LM2731 0.6/1.6 MHz Boost Converters With 22V Internal FET Switch in SOT-23 General Description Features The LM2731 switching regulators are current-mode boost converters operating at fixed frequencies of 1.6 MHz (“X” option) and 600 kHz (“Y” option). n n n n n n n n n n The use of SOT-23 package, made possible by the minimal power loss of the internal 1.8A switch, and use of small inductors and capacitors result in the industry’s highest power density. The 22V internal switch makes these solutions perfect for boosting to voltages up to 20V. These parts have a logic-level shutdown pin that can be used to reduce quiescent current and extend battery life. Protection is provided through cycle-by-cycle current limiting and thermal shutdown. Internal compensation simplifies design and reduces component count. Switch Frequency X Y 1.6 MHz 0.6 MHz 22V DMOS FET switch 1.6 MHz (“X”), 0.6 MHz (“Y”) switching frequency Low RDS(ON) DMOS FET Switch current up to 1.8A Wide input voltage range (2.7V–14V) Low shutdown current ( < 1 µA) 5-Lead SOT-23 package Uses tiny capacitors and inductors Cycle-by-cycle current limiting Internally compensated Applications n n n n n White LED Current Source PDA’s and Palm-Top Computers Digital Cameras Portable Phones and Games Local Boost Regulator Typical Application Circuit 20059110 20059130 © 2003 National Semiconductor Corporation DS200591 www.national.com LM2731 0.6/1.6 MHz Boost Converters With 22V Internal FET Switch in SOT-23 July 2003 LM2731 Typical Application Circuit (Continued) 20059153 20059156 20059155 White LED Flash Application www.national.com 2 LM2731 Connection Diagram Top View 20059111 5-Lead SOT-23 Package See NS Package Number MF05A Ordering Information Order Number Package Type Package Drawing Supplied As Package ID LM2731XMF 1K Tape and Reel S51A LM2731XMFX 3K Tape and Reel S51A 1K Tape and Reel S51B 3K Tape and Reel S51B LM2731YMF SOT23-5 LM2731YMFX MF05A Pin Description Pin Name 1 SW 2 GND 3 FB 4 SHDN 5 VIN Function Drain of the internal FET switch. Analog and power ground. Feedback point that connects to external resistive divider. Shutdown control input. Connect to Vin if the feature is not used. Analog and power input. 3 www.national.com LM2731 Block Diagram 20059112 the Gm amplifier is derived from the feedback (which samples the voltage at the output), the action of the PWM comparator constantly sets the correct peak current through the FET to keep the output voltage in regulation. Q1 and Q2 along with R3 - R6 form a bandgap voltage reference used by the IC to hold the output in regulation. The currents flowing through Q1 and Q2 will be equal, and the feedback loop will adjust the regulated output to maintain this. Because of this, the regulated output is always maintained at a voltage level equal to the voltage at the FB node "multiplied up" by the ratio of the output resistive divider. The current limit comparator feeds directly into the flip-flop that drives the switch FET. If the FET current reaches the limit threshold, the FET is turned off and the cycle terminated until the next clock pulse. The current limit input terminates the pulse regardless of the status of the output of the PWM comparator. Theory of Operation The LM2731 is a switching converter IC that operates at a fixed frequency (0.6 or 1.6 MHz) for fast transient response over a wide input voltage range and incorporates pulse-bypulse current limiting protection. Because this is current mode control, a 33 mΩ sense resistor in series with the switch FET is used to provide a voltage (which is proportional to the FET current) to both the input of the pulse width modulation (PWM) comparator and the current limit amplifier. At the beginning of each cycle, the S-R latch turns on the FET. As the current through the FET increases, a voltage (proportional to this current) is summed with the ramp coming from the ramp generator and then fed into the input of the PWM comparator. When this voltage exceeds the voltage on the other input (coming from the Gm amplifier), the latch resets and turns the FET off. Since the signal coming from www.national.com 4 (Note 1) FB Pin Voltage SW Pin Voltage If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Storage Temperature Range −0.4V to +6V −65˚C to +150˚C −0.4V to +22V Input Supply Voltage −0.4V to +14.5V Shutdown Input Voltage (Survival) −0.4V to +14.5V θJ-A (SOT23-5) Operating Junction Temperature Range −40˚C to +125˚C Lead Temp. (Soldering, 5 sec.) Power Dissipation (Note 2) 265˚C/W ESD Rating (Note 3) Human Body Model 300˚C 2 kV Internally Limited Electrical Characteristics Limits in standard typeface are for TJ = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full operating temperature range (−40˚C ≤ TJ ≤ +125˚C). Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 5V, VSHDN = 5V, IL = 0A. Symbol Parameter Min (Note 4) Conditions Typical (Note 5) VIN Input Voltage VOUT (MIN) Minimum Output Voltage RL = 43Ω Under Load X Option (Note 8) VIN = 2.7V 5.4 2.7 7 VIN = 3.3V 8 10 13 17 RL = 43Ω Y Option (Note 8) VIN = 2.7V 8.25 10 VIN = 3.3V 10.5 12 14 16 RL = 15Ω X Option (Note 8) VIN = 2.7V 3.75 5 VIN = 3.3V 5 6.5 8.75 11 RL = 15Ω Y Option (Note 8) VIN = 2.7V 5 6 VIN = 3.3V 5.5 7.5 9 11 1.8 1.4 2 VIN = 5V VIN = 5V VIN = 5V VIN = 5V Max (Note 4) 14 Switch Current Limit (Note 6) RDS(ON) Switch ON Resistance ISW = 100 mA Vin = 5V 260 400 500 ISW = 100 mA Vin = 3.3V 300 450 550 Shutdown Threshold Device ON ISHDN Shutdown Pin Bias Current A 1.5 Device OFF 0.50 0 0 2 1.230 1.255 V 60 500 nA IFB Feedback Pin Bias Current VFB = 1.23V IQ Quiescent Current VSHDN = 5V, Switching "X" 2 3.0 VSHDN = 5V, Switching "Y" 1.0 2 400 500 0.024 1 1.205 VSHDN = 5V, Not Switching VSHDN = 0 DMAX Switching Frequency (Note 7) Maximum Duty Cycle (Note 7) V VSHDN = 0 Feedback Pin Reference VIN = 3V Voltage FSW mΩ VSHDN = 5V VFB FB Voltage Line Regulation V V ISW SHDNTH Units µA mA µA 2.7V ≤ VIN ≤ 14V 0.02 %/V “X” Option 1 1.6 1.85 “Y” Option 0.40 0.60 0.8 “X” Option 86 93 “Y” Option 92 96 5 MHz % www.national.com LM2731 Absolute Maximum Ratings LM2731 Electrical Characteristics (Continued) Limits in standard typeface are for TJ = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full operating temperature range (−40˚C ≤ TJ ≤ +125˚C). Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 5V, VSHDN = 5V, IL = 0A. Symbol Parameter Switch Leakage IL Min (Note 4) Conditions Not Switching VSW = 5V Typical (Note 5) Max (Note 4) Units 1 µA Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the component may occur. Electrical specifications do not apply when operating the device outside of the limits set forth under the operating ratings which specify the intended range of operating conditions. Note 2: The maximum power dissipation which can be safely dissipated for any application is a function of the maximum junction temperature, TJ(MAX) = 125˚C, the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance for the SOT-23 package, θJ-A = 265˚C/W, and the ambient temperature, TA. The maximum allowable power dissipation at any ambient temperature for designs using this device can be calculated using the formula: If power dissipation exceeds the maximum specified above, the internal thermal protection circuitry will protect the device by reducing the output voltage as required to maintain a safe junction temperature. Note 3: The human body model is a 100 pF capacitor discharged through a 1.5 kΩ resistor into each pin. Note 4: Limits are guaranteed by testing, statistical correlation, or design. Note 5: Typical values are derived from the mean value of a large quantity of samples tested during characterization and represent the most likely expected value of the parameter at room temperature. Note 6: Switch current limit is dependent on duty cycle (see Typical Performance Characteristics). Note 7: Guaranteed limits are the same for Vin = 3.3V input. Note 8: L = 10 µH, COUT = 4.7 µF, duty cycle = maximum www.national.com 6 Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 5V, SHDN pin tied to VIN. Iq Vin (Active) vs Temperature - "X" Iq Vin (Active) vs Temperature - "Y" 20059104 20059102 Oscillator Frequency vs Temperature - "X" Oscillator Frequency vs Temperature - "Y" 20059105 20059101 Max. Duty Cycle vs Temperature - "X" Max. Duty Cycle vs Temperature - "Y" 20059106 20059107 7 www.national.com LM2731 Typical Performance Characteristics LM2731 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 5V, SHDN pin tied to VIN. (Continued) Iq Vin (Idle) vs Temperature Feedback Bias Current vs Temperature 20059125 20059126 Feedback Voltage vs Temperature RDS(ON) vs Temperature 20059128 20059127 Current Limit vs Temperature RDS(ON) vs VIN 20059129 20059152 www.national.com 8 Efficiency vs Load Current - "X" VIN = 2.7V, VOUT = 5V Efficiency vs Load Current - "X" VIN = 3.3V, VOUT = 5V 20059135 20059136 Efficiency vs Load Current - "X" VIN = 2.7V, VOUT = 12V Efficiency vs Load Current - "X" VIN = 4.2V, VOUT = 5V 20059137 20059138 Efficiency vs Load Current - "X" VIN = 5V, VOUT = 12V Efficiency vs Load Current - "X" VIN = 3.3V, VOUT = 12V 20059140 20059139 9 www.national.com LM2731 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 5V, SHDN pin tied to VIN. (Continued) LM2731 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 5V, SHDN pin tied to VIN. (Continued) Efficiency vs Load Current - "X" VIN = 5V, VOUT = 18V Efficiency vs Load Current - "Y" VIN = 2.7V, VOUT = 5V 20059142 20059141 Efficiency vs Load Current - "Y" VIN = 4.2V, VOUT = 5V Efficiency vs Load Current - "Y" VIN = 3.3V, VOUT = 5V 20059144 20059143 Efficiency vs Load Current - "Y" VIN = 3.3V, VOUT = 12V Efficiency vs Load Current - "Y" VIN = 2.7V, VOUT = 12V 20059145 www.national.com 20059146 10 Efficiency vs Load Current - "Y" VIN = 5V, VOUT = 12V 20059147 11 www.national.com LM2731 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 5V, SHDN pin tied to VIN. (Continued) LM2731 LAYOUT HINTS Application Hints High frequency switching regulators require very careful layout of components in order to get stable operation and low noise. All components must be as close as possible to the LM2731 device. It is recommended that a 4-layer PCB be used so that internal ground planes are available. As an example, a recommended layout of components is shown: SELECTING THE EXTERNAL CAPACITORS The best capacitors for use with the LM2731 are multi-layer ceramic capacitors. They have the lowest ESR (equivalent series resistance) and highest resonance frequency which makes them optimum for use with high frequency switching converters. When selecting a ceramic capacitor, only X5R and X7R dielectric types should be used. Other types such as Z5U and Y5F have such severe loss of capacitance due to effects of temperature variation and applied voltage, they may provide as little as 20% of rated capacitance in many typical applications. Always consult capacitor manufacturer’s data curves before selecting a capacitor. High-quality ceramic capacitors can be obtained from Taiyo-Yuden, AVX, and Murata. SELECTING THE OUTPUT CAPACITOR A single ceramic capacitor of value 4.7 µF to 10 µF will provide sufficient output capacitance for most applications. If larger amounts of capacitance are desired for improved line support and transient response, tantalum capacitors can be used. Aluminum electrolytics with ultra low ESR such as Sanyo Oscon can be used, but are usually prohibitively expensive. Typical AI electrolytic capacitors are not suitable for switching frequencies above 500 kHz due to significant ringing and temperature rise due to self-heating from ripple current. An output capacitor with excessive ESR can also reduce phase margin and cause instability. In general, if electrolytics are used, it is recommended that they be paralleled with ceramic capacitors to reduce ringing, switching losses, and output voltage ripple. 20059116 Recommended PCB Component Layout Some additional guidelines to be observed: 1. Keep the path between L1, D1, and C2 extremely short. Parasitic trace inductance in series with D1 and C2 will increase noise and ringing. 2. The feedback components R1, R2 and CF must be kept close to the FB pin of U1 to prevent noise injection on the FB pin trace. 3. If internal ground planes are available (recommended) use vias to connect directly to ground at pin 2 of U1, as well as the negative sides of capacitors C1 and C2. SELECTING THE INPUT CAPACITOR An input capacitor is required to serve as an energy reservoir for the current which must flow into the coil each time the switch turns ON. This capacitor must have extremely low ESR, so ceramic is the best choice. We recommend a nominal value of 2.2 µF, but larger values can be used. Since this capacitor reduces the amount of voltage ripple seen at the input pin, it also reduces the amount of EMI passed back along that line to other circuitry. SETTING THE OUTPUT VOLTAGE The output voltage is set using the external resistors R1 and R2 (see Basic Application Circuit). A value of approximately 13.3 kΩ is recommended for R2 to establish a divider current of approximately 92 µA. R1 is calculated using the formula: R1 = R2 X (VOUT/1.23 − 1) SWITCHING FREQUENCY The LM2731 is provided with two switching frequencies: the “X” version is typically 1.6 MHz, while the “Y” version is typically 600 kHz. The best frequency for a specific application must be determined based on the trade-offs involved: Higher switching frequency means the inductors and capacitors can be made smaller and cheaper for a given output voltage and current. The down side is that efficiency is slightly lower because the fixed switching losses occur more frequently and become a larger percentage of total power loss. EMI is typically worse at higher switching frequencies because more EMI energy will be seen in the higher frequency spectrum where most circuits are more sensitive to such interference. FEED-FORWARD COMPENSATION Although internally compensated, the feed-forward capacitor Cf is required for stability (see Basic Application Circuit). Adding this capacitor puts a zero in the loop response of the converter. The recommended frequency for the zero fz should be approximately 6 kHz. Cf can be calculated using the formula: Cf = 1 / (2 X π X R1 X fz) SELECTING DIODES The external diode used in the typical application should be a Schottky diode. A 20V diode such as the MBR0520 is recommended. The MBR05XX series of diodes are designed to handle a maximum average current of 0.5A. For applications exceeding 0.5A average but less than 1A, a Microsemi UPS5817 can be used. www.national.com 12 LM2731 Application Hints (Continued) 20059117 Basic Application Circuit means the ON time of the switch is 0.390 µs. It should be noted that when the switch is ON, the voltage across the inductor is approximately 4.5V. Using the equation: DUTY CYCLE The maximum duty cycle of the switching regulator determines the maximum boost ratio of output-to-input voltage that the converter can attain in continuous mode of operation. The duty cycle for a given boost application is defined as: V = L (di/dt) We can then calculate the di/dt rate of the inductor which is found to be 0.45 A/µs during the ON time. Using these facts, we can then show what the inductor current will look like during operation: This applies for continuous mode operation. INDUCTANCE VALUE The first question we are usually asked is: “How small can I make the inductor?” (because they are the largest sized component and usually the most costly). The answer is not simple and involves trade-offs in performance. Larger inductors mean less inductor ripple current, which typically means less output voltage ripple (for a given size of output capacitor). Larger inductors also mean more load power can be delivered because the energy stored during each switching cycle is: E = L/2 X (lp)2 Where “lp” is the peak inductor current. An important point to observe is that the LM2731 will limit its switch current based on peak current. This means that since lp(max) is fixed, increasing L will increase the maximum amount of power available to the load. Conversely, using too little inductance may limit the amount of load current which can be drawn from the output. Best performance is usually obtained when the converter is operated in “continuous” mode at the load current range of interest, typically giving better load regulation and less output ripple. Continuous operation is defined as not allowing the inductor current to drop to zero during the cycle. It should be noted that all boost converters shift over to discontinuous operation as the output load is reduced far enough, but a larger inductor stays “continuous” over a wider load current range. To better understand these trade-offs, a typical application circuit (5V to 12V boost with a 10 µH inductor) will be analyzed. We will assume: VIN = 5V, VOUT = 12V, VDIODE = 0.5V, VSW = 0.5V Since the frequency is 1.6 MHz (nominal), the period is approximately 0.625 µs. The duty cycle will be 62.5%, which 20059118 10 µH Inductor Current, 5V–12V Boost (LM2731X) During the 0.390 µs ON time, the inductor current ramps up 0.176A and ramps down an equal amount during the OFF time. This is defined as the inductor “ripple current”. It can also be seen that if the load current drops to about 33 mA, the inductor current will begin touching the zero axis which means it will be in discontinuous mode. A similar analysis can be performed on any boost converter, to make sure the ripple current is reasonable and continuous operation will be maintained at the typical load current values. MAXIMUM SWITCH CURRENT The maximum FET switch current available before the current limiter cuts in is dependent on duty cycle of the application. This is illustrated in the graphs below which show typical values of switch current for both the "X" and "Y" versions as a function of effective (actual) duty cycle: 13 www.national.com LM2731 Application Hints switching losses of the FET and diode. For actual load current in typical applications, we took bench data for various input and output voltages for both the "X" and "Y" versions of the LM2731 and displayed the maximum load current available for a typical device in graph form: (Continued) 20059150 Switch Current Limit vs Duty Cycle - "X" 20059148 Max. Load Current (typ) vs VIN - "X" 20059151 Switch Current Limit vs Duty Cycle - "Y" 20059149 Max. Load Current (typ) vs VIN - "Y" CALCULATING LOAD CURRENT As shown in the figure which depicts inductor current, the load current is related to the average inductor current by the relation: ILOAD = IIND(AVG) x (1 - DC) Where "DC" is the duty cycle of the application. The switch current can be found by: ISW = IIND(AVG) + 1⁄2 (IRIPPLE) Inductor ripple current is dependent on inductance, duty cycle, input voltage and frequency: IRIPPLE = DC x (VIN-VSW) / (f x L) combining all terms, we can develop an expression which allows the maximum available load current to be calculated: DESIGN PARAMETERS VSW AND ISW The value of the FET "ON" voltage (referred to as VSW in the equations) is dependent on load current. A good approximation can be obtained by multiplying the "ON Resistance" of the FET times the average inductor current. FET on resistance increases at VIN values below 5V, since the internal N-FET has less gate voltage in this input voltage range (see Typical performance Characteristics curves). Above VIN = 5V, the FET gate voltage is internally clamped to 5V. The maximum peak switch current the device can deliver is dependent on duty cycle. For higher duty cycles, see Typical performance Characteristics curves. THERMAL CONSIDERATIONS At higher duty cycles, the increased ON time of the FET means the maximum output current will be determined by power dissipation within the LM2731 FET switch. The switch power dissipation from ON-state conduction is calculated by: The equation shown to calculate maximum load current takes into account the losses in the inductor or turn-OFF www.national.com 14 that the continuous current rating is high enough to avoid saturation at peak currents. A suitable core type must be used to minimize core (switching) losses, and wire power losses must be considered when selecting the current rating. (Continued) P(SW) = DC x IIND(AVE)2 x RDS(ON) There will be some switching losses as well, so some derating needs to be applied when calculating IC power dissipation. SHUTDOWN PIN OPERATION The device is turned off by pulling the shutdown pin low. If this function is not going to be used, the pin should be tied directly to VIN. If the SHDN function will be needed, a pull-up resistor must be used to VIN (approximately 50k-100kΩ recommended). The SHDN pin must not be left unterminated. INDUCTOR SUPPLIERS Recommended suppliers of inductors for this product include, but are not limited to Sumida, Coilcraft, Panasonic, TDK and Murata. When selecting an inductor, make certain 15 www.national.com LM2731 Application Hints LM2731 0.6/1.6 MHz Boost Converters With 22V Internal FET Switch in SOT-23 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 5-Lead SOT-23 Package Order Number LM2731XMF, LM2731XMFX, LM2731YMF or LM2731YMFX NS Package Number MF05A LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Americas Customer Support Center Email: [email protected] Tel: 1-800-272-9959 www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Customer Support Center Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208 English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171 Français Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. National Semiconductor Asia Pacific Customer Support Center Email: [email protected] National Semiconductor Japan Customer Support Center Fax: 81-3-5639-7507 Email: [email protected] Tel: 81-3-5639-7560 National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.