AGERE LUCW3000CCN

Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Applications
Features
+
2.2 GHz operational
+
GSM900/1800/1900
+
Dual-band optimized
+
North American IS-136/137
+
Low supply current (5.1 mA)
+
Personal Digital Cellular (Japan RCR-27)
+
Surface-mount 14-pin TSSOP package
+
Personal Handy Phone (Japan RCR-28)
+
Scaled PD gain for dual-band operation
+
CDMA (IS-95)
+
Programmable phase-detector polarity
+
Synchronous or forced counter update loading
+
Powerdown mode via external pin or serial bus
+
Low-load capacitance on reference input buffer
VDDC
LD
REF_IN
R
11-BIT COUNTER
VCP
PHASE
DETECTOR
VCO BAND A
TCXO
IPD SETTING
PD POLARITY
IREF
VCO BAND B
M
11-BIT COUNTER
PRESCALER
÷64/65
MAIN_IN
A
7-BIT COUNTER
IREF
HIGH-PRECISION
CURRENT
REFERENCE
IPD SETTING
PD POLARITY
BAND
CONTROL
LOGIC
RREF
VDDC
OFF CHIP
Figure 1. Block Diagram with Pinout
24-BIT SERIAL
SHIFT REGISTER
LAT
DAT
CLK
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
Table of Contents
Features...............................................................................................................................................................1
Applications .........................................................................................................................................................1
Description...........................................................................................................................................................3
Pin Information.....................................................................................................................................................4
Absolute Maximum Ratings..................................................................................................................................5
Electrostatic Discharge Caution............................................................................................................................5
Electrical Characteristics ......................................................................................................................................6
Charge Pump Current ..........................................................................................................................................7
PLL Programming Information .............................................................................................................................8
Serial Data Input ..................................................................................................................................................9
Serial Bus Timing Information ..............................................................................................................................9
Functional Descriptions ......................................................................................................................................10
REF Register .....................................................................................................................................................11
MAIN Register....................................................................................................................................................15
PLL Lock-Detect Function ..................................................................................................................................17
Typical Performance Characteristics ..................................................................................................................17
MAIN_IN Input Parallel Equivalent Circuit.......................................................................................................18
Application Example ..........................................................................................................................................18
Application Information ......................................................................................................................................19
Typical Performance Data..................................................................................................................................22
Outline Diagram.................................................................................................................................................26
14-Pin TSSOP................................................................................................................................................26
Manufacturing Information .................................................................................................................................27
Ordering Information ..........................................................................................................................................27
2
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Description
The W3000 is a high-performance UHF RF PLL synthesizer, designed for use in digital wireless communication
applications. Particular emphasis in the design has been placed on dual-band applications, with near-seamless
switching between operational bands without the need for external loop-filter circuitry other than that required for
single band applications. In combination with a suitable reference crystal, UHF VCO, and associated loop-filter
components, the W3000 offers a very low-noise oscillator solution.
The reference signal is divided by a programmable 11-bit counter to provide a wide range of comparison
frequencies, allowing compliance with the various standards. The reference input is rising-edge triggered, and we
recommend that an inverting buffer be used when the W3000 is interfaced to a commercial TCXO.
The MAIN_IN signal normally associated with the UHF VCO is fed into a dual modulus prescaler (64/65) and is
then divided by the 11-bit main counter to be compared to the output of the reference counter in a digital phase
detector.
The W3000 is implemented with programmable charge-pump currents to allow fast switching between bands for
dual-band applications, without changing the loop filter. The charge pump can be programmed internally, or
externally with a resistor (recommended). Charge pump outputs can be disabled, thereby allowing open-loop
VCO modulation schemes.
With synchronous reloading, the counter reloads a new programmed value when the counter reaches zero. With
forced counter reloading, the reloading occurs when the programmed word is latched in. These techniques can
improve lock time when performing a dual-band hop or in start-up conditions.
ADDRESS DECODER
The W3000 uses a standard 3-wire programming bus (data, enable, clock) that operates up to 10 MHz. This
serial interface is via a 24-bit word that incorporates both register addressing and device addressing allowing two
chips to share the bus.
TR REGISTER
CONFIG REGISTER
MAIN REGISTER
A[0:2]
W3020
SC1
LAT
PARALLEL LATCH
CLK
SERIAL SHIFT
DAT
SERLE1
SERCK
SERDA
DAT
SERIAL SHIFT
CLK
W3000
PARALLEL LATCH
LAT
REF REGISTER
ADDRESS
DECODER
A[0:2]
MAIN REGISTER
Figure 2. Serial Bus Programming
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3
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Pin Information
VDDC
1
14
LAT
CPOUT
2
13
DAT
VSS1
3
12
CLK
VSS2
4
11
PWRDN
MAIN_IN
5
10
REF_IN
VDD1
6
9
RES
VDD2
7
8
LOCKDET
Figure 3. Pin Diagram
Table 1. Pin Descriptions
4
Pin
Symbol
Function
Name/Description
1
VDDC
Supply
Charge Pump Positive Supply Voltage. Must be ≥VDD. (VDD = VDD1 = VDD2).
2
CPOUT
Output
Charge Pump Output.
3
VSS1
Ground
Ground 1. Charge pump and logic ground.
4
VSS2
Ground
Ground 2. Prescaler and reference ground.
5
MAIN_IN
Input
6
VDD1
Supply
Voltage Supply 1. Prescaler supply voltage.
7
VDD2
Supply
Voltage Supply 2. Logic and reference supply (must be equal to VDD1).
8
LOCKDET
Output
Lock Detect Output.
9
RES
Input
External Resistor Input. Add resistor to VDDC if required (>10 kΩ).
10
REF_IN
Input
11
PWRDN
Input
Reference Frequency Input. Connection from reference oscillator. Must be accoupled.
Powerdown. For low current operation. (Low is powerdown mode.)
12
CLK
Input
Serial Input. Programming clock line.
13
DAT
Input
Serial Input. Programming data line.
14
LAT
Input
Serial Input. Programming latch line.
VCO Signal Input. Must be ac-coupled.
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Stresses in excess of the absolute maximum ratings can cause permanent damage to the device. These are
absolute stress ratings only. Functional operation of the device is not implied at these or any other conditions in
excess of those given in the operations sections of the data sheet. Exposure to absolute maximum ratings for
extended periods can adversely affect device reliability.
Parameter
Symbol
Min
Max
Unit
Ambient Operating Temperature
TA
–30
85
°C
Storage Temperature
Tstg
–65
150
°C
TL
—
300
°C
Positive Supply Voltage
VDD
0
4.5
Vdc
Positive Charge Pump Supply Voltage
VDDC
0
4.5
Vdc
Power Dissipation
PD
—
250
mW
ac Input Voltage
—
0
VDD
Vp-p
Digital Voltages
—
Vss – 0.3
VDD + 0.3
Vdc
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10 s)
Electrostatic Discharge Caution
Although protection circuitry has been designed into this device, proper precautions should be taken to avoid
exposure to electrostatic discharge (ESD) during handling and mounting. Lucent Technologies Microelectronics
Group employs a human-body model (HBM) and a charged-device model (CDM) for ESD-susceptibility testing
and protection design evaluation. ESD voltage thresholds are dependent on the circuit parameters used to define
the model. No industry-wide standard has been adopted for CDM. However, a standard HBM (resistance =
1500 Ω, capacitance = 100 pF) is widely used and, therefore, can be used for comparison purposes.
Parameter
Model
Min
Max
Unit
ESD Threshold Voltage
HBM
1000
—
V
ESD Threshold Voltage (corner pins)
CDM
1000
—
V
ESD Threshold Voltage (noncorner pins)
CDM
1500
—
V
Lucent Technologies Inc.
5
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Electrical Characteristics
Table 2. General Specifications
Conditions (unless otherwise specified): VDD = 2.7 V; TA = 25 °C ± 3 °C; VREF = 0.25 Vp-p, VDDC = 2.85 V.
Parameters
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
TA
–30
25
85
°C
Nominal Operating Voltage
VDD
2.7
2.85
3.6
V
Nominal Charge Pump Operating Voltage
VDDC
VDD
2.85
3.6
V
IDD
—
5.1
8.0
mA
Powerdown Current
IDD
—
0.1
20
µA
Digital Inputs:
Logic High Voltage
Logic Low Voltage
Logic High Current (VIH = VDD + 0.15 V)
Logic Low Current (VIL = –0.3 V)
VIH
VIL
|IIH|
|IIL|
0.7 * VDD
– 0.3
—
—
VDD
GND
—
—
VDD + 0.15
0.3 * VDD
10
10
V
V
µA
µA
Digital Outputs:
Logic High Voltage (|IOH| = 2 mA)
Logic Low Voltage (|IOL| = 2 mA)
VOH
VOL
VDD – 0.4
—
—
—
—
0.4
V
V
Ambient Operating Temperature
†
Power Supply Current
‡
† (IDD1 + IDD2 + IDDC) under locked condition, VDDC = 2.85 V; fVCO.= 1200 MHz; fREF = 13 MHz.
‡ (IDD1 + IDD2 + IDDC) VIL = 0 Vdc on all logic input pins.
Table 3. Electrical Specifications
Conditions (unless otherwise specified): VDD = 2.7 V; TA = 25 °C ± 3 °C; VREF = 0.25 Vp-p, VDDC = 2.85 V.
Parameter
Main Input Frequency Range
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
f VCO
0.5
—
2.2
GHz
VMAIN
–20
—
6
dBm/50 Ω*
†
VMAIN
–10
—
6
dBm/50 Ω*
Reference Input Frequency Range
f REF
8
—
30
MHz
Reference Input Shunt Resistance
—
20
30
—
kΩ
Reference Input Shunt Capacitance
—
—
1.2
3
pF
Reference Input Slew Rate
—
41
60
—
mV/ns
Reference Input Level
VREF
0.25
—
2.00
Vp-p
Phase Detector Comparison Frequency
f COMP
0.025
—
2
MHz
External Resistor Value (pin 9 to VDDC)
—
10
18
—
kΩ
Phase Detector Range
—
–2 π
—
2π
rad.
Phase Detector Noise Floor, ±150 Hz ‡
offset (25 kHz comparison frequency)
—
—
–167
—
dBc/Hz
Main Input Level (1100 MHz—1750 MHz)
Main Input Level
*Equivalent voltage of a 50 Ω terminated source.
† Frequencies outside the 1100 MHz—1750 MHz range and up to and including 2200 MHz.
‡ fVCO = 1190 MHz; VREF = 1.4 Vp-p.
6
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Charge Pump Current
ICP-DN (T = 25 °C )
ICP-UP (T = 25 °C )
A
ICP/mA
B
C
COMPLIANCE
RANGE
VDDC – 0.4 V
D
E
F
COMPLIANCE
RANGE
0.4 V
VDDC/2
0.4
2.45
VCP
A: CP UP CURRENT AT V CP = VDDC – 0.4.
B: CP UP CURRENT AT V CP = VDDC/2.
C: CP UP CURRENT AT V CP = 0.4.
D: CP DOWN CURRENT AT VCP = 0.4 V.
E: CP DOWN CURRENT AT VCP = VDDC/2.
F: CP DOWN CURRENT AT VCP = VDDC – 0.4.
Figure 4. Charge Pump Current vs. Voltage
Table 4. Charge Pump Specifications
Conditions (unless otherwise specified): VDD = 2.7 V; TA = 25 °C ± 3 °C; VDDC = 2.85 V; VCP = VDDC/2;
RREF = 18 kΩ.
Parameter
Charge Pump Output Current
CP High-Impedance State
Current
CP Sink vs. Source Mismatch
2
CP Current vs. Voltage
3
CP Current vs Temperature
1
Conditions
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
ICP = 0.7 mA
ICP= 0.7 mA
ICP = 0.9 mA
ICP = 0.9 mA
ICP = 1.9 mA
ICP = 1.9 mA
ICP = 2.5 mA
ICP = 2.5 mA
0.4 < VCP < VDDC – 0.4 V,
–30 °C < TA < +85 °C
TA = 25 °C
IUP
IDN
IUP
IDN
IUP
IDN
IUP
IDN
ITRI
0.6
–0.8
0.8
–1.0
1.6
–2.2
2.1
–2.9
—
0.7
–0.7
0.9
–0.9
1.9
–1.9
2.5
–2.5
0.1
0.8
–0.6
1.0
–0.8
2.2
–1.6
2.9
–2.1
20
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
nA
—
—
3
15
%
0.4 < VCP < VDDC – 0.4 V,
TA = 25 °C
–30 °C < TA < +85 °C
—
—
2
8.5
%
—
—
8
10
%
Notes (refer to Figure 4 for definitions):
1. ICP-DN vs ICP-UP = charge pump output current up vs down mismatch = [|E| – |B|]/[ 1/2 * {|E| + |B|}] * 100%.
2. ICP vs VCP = charge pump output current magnitude variation vs voltage = [ 1/2 * {|F| – |D|}]/[1/2 * {|F| +|D|}] * 100% and
[1/2 * {|A| - |C|}]/[1/2 *{|A| + |C|}] * 100%.
3. ICP vs TA = charge pump output current magnitude variation vs. temperature = [|E @ temp| – |E @ 25 °C|]/|E @ 25 °C| * 100% and [|B @
temp| – |B @ 25 °C|]/|B @ 25°C| * 100%.
Lucent Technologies Inc.
7
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
PLL Programming Information
The oscillator frequency is selected according to the following expression:
fVCO =
[(P * M) + A ] * fREF
R
where:
fVCO
= VCO frequency
P/(P + 1) = Dual modulus prescaler
M
= Programmable counter ratio (2 to 2047), M > A
A
= Swallow counter ratio (0 to M – 1 or 127)
fREF
= External reference oscillator frequency
R
= Reference counter ratio (2 to 2047)
Example
You wish to have a VCO operating at 1172 MHz, ability to step the frequency in 200 kHz steps, and a reference
clock at 13 MHz.
Step 1:
Calculate the reference counter ratio R
R=
13 MHz
= 65
200 kHz
Step 2: Calculate M & A
fVCO =
1172 =
[(P * M) + A ] * fREF
R
[(64 * M) + A ] * 13
(64 * M + A ) =
65
1172 * 65
= 5860
13
5860
36
= 91
64
64
M is an integer, and so is A; therefore, M = 91, and A = 36.
8
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Serial Data Input
The PLL is programmed via a 3-wire serial bus, utilizing a data pin (DAT), a clock pin (CLK), and a latch pin
(LAT).
Serial Bus Timing Information
DAT
MSB
LSB
MSB – 1
tCS
tCH
CLK
tLL
tCWL
tCWH
tLS
LAT
OR
tLWH
LAT
V
t
Figure 5. Serial Bus Timing Diagram
Table 5. Serial Bus Timing Information
Symbol
tCS
tCH
tCWH
tCWL
tLS
tLWH
tLL
f CLK
Parameter
Data to Clock Setup Time
Data to Clock Hold Time
Clock Pulse Width High
Clock Pulse Width Low
Clock Falling Edge to Latch High Setup Time
Latch Pulse Width
Latch to Clock Setup Time
Clock Input Frequency
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Min
33
10
33
33
0
50
33
—
Typ
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Max
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
10
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
MHz
9
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Functional Descriptions
The W3000 contains a reference register (REF) and a
main register (MAIN). The REF register is used for
programming the division ratio of the reference clock
and for initial setup of the operation modes. The MAIN
register is intended for programming that can occur
frequently, e.g., dynamic channel switching and
putting the W3000 into power-saving mode.
LAT
DAT
CLK
SHIFT REGISTER
ADDRESS
DECODER
MAIN
REF
Figure 6. Register Programming Diagram
10
Both REF and MAIN registers are programmed
separately, each with a 24-bit data sequence. The last
bit is that which immediately precedes a low-to-high
latch input transition occurring while the CLOCK input
is low. Bit 24 is loaded first, and bit 1 is loaded last.
The last bit in the serial sequence is C0. This bit is
used to direct the 24-bit sequence to the MAIN or REF
registers.
Table 6. C0:C1: MAIN and REF Register
Addressing (Destination of Serial Data)
(Bits 1 and 24)
C1
0
0
1
1
C0
0
1
0
1
Addressed Register
MAIN
REF
Secondary Address
Secondary Address
The first bit, C1, allows the W3000 to share the serial
bus. When C1 is a logic high, the W3000 ignores the
data sent on the serial bus.
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
REF Register
This section describes each bit of the reference register. The REF register is used for programming the division
ratio of the reference clock and for initial setup of the operation modes.
Table 7. REF Register Bit Description (C0 = 1, C1 = 0)
Bit
1
2:12
13
14
15:16
17
18:19
20
21
22
23
24
Name
C0 = 1
R[1:11]
D1
D2
D3, D4
D5
D6, D7
RE
ERES
EN1
LD
C1 = 0
Description
Register address bit. C0 = 1 for REF (last bit in serial sequence).
Reference frequency divide ratio.
Forced counter reload programming (synchronous/asynchronous).
Charge pump disable function.
Programable charge pump current for frequency band 2.
Phase detector polarity.
Programable charge pump current for frequency band 1.
Reset for first programming after powerup (1 = reset).
Enables external resistor (on RES pin) to set charge pump current.
Enable W3000. (0 is powerdown.)
Lock detect output enable.
Secondary address bit (first bit in serial sequence).
Table 8. REF Register
First bit in serial sequence
Last bit in serial sequence
1
C0
=1
2
R
1
3
R
2
4
R
3
5
R
4
6
R
5
7
R
6
8
R
7
9
R
8
10
R
9
11
R
10
12
R
11
13
D
1
14
D
2
15
D
3
16
D
4
17
D
5
18
D
6
19 20
21
22 23 24
D RE ERES EN LD C1
7
=0
Table 9. R1:R11: Reference Divider Ratio (Bits 2 to 12)
R11
—
0
0
.
.
.
1
R10
—
0
0
.
.
.
1
R9
—
0
0
.
.
.
1
R8
—
0
0
.
.
.
1
R7
—
0
0
.
.
.
1
R6
—
0
0
.
.
.
1
R5
—
0
0
.
.
.
1
R4
—
0
0
.
.
.
1
R3
—
0
0
.
.
.
1
R2
—
1
1
.
.
.
1
R1
—
0
1
.
.
.
1
Divide Ratio R
—*
2
3
.
.
.
2047
*The reference counter cannot operate with division numbers less than 2.
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11
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
REF Register (continued)
Table 10. D1: Forced Counter Reload (Bit 13)
D1
Response
0
Synchronous counter reloading update
1
Forced counter reload (M, R, A)
With synchronous reloading, the counter reloads a new programmed value when the counter reaches zero. With
forced counter reloading, the reloading occurs when the programmed word is latched in. This can improve lock
time when performing a dual-band hop.
Table 11. D2: Charge Pump Off Mode (Bit 14)
D2
Response
0
Charge pump enabled
1
Charge pump off (high impedance)
This allows the disabling of the charge pump for systems that directly modulate an open-loop VCO.
Table 12. Band and Charge Pump Current (Band 1, Bits 18 and 19; Band 2, Bits 15 and 16)
Band
D3
Bit 15
D4
Bit 16
D6
Bit 18
D7
Bit 19
Charge Pump Current
ISET
1
x
x
0
0
0.7 mA
1
x
x
1
0
0.9 mA
1
x
x
0
1
1.9 mA
1
x
x
1
1
2.5 mA
2
0
0
x
x
0.7 mA
2
1
0
x
x
0.9 mA
2
0
1
x
x
1.9 mA
2
1
1
x
x
2.5 mA
The charge pump current is selected by bit 23 of the MAIN register. Setting bit 23 to a 0 will select band 1, which
is established with bits 18 and 19 of the REF register. Likewise, setting bit 23 to a 1 will select band 2, which is
established with bits 15 and 16 of the REF register. This allows the charge pump current to be dynamically
changed along with the VCO frequency.
The PLL loop natural frequency is proportional to charge pump current and inversely proportional to the N count.
Therefore, when the ratio of charge pump current and VCO frequency is the same, the loop natural frequency
does not change. This allows the same loop filter to be used for two different VCO frequencies. For example, in a
GSM900/1800 system with VCOs running at 1190 MHz/1570 MHz, the current could be set to 1.9 mA for
GSM900 and 2.5 mA for GSM 1800 to compensate for the change in division ratios. The current setting may also
be determined by an external resistor. (See Table 15.) In that case, the ratio between the currents programmed
will stay the same, but the absolute level will be resistor-dependent.
12
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
REF Register (continued)
Table 13. D5: Phase Detector Polarity (Bit 17)
D5
Phase Detector Polarity
0
Negative slope
1
Positive slope
The phase detector can be programmed for either a negative or positive slope to accommodate the VCO and
low-pass filter characteristics. (See Figure 7.)
W3000
REFERENCE
1
VCO OUTPUT
FREQUENCY
LOOP
FILTER
VCO
0
VCO INPUT CONTROL
VOLTAGE
Figure 7. Programming the Phase Detector Slope
Table 14. RE: Reset (Bit 20)
RE
Response
0
Operation mode
1
Reset MAIN and secondary registers
After the power supply is turned on, the REF register must be programmed with a reset. This must be followed by
a programming of the MAIN register before or at the enabling of the PLL circuit.
The RE bit will clear itself, and is required to ensure correct initialization of the IC. This results in the following
conditions:
+
The RE bit is cleared back to 0.
+
The device is in powerdown mode, since the EN[1:2] bits are also cleared.
+
Previous reference and main counter values are maintained.
Lucent Technologies Inc.
13
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
REF Register (continued)
Table 15. ERES: External Resistor Setting for Charge Pump Current (Bit 21)
ERES
External Resistor Status
0
Use internal charge pump current setting (not tested in production)
1
Use external resistor to set charge pump current (recommended)
If bit 21 is set to 0, the W3000 uses its internal current source to set the charge pump currents, with the values
shown in Table 12. If bit 21 is set to 1, the charge pump current is set by an external resistor between pin 9
(RES) and VDDC. In this case, the charge pump current is given by the following formula:
ICP = ISET *
VDDC − 1.05
100 µA * RREF
where
ICP
= Nominal charge pump current.
ISET
= Current setting as in Table 12.
RREF = Value of external current reference resistor. See Table 3 for appropriate value.
A tight-tolerance RREF resistor is recommended.
Table 16. EN1: Synthesizer Enable (Bit 22)
PWRDN
(Input Pin 11)
EN1
Mode
High
0
Powerdown
High
1
Enable
Low
0
Powerdown
Low
1
Powerdown
The MAIN register also contains an enable bit, EN2. The W3000 is enabled and powered down with either the
REF or the MAIN register, whichever was programmed more recently. The contents of the MAIN and REF
registers are maintained in powerdown mode, providing supply voltages are maintained.
Table 17. LD: Lock Detect Enable (Bit 23)
LD (Bit 23)
0
0
1
1
14
Mode
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
Enabled
PLL Condition
Locked
Unlocked
Locked
Unlocked
Output Level on Pin 8 LockDet
High
High
High
Low
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
MAIN Register
The MAIN register is intended for programming that can occur frequently for dynamic channel switching and
putting the W3000 into power-saving mode.
Table 18. MAIN Register Bit Description (C0 = 0, C1 = 0)
Bit
1
2:8
9:19
20
21
22
23
24
Name
C0 = 0
A[1:7]
M[1:11]
Reserved
Reserved
EN2
B
C1 = 0
Description
Register address bit. C0 = 0 for MAIN (last bit in serial sequence).
Swallow counter for prescaler modulus control.
Main counter.
—
—
Enable all PLL circuits (0 = powerdown mode).
Band select for charge pump current control (band 1 = 0, band 2 = 1).
Secondary address bit.
Table 19. MAIN Register
First bit in serial sequence
Last bit in serial sequence
1
C0
=0
2
A
1
3
A
2
4
A
3
5
A
4
6
A
5
7
A
6
8
A
7
9
M
1
10
M
2
11
M
3
12
M
4
13
M
5
14
M
6
15
M
7
16
M
8
17
M
9
18
M
10
19
M
11
20
X
21
X
22
EN
23
B
24
C1
=0
Note: X bits are don’t care bits.
Table 20. A1:A7: Swallow Counter Count (Bits 2 to 8)
A7
Bit 8
0
0
0
.
.
.
0
.
.
.
1
A6
Bit 7
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
A5
Bit 6
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
Lucent Technologies Inc.
A4
Bit 5
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
A3
Bit 4
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
A2
Bit 3
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
A1
Bit 2
0
1
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
Counter Ratio
0
1
2
.
.
.
63
.
.
.
127
15
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
MAIN Register (continued)
Table 21. M1:M11: Programmable Main Counter Divide Ratio (Bits 9 to 19)
M11
Bit 19
M10
Bit 18
M9
Bit 17
M8
Bit 16
M7
Bit 15
M6
Bit 14
M5
Bit 13
M4
Bit 12
M3
Bit 11
M2
Bit 10
M1
Bit 9
0
0
.
.
.
0
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
0
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
0
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
1
1
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
0
1
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
1
Divide
Ratio
M
2
3
.
.
.
255
.
.
.
2047
The main counter divides the frequency of the prescaler output signal and sources the divided signal to the
phase comparator.
Table 22. EN2: Synthesizer Enable (Bit 22)
PWRDN
H
H
L
L
EN2
0
1
0
1
Mode
Powerdown
Enable
Powerdown
Powerdown
The REF register also contains an enable bit, EN1 (see Table 16). The W3000 is enabled or powered down with
either the REF or MAIN register, whichever was programmed more recently. The contents of the MAIN and REF
registers are maintained in powerdown mode, providing supply voltages are maintained.
Table 23. B: Band Select (Bit 23)
B
0
1
Band
Band 1
Band 2
In dual-band operation, this bit allows the use of one loop filter by setting the charge pump current to correspond
to the frequency of the band selected. See Table 12 for the available charge pump current settings.
16
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
PLL Lock-Detect Function
The W3000 provides a basic lock-detect function for fault finding or for system specification requirements.
Inside the W3000, the length of the up or down pulses applied to the loop filter is compared with a reference
clock period. If the current pulses are shorter than a reference clock period for 15 consecutive comparison
periods, the LD line is asserted. If a current pulse is detected that is longer than a reference clock period, the LD
line is unset.
The LD line gives a signal to indicate a PLL fault condition. It does not provide a true loop-locked output. For
example, in a GSM system with a reference clock of 13 MHz and a comparison frequency of 200 kHz, the
current pulses only have to be less than 1/65 of a cycle for 15 consecutive times for the LD line to be asserted.
This equates to ~0.4º of phase. In the worst case, if the phase stays inside this limit, moving from one extreme to
the other, the frequency will only be within 0.2%, i.e., 4 MHz on a 2 GHz VCO.
The LD output from the W3000 is a standard logic signal and requires no external comparison or R-C filters.
Typical Performance Characteristics
CURRENT
METER
VDDC/2
+VDDC
100 pF
442 Ω
0.047 µF
6.8 pF
VDDC
LAT
CPOUT
DAT
VSS1
CLK
VSS2
PWRDN
VDDC
0.01 µF
MAIN_IN
50 Ω
µC
+VDD
REF_IN
VDD1
RES
VDD2
LOCK DET
RREF = 18 k Ω
50 Ω
100 pF
10 MHz REF
UHF
SOURCE
REFERENCE
SOURCE
Figure 8. MAIN_IN and REF_IN Sensitivity Test Circuit Diagram
MAIN_IN and REF_IN are set to cause a small beat frequency at the phase detector input. This generates a
sawtooth signal at the charge pump output of known slope. The amplitude of the UHF source is decreased. The
sensitivity limit is reached when the slope of this waveform deviates from the calculated value. This is then
repeated for the reference source.
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17
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
MAIN_IN Input Parallel Equivalent Circuit
Table 24. MAIN_IN Input Parallel Equivalent
Circuit Values
The input impedance is high, and can best be
represented by the model shown in Figure 9.
Frequency (MHz)
C (pF)
R (Ω
Ω)
600
0.88
3680
800
0.87
2650
1000
0.85
2370
1200
0.85
1970
1400
0.86
1580
1600
0.92
1230
1800
1.00
740
2000
1.10
590
2200
1.20
480
MAIN_IN
C
R
Figure 9. MAIN_IN Parallel Equivalent Circuit
Application Example
VDDC
2.85 V
15 kΩ
2
3 kΩ
150 pF
1
1 nF
10 nF
3
4
VDDC
LAT
CPOUT
DAT
VSS1
CLK
VSS2
PWRDN
5 MAIN_IN
33 pF
VCO
6
33 pF
2.85 V
7
VDD1
VDD2
14
13
µC
12
11
REF_IN 10
RES
LOCKDET 8
100 pF
50 Ω
9
1 nF
VDDC
RREF
18 kΩ
REF.
OSCILLATOR
50 Ω
Figure 10. Application Circuit Diagram
18
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Application Information
A typical PLL system can be modeled as follows:
fREF
1/R
+
KPD
KVCO
s
Z(s)
fVCO
1/N
Figure 11. Typical PLL Model
KPD = Phase detector in mA/2π rad
Z(s) = Loop filter
KVCO = VCO gain in MHz/V
N
= Total divide ratio
R
= Reference divide ratio
Where the open loop gain is:
G(s)OPEN =
KPD * Z(s) * Kvco
Ns
Where
s = jω
The circuit shown in Figure 12 uses a passive third-order loop filter for the element Z(s), defined by the network:
R2
CHARGE PUMP
OUTPUT
VCO
R1
C3
C1
C2
Figure 12. Third-Order Loop Filter
The purpose of the loop filter is to provide response with bandwidth sufficient not only to allow a quick lock time
but also to meet phase-noise and reference sideband requirements. Addition of a third pole formed by R2 and C3
will improve reference sideband performance with little overall impact on the loop performance. A reasonable
practical limit is that the f comparison is greater than 5 times loop bandwidth.
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19
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Application Information (continued)
1
General rules for the values of these components have been derived many times , and are quoted here merely
for reference. If:
T1 =
T2 =
T3 =
sec φ − tan φ
ωp
1
ω2c
* (T1 + T3)
10 attn / 20 − 1
(2π * FREF) 2
where
φ
= Phase margin required, normally 45° for a critically damped response.
ωp = Loop bandwidth.
ωc = Loop bandwidth modified for extra pole of R3 and C3, as described by:
ωc =

(T1 + T3) 2 + (T1 * T3 ) 
*  1+
−1

(T1 + T3) 2 + (T1 * T3) 
[tan φ * (T1 + T3)]2

tan φ * (T1 + T3)
f REF = Reference frequency.
atten = Attenuation provided by the third pole at the reference frequency.
The loop filter values can then be derived as:

(1 + ωc2 * T 2 2 )
T1 KPD * Kvco 

C1 =
*
*
T2
 (1 + ωc 2 * T12 )(1 + ωc 2 * T3 2 ) 
ωc 2 * N
1/ 2
 T2

− 1
C2 = C1 * 
 T1 
R1 =
T2
C2
The final pole, consisting of R2 and C3, should be chosen such that the following guidelines are followed:
C3 ≤
C1
and R2 ≥ 2 * R1
10
1. Rohde, Ulrich L., Digital PLL Frequency Synthesizers Theory and Design, Prentice-Hall, 1983.
20
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Application Information (continued)
For example, take a GSM application where a loop bandwidth of 22 kHz is required.
Other parameters specified by the system are listed below:
Parameter
VCO Gain (KVCO)
Value
88 MHz/V
Charge Pump Current (ICP)
2.5 mA
Divider Ratio (value of midband frequency used) (N)
Required Phase Margin
7850
45°
Reference Frequency Attenuation from Additional Pole
20 dB
Using the formulas above, the three time constants can be calculated as follows:
–6
T1 = 2.63697E – 10
–5
T2 = 3.14484E – 10
–6
T3 = 2.38732E – 10
s
s
s
From these values, we can derive the initial component values as follows:
R1 = 2992 Ω
C1 = 0.96 nF
C2 = 10.5 nF
If we choose R2 = 15 kΩ, then
C3 = 159 pF
From these initial values, the loop filter components used in the application circuit can be derived through
practical optimization.
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21
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
DN (–30 °C)
UP (25 °C)
DN (–30 °C)
UP (25 °C)
UP (–30 °C)
DN (85 °C)
UP (–30 °C)
DN (85 °C)
DN (25 °C)
UP (85 °C)
DN (25 °C)
UP (85 °C)
3000
1200
2500
1000
CP CURRENT (µA)
CP CURRENT (µA)
Typical Performance Data
2000
1500
1000
800
600
400
500
200
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0
0
APPLIED CP VOLTAGE (V)
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
APPLIED CP VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 13. Charge Pump Current vs. Voltage and
Temperature (2.5 mA)
Figure 15. Charge Pump Current vs. Voltage and
Temperature (0.9 mA)
DN (–30 °C)
UP (25 °C)
UP (–30 °C)
DN (85 °C)
DN (25 °C)
UP (85 °C)
800
DN (–30 °C)
UP (25 °C)
UP (–30 °C)
DN (85 °C)
DN (25 °C)
UP (85 °C)
2500
2000
600
CP CURRENT (µA)
CP CURRENT (µA)
700
500
400
300
200
100
1500
1000
500
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
APPLIED CP VOLTAGE (V)
2.5
3
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
APPLIED CP VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 14. Charge Pump Current vs. Voltage and
Temperature (0.7 mA)
22
Figure 16. Charge Pump Current vs. Voltage and
Temperature (1.9 mA)
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Typical Performance Data (continued)
1.0
SENSITIVITY
MAX I/P LEVEL
2.0
0.5
20
10
5.0
0.2
LEVEL (dBm)
0
0.0 0.0
VDD = VDDC = 2.85 V
0.2
0.5
1.0
2.0
5.0
inf
–10
500 MHz
–0.2
–20
–5.0
–30
–2.0
–0.5
–1.0
–40
0
500
1000
1500
2000
FREQUENCY (MHz)
2500
3000
Figure 18. Input Impedance Smith Chart: 0.5 GHz
to 2.2 GHz Frequency
Figure 17. Prescaler Sensitivity and
Maximum Input Level
TRACE A:
F1 PSD1/K1
A Marker
2.2 GHz
1 750.0 Hz
–83.245 dB*
2
Y* = radrms /Hz
–50 dB*
LogMag
10 dB/div
–150 dB*
100
Start: 62.5 Hz
RMS: 18.551 mradrms
1k
10 k
100 k
Stop: 100 kHz
Ch1 Carrier: 1.1900005 GHz
Figure 19. Phase Noise 1190 MHz, Fcomp = 200 kHz
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23
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Typical Performance Data (continued)
Figure 20. Settling Time from 1150 MHz to 1230 MHz ± 50 Hz
REF LVL
–17.6 dBm
DELTA 1 (T1)
–78.53 dB
200.40080160 kHz
1
–20
–30
–40
–50
–60
–70
–80
–90
–100
–110
CENTER 1.19 GHz
100 kHz/
SPAN 1 MHz
Figure 21. PLL Reference Spurs
24
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Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Typical Performance Data (continued)
Figure 22. Dual-Band Locking
Lucent Technologies Inc.
25
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Outline Diagram
14-Pin TSSOP
Dimensions are in millimeters.
0.19/0.30
1.00
7
1.00
0. 22
± 0. 03
1
WITH PLATIN G
1.00
0.90/0.135
0.090/0.20
6. 25/ 6.5
0. 254
M
E
M
BA SE M E T A L
DET A IL C
8
14
SEE DETAIL A
DET A IL C
1.10
MAX
0. 65 BSC
0.90 ± 0.05
1
0.076 C
5.0 ± 0. 10
0. 15
M AX
-E-
0. 090/ 0.20
DET A IL C
0.25 BCS
8
4.3/4.5
SEA T IN G
PLA N E
0.60 ± 0.10
DET A IL A
DET AIL G
5-5462 C
26
Lucent Technologies Inc.
Advance Data Sheet
December 1999
W3000 PLL Dual-Band Frequency Synthesizer
Manufacturing Information
This device will be assembled in multiple locations, which include assembly codes P, M, and T.
Ordering Information
Device Code
Description
Package
Comcode
LUCW3000CCN
W3000 PLL Frequency Synthesizer
Sticks
14-pin TSSOP
108417601
LUCW3000CCN-TR
W3000 PLL Frequency Synthesizer
Tape and Reel
14-pin TSSOP
108417619
Note: Contact your Lucent Technologies Microelectronics Group Account Manager for minimum order requirements.
Lucent Technologies Inc.
27
For additional information, contact your Microelectronics Group Account Manager or the following:
INTERNET:
http://www.lucent.com/micro
E-MAIL:
docmaster@micro.lucent.com
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1-800-372-2447, FAX 610-712-4106 (In CANADA: 1-800-553-2448, FAX 610-712-4106)
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Tel. (65) 778 8833, FAX (65) 777 7495
CHINA:
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Shanghai 200233 P.R. China Tel. (86) 21 6440 0468, ext. 316, FAX (86) 21 6440 0652
JAPAN:
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Tel. (81) 3 5421 1600, FAX (81) 3 5421 1700
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Data Requests: MICROELECTRONICS GROUP DATALINE: Tel. (44) 7000 582 368, FAX (44) 1189 328 148
Technical Inquiries: GERMANY: (49) 89 95086 0 (Munich), UNITED KINGDOM: (44) 1344 865 900 (Ascot),
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Lucent Technologies Inc. reserves the right to make changes to the product(s) or information contained herein without notice. No liability is assumed as a result of their use or application. No
rights under any patent accompany the sale of any such product(s) or information.
Copyright © 1999 Lucent Technologies Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.S.A.
December 1999
DS99-058WRF (Replaces DS97-268WRF)