### ETC AN-26

```®
®
TOPSwitch -FX Flyback
Quick Selection Curves
Application Note AN-26
Introduction
This application note is for engineers starting a flyback power
supply design with TOPSwitch-FX. It offers a quick method to
select the proper TOPSwitch-FX device from parameters that
are usually not available until much later in the design process.
The TOPSwitch-FX Flyback Quick Selection Curves provide
the essential design guidance to estimate requirements before
even starting to build a prototype.
QUICK START
1) Determine which graph (Figures. 1, 2, 3 or
4) is closest to your application.
Example: Use Figure 1 for Universal input,
12 V output.
2) Find your power requirement on the X- axis.
Curves estimating the efficiency of the Power Supply and the
corresponding dissipation for the TOPSwitch-FX devices are
provided. They form a powerful tool for estimating cost and
project requirements before even committing to or starting
development. This application note is similar to AN-21 ‘Quick
Selection Curves’ for the TOPSwitch-II family.
Overview of Quick Selection Curves
The TOPSwitch-FX Quick Selection Curves (Figures 1-4)
show the expected power supply efficiency and expected
TOPSwitch-FX dissipation for typical applications. Power
supplies with either a 5 V or a 12 V output, operating with either
Universal input (85 - 265 VAC) or Single 230 VAC input
voltage (195 - 265 VAC) are described.
The solid lines in the Quick Selection Curves give a typical
efficiency figure for a given load, depending upon the
TOPSwitch-FX device used. Each solid line efficiency curve
extends to the maximum power capability of the device. The
superimposed dashed lines are contours of constant
TOPSwitch-FX device dissipation and the intersections these
dashed lines make with the solid lines provide the corresponding
dissipation at different loads. The dissipation at intermediate
points can be found by interpolation or extrapolation.
Selection Curve Assumptions
The Selection Curves are based on specific design assumptions
which are now detailed.
• The switching frequency is 130 kHz in all cases.
• Universal input (85 - 265 VAC) curves in Figures 1 and 2
3) Move vertically from your power requirement until you intersect with a
TOPSwitch- FX curve (solid line).
4) Read the associated efficiency on the
Y- axis.
5) Determine if this is the appropriate efficiency
for your application. If not, continue to the
next TOPSwitch-FX curve.
6) Read TOPSwitch-FX power dissipation from
the dashed contours to determine heatsink
requirements.
7) Start the design. Use the TOPSwitch-FX
Note: See 'Selection Curve Assumptions' for limits of use.
assume a worst-case input line condition of
85 VAC and an average voltage across the bulk capacitor
of 105 VDC (peak of 120 V and trough of 90 V).
• The single 230 VAC input (195 - 265 VAC) curves in
Figures 3 and 4 assume a worst case of 195 VAC and an
average voltage across the bulk capacitor of over
250 VDC (peak of 275 V and trough of 230 V).
• For Universal input the input bulk capacitor is sized at
3 µF/W. For the single voltage input case the input bulk
capacitor is similarly 1 µF/W.
February 2000
AN-26
• Table 1 gives the values of primary inductance used for
generating these curves.
• A VOR (reflected voltage) of 135 V is assumed for all the
curves. This is the output voltage reflected by the turns
ratio to the primary side.
• In all cases a 200 V Zener clamp is used to clamp the
transformer leakage inductance spike.
• All curves assume a Schottky output diode. The 5 V output
curves use a 45 V Schottky diode with a forward drop of
0.4 V. The 12 V output curves use a 60 V Schottky diode
with a forward voltage drop of 0.54 V.
Besides the design criteria above, typical power supply
component parameters used in generating the data for the Quick
Selection Curves are provided in Tables 1 and 2. The efficiency
curves are valid only when using the component values shown
in Tables 1 and 2. Changes to these parameters may give
different results.
of the application on the X-axis. Move vertically to the
intersection with the first TOPSwitch-FX curve encountered
and then read the efficiency directly from the Y-axis. From the
same intersection point on the TOPSwitch-FX curve, interpolate
the TOPSwitch-FX power dissipation from the constant power
dissipation contours. Some output powers can be delivered by
more than one TOPSwitch-FX device. When moving vertically
from the X-axis, the first curve encountered will be the smallest,
lowest cost TOPSwitch-FX device, while the last curve
encountered will be the largest, most efficient TOPSwitch-FX
device suitable for the desired output power. Thermal
requirements and packaging of the proposed power supply may
call out for a more efficient device rather than the smallest or
lowest-cost possibility.
Selecting the Right TOPSwitch-FX
Example 1: 30 W Universal Application
Consider a 5 V, 30 W power supply with Universal input range.
From the curves in Figure 2, we can see that the TOP234 can
deliver 30 W (X-axis) with an estimated Efficiency (Y-axis) of
about 69.5%. The projected TOPSwitch-FX dissipation is
approximately 3.3 W. The thermal environment and the available
heatsinking must be evaluated to confirm the choice of device
in this application.
This section explains how to select the correct TOPSwitch-FX
from the curves (Figures 1-4). The procedure uses the curves
to estimate efficiency of the power supply and the corresponding
dissipation in the TOPSwitch-FX. Start with the output power
Example 2: 13 W Adapter Application
Consider a 13 W, 12 V supply with Universal input range.
From Figure 1 we see that a TOP232 and TOP233 could be
used. TOP232 with an efficiency of 76% and a device dissipation
TYPICAL COMPONENT PARAMETERS FOR UNIVERSAL INPUT (85-265 VAC)
POWER SUPPLY (Figures 1 and 2)
12 V OUTPUT (Figure 1)
PARAMETER
Maximum Transformer Primary Inductance
Transformer Leakage Inductance
Secondary Trace Inductance
Transformer Resonant Frequency
(secondary open)
Transformer Primary AC Resistance
Transformer Secondary AC Resistance
Output Capacitor Equivalent Series
Resistance @100kHz
UNITS
µH
µH
nH
kHz
mΩ
mΩ
mΩ
5 V OUTPUT (Figure 2)
TOP232 TOP233 TOP234 TOP232 TOP233 TOP234
3050
1550
1050
2930
1500
960
46
16
11
44
22
14
30
30
30
20
20
20
750
800
850
750
800
850
2400
30
24
1200
15
18
800
10
15
2000
12
18
1060
6
9
700
4
6
Output Inductor DC Resistance
mΩ
32
25
20
6
4.5
3.5
Common Mode Inductor DC
Resistance (both legs)
Core Loss
mΩ
370
333
300
370
333
300
mW
100
200
250
100
200
250
Table 1. Typical component parameters for a TOPSwitch-FX flyback power supply with a Universal input voltage (85-265 VAC).
2
A
2/00
AN-26
TYPICAL COMPONENT PARAMETERS FOR SINGLE VOLTAGE INPUT (230 VAC ±15%)
POWER SUPPLY (Figures 3 and 4)
12 V OUTPUT (Figure 3)
PARAMETER
Maximum Transformer Primary Inductance
Transformer Leakage Inductance
Secondary Trace Inductance
Transformer Resonant Frequency
(secondary open)
Transformer Primary AC Resistance
Transformer Secondary AC Resistance
Output Capacitor Equivalent Series
Resistance @100kHz
UNITS
µH
µH
nH
kHz
5 V OUTPUT (Figure 4)
TOP232 TOP233 TOP234 TOP232 TOP233 TOP234
3500
1600
1150
3090
1550
1100
53
16
12
46
23
16
30
30
30
20
20
20
750
800
850
750
800
850
mΩ
mΩ
mΩ
5600
30
24
2800
15
18
1840
10
15
4600
12
18
2400
6
9
1600
4
6
Output Inductor DC Resistance
mΩ
32
25
20
6
4.5
3.5
Common Mode Inductor DC
Resistance (both legs)
Core Loss
mΩ
370
333
300
370
333
300
mW
100
200
250
100
200
250
Table 2. Typical component parameters for a TOPSwitch-FX flyback power supply with a single input 230 VAC ±15%.
(PD) of 1.5 W or a TOP233 with an efficiency of 82.5% and a
device dissipation of 0.75 W.
This is an adapter design in an enclosed plastic box, so the
maximum power available from the supply is limited by thermal
considerations. The worst-case external ambient temperature
(TA_EXT) is 50 °C with an estimated temperature rise of of 25 °C
inside the plastic box, giving an internal ambient (TA_INT) of
75 °C. Assuming a TOPSwitch-FX in DIP-8 (P-package) , from
the datasheet we obtain the thermal impedance from junctionto-case (θJC) 5 °C/W. The TOPSwitch-FX is connected to a PCboard heatsink of thermal impedance case-to-air (θCA) of
28 ˚C/W. This gives an overall thermal impedance from
junction-to-air (θJA) of 28 + 5 = 33 °C/W.
TJ = TA _ INT + (θ JA × PD )
TJ _ TOP 232 = TA _ INT + (θ JA × PD _ TOP 232 )
TJ _ TOP 232 = 75 + (33 × 1.5) = 124.5 °C
TJ _ TOP 233 = TA _ INT + (θ JA × PD _ TOP 233 )
TJ _ TOP 233 = 75 + (33 × 0.75) = 99.75 °C
We can therefore see that a TOP233 with a junction temperature
of less than 100 °C is the correct device for this application.
Other Key Considerations
We have seen how to use the information provided by the
TOPSwitch-FX Quick Selection Curves. However, there are
other key factors to consider when completing the power supply
design. These can produce results that differ from the predictions
of the Quick Selection Curves.
Factors Which can Lower the Performance
• An electrolytic capacitor can have an actual (measured)
capacitance 20% less than its nominal specified value.
Also, its capacitance can fall an additional 20% as it ages.
This can significantly decrease the available capacitance
per watt and adversely affect both the power capability and
device dissipation. The designer should choose the capacitor
value to accommodate this derating.
• In production, the primary inductance of the Transformer
will have a significant tolerance. Inductances higher than
those in Tables 1 and 2 would cause the power supply to
operate beyond recommended design guidelines (KRP too
low). Values of primary inductance significantly lower
than those in Tables 1 and 2 would lead to higher peak and
RMS drain currents in the TOPSwitch-FX MOSFET. This
causes an increase in device dissipation and also causes the
device to reach current limit at less than the maximum load.
• The Quick Selection Curves assume that the AC Input
voltage waveform is a pure sine wave. If the input voltage
waveform is distorted, the resultant peak voltage on the
A
2/00
3
AN-26
input bulk capacitor may be much lower than anticipated.
This causes the TOPSwitch-FX device to reach current
limit or duty cycle limit at loads less than the maximum
possible load. Therefore, in locations where significant
line distortion is expected, the designer should provide a
suitable design margin. This can be accomplished by
derating maximum output power or increasing the input
capacitance.
The first is the leakage of the transformer. This is commonly
measured from the transformer primary with the pins of the
secondary windings shorted. Values of 1-1.5% of the
transformer primary inductance were used for these curves
(see Tables 1 and 2). If designers measure leakage beyond
this level, then they can either accept the resulting lower
power supply efficiency or revise the transformer design/
construction to reduce the leakage inductance.
• Some wattmeters give erroneous readings when the current
has a high crest factor. Take efficiency measurements with
an appropriate instrument. Several electronic wattmeters
are designed for this purpose. The Voltech PM100 is an
example.
The second component of the effective leakage is the
inductance of the secondary traces on the circuit board.
This has a great impact on the efficiency of medium to high
power converters operating at low line and having low
voltage outputs (5 V or 3.3 V for example). A higher VOR
further aggravates the problem because of the higher turns
ratio. The secondary trace inductance, which could be of
the order of only 20-40 nH, is reflected to the primary by
the square of the turns ratio and adds to the transformer
primary leakage inductance. Hence, it can be a significant
part of the total effective leakage inductance. The Zener
clamp has to dissipate as much energy as if all the leakage
were concentrated on the primary side.
• Minimum line frequency is important. A low line frequency
requires larger carryover periods for the input bulk capacitor,
causing higher voltage ripple across it. If the line frequency
is expected to be lower than 50 Hz, the input capacitor
should be sized appropriately.
• The TOPSwitch-FX processes (switches) an amount of
power that is almost equal to the input power. This is
approximately the output power divided by the efficiency
of the power supply. Therefore, anything that lowers the
efficiency of the power supply will increase the power
processed by the TOPSwitch-FX, increasing device
dissipation, and reduceing its power capability. If the solid
line efficiency curves cannot be achieved under these
conditions, the dashed line dissipation curves are likewise
no longer valid.
• The choice of VOR can affect the efficiency greatly. Too
high a VOR will significantly increase dissipation in the
Zener clamp and the output section. It could also destroy
the TOPSwitch-FX due to excessive reset voltage applied
across DRAIN to SOURCE. Too low a VOR may cause
excessively continuous operation (beyond the
recommended design guidelines).
• For low voltage outputs, the secondary currents and their
associated losses can become significant. Close attention
must be paid to the Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) of
the output capacitor in particular. The values in Tables 1
and 2 for the 5 V Quick Selection Curves (Figures 2 and 4)
use a capacitor with very low ESR.
• Energy stored in the leakage inductance is dumped into the
Zener clamp when the TOPSwitch-FX turns off. Therefore,
the efficiency will fall significantly if the leakage inductance
is too high.
• This leakage has two components, both of which need to be
considered.
4
A
2/00
To measure the in-circuit effective leakage inductance, the
transformer must be first soldered onto the actual printed circuit
board. Then, rather than shorting the secondary pins directly at
the transformer, the short is created by soldering a thick short
jumper across the output diode and another one across the pins
of the output capacitor. The inductance across the pins of the
primary winding then provides the total in-circuit effective
leakage inductance. The secondary side PCB trace inductance
can be easily estimated as shown in Example 3. As with other
parameters, designs having significantly different parameter
values than those of Tables 1 and 2 will not give the same
performance.
Example 3: Effect of Leakage Inductance
A Universal input TOP234 based power supply delivering
40 W with a 5 V output has been designed with a VOR of 135 V.
A measurement of leakage by shorting the secondary pins of the
transformer directly gives a leakage measurement of 14 µH
which conforms to the values in Table 1. The in-circuit
measurement technique described above gives 26.5 µH. The
turns ratio is:
NP
VOR
135
=
=
= 25
NS (VO + VD ) 5.4
So the estimated secondary trace inductance is:
LTRACE =
26.5µH − 14 µH
= 20 nH
252
AN-26
A secondary trace inductance of 20 nH is consistent with the
values of Tables 1 and 2.
Factors Which can Improve Performance
For more advanced designers, there are ways to improve the
performance indicated by the Quick Selection curves. Some of
these are now mentioned briefly.
• The recommended capacitance per watt is based on the
optimum cost to performance ratio. Better performance
can certainly be obtained in terms of efficiency,
TOPSwitch-FX dissipation and life expectancy of the input
bulk capacitor, by using a higher capacitance per watt than
recommended.
• If the intended application is for low line only (provided no
voltage doubler is being used at the input of the power
supply), the clamp voltage and VOR may be raised by a
calculated amount. This will enhance the overall efficiency
and lower the device dissipation at the expense of higher
secondary peak currents.
It should be mentioned that increasing the VOR causes an
increase in the duty cycle and a corresponding reduction in
the RMS currents and heating in the TOPSwitch-FX device,
provided the overall efficiency is not adversely affected. A
high VOR also decreases the reverse voltage stress on the
output diodes.
The TOPSwitch-FX curves are shown for non-thermally
limited designs (i.e. those limited purely by device
parameters). The primary inductance (Tables 1 and 2) was
chosen for the maximum power capability of the device. If
the output power of the design is less than the maximum
power capability of the device, due to thermal limitations,
the inductance should be increased accordingly. For adapter
designs, it is possible to reduce device dissipation by
reducing the KRP.
• Since the Quick Selection Curves are for a TOPSwitch-FX
junction temperature of 100 °C, better performance is
possible if the TOPSwitch-FX runs cooler. Improved
heatsinking will help achieve higher efficiency and power.
Conclusions
This application note has presented a simple method by which
a designer can quickly select TOPSwitch-FX device for typical
applications. For best results the design should conform to the
component parameters in Tables 1 and 2. Adherence to the
selection curve assumptions will allow the designer to achieve
the efficiencies indicated by the solid line curves in Figures 1
through 4. Thermal requirements can be estimated from the
dashed curves. Other key considerations are presented to allow
the designer to achieve the best performance from
TOPSwitch-FX.
• There are two separate limits on the maximum power that
can be obtained from a TOPSwitch-FX. The first is set by
device operational parameters such as maximum duty
cycle and current limit, etc. The second is thermal power
limitation determined by device temperature (design
guidelines recommend a minimum junction temperature of
100 °C).
A
2/00
5
AN-26
UNIVERSAL INPUT (85 VAC TO 265 VAC) 12 V OUTPUT
PI-2569-120899
85
84
83
82
TOP234
0.5 W
81
0.75 W
1W
79
W
TOP232
W
1.
25
78
1.
5
77
1.
75
4
5
2
75
W
4.
W
76
W
5
3.
W
Efficiency (%)
80
TOP233
5
W
74
5
W
3W
72
W
6
2.
73
W
71
70
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
Output Power (W)
Figure 1. Efficiency vs. Output Power with Contours of Constant TOPSwitch-FX Power Loss for Universal Input and 12 V Output.
UNIVERSAL INPUT (85 VAC TO 265 VAC) 5 V OUTPUT
PI-2568-120899
80
79
78
77
0.5 W
76
0.75 W
Efficiency (%)
75
74
1W
TOP232
73
TOP234
5
1.2
72
W
1.5
71
W
5W
1.7
70
69
3W
2W
68
W
2.5
67
W
3.5
TOP233
66
4W
W
4.5
65
64
63
62
61
60
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
Output Power (W)
Figure 2. Efficiency vs. Output Power with Contours of Constant TOPSwitch-FX Power Loss for Universal Input and 5 V Output.
6
A
2/00
60
AN-26
SINGLE VOLTAGE INPUT (230 VAC ±15%) 12 V OUTPUT
PI-2571-120899
88
87
86
TOP234
0.5 W
84
0.75 W
2W
83
1
TOP232
W
82
25
2.5
W
1.
5
1.
1.
75
81
3W
TOP233
W
W
W
Efficiency (%)
85
80
79
78
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Output Power (W)
Figure 3. Efficiency vs. Output Power with Contours of Constant TOPSwitch-FX Power Loss for Single Voltage Application and 12 V Output.
SINGLE VOLTAGE INPUT (230 VAC ±15%) 5 V OUTPUT
79
0.75 W
78
Efficiency (%)
77
PI-2570-120899
80
1W
TOP232
5
1.2
TOP234
W
2W
5W
76
1.
2.5
5W
1.7
75
TOP233
W
3W
74
3.5
W
73
72
71
70
10
15
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Output Power (W)
Figure 4. Efficiency vs. Output Power with Contours of Constant TOPSwitch-FX Power Loss for Single Voltage Application and 5 V Output.
A
2/00
7
AN-26
Power Integrations reserves the right to make changes to its products at any time to improve reliability or manufacturability.
Power Integrations does not assume any liability arising from the use of any device or circuit described herein, nor does it
convey any license under its patent rights or the rights of others.
The PI Logo, TOPSwitch, TinySwitch and EcoSmart are registered trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc.
AMERICAS
Power Integrations, Inc.
5245 Hellyer Avenue
San Jose, CA 95138 USA
Main:
+1 408-414-9200
Customer Service:
Phone:
+1 408-414-9665
Fax:
+1 408-414-9765
e-mail: [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */
EUROPE & AFRICA
Power Integrations (Europe) Ltd.
Centennial Court
Bracknell
Berkshire, RG12 1YQ
United Kingdom
Phone:
+44-1344-462-300
Fax:
+44-1344-311-732
e-mail: [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */
TAIWAN
Power Integrations
International Holdings, Inc.
17F-3, No. 510
Chung Hsiao E. Rd.,
Sec. 5,
Taipei, Taiwan 110, R.O.C.
Phone:
+886-2-2727-1221
Fax:
+886-2-2727-1223
e-mail: [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */
CHINA
Power Integrations
International Holdings, Inc.
Rm# 1705, Bao Hua Bldg.
1016 Hua Qiang Bei Lu
Shenzhen, Guangdong 518031
China
Phone:
+86-755-367-5143
Fax:
+86-755-377-9610
e-mail: [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */
KOREA
Power Integrations
International Holdings, Inc.
Rm# 402, Handuk Building
649-4 Yeoksam-Dong,
Kangnam-Gu,
Seoul, Korea
Phone:
+82-2-568-7520
Fax:
+82-2-568-7474
e-mail: [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */
JAPAN
Power Integrations, K.K.
Keihin-Tatemono 1st Bldg.
12-20 Shin-Yokohama 2-Chome
Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi
Kanagawa 222-0033, Japan
Phone:
+81-45-471-1021
Fax:
+81-45-471-3717
e-mail: [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */
INDIA (Technical Support)
Innovatech
#1, 8th Main Road
Vasanthnagar
Bangalore, India 560052
Phone:
+91-80-226-6023
Fax:
+91-80-228-9727
e-mail: [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */
APPLICATIONS HOTLINE
World Wide +1-408-414-9660
8
A
2/00
APPLICATIONS FAX
World Wide +1-408-414-9760
```