL
EXTERNAL RC OSCILLATOR
For timing insensitive applications, the RC device
option offers additional cost savings. The RC oscillator
frequency is a function of the supply voltage, the resistor (REXT) and capacitor (CEXT) values, and the operating temperature. In addition to this, the oscillator
frequency will vary from unit-to-unit due to normal process parameter variation. Furthermore, the difference
in lead frame capacitance between package types will
also affect the oscillation frequency, especially for low
CEXT values. The user also needs to take into account
variation due to tolerance of external R and C
components used.
Figure 8-5 shows how the R/C combination is connected to the PIC16F527 device. For REXT values
below 3.0 k, the oscillator operation may become
unstable, or stop completely. For very high REXT values
(e.g., 1 M), the oscillator becomes sensitive to noise,
humidity and leakage. Thus, we recommend keeping
REXT between 5.0 k and 100 k.
Although the oscillator will operate with no external
capacitor (CEXT = 0 pF), we recommend using values
above 20 pF for noise and stability reasons. With no
external capacitance or with values below 20 pF, the
oscillation frequency can vary dramatically due to
changes in external capacitances, such as PCB trace
capacitance or package lead frame capacitance.
EXTERNAL PARALLEL
RESONANT CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT
4.7k
To Other
Devices
330
74AS04
8.3.4
8.3.3
EXTERNAL SERIES
RESONANT CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT
Section 15.0 “Electrical Characteristics” shows RC
frequency variation from part-to-part due to normal
process variation. The variation is larger for larger values of R (since leakage current variation will affect RC
frequency more for large R) and for smaller values of C
(since variation of input capacitance will affect RC
frequency more).
10k
20 pF
DS41652A-page 44
20 pF
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
Also, see the Electrical Specifications section for
variation of oscillator frequency due to VDD for given
REXT/CEXT values, as well as frequency variation due
to operating temperature for given R, C and VDD
values.
FIGURE 8-5:
EXTERNAL RC
OSCILLATOR MODE
VDD
REXT
OSC1
Internal
clock
N
CEXT
PIC® Device
VSS
FOSC/4
OSC2/CLKOUT
8.3.5
INTERNAL 4/8 MHz RC
OSCILLATOR
The internal RC oscillator provides a fixed 4/8 MHz
(nominal) system clock at VDD = 5V and 25°C, (see
Section 15.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for
information on variation over voltage and temperature).
In addition, a calibration instruction is programmed into
the last address of memory, which contains the calibration value for the internal RC oscillator. This location is
always non-code protected, regardless of the codeprotect settings. This value is programmed as a MOVLW
XX instruction where XX is the calibration value, and is
placed at the Reset vector. This will load the W register
with the calibration value upon Reset and the PC will
then roll over to the users program at address 0x000.
The user then has the option of writing the value to the
OSCCAL Register or ignoring it.
OSCCAL, when written to with the calibration value, will
“trim” the internal oscillator to remove process variation
from the oscillator frequency.
Note:
Erasing the device will also erase the preprogrammed internal calibration value for
the internal oscillator. The calibration
value must be read prior to erasing the
part so it can be reprogrammed correctly
later.
For the PIC16F527 device, only bits <7:1> of OSCCAL
are used for calibration. See Register 4-3 for more
information.
Note:
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
The bit 0 of the OSCCAL register is
unimplemented and should be written as
‘0’ when modifying OSCCAL for
compatibility with future devices.
DS41652A-page 45
PIC16F527
8.4
Reset
The device differentiates between various kinds of
Reset:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Power-on Reset (POR)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
MCLR Reset during normal operation
MCLR Reset during Sleep
WDT Time-out Reset during normal operation
WDT Time-out Reset during Sleep
Wake-up from Sleep on pin change
Some registers are not reset in any way, they are
unknown on POR/BOR and unchanged in any other
Reset. Most other registers are reset to “Reset state”
on Power-on Reset (POR)/Brown-out Reset (BOR),
MCLR, WDT or Wake-up on pin change Reset during
normal operation. They are not affected by a WDT
Reset during Sleep or MCLR Reset during Sleep, since
these Resets are viewed as resumption of normal operation. The exceptions to this are the TO and PD bits.
They are set or cleared differently in different Reset situations. These bits are used in software to determine
the nature of Reset. See Table 4-1 for a full description
of Reset states of all registers.
TABLE 8-3:
RESET CONDITION FOR SPECIAL REGISTERS
STATUS Addr: 03h
Power-on Reset (POR) or Brown-out Reset (BOR)
0001 1xxx
MCLR Reset during normal operation
000u uuuu
MCLR Reset during Sleep
0001 0uuu
WDT Reset during Sleep
0000 0uuu
WDT Reset normal operation
0000 uuuu
Wake-up from Sleep on pin change
1001 0uuu
Wake-up from Sleep on comparator change
0101 0uuu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, – = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’.
DS41652A-page 46
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
8.4.1
MCLR ENABLE
This Configuration bit, when set to a ‘1’, enables the
external MCLR Reset function. When cleared to ‘0’, the
MCLR function is tied to the internal VDD and the pin is
assigned to be an input-only pin function. See Figure 8-6.
FIGURE 8-6:
MCLR SELECT
A power-up example where MCLR is held low is shown
in Figure 8-8. VDD is allowed to rise and stabilize before
bringing MCLR high. The chip will actually come out of
Reset TDRT msec after MCLR goes high.
RAPU
MCLR/VPP
MCLRE
8.5
The Power-on Reset circuit and the Device Reset
Timer (see Section 8.6 “Device Reset Timer (DRT)”)
circuit are closely related. On power-up, the Reset latch
is set and the DRT is reset. The DRT timer begins
counting once it detects MCLR to be high. After the
time-out period, it will reset the Reset latch and thus
end the on-chip Reset signal.
Internal MCLR
Power-on Reset (POR)
The PIC16F527 device incorporates an on-chip Poweron Reset (POR) circuitry, which provides an internal
chip Reset for most power-up situations.
The on-chip POR circuit holds the chip in Reset until
VDD has reached a high enough level for proper operation. To take advantage of the internal POR, program
the MCLR/VPP pin as MCLR and tie through a resistor
to VDD, or program the pin as an input pin. An internal
weak pull-up resistor is implemented using a transistor
(refer to Table 15-7 for the pull-up resistor ranges). This
will eliminate external RC components usually needed
to create a Power-on Reset. A maximum rise time for
VDD is specified. See Section 15.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for details.
When the device starts normal operation (exit the
Reset condition), device operating parameters (voltage, frequency, temperature,...) must be met to ensure
operation. If these conditions are not met, the device
must be held in Reset until the operating parameters
are met.
In Figure 8-9, the on-chip Power-on Reset feature is
being used (MCLR and VDD are tied together or the pin
is programmed to be an input pin). The VDD is stable
before the start-up timer times out and there is no problem in getting a proper Reset. However, Figure 8-10
depicts a problem situation where VDD rises too slowly.
The time between when the DRT senses that MCLR is
high and when MCLR and VDD actually reach their full
value, is too long. In this situation, when the start-up
timer times out, VDD has not reached the VDD (min)
value and the chip may not function correctly. For such
situations, we recommend that external RC circuits be
used to achieve longer POR delay times (Figure 8-9).
Note:
When the device starts normal operation
(exit the Reset condition), device operating parameters (voltage, frequency, temperature, etc.) must be met to ensure
operation. If these conditions are not met,
the device must be held in Reset until the
operating conditions are met.
For additional information, refer to Application Notes
AN522, “Power-Up Considerations” (DS00522) and
AN607, “Power-up Trouble Shooting” (DS00607).
A simplified block diagram of the on-chip Power-on
Reset circuit is shown in Figure 8-7.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 47
PIC16F527
FIGURE 8-7:
SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT
VDD
Power-up
Detect
POR (Power-on Reset)
MCLR/VPP
MCLR Reset
S
Q
R
Q
MCLRE
WDT Time-out
Pin Change
Sleep
WDT Reset
Start-up Timer
(10 us or 18 ms)
CHIP Reset
Wake-up on pin Change Reset
Comparator Change
Wake-up on
Comparator Change
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR PULLED LOW)
FIGURE 8-8:
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TDRT
DRT Time-out
Internal Reset
FIGURE 8-9:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD): FAST VDD RISE
TIME
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TDRT
DRT Time-out
Internal Reset
DS41652A-page 48
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
FIGURE 8-10:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD): SLOW VDD RISE
TIME
V1
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TDRT
DRT Time-out
Internal Reset
Note:
When VDD rises slowly, the TDRT time-out expires long before VDD has reached its final
value. In this example, the chip will reset properly if, and only if, V1  VDD min.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 49
PIC16F527
8.6
TABLE 8-4:
Device Reset Timer (DRT)
On the PIC16F527 device, the DRT runs any time the
device is powered up. DRT runs from Reset and varies
based on oscillator selection and Reset type (see
Table 8-4).
The DRT operates on an internal RC oscillator. The
processor is kept in Reset as long as the DRT is active.
The DRT delay allows VDD to rise above VDD min. and
for the oscillator to stabilize.
Oscillator circuits based on crystals or ceramic resonators require a certain time after power-up to establish a
stable oscillation. The on-chip DRT keeps the device in
a Reset condition after MCLR has reached a logic high
(VIH MCLR) level. Programming MCLR/VPP as MCLR
and using an external RC network connected to the
MCLR input is not required in most cases. This allows
savings in cost-sensitive and/or space restricted applications, as well as allowing the use of that pin as a general
purpose input.
The Device Reset Time delays will vary from chip-tochip due to VDD, temperature and process variation.
See AC parameters for details.
The DRT will also be triggered upon a Watchdog Timer
time-out from Sleep. This is particularly important for
applications using the WDT to wake from Sleep mode
automatically.
Reset sources are POR, MCLR, WDT time-out and
wake-up on pin or comparator change. See
Section 8.10.2 “Wake-up from Sleep”, Notes 1, 2
and 3.
8.7
Oscillator
Configuration
TYPICAL DRT PERIODS
POR Reset
Subsequent
Resets
HS, XT, LP
18 ms
18 ms
EC
10 us
10 s
INTOSC, EXTRC
10 us
10 s
8.7.1
WDT PERIOD
The WDT has a nominal time-out period of 18 ms, (with
no prescaler). If a longer time-out period is desired, a
prescaler with a division ratio of up to 1:128 can be
assigned to the WDT (under software control) by
writing to the OPTION register. Thus, a time-out period
of a nominal 2.3 seconds can be realized. These
periods vary with temperature, VDD and part-to-part
process variations (see DC specs).
Under worst-case conditions (VDD = Min., Temperature
= Max., max. WDT prescaler), it may take several
seconds before a WDT time-out occurs.
8.7.2
WDT PROGRAMMING
CONSIDERATIONS
The CLRWDT instruction clears the WDT and the
postscaler, if assigned to the WDT, and prevents it from
timing out and generating a device Reset.
The SLEEP instruction resets the WDT and the
postscaler, if assigned to the WDT. This gives the
maximum Sleep time before a WDT wake-up Reset.
Watchdog Timer (WDT)
The Watchdog Timer (WDT) is a free running on-chip
RC oscillator, which does not require any external
components. This RC oscillator is separate from the
external RC oscillator of the OSC1/CLKIN pin and the
internal 4/8 MHz oscillator. This means that the WDT
will run even if the main processor clock has been
stopped, for example, by execution of a SLEEP
instruction. During normal operation or Sleep, a WDT
Reset or wake-up Reset, generates a device Reset.
The TO bit of the STATUS register will be cleared upon
a Watchdog Timer Reset.
The WDT can be permanently disabled by
programming the configuration WDTE as a ‘0’ (see
Section 8.1 “Configuration Bits”). Refer to the
PIC16F527 Programming Specifications to determine
how to access the Configuration Word.
DS41652A-page 50
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
FIGURE 8-11:
WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM
From Timer0 Clock Source
(Figure 7-1)
0
M
U
X
1
Watchdog
Time
Postscaler
8-to-1 MUX
PS<2:0>(1)
PSA
WDT Enable
Configuration
Bit
To Timer0 (Figure 7-4)
0
1
MUX
PSA(1)
WDT Time-out
Note 1:
TABLE 8-5:
PSA, PS<2:0> are bits in the OPTION register.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WATCHDOG TIMER
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register on
page
OPTION
RAWU
RAPU
T0SC
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
20
Legend: Shaded boxes = Not used by Watchdog Timer.
8.8
Time-out Sequence (TO) and
Power-down (PD) Reset Status
The TO and PD bits in the STATUS register can be
tested to determine if a Reset condition has been
caused by a power-up condition, a MCLR or Watchdog
Timer (WDT) Reset.
TABLE 8-6:
TO/PD STATUS AFTER RESET
TO
PD
Reset Caused By
0
0
WDT wake-up from Sleep
0
u
WDT time-out (not from Sleep)
1
0
MCLR wake-up from Sleep
1
1
Power-up or Brown-out Reset
u
u
MCLR not during Sleep
Legend: u = unchanged
Note 1: The TO and PD bits maintain their status
(u) until a Reset occurs. A low pulse on
the MCLR input does not change the TO
and PD Status bits.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 51
PIC16F527
8.9
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
On any Reset (Power-on, Brown-out Reset, Watchdog
Timer, etc.), the chip will remain in Reset until VDD rises
above VBOR (see Figure 8-12). If enabled, the Device
Reset Timer will now be invoked, and will keep the chip
in Reset an additional 18 ms.
A brown-out is a condition where device power (VDD)
dips below its minimum value, but not to zero, and
then recovers. The device should be reset in the event
of a brown-out. The Brown-out Reset feature is
enabled by the BOREN Configuration bit.
Note:
If VDD falls below VBOR for greater than parameter
(TBOR) (see Figure 8-12), the brown-out situation will
reset the device. This will occur regardless of VDD slew
rate. A Reset is not insured to occur if VDD falls below
VBOR for less than parameter (TBOR).
FIGURE 8-12:
The Device Reset Timer is enabled by the
DRTEN bit in the Configuration Word
register.
If VDD drops below VBOR while the Device Reset Timer
is running, the chip will go back into a Brown-out Reset
and the Device Reset Timer will be re-initialized. Once
VDD rises above VBOR, the Device Reset Timer will
execute a 18 ms Reset.
BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING AND CHARACTERISTICS
VDD
VBOR + VHYST
VBOR
(Device in Brown-out Reset)
(Device not in Brown-out Reset)
37
Reset
(due to BOR)
32
FIGURE 8-13:
BROWN-OUT SITUATIONS
VDD
Internal
Reset
VBOR
18 ms
(DRTEN = 1)
VDD
Internal
Reset
VBOR
< 18 ms
18 ms
(DRTEN = 1)
VDD
Internal
Reset
DS41652A-page 52
VBOR
18 ms
(DRTEN = 1)
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
8.10
Power-down Mode (Sleep)
A device may be powered down (Sleep) and later
powered up (wake-up from Sleep).
8.10.1
The WDT is cleared when the device wakes from
Sleep, regardless of the wake-up source.
Note:
SLEEP
The Power-Down mode is entered by executing a
SLEEP instruction.
If enabled, the Watchdog Timer will be cleared but
keeps running, the TO bit of the STATUS register is set,
the PD bit of the STATUS register is cleared and the
oscillator driver is turned off. The I/O ports maintain the
status they had before the SLEEP instruction was executed (driving high, driving low or high-impedance).
Note:
Caution: Right before entering Sleep,
read the comparator Configuration
register(s) CM1CON0 and CM2CON0.
When in Sleep, wake-up occurs when the
comparator output bit C1OUT and
C2OUT change from the state they were
in at the last reading. If a wake-up on comparator change occurs and the pins are
not read before re-entering Sleep, a wakeup will occur immediately, even if no pins
change while in Sleep mode.
A Reset generated by a WDT time-out
does not drive the MCLR pin low.
For lowest current consumption while powered down,
the T0CKI input should be at VDD or VSS and the
MCLR/VPP pin must be at a logic high level if MCLR is
enabled.
8.10.2
WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP
The device can wake-up from Sleep through one of
the following events:
1.
2.
3.
An external Reset input on RB3/MCLR/VPP pin,
when configured as MCLR.
A Watchdog Timer Time-out Reset (if WDT was
enabled).
From an interrupt source, see Section 8.11
“Interrupts” for more information.
On waking from Sleep, the processor will continue to
execute the instruction immediately following the
SLEEP instruction. If the WUR bit is also set, upon
waking from Sleep, the device will reset. If the GIE bit
is also set, upon waking from Sleep, the processor will
branch to the interrupt vector. Please see
Section 8.11 “Interrupts” for more information.
The TO and PD bits can be used to determine the
cause of the device Reset. The TO bit is cleared if a
WDT time-out occurred and subsequently caused a
wake-up. The PD bit, which is set on power-up, is
cleared when SLEEP is invoked.
.
Note:
Caution: Right before entering Sleep,
read the input pins. When in Sleep, wakeup occurs when the values at the pins
change from the state they were in at the
last reading. If a wake-up on change
occurs and the pins are not read before
re-entering Sleep, a wake-up will occur
immediately even if no pins change while
in Sleep mode.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 53
PIC16F527
8.11
Interrupts
8.13
The interrupt feature allows certain events to preempt
normal program flow. Firmware is used to determine
the source of the interrupt and act accordingly. Some
interrupts can be configured to wake the MCU from
Sleep mode.
These following interrupt sources are available on the
PIC16F527 device:
•
•
•
•
Timer0 Overflow
ADC Completion
Comparator Output Change
Interrupt-on-change pin
While the device is executing from the ISR, a
secondary set of W, STATUS, FSR and BSR registers
are used by the CPU. These registers are still
addressed at the same location, but hold persistent,
independent values for use inside the ISR. This allows
the contents of the primary set of registers to be
unaffected by interrupts in the main line execution. The
contents of the secondary set of context registers are
visible in the SFR map as the IW, ISTATUS, IFSR and
IBSR registers. When executing code from within the
ISR, these registers will read back the main line
context, and vice versa.
The RETFIE instruction exits the ISR by popping the
previous address from the stack, switching back to the
original set of critical registers and setting the GIE bit.
Refer to the corresponding chapters for details.
8.12
Operation
Interrupts are disabled upon any device Reset. They
are enabled by setting the following bits:
For additional information on a specific interrupt’s
operation, refer to its peripheral chapter.
Note 1: Individual interrupt flag bits may be set,
regardless of the state of any other
enable bits.
• GIE bit of the INTCON register
• Interrupt Enable bit(s) for the specific interrupt
event(s)
The enable bits for specific interrupts can be found in
the INTCON1 register. An interrupt is recorded for a
specific interrupt via flag bits found in the INTCON0
register.
The ADC Conversion flag and the Timer0 Overflow
flags will be set regardless of the status of the GIE and
individual interrupt enable bits.
The Comparator and Interrupt-on-change flags must
be enabled for use. One or both of the comparator
outputs can be enabled to affect the interrupt flag by
setting the C1WU bit in the CM1CON0 register and the
C2WU bit in the CM2CON0 register. The Interrupt-onchange flag is enabled by setting the RAWU bit in the
OPTION register.
The following events happen when an interrupt event
occurs while the GIE bit is set:
• Current prefetched instruction is flushed
• GIE bit is cleared
• Current Program Counter (PC) is pushed onto the
stack
• Several registers are automatically switched to a
secondary set of registers to store critical data.
(See Section 8.13 “Automatic Context Switching”)
• PC is loaded with the interrupt vector 0004h
2: All interrupts will be ignored while the GIE
bit is cleared. Any interrupt occurring
while the GIE bit is clear will be serviced
when the GIE bit is set again.
8.14
Interrupts during Sleep
Any of the interrupt sources can be used to wake from
Sleep. To wake from Sleep, the peripheral must be
operating without the system clock. The interrupt
source must have the appropriate Interrupt Enable
bit(s) set prior to entering Sleep.
On waking from Sleep, if the GIE bit is also set, the
processor will branch to the interrupt vector. Otherwise,
the processor will continue executing instructions after
the SLEEP instruction. The instruction directly after the
SLEEP instruction will always be executed before
branching to the ISR. Refer to the Section 8.10
“Power-down Mode (Sleep)” for more details.
TABLE 8-7:
The firmware within the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR)
should determine the source of the interrupt by polling
the interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bits must be
cleared before exiting the ISR to avoid repeated
interrupts. Because the GIE bit is cleared, any interrupt
that occurs while executing the ISR will be recorded
through its interrupt flag, but will not cause the
processor to redirect to the interrupt vector.
DS41652A-page 54
Automatic Context Switching
Preliminary
INTERRUPT PRIORITIES
In Sleep
GIE
WUR
X
1
0
1
X
1
Wake-up Inline
1
0
0
Watchdog
Wake-up Inline
1
X
0
Watchdog
Wake-up Reset
1
X
1
Vector or
Wake-up and Vector
Wake-up Reset
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
8.15
Register Definitions — Interrupt Control
REGISTER 8-2:
INTCON0 REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
ADIF
CWIF
T0IF
RAIF
—
—
—
GIE
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit
1 = A/D conversion complete (must be cleared by software)
0 = A/D conversion has not completed or has not been started
bit 6
CWIF: Comparator 1 or 2 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Comparator interrupt-on-change has occurred(1)
0 = No change in Comparator 1 or 2 output
bit 5
T0IF: Timer0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared by software)
0 = TMR0 register did not overflow
bit 4
RAIF: Port A Interrupt-on-change Flag bit
1 = Wake-up or interrupt has occurred (cleared in software)(2)
0 = Wake-up or interrupt has not occurred
bit 3-1
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 0
GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Interrupt sets PC to address 0x004 (Vector to ISR)
0 = Interrupt causes wake-up and inline code execution
x = Bit is unknown
Note 1: This bit only functions when the C1WU or C2WU bits are set (see Register 10-1 and Register 10-2).
2: The RAWU bit of the OPTION register must be set to enable this function (see Register 4-2).
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 55
PIC16F527
REGISTER 8-3:
INTCON1 REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
ADIE
CWIE
T0IE
RAIE
—
—
—
WUR
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
ADIE: A/D Converter (ADC) Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the ADC interrupt
0 = Disables the ADC interrupt
bit 6
CWIE: Comparator 1 and 2 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Comparator 1 and 2 Interrupt
0 = Disables the Comparator 1 and 2 Interrupt
bit 5
T0IE: Timer0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Timer0 interrupt
0 = Disables the Timer0 interrupt
bit 4
RAIE: Port A on Pin Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Interrupt-on-change pin enabled
0 = Interrupt-on-change pin disabled
bit 3-1
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 0
WUR: Wake-up Reset Enable bit
1 = Interrupt source causes device Reset on wake-up
0 = Interrupt source wakes up device from Sleep (Vector to ISR or inline execution)
DS41652A-page 56
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
8.16
FIGURE 8-14:
Program Verification/Code
Protection
If the code protection bit has not been programmed, the
on-chip program memory can be read out for
verification purposes.
The first 64 locations and the last location (OSCCAL)
can be read, regardless of the code protection bit
setting.
8.17
External
Connector
Signals
ID Locations
Four memory locations are designated as ID locations
where the user can store checksum or other code
identification numbers. These locations are not
accessible during normal execution, but are readable
and writable during Program/Verify.
TYPICAL IN-CIRCUIT
SERIAL PROGRAMMING
CONNECTION
To Normal
Connections
PIC® Device
+5V
VDD
0V
VSS
VPP
MCLR/VPP
CLK
ICSPCLK
Data
ICSPDAT
VDD
Use only the lower four bits of the ID locations and
always program the upper eight bits as ‘0’s.
8.18
In-Circuit Serial Programming™
To Normal
Connections
The PIC16F527 microcontroller can be serially
programmed while in the end application circuit. This is
simply done with two lines for clock and data, and three
other lines for power, ground and the programming
voltage. This allows customers to manufacture boards
with unprogrammed devices and then program the
microcontroller just before shipping the product. This
also allows the most recent firmware, or a custom
firmware, to be programmed.
The devices are placed into a Program/Verify mode by
holding the ICSPCLK and ICSPDAT pins low while
raising the MCLR (VPP) pin from VIL to VIHH (see
programming specification). ICSPCLK becomes the
programming clock and ICSPDAT becomes the
programming data. Both ICSPCLK and ICSPDAT are
Schmitt Trigger inputs in this mode.
After Reset, a 6-bit command is then supplied to the
device. Depending on the command, 14 bits of program
data are then supplied to or from the device, depending
if the command was a load or a read. For complete
details of serial programming, please refer to the
PIC16F527 Programming Specifications.
A typical In-Circuit Serial Programming connection is
shown in Figure 8-14.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 57
PIC16F527
NOTES:
DS41652A-page 58
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
9.0
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL (A/D)
CONVERTER
Note:
The A/D Converter allows conversion of an analog
signal into an 8-bit digital signal.
9.1
Clock Divisors
The ADC has four clock source settings ADCS<1:0>.
There are three divisor values 16, 8 and 4. The fourth
setting is INTOSC with a divisor of four. These settings
will allow a proper conversion when using an external
oscillator at speeds from 20 MHz to 350 kHz. Using an
external oscillator at a frequency below 350 kHz
requires the ADC oscillator setting to be INTOSC/4
(ADCS<1:0> = 11) for valid ADC results.
The ADC requires 13 TAD periods to complete a
conversion. The divisor values do not affect the number
of TAD periods required to perform a conversion. The
divisor values determine the length of the TAD period.
When the ADCS<1:0> bits are changed while an ADC
conversion is in process, the new ADC clock source will
not be selected until the next conversion is started. This
clock source selection will be lost when the device
enters Sleep.
Note:
9.1.1
The ADC clock is derived from the instruction clock. The ADCS divisors are then
applied to create the ADC clock
VOLTAGE REFERENCE
There is no external voltage reference for the ADC. The
ADC reference voltage will always be VDD.
9.1.2
ANALOG MODE SELECTION
The ANS<7:0> bits are used to configure pins for
analog input. Upon any Reset, ANS<7:0> defaults to
11. This configures pins AN0, AN1 and AN2 as analog
inputs. Pins configured as analog inputs are not available for digital output. Users should not change the
ANS bits while a conversion is in process. ANS bits are
active regardless of the condition of ADON.
9.1.3
ADC CHANNEL SELECTION
The CHS bits are used to select the analog channel to
be sampled by the ADC. The CHS<3:0> bits can be
changed at any time without adversely effecting a conversion. To acquire an analog signal the CHS<3:0>
selection must match one of the pin(s) selected by the
ANS<7:0> bits. When the ADC is on (ADON = 1) and a
channel is selected that is also being used by the
comparator, then both the comparator and the ADC will
see the analog voltage on the pin.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
It is the users responsibility to ensure that
use of the ADC and comparator simultaneously on the same pin, does not
adversely affect the signal being
monitored or adversely effect device
operation.
When the CHS<3:0> bits are changed during an ADC
conversion, the new channel will not be selected until
the current conversion is completed. This allows the
current conversion to complete with valid results. All
channel selection information will be lost when the
device enters Sleep.
TABLE 9-1:
CHANNEL SELECT (ADCS)
BITS AFTER AN EVENT
Event
MCLR
ADCS<1:0>
11
Conversion completed
CS<1:0>
Conversion terminated
CS<1:0>
Power-on
11
Wake from Sleep
11
9.1.4
THE GO/DONE BIT
The GO/DONE bit is used to determine the status of a
conversion, to start a conversion and to manually halt a
conversion in process. Setting the GO/DONE bit starts
a conversion. When the conversion is complete, the
ADC module clears the GO/DONE bit and sets the
ADIF bit in the INTCON register.
A conversion can be terminated by manually clearing
the GO/DONE bit while a conversion is in process.
Manual termination of a conversion may result in a
partially converted result in ADRES.
The GO/DONE bit is cleared when the device enters
Sleep, stopping the current conversion. The ADC does
not have a dedicated oscillator, it runs off of the
instruction clock. Therefore, no conversion can occur in
Sleep.
The GO/DONE bit cannot be set when ADON is clear.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 59
PIC16F527
9.1.5
SLEEP
This ADC does not have a dedicated ADC clock, and
therefore, no conversion in Sleep is possible. If a
conversion is underway and a Sleep command is
executed, the GO/DONE and ADON bit will be cleared.
This will stop any conversion in process and powerdown the ADC module to conserve power. Due to the
nature of the conversion process, the ADRES may contain a partial conversion. At least one bit must have
been converted prior to Sleep to have partial conversion data in ADRES. The ADCS and CHS bits are reset
to their default condition; ANS<7:0> = 1s and
CHS<3:0> = 1s.
• For accurate conversions, TAD must meet the
following:
• 500 ns < TAD < 50 s
• TAD = 1/(FOSC/divisor)
Shaded areas indicate TAD out of range for accurate
conversions. If analog input is desired at these
frequencies, use INTOSC/8 for the ADC clock source.
TABLE 9-2:
Source
TAD FOR ADCS SETTINGS WITH VARIOUS OSCILLATORS
16
MHz
350
kHz
200
kHz
100
kHz
Divisor
11
4
—
—
.5 s
1 s
—
—
—
—
—
—
.25 s
.5 s
1 s
4 s
8 s
11 s
20 s
40 s
125 s
INTOSC
20
MHz
500
kHz
ADCS
<1:0>
8 MHz 4 MHz 1 MHz
32 kHz
FOSC
10
4
.2 s
FOSC
01
8
.4 s
.5 s
1 s
2 s
8 s
16 s
23 s
40 s
80 s
250 s
FOSC
00
16
.8 s
1 s
2 s
4 s
16 s
32 s
46 s
80 s
160 s
500 s
TABLE 9-3:
EFFECTS OF SLEEP ON ADCON0
ANS<7:0>
ADCS1
ADCS0
CHS<3:0>
GO/DONE
ADON
Entering Sleep
Unchanged
1
1
1
0
0
Wake or Reset
1
1
1
1
0
0
DS41652A-page 60
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
9.1.6
ANALOG CONVERSION RESULT
REGISTER
right shifts of the ‘leading one’ have taken place, the
conversion is complete; the ‘leading one’ has been
shifted out and the GO/DONE bit is cleared.
The ADRES register contains the results of the last
conversion. These results are present during the
sampling period of the next analog conversion process.
After the sampling period is over, ADRES is cleared
(= 0). A ‘leading one’ is then right shifted into the
ADRES to serve as an internal conversion complete
bit. As each bit weight, starting with the MSB, is
converted, the leading one is shifted right and the
converted bit is stuffed into ADRES. After a total of nine
REGISTER 9-1:
If the GO/DONE bit is cleared in software during a
conversion, the conversion stops and the ADIF bit will
not be set to a ‘1’. The data in ADRES is the partial
conversion result. This data is valid for the bit weights
that have been converted. The position of the ‘leading
one’ determines the number of bits that have been
converted. The bits that were not converted before the
GO/DONE was cleared are unrecoverable.
ADCON0: A/D CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-0
R/W-0
ADCS1
ADCS0
CHS3
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
ADON
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-6
ADCS<1:0>: ADC Conversion Clock Select bits
00 = FOSC/16
01 = FOSC/8
10 = FOSC/4
11 = INTOSC/4
bit 5-2
CHS<3:0>: ADC Channel Select Bits(1)
0000 = Channel 0 (RA0/AN0)
0001 = Channel 1 (RA1/AN1)
0010 = Channel 2 (RA2/AN2)
0011 = Channel 3 (RA4/AN3)
0100 = Channel 4 (RC0/AN4)
0101 = Channel 5 (RC1/AN5)
0110 = Channel 6 (RC2/AN6)
0111 = Channel 7 (RC3/AN7)
1xxx = Reserved
1111 = 0.6V reference from INTOSC
bit 1
GO/DONE: ADC Conversion Status Bit(2)
1 = ADC conversion in progress. Setting this bit starts an ADC conversion cycle. This bit is automatically
cleared by hardware when the ADC is done converting.
0 = ADC conversion completed/not in progress. Manually clearing this bit while a conversion is in process
terminates the current conversion.
bit 0
ADON: ADC Enable bit
1 = ADC module is operating
0 = ADC module is shut-off and consumes no power
Note 1:
2:
CHS<3:0> bits default to 1 after any Reset.
If the ADON bit is clear, the GO/DONE bit cannot be set.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 61
PIC16F527
REGISTER 9-2:
ADRES: A/D CONVERSION RESULTS REGISTER
R/W-X
R/W-X
R/W-X
R/W-X
R/W-X
R/W-X
R/W-X
R/W-X
ADRES7
ADRES6
ADRES5
ADRES4
ADRES3
ADRES2
ADRES1
ADRES0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
ADRES<7:0>: ADC Result Register bits
EXAMPLE 9-1:
PERFORMING AN
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERSION
EXAMPLE 9-2:
;Sample code operates out of BANK0
loop0
x = Bit is unknown
MOVLW 0xF1
;configure A/D
MOVWF ADCON0
BSF ADCON0, 1 ;start conversion
BTFSC ADCON0, 1;wait for ‘DONE’
GOTO loop0
MOVF ADRES, W ;read result
MOVWF result0 ;save result
loop1
;setup for read of
;channel 1
BSF ADCON0, 1 ;start conversion
BTFSC ADCON0, 1;wait for ‘DONE’
GOTO loop1
MOVF ADRES, W ;read result
MOVWF result1 ;save result
loop2
BSF ADCON0, 3 ;setup for read of
BCF ADCON0, 2 ;channel 2
BSF ADCON0, 1 ;start conversion
BTFSC ADCON0, 1;wait for ‘DONE’
GOTO loop2
MOVF ADRES, W ;read result
MOVWF result2 ;save result
MOVLW 0xF1
MOVWF ADCON0
BSF ADCON0, 1
BSF ADCON0, 2
;configure A/D
loop0
;start conversion
;setup for read of
;channel 1
BTFSC ADCON0, 1;wait for ‘DONE’
GOTO loop0
MOVF ADRES, W ;read result
MOVWF result0 ;save result
loop1
BSF ADCON0, 1 ;start conversion
BSF ADCON0, 3 ;setup for read of
BCF ADCON0, 2 ;channel 2
BTFSC ADCON0, 1;wait for ‘DONE’
GOTO loop1
MOVF ADRES, W ;read result
MOVWF result1 ;save result
BSF ADCON0, 2
DS41652A-page 62
CHANNEL SELECTION
CHANGE DURING
CONVERSION
loop2
Preliminary
BSF ADCON0, 1 ;start conversion
BTFSC ADCON0, 1;wait for ‘DONE’
GOTO loop2
MOVF ADRES, W ;read result
MOVWF result2 ;save result
CLRF ADCON0
;optional: returns
;pins to Digital mode and turns off
;the ADC module
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
10.0
COMPARATOR(S)
This device contains two comparators
comparator voltage reference.
FIGURE 10-1:
and
a
COMPARATORS BLOCK DIAGRAM
RA2/C1OUT
C1PREF
C1IN+
1
C1OUTEN
+
C1IN-
0
C1OUT (Register)
1
-
VREF
(0.6V)
0
C1NREF
C1POL
C1ON
0
T0CKI
1
T0CKI Pin
C1T0CS
Q
D
S
RC4/C2OUT
C2PREF1
C2IN+
READ
CM1CON0
C2OUTEN
1
+
0
1
C2OUT (Register)
0
C2PREF2
C2IN-
C2POL
C2ON
1
0
CVREF
C2NREF
Q
D
C1WU
S
CWIF
READ
CM2CON0
C2WU
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 63
PIC16F527
10.1
Comparator Operation
10.4
A single comparator is shown in Figure 10-2 along with
the relationship between the analog input levels and
the digital output. When the analog input at VIN+ is less
than the analog input VIN-, the output of the comparator
is a digital low level. The shaded area of the output of
the comparator in Figure 10-2 represent the
uncertainty due to input offsets and response time. See
Table 15-2 for Common Mode Voltage.
FIGURE 10-2:
VIN+
Note:
10.5
Result
VIN-
The comparator output is read through the CxOUT bit
in the CM1CON0 or CM2CON0 register. This bit is
read-only. The comparator output may also be used
externally, see Section 10.1 “Comparator Operation”.
SINGLE COMPARATOR
+
Comparator Output
Analog levels on any pin that is defined as
a digital input may cause the input buffer
to consume more current than is specified.
Comparator Wake-up Flag
The Comparator Wake-up Flag bit, CWIF, in the
INTCON0 register, is set whenever all of the following
conditions are met:
–
• C1WU = 0 (CM1CON0<0>) or
C2WU = 0 (CM2CON0<0>)
• CM1CON0 or CM2CON0 has been read to latch
the last known state of the C1OUT and C2OUT bit
(MOVF CM1CON0, W)
• The output of a comparator has changed state
VINVIN+
The wake-up flag may be cleared in software or by
another device Reset.
Result
10.6
10.2
Comparator Reference
An internal reference signal may be used depending on
the comparator operating mode. The analog signal that
is present at VIN- is compared to the signal at VIN+, and
the digital output of the comparator is adjusted
accordingly (Figure 10-2). Please see Section 11.0
“Comparator Voltage Reference Module” for internal
reference specifications.
10.3
Comparator Response Time
Response time is the minimum time after selecting a
new reference voltage or input source before the
comparator output is to have a valid level. If the
comparator inputs are changed, a delay must be used
to allow the comparator to settle to its new state. Please
see Table 15-6 for comparator response time
specifications.
DS41652A-page 64
Comparator Operation During
Sleep
When the comparator is enabled it is active. To
minimize power consumption while in Sleep mode, turn
off the comparator before entering Sleep.
10.7
Effects of Reset
A Power-on Reset (POR) forces the CMxCON0
register to its Reset state. This forces the Comparator
input pins to analog Reset mode. Device current is
minimized when analog inputs are present at Reset
time.
10.8
Analog Input Connection
Considerations
A simplified circuit for an analog input is shown in
Figure 10-3. Since the analog pins are connected to a
digital output, they have reverse biased diodes to VDD
and VSS. The analog input, therefore, must be between
VSS and VDD. If the input voltage deviates from this
range by more than 0.6V in either direction, one of the
diodes is forward biased and a latch-up may occur. A
maximum
source
impedance
of
10 k
is
recommended for the analog sources. Any external
component connected to an analog input pin, such as
a capacitor or a Zener diode, should have very little
leakage current.
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
FIGURE 10-3:
ANALOG INPUT MODE
VDD
VT = 0.6V
RS < 10 K
RIC
AIN
CPIN
5 pF
VA
VT = 0.6V
ILEAKAGE
±500 nA
VSS
Legend:
CPIN
VT
ILEAKAGE
RIC
RS
VA
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
=
=
=
=
=
=
Input Capacitance
Threshold Voltage
Leakage Current at the Pin
Interconnect Resistance
Source Impedance
Analog Voltage
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 65
PIC16F527
10.9
Register Definitions — Comparator Control
REGISTER 10-1:
CM1CON0: COMPARATOR C1 CONTROL REGISTER
R-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
C1OUT
C1OUTEN
C1POL
C1T0CS
C1ON
C1NREF
C1PREF
C1WU
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
C1OUT: Comparator Output bit
1 = VIN+ > VIN0 = VIN+ < VIN-
bit 6
C1OUTEN: Comparator Output Enable bit(1), (2)
1 = Output of comparator is NOT placed on the C1OUT pin
0 = Output of comparator is placed in the C1OUT pin
bit 5
C1POL: Comparator Output Polarity bit(2)
1 = Output of comparator is not inverted
0 = Output of comparator is inverted
bit 4
C1T0CS: Comparator TMR0 Clock Source bit(2)
1 = TMR0 clock source selected by T0CS control bit
0 = Comparator output used as TMR0 clock source
bit 3
C1ON: Comparator Enable bit
1 = Comparator is on
0 = Comparator is off
bit 2
C1NREF: Comparator Negative Reference Select bit(2)
1 = C1IN- pin
0 = 0.6V VREF
bit 1
C1PREF: Comparator Positive Reference Select bit(2)
1 = C1IN+ pin
0 = C1IN- pin
bit 0
C1WU: Comparator Wake-up On Change Enable bit(2)
1 = Wake-up On Comparator Change is disabled
0 = Wake-up On Comparator Change is enabled
Note 1:
x = Bit is unknown
Overrides TRIS control of RA2.
2: When comparator is turned on, these control bits assert themselves. Otherwise, the other registers have
precedence.
3: The C1WU bit must be set to enable the CWIF function. See the INTCON0 register (Register 8-2) for more
information.
DS41652A-page 66
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
REGISTER 10-2:
CM2CON0: COMPARATOR C2 CONTROL REGISTER
R-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
C2OUT
C2OUTEN
C2POL
C2PREF2
C2ON
C2NREF
C2PREF1
C2WU
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
C2OUT: Comparator Output bit
1 = VIN+ > VIN0 = VIN+ < VIN-
bit 6
C2OUTEN: Comparator Output Enable bit(1), (2)
1 = Output of comparator is NOT placed on the C2OUT pin
0 = Output of comparator is placed in the C2OUT pin
bit 5
C2POL: Comparator Output Polarity bit(2)
1 = Output of comparator not inverted
0 = Output of comparator inverted
bit 4
C2PREF2: Comparator Positive Reference Select bit(2)
1 = C1IN+ pin
0 = C2IN- pin
bit 3
C2ON: Comparator Enable bit
1 = Comparator is on
0 = Comparator is off
bit 2
C2NREF: Comparator Negative Reference Select bit(2)
1 = C2IN- pin
0 = CVREF
bit 1
C2PREF1: Comparator Positive Reference Select bit(2)
1 = C2IN+ pin
0 = C2PREF2 controls analog input selection
bit 0
C2WU: Comparator Wake-up on Change Enable bit(2)
1 = Wake-up on Comparator change is disabled
0 = Wake-up on Comparator change is enabled.
x = Bit is unknown
Note 1: Overrides TRIS control of RC4.
2: When comparator is turned on, these control bits assert themselves. Otherwise, the other registers have
precedence.
3: The C2WU bit must be set to enable the CWIF function. See the INTCON0 register (Register 8-2) for more
information.
TABLE 10-1:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARATOR MODULE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on page
—
—
PA0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
19
CM1CON0
C1OUT
C1OUTEN
C1POL
C1T0CS
C1ON
C1NREF
C1PREF
C1WU
66
CM2CON0
C2OUT
C2OUTEN
C2POL
C2PREF2
C2ON
C2NREF C2PREF1
C2WU
67
Name
STATUS
TRIS
I/O Control Register (TRISA, TRISB, TRISC)
—
Legend: x = Unknown, u = Unchanged, – = Unimplemented, read as ‘0’, q = Depends on condition.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 67
PIC16F527
NOTES:
DS41652A-page 68
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
11.0
COMPARATOR VOLTAGE
REFERENCE MODULE
11.2
The Comparator Voltage Reference module also
allows the selection of an internally generated voltage
reference for one of the C2 comparator inputs. The
VRCON register (Register 11-1) controls the voltage
reference module shown in Figure 11-1.
11.1
Configuring The Voltage
Reference
The voltage reference can output 32 voltage levels; 16
in a high range and 16 in a low range.
Equation 11-1 determines the output voltages:
EQUATION 11-1:
Voltage Reference Accuracy/Error
The full range of VSS to VDD cannot be realized due to
construction of the module. The transistors on the top
and bottom of the resistor ladder network (Figure 11-1)
keep CVREF from approaching VSS or VDD. The
exception is when the module is disabled by clearing
the VREN bit of the VRCON register. When disabled,
the reference voltage is VSS when VR<3:0> is ‘0000’
and the VRR bit of the VRCON register is set. This
allows the comparator to detect a zero-crossing and
not consume the CVREF module current.
The voltage reference is VDD derived and, therefore,
the CVREF output changes with fluctuations in VDD. The
tested absolute accuracy of the comparator voltage
reference can be found in Section 15.0 “Electrical
Characteristics”.
VRR = 1 (low range):
CVREF = (VR<3:0>/24) x VDD
VRR = 0 (high range):
CVREF = (VDD/4) + (VR<3:0> x VDD/32)
REGISTER 11-1:
VRCON: VOLTAGE REFERENCE CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
VREN
VROE
VRR
—
VR3
VR2
VR1
VR0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
VREN: CVREF Enable bit
1 = CVREF is powered on
0 = CVREF is powered down, no current is drawn
bit 6
VROE: CVREF Output Enable bit(1)
1 = CVREF output is enabled
0 = CVREF output is disabled
bit 5
VRR: CVREF Range Selection bit
1 = Low range
0 = High range
bit 4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3-0
VR<3:0> CVREF Value Selection bits
When VRR = 1: CVREF= (VR<3:0>/24)*VDD
When VRR = 0: CVREF= VDD/4+(VR<3:0>/32)*VDD
x = Bit is unknown
Note 1: When this bit is set, the TRIS for the CVREF pin is overridden and the analog voltage is placed on the
CVREF pin.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 69
PIC16F527
FIGURE 11-1:
COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE BLOCK DIAGRAM
16 Stages
8R
R
R
R
R
VDD
8R
VRR
16-1 Analog
MUX
VREN
CVREF to
Comparator 2
Input
VR<3:0>
RA1/CVREF
VREN
VR<3:0> = 0000
VRR
VROE
TABLE 11-1:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on page
VREN
VROE
VRR
—
VR3
VR2
VR1
VR0
69
CM1CON0
C1OUT
C1OUTEN
C1POL
C1T0CS
C1ON
C1NREF
C1PREF
C1WU
66
CM2CON0
C2OUT
C2OUTEN
C2POL
C2PREF2
C2ON
C2NREF
C2PREF1
C2WU
67
Name
VRCON
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
DS41652A-page 70
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
12.0
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
(OPA) MODULE
The OPA module has the following features:
• Two independent Operational Amplifiers
• External connections to all ports
• 3 MHz Gain Bandwidth Product (GBWP)
12.1
OPACON Register
The OPA module is enabled by setting the OPAxON bit
of the OPACON Register. When enabled, OPAxON
forces the output driver of OP1 for OPA1, and OP2 for
OPA2, into tri-state to prevent contention between the
driver and the OPA output.
Note:
When OPA1 or OPA2 is enabled, the OP1
pin or OP2 pin, respectively, is driven by
the op amp output, not by the PORTC
driver. Refer to Table 15-4 for the electrical specifications for the op amp output
drive capability.
FIGURE 12-1:
OPA MODULE BLOCK DIAGRAM
OPACON<OPA1ON>
OP1+
OPA1
OP1OP1
To ADC and Comparator MUXs
OPACON<OPA2ON>
OP2+
OPA2
OP2OP2
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 71
PIC16F527
REGISTER 12-1:
OPACON: OP AMP CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
—
—
—
—
OPA2ON
OPA1ON
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
OPA2ON: Op Amp Enable bit
1 = Op amp 2 is enabled
0 = Op amp 2 is disabled
bit 0
OPA1ON: Op Amp Enable bit
1 = Op amp 1 is enabled
0 = Op amp 1 is disabled
12.2
Effects of a Reset
Leakage current is a measure of the small source or
sink currents on the OPA+ and OPA- inputs. To minimize the effect of leakage currents, the effective impedances connected to the OPA+ and OPA- inputs should
be kept as small as possible and equal.
A device Reset forces all registers to their Reset state.
This disables both op amps.
12.3
OPA Module Performance
Input offset voltage is a measure of the voltage difference between the OPA+ and OPA- inputs in a closed
loop circuit with the OPA in its linear region. The offset
voltage will appear as a DC offset in the output equal to
the input offset voltage, multiplied by the gain of the
circuit. The input offset voltage is also affected by the
common mode voltage.
Common AC and DC performance specifications for
the OPA module:
•
•
•
•
•
Common Mode Voltage Range
Leakage Current
Input Offset Voltage
Open Loop Gain
Gain Bandwidth Product (GBWP)
Open loop gain is the ratio of the output voltage to the
differential input voltage, (OPA+) - (OPA-). The gain is
greatest at DC and falls off with frequency.
Common mode voltage range is the specified voltage
range for the OPA+ and OPA- inputs, for which the OPA
module will perform to within its specifications. The
OPA module is designed to operate with input voltages
between 0 and VDD-1.5V. Behavior for common mode
voltages greater than VDD-1.5V, or below 0V, are
beyond the normal operating range.
TABLE 12-1:
x = Bit is unknown
Gain Bandwidth Product or GBWP is the frequency
at which the open loop gain falls off to 0 dB.
12.4
Effects of Sleep
When enabled, the op amps continue to operate and
consume current while the processor is in Sleep mode.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE OPA MODULE
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register on
page
ANSEL
ANS7
ANS6
ANS5
ANS4
ANS3
ANS2
ANS1
ANS0
32
—
—
—
—
—
—
OPACON
TRIS
I/O Control Registers (TRISA, TRISB, TRISC)
OPA2ON OPA1ON
72
—
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for the OPA
module.
DS41652A-page 72
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
13.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
The PIC16 instruction set is highly orthogonal and is
comprised of three basic categories.
• Byte-oriented operations
• Bit-oriented operations
• Literal and control operations
Each PIC16 instruction is a 12-bit word divided into an
opcode, which specifies the instruction type, and one
or more operands which further specify the operation
of the instruction. The formats for each of the
categories is presented in Figure 13-1, while the
various opcode fields are summarized in Table 13-1.
For byte-oriented instructions, ‘f’ represents a file
register designator and ‘d’ represents a destination
designator. The file register designator specifies which
file register is to be used by the instruction.
The destination designator specifies where the result of
the operation is to be placed. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed
in the file register specified in the instruction.
For bit-oriented instructions, ‘b’ represents a bit field
designator which selects the number of the bit affected
by the operation, while ‘f’ represents the number of the
file in which the bit is located.
All instructions are executed within a single instruction
cycle, unless a conditional test is true or the program
counter is changed as a result of an instruction. In this
case, the execution takes two instruction cycles. One
instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods.
Thus, for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, the normal
instruction execution time is 1 s. If a conditional test is
true or the program counter is changed as a result of an
instruction, the instruction execution time is 2 s.
Figure 13-1 shows the three general formats that the
instructions can have. All examples in the figure use
the following format to represent a hexadecimal
number:
0xhhh
where ‘h’ signifies a hexadecimal digit.
FIGURE 13-1:
Byte-oriented file register operations
11
f
Bit-oriented file register operations
11
OPCODE
11
Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F)
b
Bit address within an 8-bit file register
k
Literal field, constant data or label
x
Don’t care location (= 0 or 1)
The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is
the recommended form of use for compatibility with
all Microchip software tools.
Label name
PC
WDT
TO
Literal and control operations – GOTO instruction
11
9
8
OPCODE
0
k (literal)
Watchdog Timer counter
Power-down bit
[
]
Options
(
)
Contents
italics
0
k (literal)
Time-out bit
Destination, either the W register or the specified
register file location
Œ
7
Program Counter
PD
< >
8
k = 9-bit immediate value
dest
Æ
0
f (FILE #)
k = 8-bit immediate value
Destination select;
d = 0 (store result in W)
d = 1 (store result in file register ‘f’)
Default is d = 1
Top-of-Stack
8 7
5 4
b (BIT #)
OPCODE
Working register (accumulator)
TOS
0
f (FILE #)
Literal and control operations (except GOTO)
Description
label
4
b = 3-bit bit address
f = 5-bit file register address
W
d
5
d
d = 0 for destination W
d = 1 for destination f
f = 5-bit file register address
OPCODE FIELD
DESCRIPTIONS
Field
6
OPCODE
For literal and control operations, ‘k’ represents an
8 or 9-bit constant or literal value.
TABLE 13-1:
GENERAL FORMAT FOR
INSTRUCTIONS
Assigned to
Register bit field
In the set of
User defined term (font is courier)
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 73
PIC16F527
TABLE 13-2:
Mnemonic,
Operands
ADDWF
ANDWF
CLRF
CLRW
COMF
DECF
DECFSZ
INCF
INCFSZ
IORWF
MOVF
MOVWF
NOP
RLF
RRF
SUBWF
SWAPF
XORWF
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
12-Bit Opcode
Description
Cycles
MSb
LSb
Status
Notes
Affected
f, d
f, d
f
—
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f
—
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
0001 11df ffff C, DC, Z 1, 2, 4
Add W and f
1
0001 01df ffff
AND W with f
1
Z
2, 4
0000 011f ffff
Clear f
1
Z
4
0000 0100 0000
Clear W
1
Z
0010 01df ffff
Complement f
1
Z
0000 11df ffff
Decrement f
1
Z
2, 4
0010 11df ffff
Decrement f, Skip if 0
1(2)
None
2, 4
1
0010 10df ffff
Increment f
Z
2, 4
1(2)
0011 11df ffff
Increment f, Skip if 0
None
2, 4
1
0001 00df ffff
Inclusive OR W with f
Z
2, 4
1
0010 00df ffff
Move f
Z
2, 4
1
0000 001f ffff
Move W to f
None
1, 4
1
0000 0000 0000
No Operation
None
1
0011 01df ffff
Rotate left f through Carry
C
2, 4
1
0011 00df ffff
Rotate right f through Carry
C
2, 4
1
0000 10df ffff C, DC, Z 1, 2, 4
Subtract W from f
1
0011 10df ffff
Swap f
None
2, 4
1
0001 10df ffff
Exclusive OR W with f
Z
2, 4
BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
0100 bbbf ffff
None
2, 4
1
Bit Clear f
BCF
f, b
0101 bbbf ffff
None
2, 4
1
Bit Set f
BSF
f, b
0110 bbbf ffff
None
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
1(2)
BTFSC
f, b
1(2)
0111 bbbf ffff
None
f, b
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
BTFSS
LITERAL AND CONTROL OPERATIONS
ANDLW
k
AND literal with W
1
1110 kkkk kkkk
Z
1
CALL
k
Call Subroutine
2
1001 kkkk kkkk
None
CLRWDT
—
Clear Watchdog Timer
1
0000 0000 0100 TO, PD
None
GOTO
k
Unconditional branch
2
101k kkkk kkkk
Z
IORLW
k
Inclusive OR literal with W
1
1101 kkkk kkkk
None
MOVLB
k
Move Literal to BSR Register
1
0000 0001 0kkk
None
MOVLW
k
Move literal to W
1
1100 kkkk kkkk
None
OPTION
—
Load OPTION register
1
0000 0000 0010
None
RETFIE
—
Return from Interrupt
2
0000 0001 1111
3
None
RETLW
k
Return, place literal in W
2
1000 kkkk kkkk
None
RETURN
—
Return, maintain W
2
0000 0001 1110
SLEEP
—
Go into Standby mode
1
0000 0000 0011 TO, PD
None
TRIS
f
Load TRIS register
1
0000 0000 0fff
Z
XORLW
k
Exclusive OR literal to W
1
1111 kkkk kkkk
Note 1: The 9th bit of the program counter will be forced to a ‘0’ by any instruction that writes to the PC except for
GOTO. See Section 4.6 “Program Counter”.
2: When an I/O register is modified as a function of itself (e.g. MOVF PORTB, 1), the value used will be that
value present on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and
is driven low by an external device, the data will be written back with a ‘0’.
3: The instruction TRIS f, where f = 6, causes the contents of the W register to be written to the tri-state
latches of PORTA. A ‘1’ forces the pin to a high-impedance state and disables the output buffers.
4: If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and, where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be
cleared (if assigned to TMR0).
DS41652A-page 74
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
ADDWF
Add W and f
BCF
f,d
Bit Clear f
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDWF
Syntax:
[ label ] BCF
Operands:
0  f  31
d 01
Operands:
0  f  31
0b7
Operation:
(W) + (f)  (dest)
Operation:
0  (f<b>)
Status
Affected:
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is cleared.
Description:
Add the contents of the W register
and register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is’0’, the result
is stored in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is stored back in
register ‘f’.
BSF
Bit Set f
Syntax:
[ label ] BSF
Operands:
0  f  31
0b7
Operation:
1  (f<b>)
Status Affected: Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The contents of the W register are
AND’ed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’.
The result is placed in the W
register.
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is set.
BTFSC
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
ANDWF
AND W with f
Syntax:
[ label ] ANDWF
Operands:
Operation:
ANDLW
AND literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ] ANDLW
Operands:
0  k  255
Operation:
(W).AND. (k)  (W)
k
f,b
Syntax:
[ label ] BTFSC f,b
Operands:
0  f  31
d [0,1]
0  f  31
0b7
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 0
(W) .AND. (f)  (dest)
Status Affected:
None
Description:
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, then the
next instruction is skipped.
If bit ‘b’ is ‘0’, then the next instruction fetched during the current
instruction execution is discarded,
and a NOP is executed instead,
making this a two-cycle instruction.
f,d
Status Affected: Z
Description:
f,b
The contents of the W register are
AND’ed with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’,
the result is stored in the W register.
If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back
in register ‘f’.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 75
PIC16F527
BTFSS
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
CLRW
Syntax:
[ label ] BTFSS f,b
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRW
0  f  31
0b<7
Operands:
None
Operation:
00h  (W);
1Z
Operands:
Clear W
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 1
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘1’, then the
next instruction is skipped.
If bit ‘b’ is ‘1’, then the next instruction fetched during the current
instruction execution, is discarded
and a NOP is executed instead,
making this a two-cycle instruction.
Description:
The W register is cleared. Zero bit
(Z) is set.
CALL
Subroutine Call
CLRWDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Syntax:
[ label ] CALL k
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRWDT
Operands:
0  k  255
Operands:
None
Operation:
(PC) + 1 Top-of-Stack;
k  PC<7:0>;
(STATUS<6:5>)  PC<10:9>;
0  PC<8>
Operation:
00h  WDT;
0  WDT prescaler (if assigned);
1  TO;
1  PD
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Description:
Subroutine call. First, return
address (PC + 1) is PUSHed onto
the stack. The eight-bit immediate
address is loaded into PC
bits <7:0>. The upper bits
PC<10:9> are loaded from
STATUS<6:5>, PC<8> is cleared.
CALL is a two-cycle instruction.
Description:
The CLRWDT instruction resets the
WDT. It also resets the prescaler, if
the prescaler is assigned to the
WDT and not Timer0. Status bits
TO and PD are set.
CLRF
Clear f
COMF
Complement f
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRF
Syntax:
[ label ] COMF
Operands:
0  f  31
Operands:
Operation:
00h  (f);
1Z
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f)  (dest)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
cleared and the Z bit is set.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
complemented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in the W register. If
‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back in
register ‘f’.
DS41652A-page 76
f
Preliminary
f,d
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
DECF
Decrement f
INCF
Syntax:
[ label ] DECF f,d
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – 1  (dest)
Operation:
(f) + 1  (dest)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
Decrement register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’,
the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
DECFSZ
Decrement f, Skip if 0
INCFSZ
Increment f, Skip if 0
Syntax:
[ label ] DECFSZ f,d
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – 1  d;
Operation:
(f) + 1  (dest), skip if result = 0
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
decremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
If the result is ‘0’, the next instruction, which is already fetched, is
discarded and a NOP is executed
instead making it a two-cycle
instruction.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
If the result is ‘0’, then the next
instruction, which is already
fetched, is discarded and a NOP is
executed instead making it a
two-cycle instruction.
GOTO
Unconditional Branch
IORLW
Inclusive OR literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  k  511
Operands:
0  k  255
Operation:
k  PC<8:0>;
STATUS<6:5>  PC<10:9>
Operation:
(W) .OR. (k)  (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Description:
GOTO is an unconditional branch.
The 9-bit immediate value is
loaded into PC bits <8:0>. The
upper bits of PC are loaded from
STATUS<6:5>. GOTO is a twocycle instruction.
The contents of the W register are
OR’ed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’.
The result is placed in the
W register.
skip if result = 0
GOTO k
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
Increment f
INCF f,d
INCFSZ f,d
IORLW k
DS41652A-page 77
PIC16F527
IORWF
Inclusive OR W with f
MOVWF
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  31
Operation:
(W).OR. (f)  (dest)
(W)  (f)
Operation:
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
Description:
Inclusive OR the W register with
register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’,
the result is placed back in register
‘f’.
Move data from the W register to
register ‘f’.
MOVF
Move f
NOP
No Operation
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
Operands:
None
Operation:
No operation
IORWF
f,d
MOVF f,d
Move W to f
MOVWF
f
NOP
Operation:
(f)  (dest)
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
No operation.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
moved to destination ‘d’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’,
destination is the W register. If ‘d’
is ‘1’, the destination is file
register ‘f’. ‘d’ = 1 is useful as a
test of a file register, since status
flag Z is affected.
MOVLB
Move Literal to BSR
OPTION
Load OPTION Register
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0k7
Operands:
None
Operation:
k  (BSR)
Operation:
(W)  OPTION
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The content of the W register is
loaded into the OPTION register.
MOVLB k
Description:
The three-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded
into the BSR register.
MOVLW
Move Literal to W
RETFIE
Return From Interrupt
Syntax:
[ label ]
RETFIE
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  k  255
Operands:
None
Operation:
k  (W)
Operation:
TOS  PC
1 GIE
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The eight-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded
into the W register. The “don’t
cares” will assembled as ‘0’s.
Description:
The program counter is loaded
from the top of the stack (the
return address).
GIE bit of INTCON0 is set.
This is a two-cycle instruction.
DS41652A-page 78
MOVLW k
OPTION
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
RETLW
Return with Literal in W
RRF
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  k  255
Operands:
Operation:
k  (W);
TOS  PC
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
Operation:
See description below
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
C
Description:
The W register is loaded with the
eight-bit literal ‘k’. The program
counter is loaded from the top of
the stack (the return address).
This is a two-cycle instruction.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
rotated one bit to the right through
the Carry flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
RETURN
Return
Syntax:
[ label ]
RETLW k
RRF f,d
register ‘f’
C
RETURN
Operands:
None
Operation:
TOS  PC
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The program counter is loaded
from the top of the stack (the
return address). This is a twocycle instruction.
RLF
Rotate Right f through Carry
Rotate Left f through Carry
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
RLF
Operation:
See description below
C
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
rotated one bit to the left through
the Carry flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is stored back in
register ‘f’.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Enter SLEEP Mode
Syntax:
[label ]
Operands:
None
Operation:
00h  WDT;
0  WDT prescaler;
1  TO;
0  PD
Status Affected:
TO, PD, RBWUF
Description:
Time-out Status bit (TO) is set.
The Power-down Status bit (PD) is
cleared.
RBWUF is unaffected.
The WDT and its prescaler are
cleared.
The processor is put into Sleep
mode with the oscillator stopped.
See Section 8.10 “Power-down
Mode (Sleep)” on Sleep for more
details.
SUBWF
Subtract W from f
f,d
Status Affected:
C
SLEEP
register ‘f’
SLEEP
Syntax:
[label ]
Operands:
0 f 31
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – (W) dest)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Description:
Subtract (2’s complement method)
the W register from register ‘f’. If ‘d’
is ‘0’, the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
Preliminary
SUBWF f,d
DS41652A-page 79
PIC16F527
SWAPF
Swap Nibbles in f
XORWF
Exclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[ label ] SWAPF f,d
Syntax:
[ label ] XORWF
Operands:
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  31
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f<3:0>)  (dest<7:4>);
(f<7:4>)  (dest<3:0>)
Operation:
(W) .XOR. (f) dest)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Description:
The upper and lower nibbles of
register ‘f’ are exchanged. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is placed in W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed in register ‘f’.
Exclusive OR the contents of the
W register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
TRIS
Load TRIS Register
Syntax:
[ label ] TRIS
f
Operands:
f=6
Operation:
(W)  TRIS register f
Status Affected:
None
Description:
TRIS register ‘f’ (f = 6, 7 or 8) is
loaded with the contents of the W
register
XORLW
Exclusive OR literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ] XORLW k
Operands:
0 k 255
Operation:
(W) .XOR. k W)
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of the W register are
XOR’ed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’.
The result is placed in the W
register.
DS41652A-page 80
f,d
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
14.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
14.1
The PIC® microcontrollers and dsPIC® digital signal
controllers are supported with a full range of software
and hardware development tools:
• Integrated Development Environment
- MPLAB® IDE Software
• Compilers/Assemblers/Linkers
- MPLAB C Compiler for Various Device
Families
- HI-TECH C® for Various Device Families
- MPASMTM Assembler
- MPLINKTM Object Linker/
MPLIBTM Object Librarian
- MPLAB Assembler/Linker/Librarian for
Various Device Families
• Simulators
- MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
• Emulators
- MPLAB REAL ICE™ In-Circuit Emulator
• In-Circuit Debuggers
- MPLAB ICD 3
- PICkit™ 3 Debug Express
• Device Programmers
- PICkit™ 2 Programmer
- MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
• Low-Cost Demonstration/Development Boards,
Evaluation Kits, and Starter Kits
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software
The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of software
development previously unseen in the 8/16/32-bit
microcontroller market. The MPLAB IDE is a Windows®
operating system-based application that contains:
• A single graphical interface to all debugging tools
- Simulator
- Programmer (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Emulator (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Debugger (sold separately)
• A full-featured editor with color-coded context
• A multiple project manager
• Customizable data windows with direct edit of
contents
• High-level source code debugging
• Mouse over variable inspection
• Drag and drop variables from source to watch
windows
• Extensive on-line help
• Integration of select third party tools, such as
IAR C Compilers
The MPLAB IDE allows you to:
• Edit your source files (either C or assembly)
• One-touch compile or assemble, and download to
emulator and simulator tools (automatically
updates all project information)
• Debug using:
- Source files (C or assembly)
- Mixed C and assembly
- Machine code
MPLAB IDE supports multiple debugging tools in a
single development paradigm, from the cost-effective
simulators, through low-cost in-circuit debuggers, to
full-featured emulators. This eliminates the learning
curve when upgrading to tools with increased flexibility
and power.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 81
PIC16F527
14.2
MPLAB C Compilers for Various
Device Families
The MPLAB C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC18,
PIC24 and PIC32 families of microcontrollers and the
dsPIC30 and dsPIC33 families of digital signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful integration
capabilities, superior code optimization and ease of
use.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
14.3
HI-TECH C for Various Device
Families
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
The compilers include a macro assembler, linker, preprocessor, and one-step driver, and can run on multiple
platforms.
MPASM Assembler
The MPASM Assembler is a full-featured, universal
macro assembler for PIC10/12/16/18 MCUs.
The MPASM Assembler generates relocatable object
files for the MPLINK Object Linker, Intel® standard HEX
files, MAP files to detail memory usage and symbol
reference, absolute LST files that contain source lines
and generated machine code and COFF files for
debugging.
The MPASM Assembler features include:
MPLINK Object Linker/
MPLIB Object Librarian
The MPLINK Object Linker combines relocatable
objects created by the MPASM Assembler and the
MPLAB C18 C Compiler. It can link relocatable objects
from precompiled libraries, using directives from a
linker script.
The MPLIB Object Librarian manages the creation and
modification of library files of precompiled code. When
a routine from a library is called from a source file, only
the modules that contain that routine will be linked in
with the application. This allows large libraries to be
used efficiently in many different applications.
The object linker/library features include:
The HI-TECH C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC
family of microcontrollers and the dsPIC family of digital
signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful
integration capabilities, omniscient code generation
and ease of use.
14.4
14.5
• Efficient linking of single libraries instead of many
smaller files
• Enhanced code maintainability by grouping
related modules together
• Flexible creation of libraries with easy module
listing, replacement, deletion and extraction
14.6
MPLAB Assembler, Linker and
Librarian for Various Device
Families
MPLAB Assembler produces relocatable machine
code from symbolic assembly language for PIC24,
PIC32 and dsPIC devices. MPLAB C Compiler uses
the assembler to produce its object file. The assembler
generates relocatable object files that can then be
archived or linked with other relocatable object files and
archives to create an executable file. Notable features
of the assembler include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support for the entire device instruction set
Support for fixed-point and floating-point data
Command line interface
Rich directive set
Flexible macro language
MPLAB IDE compatibility
• Integration into MPLAB IDE projects
• User-defined macros to streamline
assembly code
• Conditional assembly for multi-purpose
source files
• Directives that allow complete control over the
assembly process
DS41652A-page 82
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
14.7
MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
14.9
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator allows code
development in a PC-hosted environment by simulating the PIC MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs on an instruction
level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be
examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from
a comprehensive stimulus controller. Registers can be
logged to files for further run-time analysis. The trace
buffer and logic analyzer display extend the power of
the simulator to record and track program execution,
actions on I/O, most peripherals and internal registers.
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator fully supports
symbolic debugging using the MPLAB C Compilers,
and the MPASM and MPLAB Assemblers. The software simulator offers the flexibility to develop and
debug code outside of the hardware laboratory environment, making it an excellent, economical software
development tool.
14.8
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit
Emulator System
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System is
Microchip’s next generation high-speed emulator for
Microchip Flash DSC and MCU devices. It debugs and
programs PIC® Flash MCUs and dsPIC® Flash DSCs
with the easy-to-use, powerful graphical user interface of
the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE),
included with each kit.
The emulator is connected to the design engineer’s PC
using a high-speed USB 2.0 interface and is connected
to the target with either a connector compatible with incircuit debugger systems (RJ11) or with the new highspeed, noise tolerant, Low-Voltage Differential Signal
(LVDS) interconnection (CAT5).
The emulator is field upgradable through future firmware
downloads in MPLAB IDE. In upcoming releases of
MPLAB IDE, new devices will be supported, and new
features will be added. MPLAB REAL ICE offers
significant advantages over competitive emulators
including low-cost, full-speed emulation, run-time
variable watches, trace analysis, complex breakpoints, a
ruggedized probe interface and long (up to three meters)
interconnection cables.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger
System
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger System is Microchip's most cost effective high-speed hardware
debugger/programmer for Microchip Flash Digital Signal Controller (DSC) and microcontroller (MCU)
devices. It debugs and programs PIC® Flash microcontrollers and dsPIC® DSCs with the powerful, yet easyto-use graphical user interface of MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE).
The MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger probe is connected to the design engineer's PC using a high-speed
USB 2.0 interface and is connected to the target with a
connector compatible with the MPLAB ICD 2 or MPLAB
REAL ICE systems (RJ-11). MPLAB ICD 3 supports all
MPLAB ICD 2 headers.
14.10 PICkit 3 In-Circuit Debugger/
Programmer and
PICkit 3 Debug Express
The MPLAB PICkit 3 allows debugging and programming of PIC® and dsPIC® Flash microcontrollers at a
most affordable price point using the powerful graphical
user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment (IDE). The MPLAB PICkit 3 is connected
to the design engineer's PC using a full speed USB
interface and can be connected to the target via an
Microchip debug (RJ-11) connector (compatible with
MPLAB ICD 3 and MPLAB REAL ICE). The connector
uses two device I/O pins and the reset line to implement in-circuit debugging and In-Circuit Serial Programming™.
The PICkit 3 Debug Express include the PICkit 3, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 83
PIC16F527
14.11 PICkit 2 Development
Programmer/Debugger and
PICkit 2 Debug Express
14.13 Demonstration/Development
Boards, Evaluation Kits, and
Starter Kits
The PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer/Debugger is
a low-cost development tool with an easy to use interface for programming and debugging Microchip’s Flash
families of microcontrollers. The full featured
Windows® programming interface supports baseline
(PIC10F,
PIC12F5xx,
PIC16F5xx),
midrange
(PIC12F6xx, PIC16F), PIC18F, PIC24, dsPIC30,
dsPIC33, and PIC32 families of 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit
microcontrollers, and many Microchip Serial EEPROM
products. With Microchip’s powerful MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE) the PICkit™ 2
enables in-circuit debugging on most PIC® microcontrollers. In-Circuit-Debugging runs, halts and single
steps the program while the PIC microcontroller is
embedded in the application. When halted at a breakpoint, the file registers can be examined and modified.
A wide variety of demonstration, development and
evaluation boards for various PIC MCUs and dsPIC
DSCs allows quick application development on fully functional systems. Most boards include prototyping areas for
adding custom circuitry and provide application firmware
and source code for examination and modification.
The PICkit 2 Debug Express include the PICkit 2, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
14.12 MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
The MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer is a universal,
CE compliant device programmer with programmable
voltage verification at VDDMIN and VDDMAX for
maximum reliability. It features a large LCD display
(128 x 64) for menus and error messages and a modular, detachable socket assembly to support various
package types. The ICSP™ cable assembly is included
as a standard item. In Stand-Alone mode, the MPLAB
PM3 Device Programmer can read, verify and program
PIC devices without a PC connection. It can also set
code protection in this mode. The MPLAB PM3
connects to the host PC via an RS-232 or USB cable.
The MPLAB PM3 has high-speed communications and
optimized algorithms for quick programming of large
memory devices and incorporates an MMC card for file
storage and data applications.
DS41652A-page 84
The boards support a variety of features, including LEDs,
temperature sensors, switches, speakers, RS-232
interfaces, LCD displays, potentiometers and additional
EEPROM memory.
The demonstration and development boards can be
used in teaching environments, for prototyping custom
circuits and for learning about various microcontroller
applications.
In addition to the PICDEM™ and dsPICDEM™ demonstration/development board series of circuits, Microchip
has a line of evaluation kits and demonstration software
for analog filter design, KEELOQ® security ICs, CAN,
IrDA®, PowerSmart battery management, SEEVAL®
evaluation system, Sigma-Delta ADC, flow rate
sensing, plus many more.
Also available are starter kits that contain everything
needed to experience the specified device. This usually
includes a single application and debug capability, all
on one board.
Check the Microchip web page (www.microchip.com)
for the complete list of demonstration, development
and evaluation kits.
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
15.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Absolute Maximum Ratings(†)
Ambient temperature under bias.......................................................................................................... -40°C to +125°C
Storage temperature ............................................................................................................................ -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ............................................................................................................... 0 to +6.5V
Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS..........................................................................................................0 to +13.5V
Voltage on all other pins with respect to VSS ............................................................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Total power dissipation(1) .................................................................................................................................. 700 mW
Max. current out of VSS pin ................................................................................................................................ 200 mA
Max. current into VDD pin ................................................................................................................................... 150 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD)20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD) 20 mA
Max. output current sunk by any I/O pin .............................................................................................................. 25 mA
Max. output current sourced by any I/O pin ......................................................................................................... 25 mA
Max. output current sourced by I/O port .............................................................................................................. 75 mA
Max. output current sunk by I/O port ................................................................................................................... 75 mA
Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: PDIS = VDD x {IDD –  IOH} +  {(VDD – VOH) x IOH} + (VOL x IOL)
†NOTICE:
Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above
those indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions
for extended periods may affect device reliability.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 85
PIC16F527
PIC16F527 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH, -40C  TA  +125C
FIGURE 15-1:
6.0
5.5
5.0
VDD
(Volts)
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
0
4
8
20
10
25
Frequency (MHz)
FIGURE 15-2:
MAXIMUM OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY TABLE
Oscillator Mode
LP
XT
XTRC
INTOSC
EC
HS
0
200 kHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
20 MHz
Frequency
DS41652A-page 86
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
15.1
DC Characteristics: PIC16F527 (Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise specified)
Operating Temperature -40C  TA  +85C (industrial)
DC Characteristics
Param
No.
D001
Sym.
VDD
Characteristic
Supply Voltage
Voltage(2)
D002
VDR
RAM Data Retention
D003
VPOR
VDD Start Voltage to ensure
Power-on Reset
D004
SVDD
VDD Rise Rate to ensure
Power-on Reset
D005
IDDP
D010
IDD
Min.
Typ.(1)
Max.
Units
2.0
—
5.5
V
See Figure 15-1
Conditions
—
1.5*
—
V
Device in Sleep mode
—
Vss
—
V
See Section 8.5 “Power-on
Reset (POR)” for details
0.05*
—
—
V/ms
See Section 8.5 “Power-on
Reset (POR)” for details
Supply Current During Prog/Erase
—
250*
—
A
Supply Current(3, 4, 6)
—
—
175
400
—
—
A
A
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 2.0V
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 5.0V
—
—
250
0.75
—
—
A
mA
FOSC = 8 MHz, VDD = 2.0V
FOSC = 8 MHz, VDD = 5.0V
—
1.4
—
mA
FOSC = 20 MHz, VDD = 5.0V
—
—
11
38
—
—
A
A
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 2.0V
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 5.0V
D020
IPD
Power-down Current(5)
—
—
0.1
0.35
—
—
A
A
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 5.0V
D022
IWDT
WDT Current(5)
—
—
1.0
7.0
—
—
A
A
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 5.0V
D023
ICMP
Comparator Current(5)
—
—
15
60
—
—
A
A
VDD = 2.0V (per comparator)
VDD = 5.0V (per comparator)
D022
ICVREF
CVREF Current(5)
—
—
30
75
—
—
A
A
VDD = 2.0V (high range)
VDD = 5.0V (high range)
D023
IFVR
Internal 0.6V Fixed Voltage
Reference Current(5)
—
100
—
A
—
175
—
A
VDD = 2.0V (reference and 1
comparator enabled)
VDD = 5.0V (reference and 1
comparator enabled)
—
120
—
A
2.0V, conversion in progress
—
200
—
A
5.0V, conversion in progress
—
0.20
—
A
2.0V, no conversion in progress
—
0.36
—
A
5.0V, no conversion in progress
—
5
—
A
3.0V
—
6
—
A
5.0V
IAD1*
D024
IAD2
D025
IBOR
D026
*
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
A/D Conversion Current
A/D Conversion Current
BOR Current
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in the Typical (“Typ”) column is based on characterization results at 25C. This data is for design
guidance only and is not tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered in Sleep mode without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as bus
loading, oscillator type, bus rate, internal code execution pattern and temperature also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in Active Operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VSS, T0CKI = VDD, MCLR =
VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
For standby current measurements, the conditions are the same as IDD, except that the device is in Sleep
mode. If a module current is listed, the current is for that specific module enabled and the device in Sleep.
For EXTRC mode, does not include current through REXT. The current through the resistor can be
estimated by the formula:
I = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 87
PIC16F527
15.2
DC Characteristics: PIC16F527 (Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise specified)
Operating Temperature -40C  TA  +125C (extended)
DC Characteristics
Param
No.
D001
Sym.
VDD
Characteristic
Supply Voltage
Voltage(2)
D002
VDR
RAM Data Retention
D003
VPOR
VDD Start Voltage to ensure
Power-on Reset
D004
SVDD
VDD Rise Rate to ensure
Power-on Reset
D005
IDDP
D010
IDD
Min.
Typ.(1)
Max.
Units
2.0
—
5.5
V
See Figure 15-1
Conditions
—
1.5*
—
V
Device in Sleep mode
—
Vss
—
V
See Section 8.5 “Power-on
Reset (POR)” for details
0.05*
—
—
V/ms
See Section 8.5 “Power-on
Reset (POR)” for details
Supply Current During Prog/Erase
—
250*
—
A
Supply Current(3,4,6)
—
—
175
400
—
—
A
A
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 2.0V
FOSC = 4 MHz, VDD = 5.0V
—
—
250
0.75
—
—
A
mA
FOSC = 8 MHz, VDD = 2.0V
FOSC = 8 MHz, VDD = 5.0V
—
1.4
—
mA
FOSC = 20 MHz, VDD = 5.0V
—
—
11
38
—
—
A
A
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 2.0V
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 5.0V
D020
IPD
Power-down Current(5)
—
—
0.1
0.35
—
—
A
A
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 5.0V
D022
IWDT
WDT Current(5)
—
—
1.0
7.0
—
—
A
A
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 5.0V
D023
ICMP
Comparator Current(5)
—
—
15
60
—
—
A
A
VDD = 2.0V (per comparator)
VDD = 5.0V (per comparator)
D022
ICVREF
CVREF Current(5)
—
—
30
75
—
—
A
A
VDD = 2.0V (high range)
VDD = 5.0V (high range)
D023
IFVR
Internal 0.6V Fixed Voltage
Reference Current(5)
—
100
—
A
—
175
—
A
VDD = 2.0V (reference and 1
comparator enabled)
VDD = 5.0V (reference and 1
comparator enabled)
—
120
—
A
2.0V, conversion in progress
—
200
—
A
5.0V, conversion in progress
—
0.20
—
A
2.0V, no conversion in progress
—
0.36
—
A
5.0V, no conversion in progress
—
5
—
A
3.0V
—
6
—
A
5.0V
IAD1*
D024
IAD2
D025
IBOR
D026
*
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
A/D Conversion Current
A/D Conversion Current
BOR Current
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in the Typical (“Typ”) column is based on characterization results at 25C. This data is for design
guidance only and is not tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered in Sleep mode without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as bus
loading, oscillator type, bus rate, internal code execution pattern and temperature also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in Active Operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VSS, T0CKI = VDD, MCLR =
VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
For standby current measurements, the conditions are the same as IDD, except that the device is in Sleep
mode. If a module current is listed, the current is for that specific module enabled and the device in Sleep.
For EXTRC mode, does not include current through REXT. The current through the resistor can be
estimated by the formula:
I = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k.
DS41652A-page 88
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
TABLE 15-1:
DC CHARACTERISTICS: PIC16F527 (Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise specified)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C (industrial)
-40°C  TA  +125°C (extended)
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec.
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym.
VIL
Characteristic
Min.
Typ.†
Max.
Units
Conditions
Input Low Voltage
I/O ports
D030
with TTL buffer
D030A
Vss
—
0.8
V
For all 4.5  VDD 5.5V
Vss
—
0.15 VDD
V
Otherwise
D031
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
Vss
—
0.15 VDD
V
D032
MCLR, T0CKI
Vss
—
0.15 VDD
V
D033
OSC1 (EXTRC mode), EC(1)
Vss
—
0.15 VDD
V
D033
OSC1 (HS mode)
Vss
—
0.3 VDD
V
D033
OSC1 (XT and LP modes)
Vss
—
0.3
V
VIH
Input High Voltage
I/O ports
D040
with TTL buffer
D040A
—
2.0
—
VDD
V
4.5  VDD 5.5V
0.25 VDD
+ 0.8V
—
VDD
V
Otherwise
For entire VDD range
D041
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
0.85 VDD
—
VDD
V
D042
MCLR, T0CKI
0.85 VDD
—
VDD
V
D042A
OSC1 (EXTRC mode), EC(1)
0.85 VDD
—
VDD
V
D042A
OSC1 (HS mode)
0.7 VDD
—
VDD
V
D043
OSC1 (XT and LP modes)
1.6
—
VDD
V
PORTB Weak pull-up current(4)
50
250
400
A
VDD = 5V, VPIN = VSS
Vss VPIN VDD, Pin at high-impedance
D070
IPUR
IIL
Input Leakage Current(2,5)
D060
I/O ports
—
—
±1
A
D061
RB3/MCLR(3)
—
±0.7
±5
A
Vss VPIN VDD
D063
OSC1
—
—
±5
A
Vss VPIN VDD, XT, HS and LP osc
configuration
—
—
0.6
V
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40C to +85C
—
—
0.6
V
IOL = 7.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40C to +125C
VDD – 0.7
—
—
V
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40C to +85C
VDD – 0.7
—
—
V
IOH = -2.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V, -40C to +125C
In XT, HS and LP modes when external clock is
used to drive OSC1.
VOL
D080
Output Low Voltage
I/O ports/CLKOUT
D080A
VOH
D090
Output High Voltage
I/O ports/CLKOUT
D090A
Capacitive Loading Specs on Output Pins
D100
COSC2 OSC2 pin
—
—
15
pF
D101
CIO
—
—
50
pF
All I/O pins and OSC2
Flash Data Memory
D120
ED
Byte endurance
100K
1M
—
E/W
-40C  TA  +85C
D120A
ED
Byte endurance
10K
100K
—
E/W
+85C  TA  +125C
D121
VDRW
VDD for read/write
VMIN
—
5.5
V
†
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not tested.
Note 1:
In EXTRC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the PIC16F527 be driven
with external clock in RC mode.
2:
Negative current is defined as coming out of the pin.
3:
This spec. applies to RB3/MCLR configured as RB3 with pull-up disabled.
4:
This spec. applies to all weak pull-up devices, including the weak pull-up found on RB3/MCLR. The current value listed will be the same
whether or not the pin is configured as RB3 with pull-up enabled or as MCLR.
5:
The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating
conditions. Higher leakage may be measured at different input voltages.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 89
PIC16F527
TABLE 15-2:
COMPARATOR SPECIFICATIONS
Comparator Specifications
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C to 125°C
Characteristics
Sym.
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
0.70
V
Internal Voltage Reference
VIVRF
0.50
0.60
Input offset voltage
VOS
—
 5.0
—
mV
Input common mode voltage*
VCM
0
—
VDD – 1.5
V
—
db
CMRR*
Response Time
(1)*
Comparator Mode Change to
Output Valid*
CMRR
55
—
TRT
—
150
—
ns
TMC2COV
—
—
10
s
Comments
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Note 1: Response time measured with one comparator input at (VDD – 1.5)/2 while the other input transitions from
VSS to VDD – 1.5V.
TABLE 15-3:
Sym.
CVRES
*
Note 1:
2:
COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE (VREF) SPECIFICATIONS
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
Resolution
Characteristics
—
—
VDD/24*
VDD/32
—
—
LSb
LSb
Low Range (VRR = 1)
High Range (VRR = 0)
Comments
Absolute Accuracy(2)
—
—
—
—
±1/2*
±1/2*
LSb
LSb
Low Range (VRR = 1)
High Range (VRR = 0)
Unit Resistor Value (R)
—
—
2K*
—

Settling Time(1)
—
—
10*
s
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Settling time measured while VRR = 1 and VR<3:0> transitions from 0000 to 1111.
Do not use reference externally when VDD < 2.7V. Under this condition, reference should only be used
with comparator Voltage Common mode observed.
DS41652A-page 90
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
TABLE 15-4:
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPA) MODULE DC SPECIFICATIONS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
VCM = 0V, VOUT = VDD/2, VDD = 5.0V, VSS = 0V, CL = 50 pF,
RL = 100k
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +125°C
OPA DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym.
Characteristics
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
Comments
VOS
Input Offset Voltage
—
5
—
mV
OPA02*
OPA03*
IB
IOS
Input current and impedance
Input bias current
Input offset bias current
—
—
2*
1*
—
—
nA
pA
OPA04*
OPA05*
VCM
CMR
Common Mode
Common mode input range
Common mode rejection
VSS
65
—
70
VDD – 1.5
—
V
dB
VDD = 5.0V
VCM = VDD/2, Freq. = DC
—
—
90
60
—
—
dB
dB
No load
Standard load
VSS+100
—
VDD – 100
mV
To VDD/2 (20 k
connected to VDD,
20 k + 20 pF to Vss)
OPA01
OPA06A* AOL
OPA06B* AOL
Open Loop Gain
DC Open loop gain
DC Open loop gain
OPA07*
Vout
Output
Output voltage swing
OPA08*
Isc
Output short circuit current
—
25
28
mA
OPA10*
PSR
Power Supply
Power supply rejection
80
—
—
dB
*
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
TABLE 15-5:
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OPA) MODULE AC SPECIFICATIONS
OPA AC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Symbol
Characteristics
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
VCM = 0V, VOUT = VDD/2, VDD = 5.0V, VSS = 0V, CL = 50 pF,
RL = 100k
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +125°C
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
OPA11* GBWP
Gain bandwidth product
—
3
—
MHz
OPA12* TON
Turn on time
—
10
15
s
OPA13* M
Phase margin
—
60
—
deg
OPA14* SR
Slew rate
2
—
—
V/s
*
Comments
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 91
PIC16F527
TABLE 15-6:
A/D CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS
A/D Converter Specifications
Param
No.
A01
Sym.
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C
Characteristic
Min.
Typ.†
Max.
Units
8
bit
Conditions
NR
Resolution
—
—
Integral Error
—
—
1.5
—
—
-1< EDNL 1.7
—
—
1.5
LSb VDD = 5.0V
-0.7
—
+2.2
LSb VDD = 5.0V
A03
EINL
A04
EDNL Differential Error
A06
EOFF Offset Error
A07
EGN
Gain Error
A10
—
Monotonicity
—
A25
VAIN
Analog Input
Voltage
VSS
A30
ZAIN
Recommended
Impedance of
Analog Voltage
Source
—
(1)
LSb VDD = 5.0V
LSb No missing codes to eight bits
VDD = 5.0V
—
—
—
VDD
V
—
10
K
guaranteed
VSS  VAIN  VDD
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: The A/D conversion result never decreases with an increase in the input voltage and has no missing
codes.
TABLE 15-7:
VDD (Volts)
RA0/RA1/RA4
2.0
5.5
RA3
2.0
5.5
DS41652A-page 92
PULL-UP RESISTOR RANGES
Temperature (C)
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
-40
25
85
125
-40
25
85
125
73K
73K
82K
86K
15K
15K
19K
23K
105K
113K
123K
132k
21K
22K
26k
29K
186K
187K
190K
190K
33K
34K
35K
35K








-40
25
85
125
-40
25
85
125
63K
77K
82K
86K
16K
16K
24K
26K
81K
93K
96k
100K
20k
21K
25k
27K
96K
116K
116K
119K
22K
23K
28K
29K








Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
15.3
Timing Parameter Symbology and Load Conditions
The timing parameter symbols have been created following one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
2. TppS
T
F
Frequency
T Time
Lowercase subscripts (pp) and their meanings:
pp
2
to
mc
MCLR
ck
CLKOUT
osc
Oscillator
cy
Cycle time
os
OSC1
drt
Device Reset Timer
t0
T0CKI
io
I/O port
wdt
Watchdog Timer
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
P
Period
H
High
R
Rise
I
Invalid (high-impedance)
V
Valid
L
Low
Z
High-impedance
FIGURE 15-3:
LOAD CONDITIONS
Legend:
Pin
CL
CL = 50 pF for all pins except OSC2
15 pF for OSC2 in XT, HS or LP
modes when external clock
is used to drive OSC1
VSS
FIGURE 15-4:
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q3
Q2
Q4
Q1
OSC1
1
3
3
4
4
2
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 93
PIC16F527
TABLE 15-8:
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
AC CHARACTERISTICS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise specified)
Operating Temperature -40C  TA  +85C (industrial),
-40C  TA  +125C (extended)
Operating Voltage VDD range is described in Section 15.1 “DC
Characteristics: PIC16F527 (Industrial)”
Param
No.
Sym.
Characteristic
Min.
Typ.(1)
1A
FOSC
External CLKIN Frequency(2)
DC
—
4
MHz XT Oscillator mode
DC
—
20
MHz HS/EC Oscillator mode
DC
—
200
—
—
4
Oscillator Frequency(2)
1
TOSC
External CLKIN Period(2)
Oscillator Period
(2)
Max.
Units
kHz
0.1
—
4
MHz XT Oscillator mode
4
—
20
MHz HS/EC Oscillator mode
—
—
200
kHz
LP Oscillator mode
250
—
—
ns
XT Oscillator mode
50
—
—
ns
HS/EC Oscillator mode
5
—
—
s
LP Oscillator mode
250
—
—
ns
EXTRC Oscillator mode
250
—
10,000
ns
XT Oscillator mode
50
—
250
ns
HS/EC Oscillator mode
5
—
—
s
LP Oscillator mode
TCY
Instruction Cycle Time
200
4/FOSC
—
ns
3
TosL,
TosH
Clock in (OSC1) Low or High
Time
50*
—
—
ns
TosR,
TosF
*
Note 1:
2:
Clock in (OSC1) Rise or Fall
Time
LP Oscillator mode
MHz EXTRC Oscillator mode
2
4
Conditions
XT Oscillator
2*
—
—
s
LP Oscillator
10*
—
—
ns
HS/EC Oscillator
—
—
25*
ns
XT Oscillator
—
—
50*
ns
LP Oscillator
—
—
15*
ns
HS/EC Oscillator
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in the Typical (“Typ”) column is at 5V, 25C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for
design guidance only and are not tested.
All specified values are based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard
operating conditions with the device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an
unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. When an external clock
input is used, the “max” cycle time limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices.
DS41652A-page 94
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
TABLE 15-9:
CALIBRATED INTERNAL RC FREQUENCIES
AC CHARACTERISTICS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise specified)
Operating Temperature -40C  TA  +85C (industrial),
-40C  TA  +125C (extended)
Operating Voltage VDD range is described in
Section 15.1 “DC Characteristics: PIC16F527 (Industrial)”
Param
No.
Freq.
Min.
Tolerance
F10
Sym.
FOSC
Characteristic
Internal Calibrated
INTOSC Frequency(1)
Typ.†
Max.
Units
Conditions
1%
7.92
8.00
8.08
MHz 3.5V, +25C
2%
7.84
8.00
8.16
MHz 2.5V VDD  5.5V
0C  TA  +85C
5%
7.60
8.00
8.40
MHz 2.0V VDD  5.5V
-40C  TA  +85C (Ind.)
-40C  TA  +125C
(Ext.)
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in the Typical (“Typ”) column is at 5V, 25C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design
guidance only and are not tested.
Note 1: To ensure these oscillator frequency tolerances, VDD and VSS must be capacitively decoupled as close to
the device as possible. 0.1 uF and 0.01 uF values in parallel are recommended.
FIGURE 15-5:
I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
I/O Pin
(input)
17
I/O Pin
(output)
19
18
New Value
Old Value
20, 21
Note:
All tests must be done with specified capacitive loads (see data sheet) 50 pF on I/O pins and CLKOUT.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 95
PIC16F527
TABLE 15-10: TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise specified)
Operating Temperature -40C  TA  +85C (industrial)
AC
-40C  TA  +125C (extended)
CHARACTERISTICS
Operating Voltage VDD range is described in Section 15.1 “DC Characteristics: PIC16F527
(Industrial)”
Param
No.
Sym.
Characteristic
Min.
Typ.(1)
Max.
Units
17
TOSH2IOV
OSC1 (Q1 cycle) to Port Out Valid(2), (3)
—
—
100*
ns
18
TOSH2IOI
OSC1 (Q2 cycle) to Port Input Invalid (I/O in hold time)(2)
50
—
—
ns
19
TIOV2OSH
Port Input Valid to OSC1 (I/O in setup time)
20
—
—
ns
—
10
50**
ns
—
10
58**
ns
20
21
TIOR
TIOF
Port Output Rise Time
Port Output Fall Time
(3)
(3)
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
** These parameters are design targets and are not tested.
Note 1: Data in the Typical (“Typ”) column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design
guidance only and are not tested.
2: Measurements are taken in EXTRC mode.
3: See Figure 15-3 for loading conditions.
FIGURE 15-6:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER AND DEVICE RESET TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
32
32
32
DRT
Time-out(2)
Internal
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Reset
31
34
34
I/O pin(1)
Note 1:
2:
I/O pins must be taken out of High-Impedance mode by enabling the output drivers in software.
Runs in MCLR or WDT Reset only in XT, LP and HS modes.
DS41652A-page 96
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
TABLE 15-11: RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER AND DEVICE RESET TIMER
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise specified)
Operating Temperature -40C  TA  +85C (industrial)
-40C  TA  +125C (extended)
Operating Voltage VDD range is described in
Section 15.1 “DC Characteristics: PIC16F527 (Industrial)”
AC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Typ.(1)
Max.
Units
Conditions
Sym.
Characteristic
Min.
30
TMCL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
2000*
—
—
ns
VDD = 5.0V
31
TWDT
Watchdog Timer Time-out
Period (no prescaler)
9*
9*
18*
18*
30*
40*
ms
ms
VDD = 5.0V (Industrial)
VDD = 5.0V (Extended)
32
TDRT
Device Reset Timer Period
9*
9*
18*
18*
30*
40*
ms
ms
VDD = 5.0V (Industrial)
VDD = 5.0V (Extended)
—
—
2000*
ns
Standard
34
*
Note 1:
TIOZ
I/O High-impedance from MCLR
low
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in the Typical (“Typ”) column is at 5V, 25C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for
design guidance only and are not tested.
FIGURE 15-7:
TIMER0 CLOCK TIMINGS
T0CKI
40
41
42
TABLE 15-12: TIMER0 CLOCK REQUIREMENT
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise specified)
Operating Temperature -40C  TA  +85C (industrial)
-40C  TA  +125C (extended)
Operating Voltage VDD range is described in
Section 15.1 “DC Characteristics: PIC16F527 (Industrial)”
AC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
Sym.
No.
Characteristic
Min.
40
Tt0H
T0CKI High Pulse
Width
No Prescaler
41
Tt0L
T0CKI Low Pulse
Width
No Prescaler
42
Tt0P
T0CKI Period
*
Note 1:
With Prescaler
With Prescaler
0.5 TCY + 20*
Typ.(1) Max. Units
—
—
Conditions
ns
10*
—
—
ns
0.5 TCY + 20*
—
—
ns
10*
—
—
ns
20 or TCY + 40* N
—
—
ns
Whichever is greater.
N = Prescale Value
(1, 2, 4,..., 256)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in the Typical (“Typ”) column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design
guidance only and are not tested.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 97
PIC16F527
TABLE 15-13: FLASH DATA MEMORY WRITE/ERASE TIME
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise specified)
Operating Temperature -40C  TA  +85C (industrial)
-40C  TA  +125C (extended)
Operating Voltage VDD range is described in
Section 15.1 “DC Characteristics: PIC16F527 (Industrial)”
AC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym.
43
TDW
44
TDE
*
Note 1:
Min.
Typ.(1)
Max.
Units
Flash Data Memory
Write Cycle Time
2
3.5
5
ms
Flash Data Memory
Erase Cycle Time
2
3.5
5
ms
Characteristic
Conditions
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in the Typical (“Typ”) column is at 5V, 25C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for
design guidance only and are not tested.
DS41652A-page 98
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
16.0
DC AND AC
CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS
AND CHARTS
Graphs and tables are not available at this time.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 99
PIC16F527
NOTES:
DS41652A-page 100
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
17.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
17.1
Package Marking Information
20-Lead PDIP (300 mil)
Example
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
PIC16F527 -E/P e3
1220123
20-Lead SOIC (7.50 mm)
Example
PIC16F527
-E/SO e3
1220123
Legend: XX...X
Y
YY
WW
NNN
e3
*
Note:
*
Customer-specific information
Year code (last digit of calendar year)
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Alphanumeric traceability code
Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn)
This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 )
can be found on the outer packaging for this package.
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will
be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available
characters for customer-specific information.
Standard PICmicro® device marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code and
traceability code. For PICmicro device marking beyond this, certain price adders apply. Please check
with your Microchip Sales Office. For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP
price.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 101
PIC16F527
Package Marking Information (Continued)
20-Lead SSOP (5.30 mm)
Example
PIC16F527
-E/SS e3
1220123
20-Lead QFN (4x4x0.9 mm)
Example
PIN 1
PIN 1
Legend: XX...X
Y
YY
WW
NNN
e3
*
Note:
*
PIC16
F527
E/ML e3
220123
Customer-specific information
Year code (last digit of calendar year)
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Alphanumeric traceability code
Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn)
This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 )
can be found on the outer packaging for this package.
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will
be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available
characters for customer-specific information.
Standard PICmicro® device marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code and
traceability code. For PICmicro device marking beyond this, certain price adders apply. Please check
with your Microchip Sales Office. For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP
price.
DS41652A-page 102
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
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 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 103
PIC16F527
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
DS41652A-page 104
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 105
PIC16F527
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
DS41652A-page 106
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
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 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 107
PIC16F527
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
DS41652A-page 108
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
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 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 109
PIC16F527
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DS41652A-page 110
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
APPENDIX A:
DATA SHEET
REVISION HISTORY
Revision A (09/2012)
Initial release of this document.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 111
PIC16F527
NOTES:
DS41652A-page 112
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
INDEX
A
M
A/D
Memory Organization ......................................................... 15
Memory Map............................................................... 15
PIC16F527 ................................................................. 15
Program Memory (PIC16F527) .................................. 15
Microchip Internet Web Site.............................................. 115
MPLAB ASM30 Assembler, Linker, Librarian ..................... 82
MPLAB C Compilers for Various Device Families .............. 82
MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software.... 81
MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer ...................................... 84
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System .................. 83
MPLINK Object Linker/MPLIB Object Librarian .................. 82
Converter Characteristics ........................................... 92
ALU ....................................................................................... 9
Assembler
MPASM Assembler..................................................... 82
B
Block Diagram
On-Chip Reset Circuit ................................................. 48
Timer0......................................................................... 35
TMR0/WDT Prescaler................................................. 39
Watchdog Timer.......................................................... 51
Block Diagrams
OPA Module................................................................ 71
C
Carry ..................................................................................... 9
Clock Divisors ..................................................................... 59
Clocking Scheme ................................................................ 13
Code Protection ............................................................ 41, 54
Comparator ......................................................................... 64
CONFIG1 Register.............................................................. 42
Configuration Bits................................................................ 41
Customer Change Notification Service ............................. 115
Customer Notification Service........................................... 115
Customer Support ............................................................. 115
D
Data Memory (SRAM and FSRs)
Register File Map.................................................. 16, 19
DC and AC Characteristics ................................................. 99
Graphs and Tables ..................................................... 99
Development Support ......................................................... 81
Digit Carry ............................................................................. 9
E
Effects of Reset
OPA module................................................................ 72
Errata .................................................................................... 4
External Clock Timing ......................................................... 93
F
Flash Data Memory Control ................................................ 25
FSR ..................................................................................... 23
Fuses. See Configuration Bits
H
HI-TECH C for Various Device Families ............................. 82
I
I/O Interfacing ............................................................... 30, 32
I/O Port................................................................................ 29
I/O Programming Considerations........................................ 33
ID Locations .................................................................. 41, 57
INDF.................................................................................... 23
Indirect Data Addressing..................................................... 23
Instruction Cycle ................................................................. 13
Instruction Flow/Pipelining .................................................. 13
Instruction Set Summary..................................................... 74
Internet Address................................................................ 115
L
Loading of PC ..................................................................... 22
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
O
OPA2CON Register............................................................ 72
Operational Amplifier (OPA) Module
Associated Registers.................................................. 72
OPTION Register................................................................ 20
OSC selection..................................................................... 41
OSCCAL Register............................................................... 21
Oscillator Configurations..................................................... 43
Oscillator Types
EC............................................................................... 43
EXTRC ....................................................................... 43
HS............................................................................... 43
INTRC......................................................................... 43
LP ............................................................................... 43
XT ............................................................................... 43
P
PIC16F527 Device Varieties................................................. 7
POR
Device Reset Timer (DRT) ................................... 41, 50
PD............................................................................... 51
Power-on Reset (POR)............................................... 41
TO............................................................................... 51
PORTA ............................................................................... 29
PORTB ............................................................................... 29
PORTC ............................................................................... 29
Power-down Mode.............................................................. 53
Prescaler ............................................................................ 38
Program Counter ................................................................ 22
Q
Q cycles .............................................................................. 13
R
RC Oscillator....................................................................... 44
Reader Response............................................................. 116
Read-Modify-Write.............................................................. 33
Registers
CONFIG1 (Configuration Word Register 1)................ 42
Op Amp 2 Control Register (OPA2CON) ................... 72
Special Function ......................................................... 16
Reset .................................................................................. 41
Revision History................................................................ 111
S
Sleep ............................................................................ 41, 53
Software Simulator (MPLAB SIM) ...................................... 83
Special Features of the CPU .............................................. 41
Special Function Registers ........................................... 16, 19
Stack................................................................................... 22
STATUS ............................................................................. 19
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 113
PIC16F527
STATUS Register................................................................ 19
STATUS register ................................................................. 51
Status Register................................................................ 9, 19
T
Timer0
Timer0 ......................................................................... 35
Timer0 (TMR0) Module ............................................... 35
TMR0 with External Clock........................................... 37
Timing Diagrams
Brown-out Reset Situations ........................................ 52
Timing Parameter Symbology and Load Conditions........... 93
TRIS Register...................................................................... 29
W
Wake-up from Sleep ........................................................... 53
Watchdog Timer (WDT) ................................................ 41, 50
Period.......................................................................... 50
Programming Considerations ..................................... 50
WWW Address.................................................................. 115
WWW, On-Line Support........................................................ 4
Z
Zero bit .................................................................................. 9
DS41652A-page 114
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Microchip provides online support via our WWW site at
www.microchip.com. This web site is used as a means
to make files and information easily available to
customers. Accessible by using your favorite Internet
browser, the web site contains the following information:
Users of Microchip products can receive assistance
through several channels:
• Product Support – Data sheets and errata, application notes and sample programs, design
resources, user’s guides and hardware support
documents, latest software releases and archived
software
• General Technical Support – Frequently Asked
Questions (FAQ), technical support requests,
online discussion groups, Microchip consultant
program member listing
• Business of Microchip – Product selector and
ordering guides, latest Microchip press releases,
listing of seminars and events, listings of Microchip sales offices, distributors and factory representatives
•
•
•
•
Distributor or Representative
Local Sales Office
Field Application Engineer (FAE)
Technical Support
Customers should contact their distributor, representative or field application engineer (FAE) for support.
Local sales offices are also available to help customers. A listing of sales offices and locations is included in
the back of this document.
Technical support is available through the web site
at: http://microchip.com/support
CUSTOMER CHANGE NOTIFICATION
SERVICE
Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep
customers current on Microchip products. Subscribers
will receive e-mail notification whenever there are
changes, updates, revisions or errata related to a specified product family or development tool of interest.
To register, access the Microchip web site at
www.microchip.com. Under “Support”, click on “Customer Change Notification” and follow the registration
instructions.
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 115
PIC16F527
READER RESPONSE
It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip
product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our
documentation can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at
(480) 792-4150.
Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this document.
TO:
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Telephone: (_______) _________ - _________
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Application (optional):
Would you like a reply?
Y
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Device: PIC16F527
Literature Number: DS41652A
Questions:
1. What are the best features of this document?
2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs?
3. Do you find the organization of this document easy to follow? If not, why?
4. What additions to the document do you think would enhance the structure and subject?
5. What deletions from the document could be made without affecting the overall usefulness?
6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)?
7. How would you improve this document?
DS41652A-page 116
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F527
PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office.
PART NO.
X
/XX
XXX
Device
Temperature
Range
Package
Pattern
Examples:
a)
b)
c)
Device:
PIC16F527
Temperature
Range:
I
E
Package:
P
SO
SS
ML
Pattern:
Special Requirements
d)
=
=
-40C to +85C (Industrial)
-40C to +125C (Extended)
=
=
=
=
PIC16F527-E/P 301 = Extended Temp., PDIP
package, QTP pattern #301
PIC16F527-I/SO = Industrial Temp., SOIC
package
PIC16F527T-E/SS = Extended Temp., SSOP
package, Tape and Reel
PIC16F527T-I/ML = Industrial Temp., QFN
Package, Tape and Reel
Plastic (PDIP)(2)
20L Small Outline, 7.50 mm (SOIC)(1,2)
Shrink Small Outline (SSOP)(1,2)
20-Lead 4x4 (QFN)(1,2)
Note 1:
2:
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
T = in tape and reel SOIC, SSOP and
QFN packages only
Pb-free.
DS41652A-page 117
PIC16F527
NOTES:
DS41652A-page 118
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
•
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts
allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act.
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is provided only for your convenience
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR
OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION,
QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability
arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip
devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at
the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and
hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims,
suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are
conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip
intellectual property rights.
Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC,
KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART,
PIC32 logo, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of
Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other
countries.
FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor,
MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control
Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, BodyCom,
chipKIT, chipKIT logo, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM,
dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN,
ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial
Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified
logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code
Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit,
PICtail, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance,
TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA are
trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2012, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the
U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
ISBN: 978-1-62076-527-2
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
CERTIFIED BY DNV
== ISO/TS 16949 ==
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.
Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2009 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures
are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and
analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design
and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
Preliminary
DS41652A-page 119
Worldwide Sales and Service
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DS41652A-page 120
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
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11/29/11
Preliminary
 2012 Microchip Technology Inc.