ALTERA CYCLONE

Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
101 Innovation Drive
San Jose, CA 95134
www.altera.com
CII5V1-3.3
Copyright © 2008 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. Altera, The Programmable Solutions Company, the stylized Altera logo, specific device designations, and all other words and logos that are identified as trademarks and/or service marks are, unless noted otherwise, the trademarks and
service marks of Altera Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. All other product or service names are the property of their respective holders. Altera products are protected under numerous U.S. and foreign patents and pending applications, maskwork rights, and copyrights. Altera warrants
performance of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make
changes to any products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera
Corporation. Altera customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published information and before placing orders for products or services.
ii
Altera Corporation
Contents
Chapter Revision Dates ........................................................................... xi
About This Handbook ............................................................................ xiii
How to Contact Altera .......................................................................................................................... xiii
Typographic Conventions .................................................................................................................... xiii
Section I. Cyclone II Device Family Data Sheet
Revision History .................................................................................................................................... 1–1
Chapter 1. Introduction
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................
Low-Cost Embedded Processing Solutions ..................................................................................
Low-Cost DSP Solutions .................................................................................................................
Features ...................................................................................................................................................
Referenced Documents .........................................................................................................................
Document Revision History .................................................................................................................
1–1
1–1
1–1
1–2
1–9
1–9
Chapter 2. Cyclone II Architecture
Functional Description .......................................................................................................................... 2–1
Logic Elements ....................................................................................................................................... 2–2
LE Operating Modes ........................................................................................................................ 2–4
Logic Array Blocks ................................................................................................................................ 2–7
LAB Interconnects ............................................................................................................................ 2–8
LAB Control Signals ......................................................................................................................... 2–8
MultiTrack Interconnect ..................................................................................................................... 2–10
Row Interconnects .......................................................................................................................... 2–10
Column Interconnects .................................................................................................................... 2–12
Device Routing ............................................................................................................................... 2–15
Global Clock Network & Phase-Locked Loops ............................................................................... 2–16
Dedicated Clock Pins ..................................................................................................................... 2–20
Dual-Purpose Clock Pins .............................................................................................................. 2–20
Global Clock Network ................................................................................................................... 2–21
Global Clock Network Distribution ............................................................................................ 2–23
PLLs .................................................................................................................................................. 2–25
Embedded Memory ............................................................................................................................. 2–27
Memory Modes ............................................................................................................................... 2–30
Clock Modes .................................................................................................................................... 2–31
M4K Routing Interface .................................................................................................................. 2–31
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Contents
Embedded Multipliers ........................................................................................................................
Multiplier Modes ............................................................................................................................
Embedded Multiplier Routing Interface .....................................................................................
I/O Structure & Features ....................................................................................................................
External Memory Interfacing .......................................................................................................
Programmable Drive Strength .....................................................................................................
Open-Drain Output ........................................................................................................................
Slew Rate Control ...........................................................................................................................
Bus Hold ..........................................................................................................................................
Programmable Pull-Up Resistor ..................................................................................................
Advanced I/O Standard Support ................................................................................................
High-Speed Differential Interfaces ..............................................................................................
Series On-Chip Termination .........................................................................................................
I/O Banks ........................................................................................................................................
MultiVolt I/O Interface .................................................................................................................
2–32
2–35
2–36
2–37
2–44
2–49
2–50
2–51
2–51
2–51
2–52
2–53
2–55
2–57
2–60
Chapter 3. Configuration & Testing
IEEE Std. 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary Scan Support .............................................................................
Configuration .........................................................................................................................................
Operating Modes ...................................................................................................................................
Configuration Schemes .........................................................................................................................
Cyclone II Automated Single Event Upset Detection ......................................................................
Custom-Built Circuitry ....................................................................................................................
Software Interface .............................................................................................................................
Document Revision History .................................................................................................................
3–1
3–5
3–5
3–6
3–7
3–7
3–7
3–8
Chapter 4. Hot Socketing & Power-On Reset
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................
Cyclone II Hot-Socketing Specifications ............................................................................................
Devices Can Be Driven before Power-Up .....................................................................................
I/O Pins Remain Tri-Stated during Power-Up ............................................................................
Hot-Socketing Feature Implementation in Cyclone II Devices .......................................................
Power-On Reset Circuitry ....................................................................................................................
"Wake-up" Time for Cyclone II Devices .......................................................................................
Conclusion ..............................................................................................................................................
Document Revision History .................................................................................................................
4–1
4–1
4–2
4–2
4–3
4–5
4–5
4–7
4–7
Chapter 5. DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Operating Conditions ........................................................................................................................... 5–1
Single-Ended I/O Standards .......................................................................................................... 5–5
Differential I/O Standards .............................................................................................................. 5–7
DC Characteristics for Different Pin Types ..................................................................................... 5–11
On-Chip Termination Specifications ........................................................................................... 5–12
Power Consumption ........................................................................................................................... 5–13
Timing Specifications .......................................................................................................................... 5–14
Preliminary and Final Timing Specifications ............................................................................. 5–14
Performance .................................................................................................................................... 5–15
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Contents
Internal Timing ...............................................................................................................................
Cyclone II Clock Timing Parameters ...........................................................................................
Clock Network Skew Adders .......................................................................................................
IOE Programmable Delay .............................................................................................................
Default Capacitive Loading of Different I/O Standards ..........................................................
I/O Delays .......................................................................................................................................
Maximum Input and Output Clock Rate ....................................................................................
High Speed I/O Timing Specifications .......................................................................................
External Memory Interface Specifications ..................................................................................
JTAG Timing Specifications ..........................................................................................................
PLL Timing Specifications ............................................................................................................
Duty Cycle Distortion .........................................................................................................................
DCD Measurement Techniques ...................................................................................................
Referenced Documents .......................................................................................................................
Document Revision History ...............................................................................................................
5–18
5–23
5–29
5–30
5–31
5–33
5–46
5–55
5–63
5–64
5–66
5–67
5–68
5–74
5–74
Chapter 6. Reference & Ordering Information
Software ..................................................................................................................................................
Device Pin-Outs .....................................................................................................................................
Ordering Information ...........................................................................................................................
Document Revision History .................................................................................................................
6–1
6–1
6–1
6–2
Section II. Clock Management
Revision History .................................................................................................................................... 6–1
Chapter 7. PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 7–1
Cyclone II PLL Hardware Overview .................................................................................................. 7–2
PLL Reference Clock Generation ................................................................................................... 7–6
Clock Feedback Modes ....................................................................................................................... 7–10
Normal Mode .................................................................................................................................. 7–10
Zero Delay Buffer Mode ................................................................................................................ 7–11
No Compensation Mode ............................................................................................................... 7–12
Source-Synchronous Mode ........................................................................................................... 7–13
Hardware Features .............................................................................................................................. 7–14
Clock Multiplication & Division .................................................................................................. 7–14
Programmable Duty Cycle ........................................................................................................... 7–15
Phase-Shifting Implementation .................................................................................................... 7–16
Control Signals ................................................................................................................................ 7–17
Manual Clock Switchover ............................................................................................................. 7–20
Clocking ................................................................................................................................................ 7–21
Global Clock Network ................................................................................................................... 7–21
Clock Control Block ....................................................................................................................... 7–24
Global Clock Network Clock Source Generation ...................................................................... 7–26
Global Clock Network Power Down ........................................................................................... 7–28
Altera Corporation
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Contents
clkena signals ..................................................................................................................................
Board Layout ........................................................................................................................................
VCCA & GNDA .............................................................................................................................
VCCD & GND .................................................................................................................................
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................
7–29
7–30
7–31
7–33
7–33
Section III. Memory
Revision History .................................................................................................................................... 7–1
Chapter 8. Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 8–1
Overview ................................................................................................................................................. 8–1
Control Signals .................................................................................................................................. 8–3
Parity Bit Support ............................................................................................................................. 8–4
Byte Enable Support ........................................................................................................................ 8–4
Packed Mode Support ..................................................................................................................... 8–6
Address Clock Enable ...................................................................................................................... 8–6
Memory Modes ...................................................................................................................................... 8–8
Single-Port Mode .............................................................................................................................. 8–9
Simple Dual-Port Mode ................................................................................................................. 8–10
True Dual-Port Mode ..................................................................................................................... 8–12
Shift Register Mode ........................................................................................................................ 8–14
ROM Mode ...................................................................................................................................... 8–16
FIFO Buffer Mode ........................................................................................................................... 8–16
Clock Modes ......................................................................................................................................... 8–16
Independent Clock Mode .............................................................................................................. 8–17
Input/Output Clock Mode ........................................................................................................... 8–19
Read/Write Clock Mode ............................................................................................................... 8–22
Single-Clock Mode ......................................................................................................................... 8–24
Power-Up Conditions & Memory Initialization ........................................................................ 8–27
Read-During- Write Operation at the Same Address .................................................................... 8–28
Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode .......................................................................................... 8–28
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode ........................................................................................ 8–29
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 8–30
Referenced Documents ....................................................................................................................... 8–30
Chapter 9. External Memory Interfaces
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 9–1
External Memory Interface Standards ................................................................................................ 9–2
DDR & DDR2 SDRAM .................................................................................................................... 9–2
QDRII SRAM ..................................................................................................................................... 9–5
Cyclone II DDR Memory Support Overview .................................................................................... 9–9
Data & Data Strobe Pins ................................................................................................................ 9–10
Clock, Command & Address Pins ............................................................................................... 9–14
Parity, DM & ECC Pins ................................................................................................................. 9–14
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Contents
Phase Lock Loop (PLL) ..................................................................................................................
Clock Delay Control .......................................................................................................................
DQS Postamble ...............................................................................................................................
DDR Input Registers ......................................................................................................................
DDR Output Registers ...................................................................................................................
Bidirectional DDR Registers .........................................................................................................
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................
Document Revision History ...............................................................................................................
9–15
9–15
9–16
9–18
9–21
9–22
9–24
9–25
Section IV. I/O Standards
Revision History .................................................................................................................................... 9–1
Chapter 10. Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 10–1
Supported I/O Standards ................................................................................................................... 10–1
3.3-V LVTTL (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-B) .......................................................................... 10–3
3.3-V LVCMOS (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-B) ..................................................................... 10–4
3.3-V (PCI Special Interest Group [SIG] PCI Local Bus Specification Revision 3.0) ............. 10–4
3.3-V PCI-X ...................................................................................................................................... 10–6
Easy-to-Use, Low-Cost PCI Express Solution ............................................................................ 10–6
2.5-V LVTTL (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-5) ................................................................. 10–7
2.5-V LVCMOS (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-5) ............................................................ 10–7
SSTL-2 Class I and II (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-9A) ......................................................... 10–7
Pseudo-Differential SSTL-2 ........................................................................................................... 10–8
1.8-V LVTTL (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-7) ................................................................. 10–9
1.8-V LVCMOS (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-7) .......................................................... 10–10
SSTL-18 Class I and II .................................................................................................................. 10–10
1.8-V HSTL Class I and II ............................................................................................................ 10–11
Pseudo-Differential SSTL-18 Class I and Differential SSTL-18 Class II ............................... 10–12
1.8-V Pseudo-Differential HSTL Class I and II ........................................................................ 10–13
1.5-V LVCMOS (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-11) .................................................................. 10–14
1.5-V HSTL Class I and II ............................................................................................................ 10–14
1.5-V Pseudo-Differential HSTL Class I and II ........................................................................ 10–15
LVDS, RSDS and mini-LVDS ..................................................................................................... 10–16
Differential LVPECL .................................................................................................................... 10–17
Cyclone II I/O Banks ........................................................................................................................ 10–18
Programmable Current Drive Strength .......................................................................................... 10–24
Voltage-Referenced I/O Standard Termination ...................................................................... 10–26
Differential I/O Standard Termination .................................................................................... 10–26
I/O Driver Impedance Matching (RS) and Series Termination (RS) ..................................... 10–27
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines ................................................................................................. 10–27
Differential Pad Placement Guidelines ..................................................................................... 10–28
VREF Pad Placement Guidelines ................................................................................................. 10–29
DC Guidelines ............................................................................................................................... 10–32
5.0-V Device Compatibility .............................................................................................................. 10–34
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Contents
Conclusion ..........................................................................................................................................
References ...........................................................................................................................................
Referenced Documents .....................................................................................................................
Document Revision History .............................................................................................................
10–36
10–37
10–38
10–38
Chapter 11. High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 11–1
Cyclone II High-Speed I/O Banks .................................................................................................... 11–1
Cyclone II High-Speed I/O Interface ............................................................................................... 11–3
I/O Standards Support ....................................................................................................................... 11–4
LVDS Standard Support in Cyclone II Devices ......................................................................... 11–4
RSDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone II Devices .................................................................. 11–7
mini-LVDS Standard Support in Cyclone II Devices ................................................................ 11–9
LVPECL Support in Cyclone II .................................................................................................. 11–11
Differential SSTL Support in Cyclone II Devices ..................................................................... 11–12
Differential HSTL Support in Cyclone II Devices ................................................................... 11–13
High-Speed I/O Timing in Cyclone II Devices ............................................................................. 11–14
Design Guidelines ............................................................................................................................. 11–16
Differential Pad Placement Guidelines ..................................................................................... 11–16
Board Design Considerations ..................................................................................................... 11–16
Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 11–17
Section V. DSP
Revision History .................................................................................................................................. 11–1
Chapter 12. Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices
Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................
Embedded Multiplier Block Overview ............................................................................................
Architecture ..........................................................................................................................................
Input Registers ................................................................................................................................
Multiplier Stage ..............................................................................................................................
Output Registers .............................................................................................................................
Operational Modes ..............................................................................................................................
18-Bit Multipliers ............................................................................................................................
9-Bit Multipliers ..............................................................................................................................
Software Support .................................................................................................................................
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................
12–1
12–2
12–4
12–4
12–5
12–6
12–6
12–7
12–7
12–9
12–9
Section VI. Configuration & Test
Revision History .................................................................................................................................. 12–1
Chapter 13. Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 13–1
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Contents
Cyclone II Configuration Overview ................................................................................................. 13–1
Configuration File Format .................................................................................................................. 13–3
Configuration Data Compression ..................................................................................................... 13–3
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices) ......................................................... 13–6
Single Device AS Configuration ................................................................................................... 13–7
Multiple Device AS Configuration ............................................................................................ 13–12
Configuring Multiple Cyclone II Devices with the Same Design ......................................... 13–15
Estimating AS Configuration Time ........................................................................................... 13–18
Programming Serial Configuration Devices ............................................................................ 13–19
PS Configuration ................................................................................................................................ 13–22
Single Device PS Configuration Using a MAX II Device as an External Host .................... 13–22
Multiple Device PS Configuration Using a MAX II Device as an External Host ................ 13–26
PS Configuration Using a Microprocessor ............................................................................... 13–31
Single Device PS Configuration Using a Configuration Device ............................................ 13–32
Multiple Device PS Configuration Using a Configuration Device ....................................... 13–37
PS Configuration Using a Download Cable ............................................................................. 13–48
JTAG Configuration .......................................................................................................................... 13–53
Single Device JTAG Configuration ............................................................................................ 13–55
JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices ................................................................................. 13–58
Jam STAPL .................................................................................................................................... 13–60
Configuring Cyclone II FPGAs with JRunner .......................................................................... 13–60
Combining JTAG & Active Serial Configuration Schemes .................................................... 13–61
Programming Serial Configuration Devices In-System Using the JTAG Interface ............ 13–61
Device Configuration Pins ............................................................................................................... 13–64
Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................... 13–70
Chapter 14. IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 14–1
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Architecture .................................................................................................... 14–2
IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Register ........................................................................................ 14–4
Boundary-Scan Cells of a Cyclone II Device I/O Pin ............................................................... 14–4
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Operation Control .......................................................................................... 14–6
SAMPLE/PRELOAD Instruction Mode ..................................................................................... 14–9
Capture Phase ............................................................................................................................... 14–10
Shift & Update Phases ................................................................................................................. 14–10
EXTEST Instruction Mode .......................................................................................................... 14–11
Capture Phase ............................................................................................................................... 14–12
Shift & Update Phases ................................................................................................................. 14–12
BYPASS Instruction Mode .......................................................................................................... 14–13
IDCODE Instruction Mode ......................................................................................................... 14–14
USERCODE Instruction Mode ................................................................................................... 14–14
CLAMP Instruction Mode .......................................................................................................... 14–14
HIGHZ Instruction Mode ........................................................................................................... 14–15
I/O Voltage Support in JTAG Chain ......................................................................................... 14–15
Using IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry ............................................................................................. 14–16
BST for Configured Devices ............................................................................................................. 14–17
Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry ....................................................................................... 14–18
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Contents
Guidelines for IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Testing .............................................................
Boundary-Scan Description Language (BSDL) Support ..............................................................
Conclusion ..........................................................................................................................................
References ...........................................................................................................................................
Document Revision History .............................................................................................................
14–18
14–19
14–19
14–19
14–20
Section VII. PCB Layout Guidelines
Revision History .................................................................................................................................. 14–1
Chapter 15. Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 15–1
Thermal Resistance .............................................................................................................................. 15–2
Package Outlines ................................................................................................................................. 15–4
144-Pin Plastic Thin Quad Flat Pack (TQFP) – Wirebond ........................................................ 15–4
208-Pin Plastic Quad Flat Pack (PQFP) – Wirebond ................................................................. 15–7
240-Pin Plastic Quad Flat Pack (PQFP) ....................................................................................... 15–9
256-Pin FineLine Ball-Grid Array, Option 2 – Wirebond ....................................................... 15–11
484-Pin FineLine BGA, Option 3 – Wirebond .......................................................................... 15–13
484-Pin Ultra FineLine BGA – Wirebond ................................................................................. 15–15
672-Pin FineLine BGA Package, Option 3 – Wirebond ........................................................... 15–17
896-Pin FineLine BGA Package – Wirebond ............................................................................ 15–19
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Chapter Revision Dates
The chapters in this book, Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1, were revised on the following dates.
Where chapters or groups of chapters are available separately, part numbers are listed.
Chapter 1. Introduction
Revised:
Part number:
February 2008
CII51001-3.2
Chapter 2. Cyclone II Architecture
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51002-3.1
Chapter 3. Configuration & Testing
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51003-2.2
Chapter 4. Hot Socketing & Power-On Reset
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51004-3.1
Chapter 5. DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Revised:
February 2008
Part number: CII51005-4.0
Chapter 6. Reference & Ordering Information
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51006-1.4
Chapter 7. PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51007-3.1
Chapter 8. Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Revised:
February 2008
Part number: CII51008-2.4
Chapter 9. External Memory Interfaces
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51009-3.1
Altera Corporation
xi
Chapter Revision Dates
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Chapter 10. Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Revised:
February 2008
Part number: CII51010-2.4
Chapter 11. High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51011-2.2
Chapter 12. Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51012-1.2
Chapter 13. Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51013-3.1
Chapter 14. IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51014-2.1
Chapter 15. Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
Revised:
February 2007
Part number: CII51015-2.3
xii
Altera Corporation
About This Handbook
This handbook provides comprehensive information about the Altera®
Cyclone® II family of devices.
How to Contact
Altera
For the most up-to-date information about Altera products, refer to the
following table.
Contact (1)
Contact
Method
Address
Technical support
Website
www.altera.com/support
Technical training
Website
www.altera.com/training
Email
custrain@altera.com
Product literature
Website
www.altera.com/literature
Altera literature services
Email
literature@altera.com
Non-technical support (General) Email
(Software Licensing)
Email
nacomp@altera.com
authorization@altera.com
Note to table:
(1)
Typographic
Conventions
Visual Cue
You can also contact your local Altera sales office or sales representative.
This document uses the typographic conventions shown below.
Meaning
Bold Type with Initial
Capital Letters
Command names, dialog box titles, checkbox options, and dialog box options are
shown in bold, initial capital letters. Example: Save As dialog box.
bold type
External timing parameters, directory names, project names, disk drive names,
filenames, filename extensions, and software utility names are shown in bold
type. Examples: fMAX, \qdesigns directory, d: drive, chiptrip.gdf file.
Italic Type with Initial Capital
Letters
Document titles are shown in italic type with initial capital letters. Example: AN
75: High-Speed Board Design.
Altera Corporation
xiii
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Typographic Conventions
Visual Cue
Italic type
Meaning
Internal timing parameters and variables are shown in italic type.
Examples: tPIA, n + 1.
Variable names are enclosed in angle brackets (< >) and shown in italic type.
Example: <file name>, <project name>.pof file.
Initial Capital Letters
Keyboard keys and menu names are shown with initial capital letters. Examples:
Delete key, the Options menu.
“Subheading Title”
References to sections within a document and titles of on-line help topics are
shown in quotation marks. Example: “Typographic Conventions.”
Courier type
Signal and port names are shown in lowercase Courier type. Examples: data1,
tdi, input. Active-low signals are denoted by suffix n, e.g., resetn.
Anything that must be typed exactly as it appears is shown in Courier type. For
example: c:\qdesigns\tutorial\chiptrip.gdf. Also, sections of an
actual file, such as a Report File, references to parts of files (e.g., the AHDL
keyword SUBDESIGN), as well as logic function names (e.g., TRI) are shown in
Courier.
1., 2., 3., and
a., b., c., etc.
Numbered steps are used in a list of items when the sequence of the items is
important, such as the steps listed in a procedure.
■
Bullets are used in a list of items when the sequence of the items is not important.
●
v
•
The checkmark indicates a procedure that consists of one step only.
1
The hand points to information that requires special attention.
c
The caution indicates required information that needs special consideration and
understanding and should be read prior to starting or continuing with the
procedure or process.
w
The warning indicates information that should be read prior to starting or
continuing the procedure or processes
r
The angled arrow indicates you should press the Enter key.
f
The feet direct you to more information on a particular topic.
xiv
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
Section I. Cyclone II
Device Family Data Sheet
This section provides information for board layout designers to
successfully layout their boards for Cyclone® II devices. It contains the
required PCB layout guidelines, device pin tables, and package
specifications.
This section includes the following chapters:
Revision History
Altera Corporation
■
Chapter 1. Introduction
■
Chapter 2. Cyclone II Architecture
■
Chapter 3. Configuration & Testing
■
Chapter 4. Hot Socketing & Power-On Reset
■
Chapter 5. DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
■
Chapter 6. Reference & Ordering Information
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section I–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section I–2
Preliminary
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
1. Introduction
CII51001-3.2
Introduction
Following the immensely successful first-generation Cyclone® device
family, Altera® Cyclone II FPGAs extend the low-cost FPGA density
range to 68,416 logic elements (LEs) and provide up to 622 usable I/O
pins and up to 1.1 Mbits of embedded memory. Cyclone II FPGAs are
manufactured on 300-mm wafers using TSMC's 90-nm low-k dielectric
process to ensure rapid availability and low cost. By minimizing silicon
area, Cyclone II devices can support complex digital systems on a single
chip at a cost that rivals that of ASICs. Unlike other FPGA vendors who
compromise power consumption and performance for low-cost, Altera’s
latest generation of low-cost FPGAs—Cyclone II FPGAs, offer 60% higher
performance and half the power consumption of competing 90-nm
FPGAs. The low cost and optimized feature set of Cyclone II FPGAs make
them ideal solutions for a wide array of automotive, consumer,
communications, video processing, test and measurement, and other
end-market solutions. Reference designs, system diagrams, and IP, found
at www.altera.com, are available to help you rapidly develop complete
end-market solutions using Cyclone II FPGAs.
Low-Cost Embedded Processing Solutions
Cyclone II devices support the Nios II embedded processor which allows
you to implement custom-fit embedded processing solutions. Cyclone II
devices can also expand the peripheral set, memory, I/O, or performance
of embedded processors. Single or multiple Nios II embedded processors
can be designed into a Cyclone II device to provide additional
co-processing power or even replace existing embedded processors in
your system. Using Cyclone II and Nios II together allow for low-cost,
high-performance embedded processing solutions, which allow you to
extend your product's life cycle and improve time to market over
standard product solutions.
Low-Cost DSP Solutions
Use Cyclone II FPGAs alone or as DSP co-processors to improve
price-to-performance ratios for digital signal processing (DSP)
applications. You can implement high-performance yet low-cost DSP
systems with the following Cyclone II features and design support:
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Up to 150 18 × 18 multipliers
Up to 1.1 Mbit of on-chip embedded memory
High-speed interfaces to external memory
1–1
Features
■
■
■
DSP intellectual property (IP) cores
DSP Builder interface to The Mathworks Simulink and Matlab
design environment
DSP Development Kit, Cyclone II Edition
Cyclone II devices include a powerful FPGA feature set optimized for
low-cost applications including a wide range of density, memory,
embedded multiplier, and packaging options. Cyclone II devices support
a wide range of common external memory interfaces and I/O protocols
required in low-cost applications. Parameterizable IP cores from Altera
and partners make using Cyclone II interfaces and protocols fast and easy.
Features
The Cyclone II device family offers the following features:
■
High-density architecture with 4,608 to 68,416 LEs
●
M4K embedded memory blocks
●
Up to 1.1 Mbits of RAM available without reducing available
logic
●
4,096 memory bits per block (4,608 bits per block including 512
parity bits)
●
Variable port configurations of ×1, ×2, ×4, ×8, ×9, ×16, ×18, ×32,
and ×36
●
True dual-port (one read and one write, two reads, or two
writes) operation for ×1, ×2, ×4, ×8, ×9, ×16, and ×18 modes
●
Byte enables for data input masking during writes
●
Up to 260-MHz operation
■
Embedded multipliers
●
Up to 150 18- × 18-bit multipliers are each configurable as two
independent 9- × 9-bit multipliers with up to 250-MHz
performance
●
Optional input and output registers
■
Advanced I/O support
●
High-speed differential I/O standard support, including LVDS,
RSDS, mini-LVDS, LVPECL, differential HSTL, and differential
SSTL
●
Single-ended I/O standard support, including 2.5-V and 1.8-V,
SSTL class I and II, 1.8-V and 1.5-V HSTL class I and II, 3.3-V PCI
and PCI-X 1.0, 3.3-, 2.5-, 1.8-, and 1.5-V LVCMOS, and 3.3-, 2.5-,
and 1.8-V LVTTL
●
Peripheral Component Interconnect Special Interest Group (PCI
SIG) PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 3.0 compliance for 3.3-V
operation at 33 or 66 MHz for 32- or 64-bit interfaces
●
PCI Express with an external TI PHY and an Altera PCI Express
×1 Megacore® function
1–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Introduction
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Altera Corporation
February 2008
133-MHz PCI-X 1.0 specification compatibility
High-speed external memory support, including DDR, DDR2,
and SDR SDRAM, and QDRII SRAM supported by drop in
Altera IP MegaCore functions for ease of use
Three dedicated registers per I/O element (IOE): one input
register, one output register, and one output-enable register
Programmable bus-hold feature
Programmable output drive strength feature
Programmable delays from the pin to the IOE or logic array
I/O bank grouping for unique VCCIO and/or VREF bank
settings
MultiVolt™ I/O standard support for 1.5-, 1.8-, 2.5-, and
3.3-interfaces
Hot-socketing operation support
Tri-state with weak pull-up on I/O pins before and during
configuration
Programmable open-drain outputs
Series on-chip termination support
■
Flexible clock management circuitry
●
Hierarchical clock network for up to 402.5-MHz performance
●
Up to four PLLs per device provide clock multiplication and
division, phase shifting, programmable duty cycle, and external
clock outputs, allowing system-level clock management and
skew control
●
Up to 16 global clock lines in the global clock network that drive
throughout the entire device
■
Device configuration
●
Fast serial configuration allows configuration times less than
100 ms
●
Decompression feature allows for smaller programming file
storage and faster configuration times
●
Supports multiple configuration modes: active serial, passive
serial, and JTAG-based configuration
●
Supports configuration through low-cost serial configuration
devices
●
Device configuration supports multiple voltages (either 3.3, 2.5,
or 1.8 V)
■
Intellectual property
●
Altera megafunction and Altera MegaCore function support,
and Altera Megafunctions Partners Program (AMPPSM)
megafunction support, for a wide range of embedded
processors, on-chip and off-chip interfaces, peripheral
functions, DSP functions, and communications functions and
1–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Features
●
protocols. Visit the Altera IPMegaStore at www.altera.com to
download IP MegaCore functions.
Nios II Embedded Processor support
The Cyclone II family offers devices with the Fast-On feature, which
offers a faster power-on-reset (POR) time. Devices that support the
Fast-On feature are designated with an “A” in the device ordering code.
For example, EP2C5A, EP2C8A, EP2C15A, and EP2C20A. The EP2C5A is
only available in the automotive speed grade. The EP2C8A and EP2C20A
are only available in the industrial speed grade. The EP2C15A is only
available with the Fast-On feature and is available in both commercial
and industrial grades. The Cyclone II “A” devices are identical in feature
set and functionality to the non-A devices except for support of the faster
POR time.
f
Cyclone II A devices are offered in automotive speed grade. For more
information, refer to the Cyclone II section in the Automotive-Grade Device
Handbook.
f
For more information on POR time specifications for Cyclone II A and
non-A devices, refer to the Hot Socketing & Power-On Reset chapter in the
Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Table 1–1 lists the Cyclone II device family features. Table 1–2 lists the
Cyclone II device package offerings and maximum user I/O pins.
Table 1–1. Cyclone II FPGA Family Features (Part 1 of 2)
Feature
EP2C5 (2)
EP2C8 (2)
EP2C15 (1)
EP2C20 (2)
EP2C35
EP2C50
EP2C70
4,608
8,256
14,448
18,752
33,216
50,528
68,416
26
36
52
52
105
129
250
119,808
165,888
239,616
239,616
483,840
594,432
1,152,00
0
Embedded
multipliers (3)
13
18
26
26
35
86
150
PLLs
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
LEs
M4K RAM blocks (4
Kbits plus
512 parity bits
Total RAM bits
1–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Introduction
Table 1–1. Cyclone II FPGA Family Features (Part 2 of 2)
Feature
Maximum user
I/O pins
EP2C5 (2)
EP2C8 (2)
EP2C15 (1)
EP2C20 (2)
EP2C35
EP2C50
EP2C70
158
182
315
315
475
450
622
Notes to Table 1–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The EP2C15A is only available with the Fast On feature, which offers a faster POR time. This device is available in
both commercial and industrial grade.
The EP2C5, EP2C8, and EP2C20 optionally support the Fast On feature, which is designated with an “A” in the
device ordering code. The EP2C5A is only available in the automotive speed grade. The EP2C8A and EP2C20A
devices are only available in industrial grade.
This is the total number of 18 × 18 multipliers. For the total number of 9 × 9 multipliers per device, multiply the
total number of 18 × 18 multipliers by 2.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
1–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Features
Table 1–2. Cyclone II Package Options & Maximum User I/O Pins
Device
144-Pin
TQFP (3)
208-Pin 240-Pin
PQFP (4) PQFP
256-Pin
FineLine
BGA
Notes (1) (2)
484-Pin
FineLine
BGA
484-Pin
672-Pin 896-Pin
Ultra
FineLine FineLine
FineLine
BGA
BGA
BGA
EP2C5 (6) (8)
89
142
—
158 (5)
—
—
—
—
EP2C8 (6)
85
138
—
182
—
—
—
—
EP2C8A (6), (7)
—
—
—
182
—
—
—
—
EP2C15A (6), (7)
—
—
—
152
315
—
—
—
EP2C20 (6)
—
—
142
152
315
—
—
—
EP2C20A (6), (7)
—
—
—
152
315
—
—
—
EP2C35 (6)
—
—
—
—
322
322
475
—
EP2C50 (6)
—
—
—
—
294
294
450
—
EP2C70 (6)
—
—
—
—
—
—
422
622
Notes to Table 1–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Cyclone II devices support vertical migration within the same package (for example, you can migrate between the
EP2C20 device in the 484-pin FineLine BGA package and the EP2C35 and EP2C50 devices in the same package).
The Quartus® II software I/O pin counts include four additional pins, TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK, which are not
available as general purpose I/O pins.
TQFP: thin quad flat pack.
PQFP: plastic quad flat pack.
Vertical migration is supported between the EP2C5F256 and the EP2C8F256 devices. However, not all of the DQ
and DQS groups are supported. Vertical migration between the EP2C5 and the EP2C15 in the F256 package is not
supported.
The I/O pin counts for the EP2C5, EP2C8, and EP2C15A devices include 8 dedicated clock pins that can be used
for data inputs. The I/O counts for the EP2C20, EP2C35, EP2C50, and EP2C70 devices include 16 dedicated clock
pins that can be used for data inputs.
EP2C8A, EP2C15A, and EP2C20A have a Fast On feature that has a faster POR time. The EP2C15A is only available
with the Fast On option.
The EP2C5 optionally support the Fast On feature, which is designated with an “A” in the device ordering code.
The EP2C5A is only available in the automotive speed grade. Refer to the Cyclone II section in the Automotive-Grade
Device Handbook.
Cyclone II devices support vertical migration within the same package
(for example, you can migrate between the EP2C35, EPC50, and EP2C70
devices in the 672-pin FineLine BGA package). The exception to vertical
migration support within the Cyclone II family is noted in Table 1–3.
1–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Introduction
Vertical migration means that you can migrate to devices whose
dedicated pins, configuration pins, and power pins are the same for a
given package across device densities.
Table 1–3. Total Number of Non-Migratable I/O Pins for Cyclone II Vertical Migration Paths
Vertical
144-Pin TQFP
Migration Path
208-Pin
PQFP
256-Pin
484-Pin
672-Pin
484-Pin Ultra
FineLine BGA FineLine BGA
FineLine BGA
FineLine BGA
(1)
(2)
(3)
EP2C5 to
EP2C8
4
4
1 (4)
—
—
—
EP2C8 to
EP2C15
—
—
30
—
—
—
EP2C15 to
EP2C20
—
—
0
0
—
—
—
—
16
—
—
EP2C20 to
EP2C35
EP2C35 to
EP2C50
—
—
—
28
28 (5)
28
EP2C50 to
EP2C70
—
—
—
—
28
28
Notes to Table 1–3:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Vertical migration between the EP2C5F256 to the EP2C15AF256 and the EP2C5F256 to the EP2C20F256 devices is
not supported.
When migrating from the EP2C20F484 device to the EP2C50F484 device, a total of 39 I/O pins are non-migratable.
When migrating from the EP2C35F672 device to the EP2C70F672 device, a total of 56 I/O pins are non-migratable.
In addition to the one non-migratable I/O pin, there are 34 DQ pins that are non-migratable.
The pinouts of 484 FBGA and 484 UBGA are the same.
1
When moving from one density to a larger density, I/O pins are
often lost because of the greater number of power and ground
pins required to support the additional logic within the larger
device. For I/O pin migration across densities, you must cross
reference the available I/O pins using the device pin-outs for all
planned densities of a given package type to identify which I/O
pins are migratable.
To ensure that your board layout supports migratable densities within
one package offering, enable the applicable vertical migration path
within the Quartus II software (go to Assignments menu, then Device,
then click the Migration Devices button). After compilation, check the
information messages for a full list of I/O, DQ, LVDS, and other pins that
are not available because of the selected migration path. Table 1–3 lists the
Cyclone II device package offerings and shows the total number of
non-migratable I/O pins when migrating from one density device to a
larger density device.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
1–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Features
Cyclone II devices are available in up to three speed grades: –6, –7, and
–8, with –6 being the fastest. Table 1–4 shows the Cyclone II device
speed-grade offerings.
Table 1–4. Cyclone II Device Speed Grades
144-Pin
TQFP
208-Pin
PQFP
240-Pin
PQFP
256-Pin
FineLine
BGA
484-Pin
FineLine
BGA
484-Pin
Ultra
FineLine
BGA
672-Pin
FineLine
BGA
896-Pin
FineLine
BGA
EP2C5 (1)
–6, –7, –8
–7, –8
—
–6, –7, –8
—
—
—
—
EP2C8
–6, –7, –8
–7, –8
—
–6, –7, –8
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
–8
—
—
—
—
Device
EP2C8A (2)
EP2C15A
—
—
—
–6, –7, –8 –6, –7, –8
—
—
—
EP2C20
—
—
–8
–6, –7, –8 –6, –7, –8
—
—
—
EP2C20A (2)
—
—
—
–8
—
—
—
EP2C35
—
—
—
—
–6, –7, –8 –6, –7, –8 –6, –7, –8
—
EP2C50
—
—
—
—
–6, –7, –8 –6, –7, –8 –6, –7, –8
—
EP2C70
—
—
—
—
–8
—
—
–6, –7, –8 –6, –7, –8
Notes to Table 1–4:
(1)
(2)
The EP2C5 optionally support the Fast On feature, which is designated with an “A” in the device ordering code.
The EP2C5A is only available in the automotive speed grade. Refer to the Cyclone II section in the Automotive-Grade
Device Handbook for detailed information.
EP2C8A and EP2C20A are only available in industrial grade.
1–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Introduction
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following documents:
Document
Revision History
Table 1–5 shows the revision history for this document.
■
■
Hot Socketing & Power-On Reset chapter in Cyclone II Device Handbook
Automotive-Grade Device Handbook
Table 1–5. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2008
v3.2
●
February 2007
v3.1
●
November 2005
v2.1
●
July 2005 v2.0
●
●
●
●
●
●
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
Added “Referenced Documents”.
Updated “Features” section and Table 1–1, Table 1–2,
and Table 1–4 with information about EP2C5A.
—
Added document revision history.
Added new Note (2) to Table 1–2.
Note to explain difference
between I/O pin count
information provided in
Table 1–2 and in the Quartus II
software documentation.
Updated Introduction and Features.
Updated Table 1–3.
—
Updated technical content throughout.
Updated Table 1–2.
Added Tables 1–3 and 1–4.
—
Updated Table 1–2.
Updated bullet list in the “Features” section.
—
November 2004
v1.1
●
June 2004 v1.0
Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
●
Altera Corporation
February 2008
—
1–9
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
1–10
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
2. Cyclone II Architecture
CII51002-3.1
Functional
Description
Cyclone® II devices contain a two-dimensional row- and column-based
architecture to implement custom logic. Column and row interconnects
of varying speeds provide signal interconnects between logic array
blocks (LABs), embedded memory blocks, and embedded multipliers.
The logic array consists of LABs, with 16 logic elements (LEs) in each
LAB. An LE is a small unit of logic providing efficient implementation of
user logic functions. LABs are grouped into rows and columns across the
device. Cyclone II devices range in density from 4,608 to 68,416 LEs.
Cyclone II devices provide a global clock network and up to four
phase-locked loops (PLLs). The global clock network consists of up to 16
global clock lines that drive throughout the entire device. The global clock
network can provide clocks for all resources within the device, such as
input/output elements (IOEs), LEs, embedded multipliers, and
embedded memory blocks. The global clock lines can also be used for
other high fan-out signals. Cyclone II PLLs provide general-purpose
clocking with clock synthesis and phase shifting as well as external
outputs for high-speed differential I/O support.
M4K memory blocks are true dual-port memory blocks with 4K bits of
memory plus parity (4,608 bits). These blocks provide dedicated true
dual-port, simple dual-port, or single-port memory up to 36-bits wide at
up to 260 MHz. These blocks are arranged in columns across the device
in between certain LABs. Cyclone II devices offer between 119 to
1,152 Kbits of embedded memory.
Each embedded multiplier block can implement up to either two 9 × 9-bit
multipliers, or one 18 × 18-bit multiplier with up to 250-MHz
performance. Embedded multipliers are arranged in columns across the
device.
Each Cyclone II device I/O pin is fed by an IOE located at the ends of LAB
rows and columns around the periphery of the device. I/O pins support
various single-ended and differential I/O standards, such as the 66- and
33-MHz, 64- and 32-bit PCI standard, PCI-X, and the LVDS I/O standard
at a maximum data rate of 805 megabits per second (Mbps) for inputs and
640 Mbps for outputs. Each IOE contains a bidirectional I/O buffer and
three registers for registering input, output, and output-enable signals.
Dual-purpose DQS, DQ, and DM pins along with delay chains (used to
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–1
Logic Elements
phase-align double data rate (DDR) signals) provide interface support for
external memory devices such as DDR, DDR2, and single data rate (SDR)
SDRAM, and QDRII SRAM devices at up to 167 MHz.
Figure 2–1 shows a diagram of the Cyclone II EP2C20 device.
Figure 2–1. Cyclone II EP2C20 Device Block Diagram
PLL
IOEs
PLL
Embedded
Multipliers
IOEs
Logic
Array
Logic
Array
Logic
Array
Logic
Array
IOEs
M4K Blocks
M4K Blocks
PLL
IOEs
PLL
The number of M4K memory blocks, embedded multiplier blocks, PLLs,
rows, and columns vary per device.
Logic Elements
The smallest unit of logic in the Cyclone II architecture, the LE, is compact
and provides advanced features with efficient logic utilization. Each LE
features:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
A four-input look-up table (LUT), which is a function generator that
can implement any function of four variables
A programmable register
A carry chain connection
A register chain connection
The ability to drive all types of interconnects: local, row, column,
register chain, and direct link interconnects
Support for register packing
Support for register feedback
2–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Figure 2–2 shows a Cyclone II LE.
Figure 2–2. Cyclone II LE
Register Chain
Routing From
Previous LE
LAB-Wide
Register Bypass
Synchronous
Load
LAB-Wide
Packed
Synchronous
Register Select
Clear
LAB Carry-In
data1
data2
data3
Look-Up
Table
(LUT)
Carry
Chain
Synchronous
Load and
Clear Logic
D
Q
Programmable
Register
Row, Column,
And Direct Link
Routing
data4
ENA
CLRN
labclr1
labclr2
Chip-Wide
Reset
(DEV_CLRn)
Asynchronous
Clear Logic
Row, Column,
And Direct Link
Routing
Local Routing
Clock &
Clock Enable
Select
Register
Feedback
Register Chain
Output
labclk1
labclk2
labclkena1
labclkena2
LAB Carry-Out
Each LE’s programmable register can be configured for D, T, JK, or SR
operation. Each register has data, clock, clock enable, and clear inputs.
Signals that use the global clock network, general-purpose I/O pins, or
any internal logic can drive the register’s clock and clear control signals.
Either general-purpose I/O pins or internal logic can drive the clock
enable. For combinational functions, the LUT output bypasses the
register and drives directly to the LE outputs.
Each LE has three outputs that drive the local, row, and column routing
resources. The LUT or register output can drive these three outputs
independently. Two LE outputs drive column or row and direct link
routing connections and one drives local interconnect resources, allowing
the LUT to drive one output while the register drives another output. This
feature, register packing, improves device utilization because the device
can use the register and the LUT for unrelated functions. When using
register packing, the LAB-wide synchronous load control signal is not
available. See “LAB Control Signals” on page 2–8 for more information.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Logic Elements
Another special packing mode allows the register output to feed back into
the LUT of the same LE so that the register is packed with its own fan-out
LUT, providing another mechanism for improved fitting. The LE can also
drive out registered and unregistered versions of the LUT output.
In addition to the three general routing outputs, the LEs within an LAB
have register chain outputs. Register chain outputs allow registers within
the same LAB to cascade together. The register chain output allows an
LAB to use LUTs for a single combinational function and the registers to
be used for an unrelated shift register implementation. These resources
speed up connections between LABs while saving local interconnect
resources. See “MultiTrack Interconnect” on page 2–10 for more
information on register chain connections.
LE Operating Modes
The Cyclone II LE operates in one of the following modes:
■
■
Normal mode
Arithmetic mode
Each mode uses LE resources differently. In each mode, six available
inputs to the LE—the four data inputs from the LAB local interconnect,
the LAB carry-in from the previous carry-chain LAB, and the register
chain connection—are directed to different destinations to implement the
desired logic function. LAB-wide signals provide clock, asynchronous
clear, synchronous clear, synchronous load, and clock enable control for
the register. These LAB-wide signals are available in all LE modes.
The Quartus® II software, in conjunction with parameterized functions
such as library of parameterized modules (LPM) functions, automatically
chooses the appropriate mode for common functions such as counters,
adders, subtractors, and arithmetic functions. If required, you can also
create special-purpose functions that specify which LE operating mode to
use for optimal performance.
Normal Mode
The normal mode is suitable for general logic applications and
combinational functions. In normal mode, four data inputs from the LAB
local interconnect are inputs to a four-input LUT (see Figure 2–3). The
Quartus II Compiler automatically selects the carry-in or the data3
signal as one of the inputs to the LUT. LEs in normal mode support
packed registers and register feedback.
2–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Figure 2–3. LE in Normal Mode
sload
sclear
(LAB Wide) (LAB Wide)
Packed Register Input
Register chain
connection
D
Row, Column, and
Direct Link Routing
ENA
CLRN
Row, Column, and
Direct Link Routing
Q
data1
data2
data3
cin (from cout
of previous LE)
Four-Input
LUT
clock (LAB Wide)
ena (LAB Wide)
data4
Local routing
aclr (LAB Wide)
Register Feedback
Register
chain output
Arithmetic Mode
The arithmetic mode is ideal for implementing adders, counters,
accumulators, and comparators. An LE in arithmetic mode implements a
2-bit full adder and basic carry chain (see Figure 2–4). LEs in arithmetic
mode can drive out registered and unregistered versions of the LUT
output. Register feedback and register packing are supported when LEs
are used in arithmetic mode.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Logic Elements
Figure 2–4. LE in Arithmetic Mode
sload
sclear
(LAB Wide) (LAB Wide)
Register chain
connection
data1
data2
cin (from cout
of previous LE)
Three-Input
LUT
Three-Input
LUT
D
Row, column, and
direct link routing
ENA
CLRN
Row, column, and
direct link routing
Q
clock (LAB Wide)
ena (LAB Wide)
Local routing
aclr (LAB Wide)
cout
Register
chain output
Register Feedback
The Quartus II Compiler automatically creates carry chain logic during
design processing, or you can create it manually during design entry.
Parameterized functions such as LPM functions automatically take
advantage of carry chains for the appropriate functions.
The Quartus II Compiler creates carry chains longer than 16 LEs by
automatically linking LABs in the same column. For enhanced fitting, a
long carry chain runs vertically, which allows fast horizontal connections
to M4K memory blocks or embedded multipliers through direct link
interconnects. For example, if a design has a long carry chain in a LAB
column next to a column of M4K memory blocks, any LE output can feed
an adjacent M4K memory block through the direct link interconnect.
Whereas if the carry chains ran horizontally, any LAB not next to the
column of M4K memory blocks would use other row or column
interconnects to drive a M4K memory block. A carry chain continues as
far as a full column.
2–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Logic Array
Blocks
Each LAB consists of the following:
■
■
■
■
■
16 LEs
LAB control signals
LE carry chains
Register chains
Local interconnect
The local interconnect transfers signals between LEs in the same LAB.
Register chain connections transfer the output of one LE’s register to the
adjacent LE’s register within an LAB. The Quartus II Compiler places
associated logic within an LAB or adjacent LABs, allowing the use of
local, and register chain connections for performance and area efficiency.
Figure 2–5 shows the Cyclone II LAB.
Figure 2–5. Cyclone II LAB Structure
Row Interconnect
Column
Interconnect
Direct link
interconnect
from adjacent
block
Direct link
interconnect
from adjacent
block
Direct link
interconnect
to adjacent
block
Direct link
interconnect
to adjacent
block
LAB
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Local Interconnect
2–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Logic Array Blocks
LAB Interconnects
The LAB local interconnect can drive LEs within the same LAB. The LAB
local interconnect is driven by column and row interconnects and LE
outputs within the same LAB. Neighboring LABs, PLLs, M4K RAM
blocks, and embedded multipliers from the left and right can also drive
an LAB’s local interconnect through the direct link connection. The direct
link connection feature minimizes the use of row and column
interconnects, providing higher performance and flexibility. Each LE can
drive 48 LEs through fast local and direct link interconnects. Figure 2–6
shows the direct link connection.
Figure 2–6. Direct Link Connection
Direct link interconnect from
right LAB, M4K memory
block, embedded multiplier,
PLL, or IOE output
Direct link interconnect from
left LAB, M4K memory
block, embedded multiplier,
PLL, or IOE output
Direct link
interconnect
to right
Direct link
interconnect
to left
Local
Interconnect
LAB
LAB Control Signals
Each LAB contains dedicated logic for driving control signals to its LEs.
The control signals include:
■
■
■
■
■
Two clocks
Two clock enables
Two asynchronous clears
One synchronous clear
One synchronous load
2–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
This gives a maximum of seven control signals at a time. When using the
LAB-wide synchronous load, the clkena of labclk1 is not available.
Additionally, register packing and synchronous load cannot be used
simultaneously.
Each LAB can have up to four non-global control signals. Additional LAB
control signals can be used as long as they are global signals.
Synchronous clear and load signals are useful for implementing counters
and other functions. The synchronous clear and synchronous load signals
are LAB-wide signals that affect all registers in the LAB.
Each LAB can use two clocks and two clock enable signals. Each LAB’s
clock and clock enable signals are linked. For example, any LE in a
particular LAB using the labclk1 signal also uses labclkena1. If the
LAB uses both the rising and falling edges of a clock, it also uses both
LAB-wide clock signals. De-asserting the clock enable signal turns off the
LAB-wide clock.
The LAB row clocks [5..0] and LAB local interconnect generate the LABwide control signals. The MultiTrack™ interconnect’s inherent low skew
allows clock and control signal distribution in addition to data. Figure 2–7
shows the LAB control signal generation circuit.
Figure 2–7. LAB-Wide Control Signals
Dedicated
LAB Row
Clocks
6
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
labclkena2
labclkena1
labclk1
labclk2
synclr
labclr1
syncload
labclr2
LAB-wide signals control the logic for the register’s clear signal. The LE
directly supports an asynchronous clear function. Each LAB supports up
to two asynchronous clear signals (labclr1 and labclr2).
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–9
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
MultiTrack Interconnect
A LAB-wide asynchronous load signal to control the logic for the
register’s preset signal is not available. The register preset is achieved by
using a NOT gate push-back technique. Cyclone II devices can only
support either a preset or asynchronous clear signal.
In addition to the clear port, Cyclone II devices provide a chip-wide reset
pin (DEV_CLRn) that resets all registers in the device. An option set before
compilation in the Quartus II software controls this pin. This chip-wide
reset overrides all other control signals.
MultiTrack
Interconnect
In the Cyclone II architecture, connections between LEs, M4K memory
blocks, embedded multipliers, and device I/O pins are provided by the
MultiTrack interconnect structure with DirectDrive™ technology. The
MultiTrack interconnect consists of continuous, performance-optimized
routing lines of different speeds used for inter- and intra-design block
connectivity. The Quartus II Compiler automatically places critical paths
on faster interconnects to improve design performance.
DirectDrive technology is a deterministic routing technology that ensures
identical routing resource usage for any function regardless of placement
within the device. The MultiTrack interconnect and DirectDrive
technology simplify the integration stage of block-based designing by
eliminating the re-optimization cycles that typically follow design
changes and additions.
The MultiTrack interconnect consists of row (direct link, R4, and R24) and
column (register chain, C4, and C16) interconnects that span fixed
distances. A routing structure with fixed-length resources for all devices
allows predictable and repeatable performance when migrating through
different device densities.
Row Interconnects
Dedicated row interconnects route signals to and from LABs, PLLs, M4K
memory blocks, and embedded multipliers within the same row. These
row resources include:
■
■
■
Direct link interconnects between LABs and adjacent blocks
R4 interconnects traversing four blocks to the right or left
R24 interconnects for high-speed access across the length of the
device
2–10
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
The direct link interconnect allows an LAB, M4K memory block, or
embedded multiplier block to drive into the local interconnect of its left
and right neighbors. Only one side of a PLL block interfaces with direct
link and row interconnects. The direct link interconnect provides fast
communication between adjacent LABs and/or blocks without using
row interconnect resources.
The R4 interconnects span four LABs, three LABs and one M4K memory
block, or three LABs and one embedded multiplier to the right or left of a
source LAB. These resources are used for fast row connections in a fourLAB region. Every LAB has its own set of R4 interconnects to drive either
left or right. Figure 2–8 shows R4 interconnect connections from an LAB.
R4 interconnects can drive and be driven by LABs, M4K memory blocks,
embedded multipliers, PLLs, and row IOEs. For LAB interfacing, a
primary LAB or LAB neighbor (see Figure 2–8) can drive a given R4
interconnect. For R4 interconnects that drive to the right, the primary
LAB and right neighbor can drive on to the interconnect. For R4
interconnects that drive to the left, the primary LAB and its left neighbor
can drive on to the interconnect. R4 interconnects can drive other R4
interconnects to extend the range of LABs they can drive. Additionally,
R4 interconnects can drive R24 interconnects, C4, and C16 interconnects
for connections from one row to another.
Figure 2–8. R4 Interconnect Connections
Adjacent LAB can
Drive onto Another
LAB's R4 Interconnect
C4 Column Interconnects (1)
R4 Interconnect
Driving Right
R4 Interconnect
Driving Left
LAB
Neighbor
Primary
LAB (2)
LAB
Neighbor
Notes to Figure 2–8:
(1)
(2)
C4 interconnects can drive R4 interconnects.
This pattern is repeated for every LAB in the LAB row.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–11
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
MultiTrack Interconnect
R24 row interconnects span 24 LABs and provide the fastest resource for
long row connections between non-adjacent LABs, M4K memory blocks,
dedicated multipliers, and row IOEs. R24 row interconnects drive to
other row or column interconnects at every fourth LAB. R24 row
interconnects drive LAB local interconnects via R4 and C4 interconnects
and do not drive directly to LAB local interconnects. R24 interconnects
can drive R24, R4, C16, and C4 interconnects.
Column Interconnects
The column interconnect operates similar to the row interconnect. Each
column of LABs is served by a dedicated column interconnect, which
vertically routes signals to and from LABs, M4K memory blocks,
embedded multipliers, and row and column IOEs. These column
resources include:
■
■
■
Register chain interconnects within an LAB
C4 interconnects traversing a distance of four blocks in an up and
down direction
C16 interconnects for high-speed vertical routing through the device
Cyclone II devices include an enhanced interconnect structure within
LABs for routing LE output to LE input connections faster using register
chain connections. The register chain connection allows the register
output of one LE to connect directly to the register input of the next LE in
the LAB for fast shift registers. The Quartus II Compiler automatically
takes advantage of these resources to improve utilization and
performance. Figure 2–9 shows the register chain interconnects.
2–12
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Figure 2–9. Register Chain Interconnects
Local Interconnect
Routing Among LEs
in the LAB
Carry Chain
Routing to
Adjacent LE
LE 1
Local
Interconnect
LE 3
LE 2
Register Chain
Routing to Adjacent
LE's Register Input
LE 4
LE 5
LE 6
LE 7
LE 8
LE 9
LE 10
LE 11
LE 12
LE13
LE 14
LE 15
LE 16
The C4 interconnects span four LABs, M4K blocks, or embedded
multipliers up or down from a source LAB. Every LAB has its own set of
C4 interconnects to drive either up or down. Figure 2–10 shows the C4
interconnect connections from an LAB in a column. The C4 interconnects
can drive and be driven by all types of architecture blocks, including
PLLs, M4K memory blocks, embedded multiplier blocks, and column
and row IOEs. For LAB interconnection, a primary LAB or its LAB
neighbor (see Figure 2–10) can drive a given C4 interconnect. C4
interconnects can drive each other to extend their range as well as drive
row interconnects for column-to-column connections.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–13
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
MultiTrack Interconnect
Figure 2–10. C4 Interconnect Connections
Note (1)
C4 Interconnect
Drives Local and R4
Interconnects
Up to Four Rows
C4 Interconnect
Driving Up
LAB
Row
Interconnect
Adjacent LAB can
drive onto neighboring
LAB's C4 interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Primary
LAB
LAB
Neighbor
C4 Interconnect
Driving Down
Note to Figure 2–10:
(1)
Each C4 interconnect can drive either up or down four rows.
2–14
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
C16 column interconnects span a length of 16 LABs and provide the
fastest resource for long column connections between LABs, M4K
memory blocks, embedded multipliers, and IOEs. C16 column
interconnects drive to other row and column interconnects at every
fourth LAB. C16 column interconnects drive LAB local interconnects via
C4 and R4 interconnects and do not drive LAB local interconnects
directly. C16 interconnects can drive R24, R4, C16, and C4 interconnects.
Device Routing
All embedded blocks communicate with the logic array similar to
LAB-to-LAB interfaces. Each block (for example, M4K memory,
embedded multiplier, or PLL) connects to row and column interconnects
and has local interconnect regions driven by row and column
interconnects. These blocks also have direct link interconnects for fast
connections to and from a neighboring LAB.
Table 2–1 shows the Cyclone II device’s routing scheme.
Table 2–1. Cyclone II Device Routing Scheme (Part 1 of 2)
Direct Link
Interconnect
v
R4
Interconnect
v
R24
Interconnect
C4
Interconnect
C16
Interconnect
Altera Corporation
February 2007
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
Row IOE
v
Column IOE
Local
Interconnect
PLL
v
Embedded Multiplier
Register
Chain
M4K RAM Block
LE
C16 Interconnect
C4 Interconnect
R24 Interconnect
R4 Interconnect
Direct Link Interconnect
Local Interconnect
Source
Register Chain
Destination
v
v
v
v
v
2–15
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Global Clock Network & Phase-Locked Loops
Table 2–1. Cyclone II Device Routing Scheme (Part 2 of 2)
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
PLL
v
Column IOE
Row IOE
Global Clock
Network &
Phase-Locked
Loops
v
Row IOE
v
Column IOE
Embedded
Multipliers
PLL
v
Embedded Multiplier
v
v
M4K RAM Block
v
v
LE
R4 Interconnect
v
v
C16 Interconnect
Direct Link Interconnect
v
LE
C4 Interconnect
Local Interconnect
v
M4K memory
Block
Source
R24 Interconnect
Register Chain
Destination
v
v
Cyclone II devices provide global clock networks and up to four PLLs for
a complete clock management solution. Cyclone II clock network features
include:
■
■
■
■
Up to 16 global clock networks
Up to four PLLs
Global clock network dynamic clock source selection
Global clock network dynamic enable and disable
2–16
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Each global clock network has a clock control block to select from a
number of input clock sources (PLL clock outputs, CLK[] pins, DPCLK[]
pins, and internal logic) to drive onto the global clock network. Table 2–2
lists how many PLLs, CLK[] pins, DPCLK[] pins, and global clock
networks are available in each Cyclone II device. CLK[] pins are
dedicated clock pins and DPCLK[] pins are dual-purpose clock pins.
Table 2–2. Cyclone II Device Clock Resources
Number of
PLLs
Number of
CLK Pins
Number of
DPCLK Pins
Number of
Global Clock
Networks
EP2C5
2
8
8
8
EP2C8
2
8
8
8
EP2C15
4
16
20
16
EP2C20
4
16
20
16
EP2C35
4
16
20
16
EP2C50
4
16
20
16
EP2C70
4
16
20
16
Device
Figures 2–11 and 2–12 show the location of the Cyclone II PLLs, CLK[]
inputs, DPCLK[] pins, and clock control blocks.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–17
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Global Clock Network & Phase-Locked Loops
Figure 2–11. EP2C5 & EP2C8 PLL, CLK[], DPCLK[] & Clock Control Block Locations
DPCLK10
DPCLK8
PLL 2
Clock Control
Block (1)
4
GCLK[7..0]
DPCLK0
DPCLK7
8
8
8
CLK[3..0]
4
4
CLK[7..4]
8
DPCLK1
DPCLK6
GCLK[7..0]
4
Clock Control
Block (1)
PLL 1
DPCLK2
DPCLK4
Note to Figure 2–11:
(1)
There are four clock control blocks on each side.
2–18
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Figure 2–12. EP2C15 & Larger PLL, CLK[], DPCLK[] & Clock Control Block Locations
DPCLK[11..10]
CDPCLK7
DPCLK[9..8]
CLK[11..8]
CDPCLK6
2
2
4
4
PLL 3
PLL 2
3
CDPCLK5
CDPCLK0
(2)
(2)
4
Clock Control
Block (1)
GCLK[15..0]
3
DPCLK0
DPCLK7
16
16
16
CLK[3..0]
4
4
CLK[7..4]
16
DPCLK1
DPCLK6
4
Clock Control
Block (1)
3
GCLK[15..0]
(2)
(2)
CDPCLK4
CDPCLK1
3
PLL 1
PLL 4
4
4
2
CDPCLK2
2
CLK[15..12]
DPCLK[3..2]
CDPCLK3
DPCLK[5..4]
Notes to Figure 2–12:
(1)
(2)
There are four clock control blocks on each side.
Only one of the corner CDPCLK pins in each corner can feed the clock control block at a time. The other CDPCLK pins
can be used as general-purpose I/O pins.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–19
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Global Clock Network & Phase-Locked Loops
Dedicated Clock Pins
Larger Cyclone II devices (EP2C15 and larger devices) have 16 dedicated
clock pins (CLK[15..0], four pins on each side of the device). Smaller
Cyclone II devices (EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices) have eight dedicated clock
pins (CLK[7..0], four pins on left and right sides of the device). These
CLK pins drive the global clock network (GCLK), as shown in
Figures 2–11 and 2–12.
If the dedicated clock pins are not used to feed the global clock networks,
they can be used as general-purpose input pins to feed the logic array
using the MultiTrack interconnect. However, if they are used as generalpurpose input pins, they do not have support for an I/O register and
must use LE-based registers in place of an I/O register.
Dual-Purpose Clock Pins
Cyclone II devices have either 20 dual-purpose clock pins,
DPCLK[19..0] or 8 dual-purpose clock pins, DPCLK[7..0]. In the
larger Cyclone II devices (EP2C15 devices and higher), there are
20 DPCLK pins; four on the left and right sides and six on the top and
bottom of the device. The corner CDPCLK pins are first multiplexed before
they drive into the clock control block. Since the signals pass through a
multiplexer before feeding the clock control block, these signals incur
more delay to the clock control block than other DPCLK pins that directly
feed the clock control block. In the smaller Cyclone II devices (EP2C5 and
EP2C8 devices), there are eight DPCLK pins; two on each side of the device
(see Figures 2–11 and 2–12).
A programmable delay chain is available from the DPCLK pin to its fanout destinations. To set the propagation delay from the DPCLK pin to its
fan-out destinations, use the Input Delay from Dual-Purpose Clock Pin
to Fan-Out Destinations assignment in the Quartus II software.
These dual-purpose pins can connect to the global clock network for
high-fanout control signals such as clocks, asynchronous clears, presets,
and clock enables, or protocol control signals such as TRDY and IRDY for
PCI, or DQS signals for external memory interfaces.
2–20
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Global Clock Network
The 16 or 8 global clock networks drive throughout the entire device.
Dedicated clock pins (CLK[]), PLL outputs, the logic array, and
dual-purpose clock (DPCLK[]) pins can also drive the global clock
network.
The global clock network can provide clocks for all resources within the
device, such as IOEs, LEs, memory blocks, and embedded multipliers.
The global clock lines can also be used for control signals, such as clock
enables and synchronous or asynchronous clears fed from the external
pin, or DQS signals for DDR SDRAM or QDRII SRAM interfaces. Internal
logic can also drive the global clock network for internally generated
global clocks and asynchronous clears, clock enables, or other control
signals with large fan-out.
Clock Control Block
There is a clock control block for each global clock network available in
Cyclone II devices. The clock control blocks are arranged on the device
periphery and there are a maximum of 16 clock control blocks available
per Cyclone II device. The larger Cyclone II devices (EP2C15 devices and
larger) have 16 clock control blocks, four on each side of the device. The
smaller Cyclone II devices (EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices) have eight clock
control blocks, four on the left and right sides of the device.
The control block has these functions:
■
■
Dynamic global clock network clock source selection
Dynamic enable/disable of the global clock network
In Cyclone II devices, the dedicated CLK[] pins, PLL counter outputs,
DPCLK[] pins, and internal logic can all feed the clock control block. The
output from the clock control block in turn feeds the corresponding
global clock network.
The following sources can be inputs to a given clock control block:
■
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Four clock pins on the same side as the clock control block
Three PLL clock outputs from a PLL
Four DPCLK pins (including CDPCLK pins) on the same side as the
clock control block
Four internally-generated signals
2–21
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Global Clock Network & Phase-Locked Loops
Of the sources listed, only two clock pins, two PLL clock outputs, one
DPCLK pin, and one internally-generated signal are chosen to drive into a
clock control block. Figure 2–13 shows a more detailed diagram of the
clock control block. Out of these six inputs, the two clock input pins and
two PLL outputs can be dynamic selected to feed a global clock network.
The clock control block supports static selection of DPCLK and the signal
from internal logic.
Figure 2–13. Clock Control Block
Clock Control Block
Internal Logic
Static Clock Select (3)
DPCLK or
CDPCLK
(3)
CLK[n + 3]
CLK[n + 2]
CLK[n + 1]
CLK[n]
inclk1
inclk0
fIN
CLKSWITCH (1)
PLL
Enable/
Disable
Global
Clock
Static Clock
Select (3)
C0
C1
C2
CLKSELECT[1..0] (2)
CLKENA (4)
Notes to Figure 2–13:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The CLKSWITCH signal can either be set through the configuration file or it can be dynamically set when using the
manual PLL switchover feature. The output of the multiplexer is the input reference clock (fIN) for the PLL.
The CLKSELECT[1..0] signals are fed by internal logic and can be used to dynamically select the clock source for
the global clock network when the device is in user mode.
The static clock select signals are set in the configuration file and cannot be dynamically controlled when the device
is in user mode.
Internal logic can be used to enabled or disabled the global clock network in user mode.
2–22
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Global Clock Network Distribution
Cyclone II devices contains 16 global clock networks. The device uses
multiplexers with these clocks to form six-bit buses to drive column IOE
clocks, LAB row clocks, or row IOE clocks (see Figure 2–14). Another
multiplexer at the LAB level selects two of the six LAB row clocks to feed
the LE registers within the LAB.
Figure 2–14. Global Clock Network Multiplexers
Column I/O Region
IO_CLK [5..0]
Global Clock
Network
Clock [15 or 7..0]
LAB Row Clock
LABCLK[5..0]
Row I/O Region
IO_CLK [5..0]
LAB row clocks can feed LEs, M4K memory blocks, and embedded
multipliers. The LAB row clocks also extend to the row I/O clock regions.
IOE clocks are associated with row or column block regions. Only six
global clock resources feed to these row and column regions. Figure 2–15
shows the I/O clock regions.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–23
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Global Clock Network & Phase-Locked Loops
Figure 2–15. LAB & I/O Clock Regions
Column I/O Clock Region
IO_CLK[5..0]
6
I/O Clock Regions
Cyclone Logic Array
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
6
6
6
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
6
6
6
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
6
Global Clock
Network
6
Row I/O Clock
Region
IO_CLK[5..0]
8 or 16
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
LAB Row Clocks
labclk[5..0]
6
6
6
6
I/O Clock Regions
6
Column I/O Clock Region
IO_CLK[5..0]
f
For more information on the global clock network and the clock control
block, see the PLLs in Cyclone II Devices chapter in Volume 1 of the
Cyclone II Device Handbook.
2–24
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
PLLs
Cyclone II PLLs provide general-purpose clocking as well as support for
the following features:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Clock multiplication and division
Phase shifting
Programmable duty cycle
Up to three internal clock outputs
One dedicated external clock output
Clock outputs for differential I/O support
Manual clock switchover
Gated lock signal
Three different clock feedback modes
Control signals
Cyclone II devices contain either two or four PLLs. Table 2–3 shows the
PLLs available for each Cyclone II device.
Table 2–3. Cyclone II Device PLL Availability
Device
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLL1
PLL2
PLL3
PLL4
EP2C5
v
v
EP2C8
v
v
EP2C15
v
EP2C20
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
EP2C35
EP2C50
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
EP2C70
v
v
v
v
2–25
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Global Clock Network & Phase-Locked Loops
Table 2–4 describes the PLL features in Cyclone II devices.
Table 2–4. Cyclone II PLL Features
Feature
Description
Clock multiplication and division
m / (n × post-scale counter)
m and post-scale counter values (C0 to C2) range from 1 to 32. n ranges
from 1 to 4.
Phase shift
Cyclone II PLLs have an advanced clock shift capability that enables
programmable phase shifts in increments of at least 45°. The finest
resolution of phase shifting is determined by the voltage control oscillator
(VCO) period divided by 8 (for example, 1/1000 MHz/8 = down to 125-ps
increments).
Programmable duty cycle
The programmable duty cycle allows PLLs to generate clock outputs with
a variable duty cycle. This feature is supported on each PLL post-scale
counter (C0-C2).
Number of internal clock outputs
The Cyclone II PLL has three outputs which can drive the global clock
network. One of these outputs (C2) can also drive a dedicated
PLL<#>_OUT pin (single ended or differential).
Number of external clock outputs
The C2 output drives a dedicated PLL<#>_OUT pin. If the C2 output is not
used to drive an external clock output, it can be used to drive the internal
global clock network. The C2 output can concurrently drive the external
clock output and internal global clock network.
Manual clock switchover
The Cyclone II PLLs support manual switchover of the reference clock
through internal logic. This enables you to switch between two reference
input clocks during user mode for applications that may require clock
redundancy or support for clocks with two different frequencies.
Gated lock signal
The lock output indicates that there is a stable clock output signal in phase
with the reference clock. Cyclone II PLLs include a programmable counter
that holds the lock signal low for a user-selected number of input clock
transitions, allowing the PLL to lock before enabling the locked signal.
Either a gated locked signal or an ungated locked signal from the locked
port can drive internal logic or an output pin.
Clock feedback modes
In zero delay buffer mode, the external clock output pin is phase-aligned
with the clock input pin for zero delay.
In normal mode, the PLL compensates for the internal global clock network
delay from the input clock pin to the clock port of the IOE output registers
or registers in the logic array.
In no compensation mode, the PLL does not compensate for any clock
networks.
Control signals
The pllenable signal enables and disables the PLLs.
The areset signal resets/resynchronizes the inputs for each PLL.
The pfdena signal controls the phase frequency detector (PFD) output
with a programmable gate.
2–26
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Figure 2–16 shows a block diagram of the Cyclone II PLL.
Figure 2–16. Cyclone II PLL
Note (1)
VCO Phase Selection
Selectable at Each
PLL Output Port
Post-Scale
Counters
Manual Clock
Switchover
Select Signal
8
Reference
Input Clock
fREF = fIN /n
÷c0
Global
Clock
÷c1
Global
Clock
÷c2
(2)
Global
Clock
fVCO
CLK0 (1)
up
CLK1
inclk0
CLK2 (1)
inclk1
fIN
÷n
Charge
Pump
PFD
Loop
Filter
down
8
VCO
÷k
(3)
CLK3
8
fFB
÷m
Lock Detect
& Filter
PLL<#>_OUT
To I/O or
general routing
Notes to Figure 2–16:
(1)
(2)
This input can be single-ended or differential. If you are using a differential I/O standard, then two CLK pins are
used. LVDS input is supported via the secondary function of the dedicated CLK pins. For example, the CLK0 pin’s
secondary function is LVDSCLK1p and the CLK1 pin’s secondary function is LVDSCLK1n. If a differential I/O
standard is assigned to the PLL clock input pin, the corresponding CLK(n) pin is also completely used. The
Figure 2–16 shows the possible clock input connections (CLK0/CLK1) to PLL1.
This counter output is shared between a dedicated external clock output I/O and the global clock network.
f
Embedded
Memory
Altera Corporation
February 2007
For more information on Cyclone II PLLs, see the PLLs in the Cyclone II
Devices chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
The Cyclone II embedded memory consists of columns of M4K memory
blocks. The M4K memory blocks include input registers that synchronize
writes and output registers to pipeline designs and improve system
performance. The output registers can be bypassed, but input registers
cannot.
2–27
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Embedded Memory
Each M4K block can implement various types of memory with or without
parity, including true dual-port, simple dual-port, and single-port RAM,
ROM, and first-in first-out (FIFO) buffers. The M4K blocks support the
following features:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
4,608 RAM bits
250-MHz performance
True dual-port memory
Simple dual-port memory
Single-port memory
Byte enable
Parity bits
Shift register
FIFO buffer
ROM
Various clock modes
Address clock enable
1
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block address
registers could corrupt memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
Table 2–5 shows the capacity and distribution of the M4K memory blocks
in each Cyclone II device.
Table 2–5. M4K Memory Capacity & Distribution in Cyclone II Devices
Device
M4K Columns
M4K Blocks
Total RAM Bits
EP2C5
2
26
119,808
EP2C8
2
36
165,888
EP2C15
2
52
239,616
EP2C20
2
52
239,616
EP2C35
3
105
483,840
EP2C50
3
129
594,432
EP2C70
5
250
1,152,000
2–28
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Table 2–6 summarizes the features supported by the M4K memory.
Table 2–6. M4K Memory Features
Feature
Description
Maximum performance (1)
250 MHz
Total RAM bits per M4K block (including parity bits)
4,608
Configurations supported
4K × 1
2K × 2
1K × 4
512 × 8
512 × 9
256 × 16
256 × 18
128 × 32 (not available in true dual-port mode)
128 × 36 (not available in true dual-port mode)
Parity bits
One parity bit for each byte. The parity bit, along with
internal user logic, can implement parity checking for
error detection to ensure data integrity.
Byte enable
M4K blocks support byte writes when the write port has
a data width of 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 16, 18, 32, or 36 bits. The
byte enables allow the input data to be masked so the
device can write to specific bytes. The unwritten bytes
retain the previous written value.
Packed mode
Two single-port memory blocks can be packed into a
single M4K block if each of the two independent block
sizes are equal to or less than half of the M4K block
size, and each of the single-port memory blocks is
configured in single-clock mode.
Address clock enable
M4K blocks support address clock enable, which is
used to hold the previous address value for as long as
the signal is enabled. This feature is useful in handling
misses in cache applications.
Memory initialization file (.mif)
When configured as RAM or ROM, you can use an
initialization file to pre-load the memory contents.
Power-up condition
Outputs cleared
Register clears
Output registers only
Same-port read-during-write
New data available at positive clock edge
Mixed-port read-during-write
Old data available at positive clock edge
Note to Table 2–6:
(1)
Maximum performance information is preliminary until device characterization.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–29
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Embedded Memory
Memory Modes
Table 2–7 summarizes the different memory modes supported by the
M4K memory blocks.
Table 2–7. M4K Memory Modes
Memory Mode
Description
Single-port memory
M4K blocks support single-port mode, used when
simultaneous reads and writes are not required.
Single-port memory supports non-simultaneous
reads and writes.
Simple dual-port memory
Simple dual-port memory supports a
simultaneous read and write.
Simple dual-port with mixed
width
Simple dual-port memory mode with different
read and write port widths.
True dual-port memory
True dual-port mode supports any combination of
two-port operations: two reads, two writes, or one
read and one write at two different clock
frequencies.
True dual-port with mixed
width
True dual-port mode with different read and write
port widths.
Embedded shift register
M4K memory blocks are used to implement shift
registers. Data is written into each address
location at the falling edge of the clock and read
from the address at the rising edge of the clock.
ROM
The M4K memory blocks support ROM mode. A
MIF initializes the ROM contents of these blocks.
FIFO buffers
A single clock or dual clock FIFO may be
implemented in the M4K blocks. Simultaneous
read and write from an empty FIFO buffer is not
supported.
1
Embedded Memory can be inferred in your HDL code or
directly instantiated in the Quartus II software using the
MegaWizard® Plug-in Manager Memory Compiler feature.
2–30
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Clock Modes
Table 2–8 summarizes the different clock modes supported by the M4K
memory.
Table 2–8. M4K Clock Modes
Clock Mode
Description
Independent
In this mode, a separate clock is available for each port (ports A
and B). Clock A controls all registers on the port A side, while
clock B controls all registers on the port B side.
Input/output
On each of the two ports, A or B, one clock controls all registers
for inputs into the memory block: data input, wren, and address.
The other clock controls the block’s data output registers.
Read/write
Up to two clocks are available in this mode. The write clock
controls the block’s data inputs, wraddress, and wren. The
read clock controls the data output, rdaddress, and rden.
Single
In this mode, a single clock, together with clock enable, is used to
control all registers of the memory block. Asynchronous clear
signals for the registers are not supported.
Table 2–9 shows which clock modes are supported by all M4K blocks
when configured in the different memory modes.
Table 2–9. Cyclone II M4K Memory Clock Modes
Clocking Modes
True Dual-Port
Mode
Simple Dual-Port
Single-Port Mode
Mode
Independent
v
Input/output
v
v
v
v
v
Read/write
Single clock
v
v
M4K Routing Interface
The R4, C4, and direct link interconnects from adjacent LABs drive the
M4K block local interconnect. The M4K blocks can communicate with
LABs on either the left or right side through these row resources or with
LAB columns on either the right or left with the column resources. Up to
16 direct link input connections to the M4K block are possible from the
left adjacent LAB and another 16 possible from the right adjacent LAB.
M4K block outputs can also connect to left and right LABs through each
16 direct link interconnects. Figure 2–17 shows the M4K block to logic
array interface.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–31
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Embedded Multipliers
Figure 2–17. M4K RAM Block LAB Row Interface
C4 Interconnects
Direct link
interconnect
to adjacent LAB
R4 Interconnects
16
Direct link
interconnect
to adjacent LAB
dataout
Direct link
interconnect
from adjacent LAB
M4K RAM
Block
16
16
Byte enable
Direct link
interconnect
from adjacent LAB
Control
Signals
Clocks
address
datain
6
M4K RAM Block Local
Interconnect Region
f
Embedded
Multipliers
LAB Row Clocks
For more information on Cyclone II embedded memory, see the
Cyclone II Memory Blocks chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device
Handbook.
Cyclone II devices have embedded multiplier blocks optimized for
multiplier-intensive digital signal processing (DSP) functions, such as
finite impulse response (FIR) filters, fast Fourier transform (FFT)
functions, and discrete cosine transform (DCT) functions. You can use the
embedded multiplier in one of two basic operational modes, depending
on the application needs:
■
■
One 18-bit multiplier
Up to two independent 9-bit multipliers
2–32
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Embedded multipliers can operate at up to 250 MHz (for the fastest speed
grade) for 18 × 18 and 9 × 9 multiplications when using both input and
output registers.
Each Cyclone II device has one to three columns of embedded multipliers
that efficiently implement multiplication functions. An embedded
multiplier spans the height of one LAB row. Table 2–10 shows the number
of embedded multipliers in each Cyclone II device and the multipliers
that can be implemented.
Table 2–10. Number of Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices
Device
Note (1)
Embedded
Multiplier Columns
Embedded
Multipliers
9 × 9 Multipliers
18 × 18 Multipliers
1
13
26
13
EP2C5
EP2C8
1
18
36
18
EP2C15
1
26
52
26
EP2C20
1
26
52
26
EP2C35
1
35
70
35
EP2C50
2
86
172
86
EP2C70
3
150
300
150
Note to Table 2–10:
(1)
Each device has either the number of 9 × 9-, or 18 × 18-bit multipliers shown. The total number of multipliers for
each device is not the sum of all the multipliers.
The embedded multiplier consists of the following elements:
■
■
■
Multiplier block
Input and output registers
Input and output interfaces
Figure 2–18 shows the multiplier block architecture.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–33
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Embedded Multipliers
Figure 2–18. Multiplier Block Architecture
signa (1)
signb (1)
aclr
clock
ena
Data A
D
Q
ENA
Data Out
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
CLRN
Data B
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Output
Register
Input
Register
Embedded Multiplier Block
Note to Figure 2–18:
(1)
If necessary, these signals can be registered once to match the data signal path.
Each multiplier operand can be a unique signed or unsigned number.
Two signals, signa and signb, control the representation of each
operand respectively. A logic 1 value on the signa signal indicates that
data A is a signed number while a logic 0 value indicates an unsigned
number. Table 2–11 shows the sign of the multiplication result for the
various operand sign representations. The result of the multiplication is
signed if any one of the operands is a signed value.
Table 2–11. Multiplier Sign Representation
Data A (signa Value)
Data B (signb Value)
Result
Unsigned
Unsigned
Unsigned
Unsigned
Signed
Signed
Signed
Unsigned
Signed
Signed
Signed
Signed
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
There is only one signa and one signb signal for each dedicated
multiplier. Therefore, all of the data A inputs feeding the same dedicated
multiplier must have the same sign representation. Similarly, all of the
data B inputs feeding the same dedicated multiplier must have the same
sign representation. The signa and signb signals can be changed
dynamically to modify the sign representation of the input operands at
run time. The multiplier offers full precision regardless of the sign
representation and can be registered using dedicated registers located at
the input register stage.
Multiplier Modes
Table 2–12 summarizes the different modes that the embedded
multipliers can operate in.
Table 2–12. Embedded Multiplier Modes
Multiplier Mode
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Description
18-bit Multiplier
An embedded multiplier can be configured to support a
single 18 × 18 multiplier for operand widths up to 18 bits.
All 18-bit multiplier inputs and results can be registered
independently. The multiplier operands can accept
signed integers, unsigned integers, or a combination of
both.
9-bit Multiplier
An embedded multiplier can be configured to support
two 9 × 9 independent multipliers for operand widths up
to 9-bits. Both 9-bit multiplier inputs and results can be
registered independently. The multiplier operands can
accept signed integers, unsigned integers or a
combination of both.
There is only one signa signal to control the sign
representation of both data A inputs and one signb
signal to control the sign representation of both data B
inputs of the 9-bit multipliers within the same dedicated
multiplier.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Embedded Multipliers
Embedded Multiplier Routing Interface
The R4, C4, and direct link interconnects from adjacent LABs drive the
embedded multiplier row interface interconnect. The embedded
multipliers can communicate with LABs on either the left or right side
through these row resources or with LAB columns on either the right or
left with the column resources. Up to 16 direct link input connections to
the embedded multiplier are possible from the left adjacent LABs and
another 16 possible from the right adjacent LAB. Embedded multiplier
outputs can also connect to left and right LABs through 18 direct link
interconnects each. Figure 2–19 shows the embedded multiplier to logic
array interface.
Figure 2–19. Embedded Multiplier LAB Row Interface
C4 Interconnects
Direct Link Interconnect
from Adjacent LAB
R4 Interconnects
18 Direct Link Outputs
to Adjacent LABs
Direct Link Interconnect
from Adjacent LAB
36
Embedded Multiplier
LAB
LAB
18
18
16
16
5
Control
36
[35..0]
18
[35..0]
18
Row Interface
Block
LAB Block
Interconect Region
Embedded Multiplier
to LAB Row Interface
Block Interconnect Region
2–36
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
36 Inputs per Row
36 Outputs per Row
LAB Block
Interconect Region
C4 Interconnects
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
There are five dynamic control input signals that feed the embedded
multiplier: signa, signb, clk, clkena, and aclr. signa and signb
can be registered to match the data signal input path. The same clk,
clkena, and aclr signals feed all registers within a single embedded
multiplier.
f
I/O Structure &
Features
For more information on Cyclone II embedded multipliers, see the
Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices chapter.
IOEs support many features, including:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Differential and single-ended I/O standards
3.3-V, 64- and 32-bit, 66- and 33-MHz PCI compliance
Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) boundary-scan test (BST) support
Output drive strength control
Weak pull-up resistors during configuration
Tri-state buffers
Bus-hold circuitry
Programmable pull-up resistors in user mode
Programmable input and output delays
Open-drain outputs
DQ and DQS I/O pins
VREF pins
Cyclone II device IOEs contain a bidirectional I/O buffer and three
registers for complete embedded bidirectional single data rate transfer.
Figure 2–20 shows the Cyclone II IOE structure. The IOE contains one
input register, one output register, and one output enable register. You can
use the input registers for fast setup times and output registers for fast
clock-to-output times. Additionally, you can use the output enable (OE)
register for fast clock-to-output enable timing. The Quartus II software
automatically duplicates a single OE register that controls multiple
output or bidirectional pins. You can use IOEs as input, output, or
bidirectional pins.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–37
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
Figure 2–20. Cyclone II IOE Structure
Logic Array
OE Register
OE
Output Register
Output
Input (1)
Input Register
Note to Figure 2–20:
(1)
There are two paths available for combinational or registered inputs to the logic
array. Each path contains a unique programmable delay chain.
The IOEs are located in I/O blocks around the periphery of the Cyclone II
device. There are up to five IOEs per row I/O block and up to four IOEs
per column I/O block (column I/O blocks span two columns). The row
I/O blocks drive row, column (only C4 interconnects), or direct link
interconnects. The column I/O blocks drive column interconnects.
Figure 2–21 shows how a row I/O block connects to the logic array.
Figure 2–22 shows how a column I/O block connects to the logic array.
2–38
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Figure 2–21. Row I/O Block Connection to the Interconnect
R4 & R24 Interconnects
C4 Interconnects
I/O Block Local
Interconnect
35 Data and
Control Signals
from Logic Array (1)
35
LAB
Row
I/O Block
io_datain0[4..0]
io_datain1[4..0] (2)
Direct Link
Interconnect
to Adjacent LAB
Direct Link
Interconnect
from Adjacent LAB
io_clk[5..0]
LAB Local
Interconnect
Row I/O Block
Contains up to
Five IOEs
Notes to Figure 2–21:
(1)
(2)
The 35 data and control signals consist of five data out lines, io_dataout[4..0], five output enables,
io_coe[4..0], five input clock enables, io_cce_in[4..0], five output clock enables, io_cce_out[4..0],
five clocks, io_cclk[4..0], five asynchronous clear signals, io_caclr[4..0], and five synchronous clear
signals, io_csclr[4..0].
Each of the five IOEs in the row I/O block can have two io_datain (combinational or registered) inputs.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
Figure 2–22. Column I/O Block Connection to the Interconnect
Column I/O
Block Contains
up to Four IOEs
Column I/O Block
28 Data &
Control Signals
from Logic Array (1)
28
io_datain0[3..0]
io_datain1[3..0] (2)
io_clk[5..0]
I/O Block
Local Interconnect
R4 & R24 Interconnects
LAB
LAB Local
Interconnect
LAB
LAB
C4 & C24 Interconnects
Notes to Figure 2–22:
(1)
(2)
The 28 data and control signals consist of four data out lines, io_dataout[3..0], four output enables,
io_coe[3..0], four input clock enables, io_cce_in[3..0], four output clock enables, io_cce_out[3..0],
four clocks, io_cclk[3..0], four asynchronous clear signals, io_caclr[3..0], and four synchronous clear
signals, io_csclr[3..0].
Each of the four IOEs in the column I/O block can have two io_datain (combinational or registered) inputs.
2–40
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
The pin’s datain signals can drive the logic array. The logic array drives
the control and data signals, providing a flexible routing resource. The
row or column IOE clocks, io_clk[5..0], provide a dedicated routing
resource for low-skew, high-speed clocks. The global clock network
generates the IOE clocks that feed the row or column I/O regions (see
“Global Clock Network & Phase-Locked Loops” on page 2–16).
Figure 2–23 illustrates the signal paths through the I/O block.
Figure 2–23. Signal Path Through the I/O Block
Row or Column
io_clk[5..0]
To Logic
Array
To Other
IOEs
io_datain0
io_datain1
oe
ce_in
io_csclr
ce_out
io_coe
io_cce_in
From Logic
Array
io_cce_out
Data and
Control
Signal
Selection
aclr/preset
IOE
sclr/preset
clk_in
io_caclr
clk_out
io_cclk
io_dataout
dataout
Each IOE contains its own control signal selection for the following
control signals: oe, ce_in, ce_out, aclr/preset, sclr/preset,
clk_in, and clk_out. Figure 2–24 illustrates the control signal
selection.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–41
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
Figure 2–24. Control Signal Selection per IOE
Dedicated I/O
Clock [5..0]
Local
Interconnect
io_coe
Local
Interconnect
io_csclr
Local
Interconnect
io_caclr
Local
Interconnect
io_cce_out
Local
Interconnect
io_cce_in
Local
Interconnect
io_cclk
ce_out
clk_out
clk_in
ce_in
sclr/preset
aclr/preset
oe
In normal bidirectional operation, you can use the input register for input
data requiring fast setup times. The input register can have its own clock
input and clock enable separate from the OE and output registers. You can
use the output register for data requiring fast clock-to-output
performance. The OE register is available for fast clock-to-output enable
timing. The OE and output register share the same clock source and the
same clock enable source from the local interconnect in the associated
LAB, dedicated I/O clocks, or the column and row interconnects. All
registers share sclr and aclr, but each register can individually disable
sclr and aclr. Figure 2–25 shows the IOE in bidirectional
configuration.
2–42
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Figure 2–25. Cyclone II IOE in Bidirectional I/O Configuration
io_clk[5..0]
Column
or Row
Interconect
OE
OE Register
clkout
D
PRN
Q
VCCIO
ENA
Optional
PCI Clamp
CLRN
ce_out
VCCIO
Programmable
Pull-Up
Resistor
aclr/prn
Chip-Wide Reset
Output Register
D
PRN
Q
Output
Pin Delay
ENA
sclr/preset
Open-Drain Output
CLRN
data_in1
Bus Hold
data_in0
Input Register
D
clkin
ce_in
PRN
Q
Input Pin to
Input Register Delay
or Input Pin to
Logic Array Delay
ENA
CLRN
The Cyclone II device IOE includes programmable delays to ensure zero
hold times, minimize setup times, or increase clock to output times.
A path in which a pin directly drives a register may require a
programmable delay to ensure zero hold time, whereas a path in which a
pin drives a register through combinational logic may not require the
delay. Programmable delays decrease input-pin-to-logic-array and IOE
input register delays. The Quartus II Compiler can program these delays
to automatically minimize setup time while providing a zero hold time.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
Programmable delays can increase the register-to-pin delays for output
registers. Table 2–13 shows the programmable delays for Cyclone II
devices.
Table 2–13. Cyclone II Programmable Delay Chain
Programmable Delays
Quartus II Logic Option
Input pin to logic array delay
Input delay from pin to internal cells
Input pin to input register delay
Input delay from pin to input register
Output pin delay
Delay from output register to output pin
There are two paths in the IOE for an input to reach the logic array. Each
of the two paths can have a different delay. This allows you to adjust
delays from the pin to internal LE registers that reside in two different
areas of the device. You set the two combinational input delays by
selecting different delays for two different paths under the Input delay
from pin to internal cells logic option in the Quartus II software.
However, if the pin uses the input register, one of delays is disregarded
because the IOE only has two paths to internal logic. If the input register
is used, the IOE uses one input path. The other input path is then
available for the combinational path, and only one input delay
assignment is applied.
The IOE registers in each I/O block share the same source for clear or
preset. You can program preset or clear for each individual IOE, but both
features cannot be used simultaneously. You can also program the
registers to power up high or low after configuration is complete. If
programmed to power up low, an asynchronous clear can control the
registers. If programmed to power up high, an asynchronous preset can
control the registers. This feature prevents the inadvertent activation of
another device’s active-low input upon power up. If one register in an
IOE uses a preset or clear signal then all registers in the IOE must use that
same signal if they require preset or clear. Additionally a synchronous
reset signal is available for the IOE registers.
External Memory Interfacing
Cyclone II devices support a broad range of external memory interfaces
such as SDR SDRAM, DDR SDRAM, DDR2 SDRAM, and QDRII SRAM
external memories. Cyclone II devices feature dedicated high-speed
interfaces that transfer data between external memory devices at up to
167 MHz/333 Mbps for DDR and DDR2 SDRAM devices and
167 MHz/667 Mbps for QDRII SRAM devices. The programmable DQS
delay chain allows you to fine tune the phase shift for the input clocks or
strobes to properly align clock edges as needed to capture data.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
In Cyclone II devices, all the I/O banks support SDR and DDR SDRAM
memory up to 167 MHz/333 Mbps. All I/O banks support DQS signals
with the DQ bus modes of ×8/×9, or ×16/×18. Table 2–14 shows the
external memory interfaces supported in Cyclone II devices.
Table 2–14. External Memory Support in Cyclone II Devices
Memory Standard
SDR SDRAM
DDR SDRAM
DDR2 SDRAM
QDRII SRAM (4)
Note (1)
Maximum Bus
Width
Maximum Clock
Rate Supported
(MHz)
Maximum Data
Rate Supported
(Mbps)
LVTTL (2)
72
167
167
SSTL-2 class I (2)
72
167
333 (1)
SSTL-2 class II (2)
72
133
267 (1)
I/O Standard
SSTL-18 class I (2)
72
167
333 (1)
SSTL-18 class II (3)
72
125
250 (1)
1.8-V HSTL class I
(2)
36
167
668 (1)
1.8-V HSTL class II
(3)
36
100
400 (1)
Notes to Table 2–14:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The data rate is for designs using the Clock Delay Control circuitry.
The I/O standards are supported on all the I/O banks of the Cyclone II device.
The I/O standards are supported only on the I/O banks on the top and bottom of the Cyclone II device.
For maximum performance, Altera recommends using the 1.8-V HSTL I/O standard because of higher I/O drive
strength. QDRII SRAM devices also support the 1.5-V HSTL I/O standard.
Cyclone II devices use data (DQ), data strobe (DQS), and clock pins to
interface with external memory. Figure 2–26 shows the DQ and DQS pins
in the ×8/×9 mode.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
Figure 2–26. Cyclone II Device DQ & DQS Groups in ×8/×9 Mode
Notes (1), (2)
DQS Pin (2)
DQ Pins
DQ Pins
DM Pin
Notes to Figure 2–26:
(1)
(2)
Each DQ group consists of a DQS pin, DM pin, and up to nine DQ pins.
This is an idealized pin layout. For actual pin layout, refer to the pin table.
Cyclone II devices support the data strobe or read clock signal (DQS)
used in DDR and DDR2 SDRAM. Cyclone II devices can use either
bidirectional data strobes or unidirectional read clocks. The dedicated
external memory interface in Cyclone II devices also includes
programmable delay circuitry that can shift the incoming DQS signals to
center align the DQS signals within the data window.
The DQS signal is usually associated with a group of data (DQ) pins. The
phase-shifted DQS signals drive the global clock network, which is used
to clock the DQ signals on internal LE registers.
Table 2–15 shows the number of DQ pin groups per device.
Table 2–15. Cyclone II DQS & DQ Bus Mode Support (Part 1 of 2)
Device
EP2C5
Package
144-pin TQFP (2)
208-pin PQFP
EP2C8
EP2C15
EP2C20
144-pin TQFP (2)
Number of ×8
Groups
Note (1)
Number of ×9 Number of ×16 Number of ×18
Groups (5), (6)
Groups
Groups (5), (6)
3
3
0
0
7 (3)
4
3
3
3
3
0
0
208-pin PQFP
7 (3)
4
3
3
256-pin FineLine BGA®
8 (3)
4
4
4
256-pin FineLine BGA
8
4
4
4
484-pin FineLine BGA
16 (4)
8
8
8
256-pin FineLine BGA
8
4
4
4
484-pin FineLine BGA
16 (4)
8
8
8
2–46
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Table 2–15. Cyclone II DQS & DQ Bus Mode Support (Part 2 of 2)
Note (1)
Package
Number of ×8
Groups
EP2C35
484-pin FineLine BGA
16 (4)
8
8
8
672-pin FineLine BGA
20 (4)
8
8
8
EP2C50
484-pin FineLine BGA
16 (4)
8
8
8
672-pin FineLine BGA
20 (4)
8
8
8
EP2C70
672-pin FineLine BGA
20 (4)
8
8
8
896-pin FineLine BGA
20 (4)
8
8
8
Device
Number of ×9 Number of ×16 Number of ×18
Groups (5), (6)
Groups
Groups (5), (6)
Notes to Table 2–15:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Numbers are preliminary.
EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices in the 144-pin TQFP package do not have any DQ pin groups in I/O bank 1.
Because of available clock resources, only a total of 6 DQ/DQS groups can be implemented.
Because of available clock resources, only a total of 14 DQ/DQS groups can be implemented.
The ×9 DQS/DQ groups are also used as ×8 DQS/DQ groups. The ×18 DQS/DQ groups are also used as ×16
DQS/DQ groups.
For QDRI implementation, if you connect the D ports (write data) to the Cyclone II DQ pins, the total available ×9
DQS /DQ and ×18 DQS/DQ groups are half of that shown in Table 2–15.
You can use any of the DQ pins for the parity pins in Cyclone II devices.
The Cyclone II device family supports parity in the ×8/×9, and ×16/×18
mode. There is one parity bit available per eight bits of data pins.
The data mask, DM, pins are required when writing to DDR SDRAM and
DDR2 SDRAM devices. A low signal on the DM pin indicates that the
write is valid. If the DM signal is high, the memory masks the DQ signals.
In Cyclone II devices, the DM pins are assigned and are the preferred
pins. Each group of DQS and DQ signals requires a DM pin.
When using the Cyclone II I/O banks to interface with the DDR memory,
at least one PLL with two clock outputs is needed to generate the system
and write clock. The system clock is used to clock the DQS write signals,
commands, and addresses. The write clock is shifted by –90° from the
system clock and is used to clock the DQ signals during writes.
Figure 2–27 illustrates DDR SDRAM interfacing from the I/O through
the dedicated circuitry to the logic array.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–47
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
Figure 2–27. DDR SDRAM Interfacing
DQS
OE
DQ
OE
LE
Register
LE
Register
t
Adjacent LAB LEs
LE
Register
LE
Register
VCC
LE
Register
DataA
LE
Register
LE
Register
GND
LE
Register
DataB
LE
Register
LE
Register
clk
PLL
LE
Register
LE
Register
Clock Delay
Control Circuitry
en/dis
-90˚ Shifted clk
Clock Control
Block
ENOUT
f
LE
Register
Global Clock
Resynchronizing
to System Clock
Dynamic Enable/Disable
Circuitry
ena_register_mode
For more information on Cyclone II external memory interfaces, see the
External Memory Interfaces chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device
Handbook.
2–48
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Programmable Drive Strength
The output buffer for each Cyclone II device I/O pin has a programmable
drive strength control for certain I/O standards. The LVTTL, LVCMOS,
SSTL-2 class I and II, SSTL-18 class I and II, HSTL-18 class I and II, and
HSTL-1.5 class I and II standards have several levels of drive strength that
you can control. Using minimum settings provides signal slew rate
control to reduce system noise and signal overshoot. Table 2–16 shows
the possible settings for the I/O standards with drive strength control.
Table 2–16. Programmable Drive Strength (Part 1 of 2)
I/O Standard
IOH/IOL Current Strength Setting (mA)
Top & Bottom I/O Pins
LVTTL (3.3 V)
LVCMOS (3.3 V)
Note (1)
Side I/O Pins
4
4
8
8
12
12
16
16
20
20
24
24
4
4
8
8
12
12
16
20
24
LVTTL/LVCMOS (2.5 V)
4
4
8
8
12
16
LVTTL/LVCMOS (1.8 V)
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2
2
4
4
6
6
8
8
10
10
12
12
2–49
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
Table 2–16. Programmable Drive Strength (Part 2 of 2)
I/O Standard
LVCMOS (1.5 V)
Note (1)
IOH/IOL Current Strength Setting (mA)
Top & Bottom I/O Pins
Side I/O Pins
2
2
4
4
6
6
8
SSTL-2 class I
8
8
12
12
SSTL-2 class II
16
16
20
24
SSTL-18 class I
6
6
8
8
10
10
12
SSTL-18 class II
16
18
HSTL-18 class I
HSTL-18 class II
8
8
10
10
12
12
16
18
20
HSTL-15 class I
8
8
10
12
HSTL-15 class II
16
Note to Table 2–16:
(1)
The default current in the Quartus II software is the maximum setting for each
I/O standard.
Open-Drain Output
Cyclone II devices provide an optional open-drain (equivalent to an
open-collector) output for each I/O pin. This open-drain output enables
the device to provide system-level control signals (that is, interrupt and
write-enable signals) that can be asserted by any of several devices.
2–50
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Slew Rate Control
Slew rate control is performed by using programmable output drive
strength.
Bus Hold
Each Cyclone II device user I/O pin provides an optional bus-hold
feature. The bus-hold circuitry can hold the signal on an I/O pin at its
last-driven state. Since the bus-hold feature holds the last-driven state of
the pin until the next input signal is present, an external pull-up or
pull-down resistor is not necessary to hold a signal level when the bus is
tri-stated.
The bus-hold circuitry also pulls undriven pins away from the input
threshold voltage where noise can cause unintended high-frequency
switching. You can select this feature individually for each I/O pin. The
bus-hold output drives no higher than VCCIO to prevent overdriving
signals.
1
If the bus-hold feature is enabled, the device cannot use the
programmable pull-up option. Disable the bus-hold feature
when the I/O pin is configured for differential signals. Bus hold
circuitry is not available on the dedicated clock pins.
The bus-hold circuitry is only active after configuration. When going into
user mode, the bus-hold circuit captures the value on the pin present at
the end of configuration.
The bus-hold circuitry uses a resistor with a nominal resistance (RBH) of
approximately 7 kΩ to pull the signal level to the last-driven state. Refer
to the DC Characteristics & Timing Specifications chapter in Volume 1 of the
Cyclone II Device Handbook for the specific sustaining current for each
VCCIO voltage level driven through the resistor and overdrive current
used to identify the next driven input level.
Programmable Pull-Up Resistor
Each Cyclone II device I/O pin provides an optional programmable
pull-up resistor during user mode. If you enable this feature for an I/O
pin, the pull-up resistor (typically 25 kΩ) holds the output to the VCCIO
level of the output pin’s bank.
1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
If the programmable pull-up is enabled, the device cannot use
the bus-hold feature. The programmable pull-up resistors are
not supported on the dedicated configuration, JTAG, and
dedicated clock pins.
2–51
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
Advanced I/O Standard Support
Table 2–17 shows the I/O standards supported by Cyclone II devices and
which I/O pins support them.
Table 2–17. Cyclone II Supported I/O Standards & Constraints (Part 1 of 2)
VCCIO Level
I/O Standard
Top & Bottom
I/O Pins
Side I/O Pins
Type
Input Output
CLK, User I/O CLK,
PLL_OUT
DQS
Pins
DQS
User I/O
Pins
3.3-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
(1)
Single ended
3.3 V/
2.5 V
3.3 V
v
v
v
v
v
2.5-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
Single ended
3.3 V/
2.5 V
2.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
1.8-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
Single ended
1.8 V/
1.5 V
1.8 V
v
v
v
v
v
1.5-V LVCMOS
Single ended
1.8 V/
1.5 V
1.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-2 class I
Voltage
referenced
2.5 V
2.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-2 class II
Voltage
referenced
2.5 V
2.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-18 class I
Voltage
referenced
1.8 V
1.8 V
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-18 class II
Voltage
referenced
1.8 V
1.8 V
v
v
(2)
(2)
(2)
HSTL-18 class I
Voltage
referenced
1.8 V
1.8 V
v
v
v
v
v
HSTL-18 class II
Voltage
referenced
1.8 V
1.8 V
v
v
(2)
(2)
(2)
HSTL-15 class I
Voltage
referenced
1.5 V
1.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
HSTL-15 class II
Voltage
referenced
1.5 V
1.5 V
v
v
(2)
(2)
(2)
PCI and PCI-X (1) (3)
Single ended
3.3 V
3.3 V
v
v
(5)
2.5 V
2.5 V
(5)
Differential SSTL-2 class I or Pseudo
class II
differential (4)
Differential SSTL-18 class I
or class II
Pseudo
differential (4)
2–52
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
(5)
1.8 V
1.8 V
(5)
v
v
v
v
(6)
(6)
v (7)
v
v
(6)
(6)
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Table 2–17. Cyclone II Supported I/O Standards & Constraints (Part 2 of 2)
VCCIO Level
I/O Standard
Differential HSTL-18 class I
or class II
Side I/O Pins
Type
Input Output
Differential HSTL-15 class I
or class II
Top & Bottom
I/O Pins
Pseudo
differential (4)
Pseudo
differential (4)
(5)
1.5 V
1.5 V
(5)
(5)
1.8 V
CLK, User I/O CLK,
PLL_OUT
DQS
Pins
DQS
v (7)
v
v
(6)
(6)
v (7)
1.8 V
(5)
LVDS
Differential
2.5 V
2.5 V
RSDS and mini-LVDS (8)
Differential
(5)
2.5 V
LVPECL (9)
Differential
3.3 V/
2.5 V/
1.8 V/
1.5 V
User I/O
Pins
v
v
(6)
(6)
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
(5)
v
v
Notes to Table 2–17:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
To drive inputs higher than VC C I O but less than 4.0 V, disable the PCI clamping diode and turn on the Allow
LVTTL and LVCMOS input levels to overdrive input buffer option in the Quartus II software.
These pins support SSTL-18 class II and 1.8- and 1.5-V HSTL class II inputs.
PCI-X does not meet the IV curve requirement at the linear region. PCI-clamp diode is not available on top and
bottom I/O pins.
Pseudo-differential HSTL and SSTL outputs use two single-ended outputs with the second output programmed
as inverted. Pseudo-differential HSTL and SSTL inputs treat differential inputs as two single-ended HSTL and
SSTL inputs and only decode one of them.
This I/O standard is not supported on these I/O pins.
This I/O standard is only supported on the dedicated clock pins.
PLL_OUT does not support differential SSTL-18 class II and differential 1.8 and 1.5-V HSTL class II.
mini-LVDS and RSDS are only supported on output pins.
LVPECL is only supported on clock inputs.
f
For more information on Cyclone II supported I/O standards, see the
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices chapter in Volume 1 of the
Cyclone II Device Handbook.
High-Speed Differential Interfaces
Cyclone II devices can transmit and receive data through LVDS signals at
a data rate of up to 640 Mbps and 805 Mbps, respectively. For the LVDS
transmitter and receiver, the Cyclone II device’s input and output pins
support serialization and deserialization through internal logic.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–53
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
The reduced swing differential signaling (RSDS) and mini-LVDS
standards are derivatives of the LVDS standard. The RSDS and
mini-LVDS I/O standards are similar in electrical characteristics to
LVDS, but have a smaller voltage swing and therefore provide increased
power benefits and reduced electromagnetic interference (EMI).
Cyclone II devices support the RSDS and mini-LVDS I/O standards at
data rates up to 311 Mbps at the transmitter.
A subset of pins in each I/O bank (on both rows and columns) support
the high-speed I/O interface. The dual-purpose LVDS pins require an
external-resistor network at the transmitter channels in addition to 100-Ω
termination resistors on receiver channels. These pins do not contain
dedicated serialization or deserialization circuitry. Therefore, internal
logic performs serialization and deserialization functions.
Cyclone II pin tables list the pins that support the high-speed I/O
interface. The number of LVDS channels supported in each device family
member is listed in Table 2–18.
Table 2–18. Cyclone II Device LVDS Channels (Part 1 of 2)
Device
EP2C5
EP2C8
Pin Count
Number of LVDS
Channels (1)
144
31 (35)
208
56 (60)
256
61 (65)
144
29 (33)
208
53 (57)
256
75 (79)
EP2C15
256
52 (60)
484
128 (136)
EP2C20
240
45 (53)
EP2C35
EP2C50
2–54
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
256
52 (60)
484
128 (136)
484
131 (139)
672
201 (209)
484
119 (127)
672
189 (197)
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Table 2–18. Cyclone II Device LVDS Channels (Part 2 of 2)
Device
EP2C70
Pin Count
Number of LVDS
Channels (1)
672
160 (168)
896
257 (265)
Note to Table 2–18:
(1)
The first number represents the number of bidirectional I/O pins which can be
used as inputs or outputs. The number in parenthesis includes dedicated clock
input pin pairs which can only be used as inputs.
You can use I/O pins and internal logic to implement a high-speed I/O
receiver and transmitter in Cyclone II devices. Cyclone II devices do not
contain dedicated serialization or deserialization circuitry. Therefore,
shift registers, internal PLLs, and IOEs are used to perform
serial-to-parallel conversions on incoming data and parallel-to-serial
conversion on outgoing data.
The maximum internal clock frequency for a receiver and for a
transmitter is 402.5 MHz. The maximum input data rate of 805 Mbps and
the maximum output data rate of 640 Mbps is only achieved when DDIO
registers are used. The LVDS standard does not require an input
reference voltage, but it does require a 100-Ω termination resistor
between the two signals at the input buffer. An external resistor network
is required on the transmitter side.
f
For more information on Cyclone II differential I/O interfaces, see the
High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices chapter in Volume 1
of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Series On-Chip Termination
On-chip termination helps to prevent reflections and maintain signal
integrity. This also minimizes the need for external resistors in high pin
count ball grid array (BGA) packages. Cyclone II devices provide I/O
driver on-chip impedance matching and on-chip series termination for
single-ended outputs and bidirectional pins.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–55
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
Cyclone II devices support driver impedance matching to the impedance
of the transmission line, typically 25 or 50 Ω. When used with the output
drivers, on-chip termination sets the output driver impedance to 25 or
50 Ω. Cyclone II devices also support I/O driver series termination
(RS = 50 Ω) for SSTL-2 and SSTL-18. Table 2–19 lists the I/O standards that
support impedance matching and series termination.
Table 2–19. I/O Standards Supporting Series Termination
Note (1)
Target RS (Ω)
VCCIO (V)
3.3-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
25 (2)
3.3
2.5-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
50 (2)
2.5
1.8-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
50 (2)
1.8
SSTL-2 class I
50 (2)
2.5
SSTL-18 class I
50 (2)
1.8
I/O Standards
Notes to Table 2–19:
(1)
(2)
1
Supported conditions are VCCIO = VCCIO ±50 mV.
These RS values are nominal values. Actual impedance varies across process,
voltage, and temperature conditions.
The recommended frequency range of operation is pending
silicon characterization.
On-chip series termination can be supported on any I/O bank. VCCIO and
VREF must be compatible for all I/O pins in order to enable on-chip series
termination in a given I/O bank. I/O standards that support different RS
values can reside in the same I/O bank as long as their VCCIO and VREF are
not conflicting.
1
When using on-chip series termination, programmable drive
strength is not available.
Impedance matching is implemented using the capabilities of the output
driver and is subject to a certain degree of variation, depending on the
process, voltage and temperature. The actual tolerance is pending silicon
characterization.
2–56
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
I/O Banks
The I/O pins on Cyclone II devices are grouped together into I/O banks
and each bank has a separate power bus. EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices have
four I/O banks (see Figure 2–28), while EP2C15, EP2C20, EP2C35,
EP2C50, and EP2C70 devices have eight I/O banks (see Figure 2–29).
Each device I/O pin is associated with one I/O bank. To accommodate
voltage-referenced I/O standards, each Cyclone II I/O bank has a VREF
bus. Each bank in EP2C5, EP2C8, EP2C15, EP2C20, EP2C35, and EP2C50
devices supports two VREF pins and each bank of EP2C70 supports four
VREF pins. When using the VREF pins, each VREF pin must be properly
connected to the appropriate voltage level. In the event these pins are not
used as VREF pins, they may be used as regular I/O pins.
The top and bottom I/O banks (banks 2 and 4 in EP2C5 and EP2C8
devices and banks 3, 4, 7, and 8 in EP2C15, EP2C20, EP2C35, EP2C50, and
EP2C70 devices) support all I/O standards listed in Table 2–17, except the
PCI/PCI-X I/O standards. The left and right side I/O banks (banks 1 and
3 in EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices and banks 1, 2, 5, and 6 in EP2C15, EP2C20,
EP2C35, EP2C50, and EP2C70 devices) support I/O standards listed in
Table 2–17, except SSTL-18 class II, HSTL-18 class II, and HSTL-15 class II
I/O standards. See Table 2–17 for a complete list of supported I/O
standards.
The top and bottom I/O banks (banks 2 and 4 in EP2C5 and EP2C8
devices and banks 3, 4, 7, and 8 in EP2C15, EP2C20, EP2C35, EP2C50, and
EP2C70 devices) support DDR2 memory up to 167 MHz/333 Mbps and
QDR memory up to 167 MHz/668 Mbps. The left and right side I/O
banks (1 and 3 of EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices and 1, 2, 5, and 6 of EP2C15,
EP2C20, EP2C35, EP2C50, and EP2C70 devices) only support SDR and
DDR SDRAM interfaces. All the I/O banks of the Cyclone II devices
support SDR memory up to 167 MHz/167 Mbps and DDR memory up to
167 MHz/333 Mbps.
1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
DDR2 and QDRII interfaces may be implemented in Cyclone II
side banks if the use of class I I/O standard is acceptable.
2–57
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
Figure 2–28. EP2C5 & EP2C8 I/O Banks
Notes (1), (2)
I/O Bank 2 Also Supports
the SSTL-18 Class II,
HSTL-18 Class II, & HSTL-15
Class II I/O Standards
I/O Bank 2
I/O Bank 1
Also Supports the
3.3-V PCI & PCI-X
I/O Standards
I/O Bank 1
All I/O Banks Support
■ 3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.5-V LVCMOS
■ LVDS
■ RSDS
■ mini-LVDS
■ LVPECL (3)
■ SSTL-2 Class I and II
■ SSTL-18 Class I
■ HSTL-18 Class I
■ HSTL-15 Class I
■ Differential SSTL-2 (4)
■ Differential SSTL-18 (4)
■ Differential HSTL-18 (5)
■ Differential HSTL-15 (5)
I/O Bank 3
Also Supports the
3.3-V PCI & PCI-X
I/O Standards
I/O Bank 3
Individual
Power Bus
I/O Bank 4
I/O Bank 4 Also Supports
the SSTL-18 Class II,
HSTL-18 Class II, & HSTL-15
Class II I/O Standards
Notes to Figure 2–28:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
This is a top view of the silicon die.
This is a graphic representation only. Refer to the pin list and the Quartus II software for exact pin locations.
The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins. This I/O standard is not supported on output
pins.
The differential SSTL-18 and SSTL-2 I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
The differential 1.8-V and 1.5-V HSTL I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
2–58
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Figure 2–29. EP2C15, EP2C20, EP2C35, EP2C50 & EP2C70 I/O Banks
Notes (1), (2)
I/O Banks 3 & 4 Also Support
the SSTL-18 Class II,
HSTL-18 Class II, & HSTL-15
Class II I/O Standards
I/O Bank 3
I/O Bank 4
Individual
Power Bus
I/O Bank 2
I/O Banks 1 & 2 Also
Support the 3.3-V PCI
& PCI-X I/O Standards
I/O Bank 1
All I/O Banks Support
■ 3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.5-V LVCMOS
■ LVDS
■ RSDS
■ mini-LVDS
■ LVPECL (3)
■ SSTL-2 Class I and II
■ SSTL-18 Class I
■ HSTL-18 Class I
■ HSTL-15 Class I
■ Differential SSTL-2 (4)
■ Differential SSTL-18 (4)
■ Differential HSTL-18 (5)
■ Differential HSTL-15 (5)
Regular I/O Block
Bank 8
I/O Bank 5
I/O Banks 5 & 6 Also
Support the 3.3-V PCI
& PCI-X I/O Standards
I/O Bank 6
Regular I/O Block
Bank 7
I/O Banks 7 & 8 Also Support
the SSTL-18 Class II,
HSTL-18 Class II, & HSTL-15
Class II I/O Standards
Notes to Figure 2–29:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
This is a top view of the silicon die.
This is a graphic representation only. Refer to the pin list and the Quartus II software for exact pin locations.
The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins. This I/O standard is not supported on output
pins.
The differential SSTL-18 and SSTL-2 I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
The differential 1.8-V and 1.5-V HSTL I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
Each I/O bank has its own VCCIO pins. A single device can support
1.5-V, 1.8-V, 2.5-V, and 3.3-V interfaces; each individual bank can support
a different standard with different I/O voltages. Each bank also has
dual-purpose VREF pins to support any one of the voltage-referenced
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–59
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Structure & Features
standards (e.g., SSTL-2) independently. If an I/O bank does not use
voltage-referenced standards, the VREF pins are available as user I/O
pins.
Each I/O bank can support multiple standards with the same VCCIO for
input and output pins. For example, when VCCIO is 3.3-V, a bank can
support LVTTL, LVCMOS, and 3.3-V PCI for inputs and outputs.
Voltage-referenced standards can be supported in an I/O bank using any
number of single-ended or differential standards as long as they use the
same VREF and a compatible VCCIO value.
MultiVolt I/O Interface
The Cyclone II architecture supports the MultiVolt I/O interface feature,
which allows Cyclone II devices in all packages to interface with systems
of different supply voltages. Cyclone II devices have one set of VCC pins
(VCCINT) that power the internal device logic array and input buffers that
use the LVPECL, LVDS, HSTL, or SSTL I/O standards. Cyclone II devices
also have four or eight sets of VCC pins (VCCIO) that power the I/O
output drivers and input buffers that use the LVTTL, LVCMOS, or PCI
I/O standards.
The Cyclone II VCCINT pins must always be connected to a 1.2-V power
supply. If the VCCINT level is 1.2 V, then input pins are 1.5-V, 1.8-V, 2.5-V,
and 3.3-V tolerant. The VCCIO pins can be connected to either a 1.5-V,
1.8-V, 2.5-V, or 3.3-V power supply, depending on the output
requirements. The output levels are compatible with systems of the same
voltage as the power supply (i.e., when VCCIO pins are connected to a
1.5-V power supply, the output levels are compatible with 1.5-V systems).
When VCCIO pins are connected to a 3.3-V power supply, the output high
is 3.3-V and is compatible with 3.3-V systems. Table 2–20 summarizes
Cyclone II MultiVolt I/O support.
Table 2–20. Cyclone II MultiVolt I/O Support (Part 1 of 2)
Note (1)
Input Signal
VCCIO (V)
Output Signal
1.5 V
1.8 V
2.5 V
3.3 V
1.5 V
1.5
v
v
v (2)
v (2)
v
1.8
v (4)
v
v (2)
v (2)
v (3)
v
v
v
v (5)
v (5)
2.5
2–60
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
1.8 V
2.5 V
3.3 V
v
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II Architecture
Table 2–20. Cyclone II MultiVolt I/O Support (Part 2 of 2)
Note (1)
Input Signal
VCCIO (V)
1.5 V
3.3
1.8 V
Output Signal
2.5 V
3.3 V
1.5 V
1.8 V
2.5 V
3.3 V
v (4)
v
v (6)
v (6)
v (6)
v
Notes to Table 2–20:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
The PCI clamping diode must be disabled to drive an input with voltages higher than VCCIO.
These input values overdrive the input buffer, so the pin leakage current is slightly higher than the default value.
To drive inputs higher than VCCIO but less than 4.0 V, disable the PCI clamping diode and turn on Allow voltage
overdrive for LVTTL/LVCMOS input pins option in Device setting option in the Quartus II software.
When VCCIO = 1.8-V, a Cyclone II device can drive a 1.5-V device with 1.8-V tolerant inputs.
When VCCIO = 3.3-V and a 2.5-V input signal feeds an input pin or when VC C I O = 1.8-V and a 1.5-V input signal
feeds an input pin, the VCCIO supply current will be slightly larger than expected. The reason for this increase is
that the input signal level does not drive to the VCCIO rail, which causes the input buffer to not completely shut off.
When VCCIO = 2.5-V, a Cyclone II device can drive a 1.5-V or 1.8-V device with 2.5-V tolerant inputs.
When VCCIO = 3.3-V, a Cyclone II device can drive a 1.5-V, 1.8-V, or 2.5-V device with 3.3-V tolerant inputs.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
2–61
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
Document
Revision History
Table 2–21 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 2–21. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2007
v3.1
Changes Made
●
●
●
●
●
●
November 2005
v2.1
●
●
●
●
●
●
July 2005 v2.0
●
●
February 2005
v1.2
Added document revision history.
Removed Table 2-1.
Updated Figure 2–25.
Added new Note (1) to Table 2–17.
Added handpara note in “I/O Banks” section.
Updated Note (2) to Table 2–20.
Summary of Changes
●
●
Removed Drive Strength
Control from Figure 2–25.
Elaboration of DDR2 and
QDRII interfaces supported
by I/O bank included.
Updated Table 2–7.
Updated Figures 2–11 and 2–12.
Updated Programmable Drive Strength table.
Updated Table 2–16.
Updated Table 2–18.
Updated Table 2–19.
Updated technical content throughout.
Updated Table 2–16.
Updated figure 2-12.
November 2004 Updated Table 2–19.
v1.1
June 2004 v1.0
Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
2–62
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
3. Configuration & Testing
CII51003-2.2
IEEE Std. 1149.1
(JTAG) Boundary
Scan Support
All Cyclone® II devices provide JTAG BST circuitry that complies with
the IEEE Std. 1149.1. JTAG boundary-scan testing can be performed
either before or after, but not during configuration. Cyclone II devices can
also use the JTAG port for configuration with the Quartus® II software or
hardware using either Jam Files (.jam) or Jam Byte-Code Files (.jbc).
Cyclone II devices support IOE I/O standard reconfiguration through the
JTAG BST chain. The JTAG chain can update the I/O standard for all
input and output pins any time before or during user mode through the
CONFIG_IO instruction. You can use this capability for JTAG testing
before configuration when some of the Cyclone II pins drive or receive
from other devices on the board using voltage-referenced standards.
Since the Cyclone II device might not be configured before JTAG testing,
the I/O pins may not be configured for appropriate electrical standards
for chip-to-chip communication. Programming the I/O standards via
JTAG allows you to fully test I/O connections to other devices.
f
For information on I/O reconfiguration, refer to the MorphIO: An I/O
Reconfiguration Solution for Altera Devices White Paper.
A device operating in JTAG mode uses four required pins: TDI, TDO, TMS,
and TCK. The TCK pin has an internal weak pull-down resister, while the
TDI and TMS pins have weak internal pull-up resistors. The TDO output
pin and all JTAG input pin voltage is determined by the VCCIO of the bank
where it resides. The bank VCCIO selects whether the JTAG inputs are 1.5-,
1.8-, 2.5-, or 3.3-V compatible.
1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Stratix® II, Stratix, Cyclone II and Cyclone devices must be
within the first 8 devices in a JTAG chain. All of these devices
have the same JTAG controller. If any of the Stratix II, Stratix,
Cyclone II or Cyclone devices are in the 9th of further position,
they fail configuration. This does not affect Signal Tap II.
3–1
IEEE Std. 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary Scan Support
Cyclone II devices also use the JTAG port to monitor the logic operation
of the device with the SignalTap® II embedded logic analyzer. Cyclone II
devices support the JTAG instructions shown in Table 3–1.
Table 3–1. Cyclone II JTAG Instructions (Part 1 of 2)
JTAG Instruction
Instruction Code
Description
SAMPLE/PRELOAD
00 0000 0101
Allows a snapshot of signals at the device pins to be captured and
examined during normal device operation, and permits an initial
data pattern to be output at the device pins. Also used by the
SignalTap II embedded logic analyzer.
EXTEST (1)
00 0000 1111
Allows the external circuitry and board-level interconnects to be
tested by forcing a test pattern at the output pins and capturing test
results at the input pins.
BYPASS
11 1111 1111
Places the 1-bit bypass register between the TDI and TDO pins,
which allows the BST data to pass synchronously through selected
devices to adjacent devices during normal device operation.
USERCODE
00 0000 0111
Selects the 32-bit USERCODE register and places it between the
TDI and TDO pins, allowing the USERCODE to be serially shifted
out of TDO.
IDCODE
00 0000 0110
Selects the IDCODE register and places it between TDI and TDO,
allowing the IDCODE to be serially shifted out of TDO.
HIGHZ (1)
00 0000 1011
Places the 1-bit bypass register between the TDI and TDO pins,
which allows the BST data to pass synchronously through selected
devices to adjacent devices during normal device operation, while
tri-stating all of the I/O pins.
CLAMP (1)
00 0000 1010
Places the 1-bit bypass register between the TDI and TDO pins,
which allows the BST data to pass synchronously through selected
devices to adjacent devices during normal device operation while
holding I/O pins to a state defined by the data in the boundary-scan
register.
ICR
instructions
PULSE_NCONFIG
Used when configuring a Cyclone II device via the JTAG port with
a USB Blaster™, ByteBlaster™ II, MasterBlaster™ or
ByteBlasterMV™ download cable, or when using a Jam File or JBC
File via an embedded processor.
00 0000 0001
3–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Emulates pulsing the nCONFIG pin low to trigger reconfiguration
even though the physical pin is unaffected.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuration & Testing
Table 3–1. Cyclone II JTAG Instructions (Part 2 of 2)
JTAG Instruction
CONFIG_IO
SignalTap II
instructions
Instruction Code
00 0000 1101
Description
Allows configuration of I/O standards through the JTAG chain for
JTAG testing. Can be executed before, after, or during
configuration. Stops configuration if executed during configuration.
Once issued, the CONFIG_IO instruction holds nSTATUS low to
reset the configuration device. nSTATUS is held low until the
device is reconfigured.
Monitors internal device operation with the SignalTap II embedded
logic analyzer.
Note to Table 3–1:
(1)
Bus hold and weak pull-up resistor features override the high-impedance state of HIGHZ, CLAMP, and EXTEST.
The Quartus II software has an Auto Usercode feature where you can
choose to use the checksum value of a programming file as the JTAG user
code. If selected, the checksum is automatically loaded to the USERCODE
register. In the Settings dialog box in the Assignments menu, click Device
& Pin Options, then General, and then turn on the Auto Usercode
option.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
3–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
IEEE Std. 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary Scan Support
The Cyclone II device instruction register length is 10 bits and the
USERCODE register length is 32 bits. Tables 3–2 and 3–3 show the
boundary-scan register length and device IDCODE information for
Cyclone II devices.
Table 3–2. Cyclone II Boundary-Scan Register Length
Device
Boundary-Scan Register Length
EP2C5
498
EP2C8
597
EP2C15
969
EP2C20
969
EP2C35
1,449
EP2C50
1,374
EP2C70
1,890
Table 3–3. 32-Bit Cyclone II Device IDCODE
IDCODE (32 Bits) (1)
Device
Version (4 Bits)
Part Number (16 Bits)
Manufacturer Identity (11 Bits)
LSB (1 Bit) (2)
EP2C5
0000
0010 0000 1011 0001
000 0110 1110
1
EP2C8
0000
0010 0000 1011 0010
000 0110 1110
1
EP2C15
0000
0010 0000 1011 0011
000 0110 1110
1
EP2C20
0000
0010 0000 1011 0011
000 0110 1110
1
EP2C35
0000
0010 0000 1011 0100
000 0110 1110
1
EP2C50
0000
0010 0000 1011 0101
000 0110 1110
1
EP2C70
0000
0010 0000 1011 0110
000 0110 1110
1
Notes to Table 3–3:
(1)
(2)
The most significant bit (MSB) is on the left.
The IDCODE’s least significant bit (LSB) is always 1.
For more information on the Cyclone II JTAG specifications, refer to the
DC Characteristics & Timing Specifications chapter in the Cyclone II Device
Handbook, Volume 1.
3–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuration & Testing
SignalTap II
Embedded Logic
Analyzer
f
Configuration
Cyclone II devices support the SignalTap II embedded logic analyzer,
which monitors design operation over a period of time through the IEEE
Std. 1149.1 (JTAG) circuitry. You can analyze internal logic at speed
without bringing internal signals to the I/O pins. This feature is
particularly important for advanced packages, such as FineLine BGA®
packages, because it can be difficult to add a connection to a pin during
the debugging process after a board is designed and manufactured.
For more information on the SignalTap II, see the Signal Tap chapter of
the Quartus II Handbook, Volume 3.
The logic, circuitry, and interconnects in the Cyclone II architecture are
configured with CMOS SRAM elements. Altera FPGA devices are
reconfigurable and every device is tested with a high coverage
production test program so you do not have to perform fault testing and
can instead focus on simulation and design verification.
Cyclone II devices are configured at system power-up with data stored in
an Altera configuration device or provided by a system controller. The
Cyclone II device’s optimized interface allows the device to act as
controller in an active serial configuration scheme with EPCS serial
configuration devices. The serial configuration device can be
programmed via SRunner, the ByteBlaster II or USB Blaster download
cable, the Altera Programming Unit (APU), or third-party programmers.
In addition to EPCS serial configuration devices, Altera offers in-system
programmability (ISP)-capable configuration devices that can configure
Cyclone II devices via a serial data stream using the Passive serial (PS)
configuration mode. The PS interface also enables microprocessors to
treat Cyclone II devices as memory and configure them by writing to a
virtual memory location, simplifying reconfiguration. After a Cyclone II
device has been configured, it can be reconfigured in-circuit by resetting
the device and loading new configuration data. Real-time changes can be
made during system operation, enabling innovative reconfigurable
applications.
Operating
Modes
Altera Corporation
February 2007
The Cyclone II architecture uses SRAM configuration elements that
require configuration data to be loaded each time the circuit powers up.
The process of physically loading the SRAM data into the device is called
configuration. During initialization, which occurs immediately after
configuration, the device resets registers, enables I/O pins, and begins to
operate as a logic device. You can use the 10MHz internal oscillator or the
optional CLKUSR pin during the initialization. The 10 MHz internal
oscillator is disabled in user mode. Together, the configuration and
initialization processes are called command mode. Normal device
operation is called user mode.
3–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Schemes
SRAM configuration elements allow Cyclone II devices to be
reconfigured in-circuit by loading new configuration data into the device.
With real-time reconfiguration, the device is forced into command mode
with the nCONFIG pin. The configuration process loads different
configuration data, reinitializes the device, and resumes user-mode
operation. You can perform in-field upgrades by distributing new
configuration files within the system or remotely.
A built-in weak pull-up resistor pulls all user I/O pins to VCCIO before
and during device configuration.
The configuration pins support 1.5-V/1.8-V or 2.5-V/3.3-V I/O
standards. The voltage level of the configuration output pins is
determined by the VCCIO of the bank where the pins reside. The bank
VCCIO selects whether the configuration inputs are 1.5-V, 1.8-V, 2.5-V, or
3.3-V compatible.
Configuration
Schemes
You can load the configuration data for a Cyclone II device with one of
three configuration schemes (see Table 3–4), chosen on the basis of the
target application. You can use a configuration device, intelligent
controller, or the JTAG port to configure a Cyclone II device. A low-cost
configuration device can automatically configure a Cyclone II device at
system power-up.
Multiple Cyclone II devices can be configured in any of the three
configuration schemes by connecting the configuration enable (nCE) and
configuration enable output (nCEO) pins on each device.
Table 3–4. Data Sources for Configuration
Configuration
Scheme
Data Source
Active serial (AS)
Low-cost serial configuration device
Passive serial (PS) Enhanced or EPC2 configuration device, MasterBlaster, ByteBlasterMV, ByteBlaster II or
USB Blaster download cable, or serial data source
JTAG
MasterBlaster, ByteBlasterMV, ByteBlaster II or USB Blaster download cable or a
microprocessor with a Jam or JBC file
f
For more information on configuration, see the Configuring Cyclone II
Devices chapter of the Cyclone II Handbook, Volume 2.
3–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuration & Testing
Cyclone II
Automated
Single Event
Upset Detection
Cyclone II devices offer on-chip circuitry for automated checking of
single event upset (SEU) detection. Some applications that require the
device to operate error free at high elevations or in close proximity to
earth’s North or South Pole require periodic checks to ensure continued
data integrity. The error detection cyclic redundancy code (CRC) feature
controlled by the Device & Pin Options dialog box in the Quartus II
software uses a 32-bit CRC circuit to ensure data reliability and is one of
the best options for mitigating SEU.
You can implement the error detection CRC feature with existing circuitry
in Cyclone II devices, eliminating the need for external logic. For
Cyclone II devices, the CRC is pre-computed by Quartus II software and
then sent to the device as part of the POF file header. The CRC_ERROR pin
reports a soft error when configuration SRAM data is corrupted,
indicating to the user to preform a device reconfiguration.
Custom-Built Circuitry
Dedicated circuitry in the Cyclone II devices performs error detection
automatically. This error detection circuitry in Cyclone II devices
constantly checks for errors in the configuration SRAM cells while the
device is in user mode. You can monitor one external pin for the error and
use it to trigger a re-configuration cycle. You can select the desired time
between checks by adjusting a built-in clock divider.
Software Interface
In the Quartus II software version 4.1 and later, you can turn on the
automated error detection CRC feature in the Device & Pin Options
dialog box. This dialog box allows you to enable the feature and set the
internal frequency of the CRC checker between 400 kHz to 80 MHz. This
controls the rate that the CRC circuitry verifies the internal configuration
SRAM bits in the FPGA device.
f
Altera Corporation
February 2007
For more information on CRC, refer to AN: 357 Error Detection Using CRC
in Altera FPGAs.
3–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
Document
Revision History
Table 3–5 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 3–5. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2007
v2.2
Changes Made
●
●
●
Added document revision history.
Added new handpara nore in “IEEE Std. 1149.1 (JTAG)
Boundary Scan Support” section.
Updated “Cyclone II Automated Single Event Upset
Detection” section.
July 2005 v2.0
Updated technical content.
February 2005
v1.2
Updated information on JTAG chain limitations.
Summary of Changes
●
●
Added information about
limitation of cascading
multi devices in the same
JTAG chain.
Corrected information on
CRC calculation.
November 2004 Updated Table 3–4.
v1.1
June 2004 v1.0
Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
3–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
4. Hot Socketing & Power-On
Reset
CII51004-3.1
Introduction
Cyclone® II devices offer hot socketing (also known as hot plug-in, hot
insertion, or hot swap) and power sequencing support without the use of
any external devices. You can insert or remove a Cyclone II board in a
system during system operation without causing undesirable effects to
the board or to the running system bus.
The hot-socketing feature lessens the board design difficulty when using
Cyclone II devices on printed circuit boards (PCBs) that also contain a
mixture of 3.3-, 2.5-, 1.8-, and 1.5-V devices. With the Cyclone II
hot-socketing feature, you no longer need to ensure a proper power-up
sequence for each device on the board.
The Cyclone II hot-socketing feature provides:
■
■
■
Board or device insertion and removal without external components
or board manipulation
Support for any power-up sequence
Non-intrusive I/O buffers to system buses during hot insertion
This chapter also discusses the power-on reset (POR) circuitry in
Cyclone II devices. The POR circuitry keeps the devices in the reset state
until the VCC is within operating range.
Cyclone II
Hot-Socketing
Specifications
Cyclone II devices offer hot-socketing capability with all three features
listed above without any external components or special design
requirements. The hot-socketing feature in Cyclone II devices offers the
following:
■
■
Altera Corporation
February 2007
The device can be driven before power-up without any damage to
the device itself.
I/O pins remain tri-stated during power-up. The device does not
drive out before or during power-up, thereby affecting other buses
in operation.
4–1
Cyclone II Hot-Socketing Specifications
Devices Can Be Driven before Power-Up
You can drive signals into the I/O pins, dedicated input pins, and
dedicated clock pins of Cyclone II devices before or during power-up or
power-down without damaging the device. Cyclone II devices support
any power-up or power-down sequence (VCCIO and VCCINT) to simplify
system level design.
I/O Pins Remain Tri-Stated during Power-Up
A device that does not support hot socketing may interrupt system
operation or cause contention by driving out before or during power-up.
In a hot-socketing situation, the Cyclone II device’s output buffers are
turned off during system power-up or power-down. The Cyclone II
device also does not drive out until the device is configured and has
attained proper operating conditions. The I/O pins are tri-stated until the
device enters user mode with a weak pull-up resistor (R) to 3.3V. Refer to
Figure 4–1 for more information.
1
■
■
You can power up or power down the VCCIO and VCCINT pins in
any sequence. The VCCIO and VCCINT must have monotonic rise
to their steady state levels. (Refer to Figure 4–3 for more
information.) The power supply ramp rates can range from
100 µs to 100 ms for non “A” devices. Both VCC supplies must
power down within 100 ms of each other to prevent I/O pins
from driving out. During hot socketing, the I/O pin capacitance
is less than 15 pF and the clock pin capacitance is less than 20 pF.
Cyclone II devices meet the following hot-socketing
specification.
The hot-socketing DC specification is | IIOPIN | < 300 µA.
The hot-socketing AC specification is | IIOPIN | < 8 mA for 10 ns or
less.
This specification takes into account the pin capacitance but not board
trace and external loading capacitance. You must consider additional
capacitance for trace, connector, and loading separately.
IIOPIN is the current at any user I/O pin on the device. The DC
specification applies when all VCC supplies to the device are stable in the
powered-up or powered-down conditions. For the AC specification, the
peak current duration due to power-up transients is 10 ns or less.
A possible concern for semiconductor devices in general regarding hot
socketing is the potential for latch-up. Latch-up can occur when electrical
subsystems are hot socketed into an active system. During hot socketing,
the signal pins may be connected and driven by the active system before
4–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Hot Socketing & Power-On Reset
the power supply can provide current to the device’s VCC and ground
planes. This condition can lead to latch-up and cause a low-impedance
path from VCC to ground within the device. As a result, the device extends
a large amount of current, possibly causing electrical damage.
Altera has ensured by design of the I/O buffers and hot-socketing
circuitry, that Cyclone II devices are immune to latch-up during hot
socketing.
Hot-Socketing
Feature
Implementation
in Cyclone II
Devices
The hot-socketing feature turns off the output buffer during power up
(either VCCINT or VCCIO supplies) or power down. The hot-socket circuit
generates an internal HOTSCKT signal when either VCCINT or VCCIO is
below the threshold voltage. Designs cannot use the HOTSCKT signal for
other purposes. The HOTSCKT signal cuts off the output buffer to ensure
that no DC current (except for weak pull-up leakage current) leaks
through the pin. When VCC ramps up slowly, VCC is still relatively low
even after the internal POR signal (not available to the FPGA fabric used
by customer designs) is released and the configuration is finished. The
CONF_DONE, nCEO, and nSTATUS pins fail to respond, as the output
buffer cannot drive out because the hot-socketing circuitry keeps the I/O
pins tristated at this low VCC voltage. Therefore, the hot-socketing circuit
has been removed on these configuration output or bidirectional pins to
ensure that they are able to operate during configuration. These pins are
expected to drive out during power-up and power-down sequences.
Each I/O pin has the circuitry shown in Figure 4–1.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
4–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Hot-Socketing Feature Implementation in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 4–1. Hot-Socketing Circuit Block Diagram for Cyclone II Devices
Power-On
Reset
Monitor
Output
Weak
Pull-Up
Resistor
R
Output Enable
Voltage
Tolerance
Control
PAD
Hot Socket
Output
Pre-Driver
Input Buffer
to Logic Array
The POR circuit monitors VCCINT voltage level and keeps I/O pins
tri-stated until the device is in user mode. The weak pull-up resistor (R)
from the I/O pin to VCCIO keeps the I/O pins from floating. The voltage
tolerance control circuit permits the I/O pins to be driven by 3.3 V before
VCCIO and/or VCCINT are powered, and it prevents the I/O pins from
driving out when the device is not in user mode.
f
For more information, see the DC Characteristics & Timing Specifications
chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook for the value of the
internal weak pull-up resistors.
Figure 4–2 shows a transistor level cross section of the Cyclone II device
I/O buffers. This design ensures that the output buffers do not drive
when VCCIO is powered before VCCINT or if the I/O pad voltage is higher
than VCCIO. This also applies for sudden voltage spikes during hot
socketing. The VPAD leakage current charges the voltage tolerance control
circuit capacitance.
4–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Hot Socketing & Power-On Reset
Figure 4–2. Transistor Level Diagram of FPGA Device I/O Buffers
VPAD
Logic Array
Signal
(1)
(2)
VCCIO
n+
n+
p+
p+
n+
n-well
p-well
p-substrate
Notes to Figure 4–2:
(1)
(2)
Power-On Reset
Circuitry
This is the logic array signal or the larger of either the VCCIO or VPAD signal.
This is the larger of either the VCCIO or VPAD signal.
Cyclone II devices contain POR circuitry to keep the device in a reset state
until the power supply voltage levels have stabilized during power-up.
The POR circuit monitors the VCCINT voltage levels and tri-states all user
I/O pins until the VCC reaches the recommended operating levels. In
addition, the POR circuitry also monitors the VCCIO level of the two I/O
banks that contains configuration pins (I/O banks 1 and 3 for EP2C5 and
EP2C8, I/O banks 2 and 6 for EP2C15A, EP2C20, EP2C35, EP2C50, and
EP2C70) and tri-states all user I/O pins until the VCC reaches the
recommended operating levels.
After the Cyclone II device enters user mode, the POR circuit continues to
monitor the VCCINT voltage level so that a brown-out condition during
user mode can be detected. If the VCCINT voltage sags below the POR trip
point during user mode, the POR circuit resets the device. If the VCCIO
voltage sags during user mode, the POR circuit does not reset the device.
"Wake-up" Time for Cyclone II Devices
In some applications, it may be necessary for a device to wake up very
quickly in order to begin operation. The Cyclone II device family offers
the Fast-On feature to support fast wake-up time applications. Devices
that support the Fast-On feature are designated with an “A” in the
ordering code and have stricter power up requirements compared to nonA devices.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
4–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Power-On Reset Circuitry
For Cyclone II devices, wake-up time consists of power-up, POR,
configuration, and initialization. The device must properly go through all
four stages to configure correctly and begin operation. You can calculate
wake-up time using the following equation:
Wake-Up Time = VCC Ramp Time + POR Time + Configuration Time + Initialization Time
Figure 4–3 illustrates the components of wake up time.
Figure 4–3. Cyclone II Wake-Up Time
Voltage
VCC Minimum
Time
VCC Ramp
Time
POR Time
Configuration Time
Initialization
Time
User
Mode
Note to Figure 4–3:
(1)
VCC ramp must be monotonic.
The VCC ramp time and POR time will depend on the device
characteristics and the power supply used in your system. The fast-on
devices require a maximum VCC ramp time of 2 ms and have a maximum
POR time of 12 ms.
Configuration time will depend on the configuration mode chosen and
the configuration file size. You can calculate configuration time by
multiplying the number of bits in the configuration file with the period of
the configuration clock. For fast configuration times, you should use
Passive Serial (PS) configuration mode with maximum DCLK frequency
of 100 MHz. In addition, you can use compression to reduce the
configuration file size and speed up the configuration time. The tCD2UM
or tCD2UMC parameters will determine the initialization time.
1
For more information on the tCD2UM or tCD2UMC parameters, refer
to the Configuring Cyclone II Devices chapter in the Cyclone II
Device Handbook.
4–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Hot Socketing & Power-On Reset
If you cannot meet the maximum VCC ramp time requirement, you must
use an external component to hold nCONFIG low until the power supplies
have reached their minimum recommend operating levels. Otherwise,
the device may not properly configure and enter user mode.
Conclusion
Cyclone II devices are hot socketable and support all power-up and
power-down sequences with the one requirement that VCCIO and VCCINT
be powered up and down within 100 ms of each other to keep the I/O
pins from driving out. Cyclone II devices do not require any external
devices for hot socketing and power sequencing.
Document
Revision History
Table 4–1 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 4–1. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2007
v3.1
Changes Made
●
●
●
●
Summary of Changes
Added document revision history.
Updated “I/O Pins Remain Tri-Stated during Power-Up”
section.
Updated “Power-On Reset Circuitry” section.
Added footnote to Figure 4–3.
●
●
●
July 2005 v2.0
Updated technical content throughout.
February 2005
v1.1
Removed ESD section.
June 2004 v1.0
Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Specified VCCIO and VCCINT
supplies must be GND
when "not powered".
Added clarification about
input-tristate behavior.
Added infomation on VCC
monotonic ramp.
4–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
4–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
5. DC Characteristics and
Timing Specifications
CII51005-4.0
Operating
Conditions
Cyclone® II devices are offered in commercial, industrial, automotive,
and extended temperature grades. Commercial devices are offered in –6
(fastest), –7, and –8 speed grades.
All parameter limits are representative of worst-case supply voltage and
junction temperature conditions. Unless otherwise noted, the parameter
values in this chapter apply to all Cyclone II devices. AC and DC
characteristics are specified using the same numbers for commercial,
industrial, and automotive grades. All parameters representing voltages
are measured with respect to ground.
Tables 5–1 through 5–4 provide information on absolute maximum
ratings.
Table 5–1. Cyclone II Device Absolute Maximum Ratings
Symbol
Parameter
VCCINT
Supply voltage
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
Notes (1), (2)
Conditions
With respect to ground
VCCA_PLL [1..4] PLL supply voltage
VIN
DC input voltage (3)
—
IOUT
DC output current, per pin
TSTG
Storage temperature
No bias
TJ
Junction temperature
BGA packages under bias
—
Minimum Maximum
Unit
–0.5
1.8
V
–0.5
4.6
V
–0.5
1.8
V
–0.5
4.6
V
–25
40
mA
–65
150
°C
—
125
°C
Notes to Table 5–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Conditions beyond those listed in this table cause permanent damage to a device. These are stress ratings only.
Functional operation at these levels or any other conditions beyond those specified in this chapter is not implied.
Additionally, device operation at the absolute maximum ratings for extended periods of time may have adverse
effect on the device reliability.
Refer to the Operating Requirements for Altera Devices Data Sheet for more information.
During transitions, the inputs may overshoot to the voltage shown in Table 5–4 based upon the input duty cycle.
The DC case is equivalent to 100% duty cycle. During transition, the inputs may undershoot to –2.0 V for input
currents less than 100 mA and periods shorter than 20 ns.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–1
Operating Conditions
Table 5–2 specifies the recommended operating conditions for Cyclone II
devices. It shows the allowed voltage ranges for VCCINT, VCCIO, and the
operating junction temperature (TJ). The LVTTL and LVCMOS inputs are
powered by VCCIO only. The LVDS and LVPECL input buffers on
dedicated clock pins are powered by VCCINT. The SSTL, HSTL, LVDS
input buffers are powered by both VCCINT and VCCIO.
Table 5–2. Recommended Operating Conditions
Conditions
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
VCCINT
Symbol
Supply voltage for internal
logic and input buffers
(1)
1.15
1.25
V
VCCIO (2)
Supply voltage for output
buffers, 3.3-V operation
(1)
3.135 (3.00)
3.465 (3.60)
(3)
V
Supply voltage for output
buffers, 2.5-V operation
(1)
2.375
2.625
V
Supply voltage for output
buffers, 1.8-V operation
(1)
1.71
1.89
V
Supply voltage for output
buffers, 1.5-V operation
(1)
1.425
1.575
V
TJ
Parameter
Operating junction
temperature
For commercial use
0
85
°C
For industrial use
–40
100
°C
For extended
temperature use
–40
125
°C
For automotive use
–40
125
°C
Notes to Table 5–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The VCC must rise monotonically. The maximum VCC (both VCCIO and VCCINT) rise time is 100 ms for non-A devices
and 2 ms for A devices.
The VCCIO range given here spans the lowest and highest operating voltages of all supported I/O standards. The
recommended VCCIO range specific to each of the single-ended I/O standards is given in Table 5–6, and those
specific to the differential standards is given in Table 5–8.
The minimum and maximum values of 3.0 V and 3.6 V, respectively, for VCCIO only applies to the PCI and PCI-X
I/O standards. Refer to Table 5–6 for the voltage range of other I/O standards.
5–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–3. DC Characteristics for User I/O, Dual-Purpose, and Dedicated Pins (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
(1), (2)
VIN
Input voltage
Ii
Input pin leakage
current
VOUT
Output voltage
IOZ
Tri-stated I/O pin
leakage current
VOUT = VCCIOmax to 0 V (3)
IC C I N T 0
VCCINT supply
current (standby)
VIN = ground,
no load, no
toggling inputs
TJ = 25° C
Nominal
VC C I N T
IC C I O 0
Altera Corporation
February 2008
–0.5
—
4.0
V
–10
—
10
μA
0
—
VC C I O
V
–10
—
10
μA
EP2C5/A
—
0.010
(4)
A
EP2C8/A
—
0.017
(4)
A
VIN = VCCIOmax to 0 V (3)
—
VCCIO supply current VIN = ground,
(standby)
no load, no
toggling inputs
TJ = 25° C
VC C I O = 2.5 V
Minimum Typical Maximum Unit
EP2C15A
—
0.037
(4)
A
EP2C20/A
—
0.037
(4)
A
EP2C35
—
0.066
(4)
A
EP2C50
—
0.101
(4)
A
EP2C70
—
0.141
(4)
A
EP2C5/A
—
0.7
(4)
mA
EP2C8/A
—
0.8
(4)
mA
EP2C15A
—
0.9
(4)
mA
EP2C20/A
—
0.9
(4)
mA
EP2C35
—
1.3
(4)
mA
EP2C50
—
1.3
(4)
mA
EP2C70
—
1.7
(4)
mA
5–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Operating Conditions
Table 5–3. DC Characteristics for User I/O, Dual-Purpose, and Dedicated Pins (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
RCONF (5) (6)
Parameter
Conditions
Value of I/O pin
pull-up resistor
before and during
configuration
Minimum Typical Maximum Unit
VIN = 0 V; VCCIO = 3.3 V
10
25
50
kΩ
VIN = 0 V; VCCIO = 2.5 V
15
35
70
kΩ
VIN = 0 V; VCCIO = 1.8 V
30
50
100
kΩ
VIN = 0 V; VCCIO = 1.5 V
40
75
150
kΩ
VIN = 0 V; VCCIO = 1.2 V
50
90
170
kΩ
—
1
2
kΩ
(7)
Recommended
value of I/O pin
external pull-down
resistor before and
during configuration
Notes to Table 5–3:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
All pins, including dedicated inputs, clock, I/O, and JTAG pins, may be driven before VCCINT and VCCIO are
powered.
The minimum DC input is –0.5 V. During transitions, the inputs may undershoot to –2.0 V or overshoot to the
voltages shown in Table 5–4, based on input duty cycle for input currents less than 100 mA. The overshoot is
dependent upon duty cycle of the signal. The DC case is equivalent to 100% duty cycle.
This value is specified for normal device operation. The value may vary during power-up. This applies for all VCCIO
settings (3.3, 2.5, 1.8, and 1.5 V).
Maximum values depend on the actual TJ and design utilization. See the Excel-based PowerPlay Early Power
Estimator (www.altera.com) or the Quartus II PowerPlay Power Analyzer feature for maximum values. Refer to
“Power Consumption” on page 5–13 for more information.
RCONF values are based on characterization. RCONF = VCCIO/IRCONF. RCONF values may be different if VIN value is
not 0 V. Pin pull-up resistance values will be lower if an external source drives the pin higher than VCCIO.
Minimum condition at –40°C and high VCC, typical condition at 25°C and nominal VCC and maximum condition at
125°C and low VCC for RCONF values.
These values apply to all VCCIO settings.
Table 5–4 shows the maximum VIN overshoot voltage and the
dependency on the duty cycle of the input signal. Refer to Table 5–3 for
more information.
Table 5–4. VIN Overshoot Voltage for All Input Buffers
5–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Maximum VIN (V)
Input Signal Duty Cycle
4.0
100% (DC)
4.1
90%
4.2
50%
4.3
30%
4.4
17%
4.5
10%
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Single-Ended I/O Standards
Tables 5–6 and 5–7 provide operating condition information when using
single-ended I/O standards with Cyclone II devices. Table 5–5 provides
descriptions for the voltage and current symbols used in Tables 5–6 and
5–7.
Table 5–5. Voltage and Current Symbol Definitions
Symbol
Definition
VC C I O
Supply voltage for single-ended inputs and for output drivers
VR E F
Reference voltage for setting the input switching threshold
VI L
Input voltage that indicates a low logic level
VI H
Input voltage that indicates a high logic level
VO L
Output voltage that indicates a low logic level
VO H
Output voltage that indicates a high logic level
IO L
Output current condition under which VO L is tested
IO H
Output current condition under which VO H is tested
VT T
Voltage applied to a resistor termination as specified by
HSTL and SSTL standards
Table 5–6. Recommended Operating Conditions for User I/O Pins Using Single-Ended I/O Standards
Note (1) (Part 1 of 2)
VCCIO (V)
I/O Standard
VREF (V)
VIL (V)
VIH (V)
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Max
Min
3.3-V LVTTL and
LVCMOS
3.135
3.3
3.465
—
—
—
0.8
1.7
2.5-V LVTTL and
LVCMOS
2.375
2.5
2.625
—
—
—
0.7
1.7
1.8-V LVTTL and
LVCMOS
1.710
1.8
1.890
—
—
—
0.35 × VC C I O
0.65 × VC C I O
1.5-V LVCMOS
1.425
1.5
1.575
—
—
—
0.35 × VC C I O
0.65 × VC C I O
PCI and PCI-X
3.000
3.3
3.600
—
—
—
0.3 × VC C I O
0.5 × VC C I O
SSTL-2 class I
2.375
2.5
2.625
1.19
1.25
1.31
VR E F – 0.18 (DC)
VR E F – 0.35 (AC)
VR E F + 0.18 (DC)
VR E F + 0.35 (AC)
SSTL-2 class II
2.375
2.5
2.625
1.19
1.25
1.31
VR E F – 0.18 (DC)
VR E F – 0.35 (AC)
VR E F + 0.18 (DC)
VR E F + 0.35 (AC)
SSTL-18 class I
1.7
1.8
1.9
0.833
0.9
0.969
VR E F – 0.125 (DC) VR E F + 0.125 (DC)
VR E F – 0.25 (AC) VR E F + 0.25 (AC)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Operating Conditions
Table 5–6. Recommended Operating Conditions for User I/O Pins Using Single-Ended I/O Standards
Note (1) (Part 2 of 2)
VCCIO (V)
I/O Standard
VREF (V)
VIL (V)
VIH (V)
Max
Min
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
SSTL-18 class II
1.7
1.8
1.9
0.833
0.9
0.969
1.8-V HSTL
class I
1.71
1.8
1.89
0.85
0.9
0.95
VR E F – 0.1 (DC)
VR E F – 0.2 (AC)
VR E F + 0.1 (DC)
VR E F + 0.2 (AC)
1.8-V HSTL
class II
1.71
1.8
1.89
0.85
0.9
0.95
VR E F – 0.1 (DC)
VR E F – 0.2 (AC)
VR E F + 0.1 (DC)
VR E F + 0.2 (AC)
1.5-V HSTL
class I
1.425
1.5
1.575
0.71
0.75
0.79
VR E F – 0.1 (DC)
VR E F – 0.2 (AC)
VR E F + 0.1 (DC)
VR E F + 0.2 (AC)
1.5-V HSTL
class II
1.425
1.5
1.575
0.71
0.75
0.79
VR E F – 0.1 (DC)
VR E F – 0.2 (AC)
VR E F + 0.1 (DC)
VR E F + 0.2 (AC)
VR E F – 0.125 (DC) VR E F + 0.125 (DC)
VR E F – 0.25 (AC) VR E F + 0.25 (AC)
Note to Table 5–6:
(1)
Nominal values (Nom) are for TA = 25° C, VCCINT = 1.2 V, and VCCIO = 1.5, 1.8, 2.5, and 3.3 V.
Table 5–7. DC Characteristics of User I/O Pins Using Single-Ended Standards Notes (1), (2) (Part 1 of 2)
Test Conditions
Voltage Thresholds
I/O Standard
IOL (mA)
3.3-V LVTTL
IOH (mA)
Maximum VOL (V)
Minimum VOH (V)
4
–4
0.45
2.4
0.1
–0.1
0.2
VC C I O – 0.2
2.5-V LVTTL and
LVCMOS
1
–1
0.4
2.0
1.8-V LVTTL and
LVCMOS
2
–2
0.45
VC C I O – 0.45
1.5-V LVTTL and
LVCMOS
2
–2
0.25 × VC C I O
0.75 × VC C I O
1.5
–0.5
0.1 × VC C I O
0.9 × VC C I O
3.3-V LVCMOS
PCI and PCI-X
SSTL-2 class I
8.1
–8.1
VTT – 0.57
VTT + 0.57
SSTL-2 class II
16.4
–16.4
VTT – 0.76
VTT + 0.76
SSTL-18 class I
6.7
–6.7
VTT – 0.475
VTT + 0.475
SSTL-18 class II
13.4
–13.4
0.28
VC C I O – 0.28
1.8-V HSTL class I
8
–8
0.4
VC C I O – 0.4
1.8-V HSTL class II
16
–16
0.4
VC C I O – 0.4
5–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–7. DC Characteristics of User I/O Pins Using Single-Ended Standards Notes (1), (2) (Part 2 of 2)
Test Conditions
Voltage Thresholds
I/O Standard
IOL (mA)
IOH (mA)
Maximum VOL (V)
Minimum VOH (V)
1.5-V HSTL class I
8
–8
0.4
VC C I O – 0.4
1.5V HSTL class II
16
–16
0.4
VC C I O – 0.4
Notes to Table 5–7:
(1)
(2)
The values in this table are based on the conditions listed in Tables 5–2 and 5–6.
This specification is supported across all the programmable drive settings available as shown in the Cyclone II
Architecture chapter of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Differential I/O Standards
The RSDS and mini-LVDS I/O standards are only supported on output
pins. The LVDS I/O standard is supported on both receiver input pins
and transmitter output pins.
1
For more information on how these differential I/O standards
are implemented, refer to the High-Speed Differential Interfaces in
Cyclone II Devices chapter of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Figure 5–1 shows the receiver input waveforms for all differential I/O
standards (LVDS, LVPECL, differential 1.5-V HSTL class I and II,
differential 1.8-V HSTL class I and II, differential SSTL-2 class I and II, and
differential SSTL-18 class I and II).
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Operating Conditions
Figure 5–1. Receiver Input Waveforms for Differential I/O Standards
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p) = VIH
VID (1)
Negative Channel (n) = VIL
VICM (2)
Ground
Differential Waveform (Mathematical Function of Positive and Negative Channel)
VID (1)
0V
VID (1)
p − n (3)
Notes to Figure 5–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
VID is the differential input voltage. VID = |p – n|.
VICM is the input common mode voltage. VICM = (p + n)/2.
The p – n waveform is a function of the positive channel (p) and the negative channel (n).
5–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–8 shows the recommended operating conditions for user I/O
pins with differential I/O standards.
Table 5–8. Recommended Operating Conditions for User I/O Pins Using Differential Signal I/O Standards
I/O
Standard
VCCIO (V)
VID (V) (1)
VICM (V)
VIL (V)
VIH (V)
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
LVDS
2.375
2.5
2.625
0.1
—
0.65
0.1
—
2.0
—
—
—
—
Mini-LVDS
(2)
2.375
2.5
2.625
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
RSDS (2)
2.375
2.5
2.625
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
LVPECL
(3) (6)
3.135
3.3
3.465
0.1
0.6
0.95
—
—
—
0
2.2
2.1
2.88
Differential 1.425
1.5-V HSTL
class I
and II (4)
1.5
1.575
0.2
—
VC C I O
+ 0.6
0.68
—
0.9
—
VR E F VR E F
– 0.20 + 0.20
—
Differential
1.8-V HSTL
class I
and II (4)
1.71
1.8
1.89
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
VR E F VR E F
– 0.20 + 0.20
—
Differential
SSTL-2
class I
and II (5)
2.375
2.5
2.625 0.36
Differential
SSTL-18
class I
and II (5)
1.7
1.8
1.9
0.25
—
VC C I O 0.5 × 0.5 ×
+ 0.6 VC C I O VC C I O
– 0.2
0.5 ×
VC C I O
+ 0.2
—
VR E F VR E F
– 0.35 + 0.35
—
—
VC C I O 0.5 × 0.5 ×
+ 0.6 VC C I O VC C I O
– 0.2
0.5 ×
VC C I O
+ 0.2
—
VR E F VR E F
– 0.25 + 0.25
—
Notes to Table 5–8:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Refer to the High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices chapter of the Cyclone II Device Handbook for
measurement conditions on VID.
The RSDS and mini-LVDS I/O standards are only supported on output pins.
The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins. This I/O standard is not supported on output
pins.
The differential 1.8-V and 1.5-V HSTL I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
The differential SSTL-18 and SSTL-2 I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
The LVPECL clock inputs are powered by VCCINT and support all VCCIO settings. However, it is recommended to
connect VCCIO to typical value of 3.3V.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–9
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Operating Conditions
Figure 5–2 shows the transmitter output waveforms for all supported
differential output standards (LVDS, mini-LVDS, RSDS, differential 1.5-V
HSTL class I and II, differential 1.8-V HSTL class I and II, differential
SSTL-2 class I and II, and differential SSTL-18 class I and II).
Figure 5–2. Transmitter Output Waveforms for Differential I/O Standards
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p) = VOH
VOD (1)
Negative Channel (n) = VOL
VOCM (2)
Ground
Differential Waveform (Mathematical Function of Positive and Negative Channel)
VOD (1)
0V
VOD (1)
p − n (3)
Notes to Figure 5–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
VOD is the output differential voltage. VOD = |p – n|.
VOCM is the output common mode voltage. VOCM = (p + n)/2.
The p – n waveform is a function of the positive channel (p) and the negative channel (n).
Table 5–9 shows the DC characteristics for user I/O pins with differential
I/O standards.
Table 5–9. DC Characteristics for User I/O Pins Using Differential I/O Standards Note (1) (Part 1 of 2)
ΔVOD (mV)
VOD (mV)
I/O Standard
Min
Typ
Max
LVDS
250
—
600
—
mini-LVDS (2)
300
—
600
RSDS (2)
100
—
600
—
—
—
Differential 1.5-V
HSTL class I
and II (3)
5–10
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Min Max
VOCM (V)
VOH (V)
VOL (V)
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
50
1.125
1.25
1.375
—
—
—
—
—
50
1.125
1.25
1.375
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.125
1.25
1.375
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
VC C I O
– 0.4
—
—
0.4
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–9. DC Characteristics for User I/O Pins Using Differential I/O Standards Note (1) (Part 2 of 2)
ΔVOD (mV)
VOD (mV)
I/O Standard
Min
Typ
Max
Min Max
Differential 1.8-V
HSTL class I
and II (3)
—
—
—
—
Differential
SSTL-2 class I
(4)
—
—
—
Differential
SSTL-2 class II
(4)
—
—
Differential
SSTL-18 class I
(4)
—
Differential
SSTL-18 class II
(4)
—
VOCM (V)
VOH (V)
VOL (V)
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
—
—
—
—
VC C I O
– 0.4
—
—
0.4
—
—
—
—
—
VT T +
0.57
—
—
VT T –
0.57
—
—
—
—
—
—
VT T +
0.76
—
—
VT T –
0.76
—
—
—
—
0.5 ×
VC C I O
–
0.125
0.5 ×
VC C I O
0.5 ×
VC C I O
+
0.125
VT T +
0.475
—
—
VT T –
0.475
—
—
—
—
0.5 ×
VC C I O
–
0.125
0.5 ×
VC C I O
0.5 ×
VC C I O
+
0.125
VC C I O
– 0.28
—
—
0.28
Notes to Table 5–9:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins. This I/O standard is not supported on output
pins.
The RSDS and mini-LVDS I/O standards are only supported on output pins.
The differential 1.8-V HSTL and differential 1.5-V HSTL I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and
PLL output clock pins.
The differential SSTL-18 and SSTL-2 I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
DC
Characteristics
for Different Pin
Types
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Table 5–10 shows the types of pins that support bus hold circuitry.
Table 5–10. Bus Hold Support
Pin Type
Bus Hold
I/O pins using single-ended I/O standards
Yes
I/O pins using differential I/O standards
No
Dedicated clock pins
No
JTAG
No
Configuration pins
No
5–11
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
DC Characteristics for Different Pin Types
Table 5–11 specifies the bus hold parameters for general I/O pins.
Table 5–11. Bus Hold Parameters
Note (1)
VCCIO Level
Parameter
Conditions
1.8 V
2.5 V
Unit
3.3 V
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
Bus-hold low, sustaining
current
VI N >
VI L (maximum)
30
—
50
—
70
—
μA
Bus-hold high, sustaining
current
VI N <
VI L (minimum)
–30
—
–50
—
–70
—
μA
Bus-hold low, overdrive
current
0 V < VI N < V C C I O
—
200
—
300
—
500
μA
Bus-hold high, overdrive
current
0 V < VI N < V C C I O
—
–200
—
–300
—
–500
μA
—
0.68
1.07
0.7
1.7
0.8
2.0
V
Bus-hold trip point (2)
Notes to Table 5–11:
(1)
(2)
There is no specification for bus-hold at VCCIO = 1.5 V for the HSTL I/O standard.
The bus-hold trip points are based on calculated input voltages from the JEDEC standard.
On-Chip Termination Specifications
Table 5–12 defines the specifications for internal termination resistance
tolerance when using series or differential on-chip termination.
Table 5–12. Series On-Chip Termination Specifications
Resistance Tolerance
Symbol
Description
Conditions
Extended/
Commercial Industrial
Automotive
Max
Max
Temp Max
Unit
25-Ω RS
Internal series termination without VC C I O = 3.3V
calibration (25-Ω setting)
±30
±30
±40
%
50-Ω RS
Internal series termination without VC C I O = 2.5V
calibration (50-Ω setting)
±30
±30
±40
%
50-Ω RS
Internal series termination without VC C I O = 1.8V
calibration (50-Ω setting)
±30 (1)
±40
±50
%
Note to Table 5–12:
(1)
For commercial –8 devices, the tolerance is ±40%.
5–12
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–13 shows the Cyclone II device pin capacitance for different I/O
pin types.
Table 5–13. Device Capacitance Note (1)
Symbol
Parameter
Typical
Unit
CI O
Input capacitance for user I/O pin.
6
pF
CL V D S
Input capacitance for dual-purpose
LVDS/user I/O pin.
6
pF
CV R E F
Input capacitance for dual-purpose VREF
pin when used as VREF or user I/O pin.
21
pF
CC L K
Input capacitance for clock pin.
5
pF
Note to Table 5–13:
(1)
Power
Consumption
Capacitance is sample-tested only. Capacitance is measured using time-domain
reflectometry (TDR). Measurement accuracy is within ±0.5 pF.
You can calculate the power usage for your design using the PowerPlay
Early Power Estimator and the PowerPlay Power Analyzer feature in the
Quartus® II software.
The interactive PowerPlay Early Power Estimator is typically used
during the early stages of FPGA design, prior to finalizing the project, to
get a magnitude estimate of the device power. The Quartus II software
PowerPlay Power Analyzer feature is typically used during the later
stages of FPGA design. The PowerPlay Power Analyzer also allows you
to apply test vectors against your design for more accurate power
consumption modeling.
In both cases, only use these calculations as an estimation of power, not
as a specification. For more information on PowerPlay tools, refer to the
PowerPlay Early Power Estimator User Guide and the Power Estimation and
Analysis section in volume 3 of the Quartus II Handbook.
1
You can obtain the Excel-based PowerPlay Early Power
Estimator at www.altera.com. Refer to Table 5–3 on page 5–3 for
typical ICC standby specifications.
The power-up current required by Cyclone II devices does not exceed the
maximum static current. The rate at which the current increases is a
function of the system power supply. The exact amount of current
consumed varies according to the process, temperature, and power ramp
rate. The duration of the ICCINT power-up requirement depends on the
VCCINT voltage supply rise time.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–13
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
You should select power supplies and regulators that can supply the
amount of current required when designing with Cyclone II devices.
Altera recommends using the Cyclone II PowerPlay Early Power
Estimator to estimate the user-mode ICCINT consumption and then select
power supplies or regulators based on the values obtained.
Timing
Specifications
The DirectDrive™ technology and MultiTrack™ interconnect ensure
predictable performance, accurate simulation, and accurate timing
analysis across all Cyclone II device densities and speed grades. This
section describes and specifies the performance, internal, external,
high-speed I/O, JTAG, and PLL timing specifications.
This section shows the timing models for Cyclone II devices. Commercial
devices meet this timing over the commercial temperature range.
Industrial devices meet this timing over the industrial temperature range.
Automotive devices meet this timing over the automotive temperature
range. Extended devices meet this timing over the extended temperature
range. All specifications are representative of worst-case supply voltage
and junction temperature conditions.
Preliminary and Final Timing Specifications
Timing models can have either preliminary or final status. The Quartus II
software issues an informational message during the design compilation
if the timing models are preliminary. Table 5–14 shows the status of the
Cyclone II device timing models.
Preliminary status means the timing model is subject to change. Initially,
timing numbers are created using simulation results, process data, and
other known parameters. These tests are used to make the preliminary
numbers as close to the actual timing parameters as possible.
5–14
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Final timing numbers are based on actual device operation and testing.
These numbers reflect the actual performance of the device under
worst-case voltage and junction temperature conditions.
Table 5–14. Cyclone II Device Timing Model Status
Device
Speed Grade
Preliminary
Final
Commercial/Industrial
—
v
Automotive
v
—
Commercial/Industrial
—
v
Automotive
v
—
Commercial/Industrial
—
v
Automotive
v
—
Commercial/Industrial
—
v
Automotive
v
—
EP2C35
Commercial/Industrial
—
v
EP2C50
Commercial/Industrial
—
v
EP2C70
Commercial/Industrial
—
v
EP2C5/A
EP2C8/A
EP2C15A
EP2C20/A
Performance
Table 5–15 shows Cyclone II performance for some common designs. All
performance values were obtained with Quartus II software compilation
of LPM, or MegaCore functions for the FIR and FFT designs.
Table 5–15. Cyclone II Performance (Part 1 of 4)
Resources Used
Applications
LEs
LE
Performance (MHz)
M4K
DSP
Memory
Blocks
Blocks
–6
Speed
Grade
–7
Speed
Grade
(6)
–7
Speed
Grade
(7)
–8
Speed
Grade
16-to-1 multiplexer (1)
21
0
0
385.35
313.97
270.85
286.04
32-to-1 multiplexer (1)
38
0
0
294.2
260.75
228.78
191.02
16-bit counter
16
0
0
401.6
349.4
310.65
310.65
64-bit counter
64
0
0
157.15
137.98
126.08
126.27
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–15
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–15. Cyclone II Performance (Part 2 of 4)
Resources Used
Applications
LEs
Memory Simple dual-port RAM 128 × 36 bit
(3), (5)
M4K
block
True dual-port RAM 128 × 18 bit
(3), (5)
DSP
block
M4K
DSP
Memory
Blocks
Blocks
Performance (MHz)
–6
Speed
Grade
–7
Speed
Grade
(6)
–7
Speed
Grade
(7)
–8
Speed
Grade
0
1
0
235.29
194.93
163.13
163.13
0
1
0
235.29
194.93
163.13
163.13
FIFO 128 × 16 bit
(5)
32
1
0
235.29
194.93
163.13
163.13
Simple dual-port RAM 128 × 36 bit
(4),(5)
0
1
0
210.08
195.0
163.02
163.02
True dual-port RAM 128x18 bit
(4),(5)
0
1
0
163.02
163.02
163.02
163.02
9 × 9-bit multiplier (2)
0
0
1
260.01
216.73
180.57
180.57
18 × 18-bit multiplier (2)
0
0
1
260.01
216.73
180.57
180.57
18-bit, 4 tap FIR filter
113
0
8
182.74
147.47
127.74
122.98
Larger
8-bit, 16 tap parallel FIR filter
Designs
8-bit, 1024 pt, Streaming,
3 Mults/5 Adders FFT function
52
0
4
153.56
131.25
110.44
110.57
3191
22
9
235.07
195.0
147.51
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Streaming,
4 Mults/2 Adders FFT function
3041
22
12
235.07
195.0
146.3
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Single Output,
1 Parallel FFT Engine, Burst,
3 Mults/5 Adders FFT function
1056
5
3
235.07
195.0
147.84
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Single Output,
1 Parallel FFT Engine, Burst,
4 Mults/2 Adders FFT function
1006
5
4
235.07
195.0
149.99
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Single Output,
2 Parallel FFT Engines, Burst,
3 Mults/5 Adders FFT function
1857
10
6
200.0
195.0
149.61
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Single Output,
2 Parallel FFT Engines, Burst,
4 Mults/2 Adders FFT function
1757
10
8
200.0
195.0
149.34
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
1 Parallel FFT Engine, Burst,
3 Mults/5 Adders FFT function
2550
10
9
235.07
195.0
148.21
163.02
5–16
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–15. Cyclone II Performance (Part 3 of 4)
Resources Used
Applications
LEs
Performance (MHz)
M4K
DSP
Memory
Blocks
Blocks
–6
Speed
Grade
–7
Speed
Grade
(6)
–7
Speed
Grade
(7)
–8
Speed
Grade
Larger
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
Designs 1 Parallel FFT Engine, Burst,
4 Mults/2 Adders FFT function
2400
10
12
235.07
195.0
140.11
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
2 Parallel FFT Engines, Burst,
3 Mults/5 Adders FFT function
4343
14
18
200.0
195.0
152.67
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
2 Parallel FFT Engines, Burst,
4 Mults/2 Adders FFT function
4043
14
24
200.0
195.0
149.72
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
4 Parallel FFT Engines, Burst,
3 Mults/5 Adders FFT function
7496
28
36
200.0
195.0
150.01
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
4 Parallel FFT Engines, Burst,
4 Mults/2 Adders FFT function
6896
28
48
200.0
195.0
151.33
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
1 Parallel FFT Engine, Buffered
Burst,
3 Mults/5 Adders FFT function
2934
18
9
235.07
195.0
148.89
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
1 Parallel FFT Engine, Buffered
Burst,
4 Mults/2 Adders FFT function
2784
18
12
235.07
195.0
151.51
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
2 Parallel FFT Engines, Buffered
Burst,
3 Mults/5 Adders FFT function
4720
30
18
200.0
195.0
149.76
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
2 Parallel FFT Engines, Buffered
Burst,
4 Mults/2 Adders FFT function
4420
30
24
200.0
195.0
151.08
163.02
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–17
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–15. Cyclone II Performance (Part 4 of 4)
Resources Used
M4K
DSP
Memory
Blocks
Blocks
Applications
LEs
Performance (MHz)
–6
Speed
Grade
–7
Speed
Grade
(6)
–7
Speed
Grade
(7)
–8
Speed
Grade
Larger
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
Designs 4 Parallel FFT Engines, Buffered
Burst, 3 Mults/5 Adders FFT
function
8053
60
36
200.0
195.0
149.23
163.02
8-bit, 1024 pt, Quad Output,
4 Parallel FFT Engines, Buffered
Burst, 4 Mults/2 Adders FFT
function
7453
60
48
200.0
195.0
151.28
163.02
Notes to Table 5–15 :
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
This application uses registered inputs and outputs.
This application uses registered multiplier input and output stages within the DSP block.
This application uses the same clock source for both A and B ports.
This application uses independent clock sources for A and B ports.
This application uses PLL clock outputs that are globally routed to connect and drive M4K clock ports. Use of
non-PLL clock sources or local routing to drive M4K clock ports may result in lower performance numbers than
shown here. Refer to the Quartus II timing report for actual performance numbers.
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
(6)
(7)
Internal Timing
Refer to Tables 5–16 through 5–19 for the internal timing parameters.
Table 5–16. LE_FF Internal Timing Microparameters (Part 1 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade (1)
–7 Speed Grade (2)
–8 Speed Grade (3)
Parameter
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
TSU
–36
—
–40
—
–40
—
ps
—
—
–38
—
–40
—
ps
TH
266
—
306
—
306
—
ps
—
—
286
—
306
—
ps
TCO
141
250
135
277
135
304
ps
—
—
141
—
141
—
ps
TCLR
191
—
244
—
244
—
ps
—
—
217
—
244
—
ps
5–18
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–16. LE_FF Internal Timing Microparameters (Part 2 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade (1)
–7 Speed Grade (2)
–8 Speed Grade (3)
Parameter
Unit
Min
TPRE
TCLKL
TCLKH
tLUT
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
191
—
244
—
244
—
ps
—
—
217
—
244
—
ps
1000
—
1242
—
1242
—
ps
—
—
1111
—
1242
—
ps
1000
—
1242
—
1242
—
ps
—
—
1111
—
1242
—
ps
180
438
172
545
172
651
ps
—
—
180
—
180
—
ps
Notes to Table 5–16:
(1)
(2)
(3)
For the –6 speed grades, the minimum timing is for the commercial temperature grade. The –7 speed grade devices
offer the automotive temperature grade. The –8 speed grade devices offer the industrial temperature grade.
For each parameter of the –7 speed grade columns, the value in the first row represents the minimum timing
parameter for automotive devices. The second row represents the minimum timing parameter for commercial
devices.
For each parameter of the –8 speed grade columns, the value in the first row represents the minimum timing
parameter for industrial devices. The second row represents the minimum timing parameter for commercial
devices.
Table 5–17. IOE Internal Timing Microparameters (Part 1 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade (1)
–7 Speed Grade (2)
–8 Speed Grade (3)
Parameter
TSU
TH
TCO
TPIN2COMBOUT_R
TPIN2COMBOUT_C
TCOMBIN2PIN_R
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
76
—
101
—
101
—
ps
—
—
89
—
101
—
ps
88
—
106
—
106
—
ps
—
—
97
—
106
—
ps
99
155
95
171
95
187
ps
—
—
99
—
99
—
ps
384
762
366
784
366
855
ps
—
—
384
—
384
—
ps
385
760
367
783
367
854
ps
—
—
385
—
385
—
ps
1344
2490
1280
2689
1280
2887
ps
—
—
1344
—
1344
—
ps
5–19
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–17. IOE Internal Timing Microparameters (Part 2 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade (1)
–7 Speed Grade (2)
–8 Speed Grade (3)
Parameter
TCOMBIN2PIN_C
TCLR
TPRE
TCLKL
TCLKH
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
1418
2622
1352
2831
1352
3041
ps
—
—
1418
—
1418
—
ps
137
—
165
—
165
—
ps
—
—
151
—
165
—
ps
192
—
233
—
233
—
ps
—
—
212
—
233
—
ps
1000
—
1242
—
1242
—
ps
—
—
1111
—
1242
—
ps
1000
—
1242
—
1242
—
ps
—
—
1111
—
1242
—
ps
Notes to Table 5–17:
(1)
(2)
(3)
For the –6 speed grades, the minimum timing is for the commercial temperature grade. The –7 speed grade devices
offer the automotive temperature grade. The –8 speed grade devices offer the industrial temperature grade.
For each parameter of the –7 speed grade columns, the value in the first row represents the minimum timing
parameter for automotive devices. The second row represents the minimum timing parameter for commercial
devices.
For each parameter of the –8 speed grade columns, the value in the first row represents the minimum timing
parameter for industrial devices. The second row represents the minimum timing parameter for commercial
devices.
Table 5–18. DSP Block Internal Timing Microparameters (Part 1 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade (1)
–7 Speed Grade (2)
–8 Speed Grade (3)
Parameter
Unit
Min
TSU
TH
TCO
TINREG2PIPE9
TINREG2PIPE18
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
47
—
62
—
62
—
ps
—
—
54
—
62
—
ps
110
—
113
—
113
—
ps
—
—
111
—
113
—
ps
0
0
0
0
0
0
ps
—
—
0
—
0
—
ps
652
1379
621
1872
621
2441
ps
—
—
652
—
652
—
ps
652
1379
621
1872
621
2441
ps
—
—
652
—
652
—
ps
5–20
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–18. DSP Block Internal Timing Microparameters (Part 2 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade (1)
–7 Speed Grade (2)
–8 Speed Grade (3)
Parameter
TPIPE2OUTREG
TPD9
TPD18
TCLR
TCLKL
TCLKH
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
47
104
45
142
45
185
ps
—
—
47
—
47
—
ps
529
2470
505
3353
505
4370
ps
—
—
529
—
529
—
ps
425
2903
406
3941
406
5136
ps
—
—
425
—
425
—
ps
2686
—
3572
—
3572
—
ps
—
—
3129
—
3572
—
ps
1923
—
2769
—
2769
—
ps
—
—
2307
—
2769
—
ps
1923
—
2769
—
2769
—
ps
—
—
2307
—
2769
—
ps
Notes to Table 5–18:
(1)
(2)
(3)
For the –6 speed grades, the minimum timing is for the commercial temperature grade. The –7 speed grade devices
offer the automotive temperature grade. The –8 speed grade devices offer the industrial temperature grade.
For each parameter of the –7 speed grade columns, the value in the first row represents the minimum timing
parameter for automotive devices. The second row represents the minimum timing parameter for commercial
devices.
For each parameter of the –8 speed grade columns, the value in the first row represents the minimum timing
parameter for industrial devices. The second row represents the minimum timing parameter for commercial
devices.
Table 5–19. M4K Block Internal Timing Microparameters (Part 1 of 3)
–6 Speed Grade (1)
–7 Speed Grade (2)
–8 Speed Grade (3)
Parameter
TM4KRC
TM4KWERESU
TM4KWEREH
TM4KBESU
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
2387
3764
2275
4248
2275
4736
ps
—
—
2387
—
2387
—
ps
35
—
46
—
46
—
ps
—
—
40
—
46
—
ps
234
—
267
—
267
—
ps
—
—
250
—
267
—
ps
35
—
46
—
46
—
ps
—
—
40
—
46
—
ps
5–21
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–19. M4K Block Internal Timing Microparameters (Part 2 of 3)
–6 Speed Grade (1)
–7 Speed Grade (2)
–8 Speed Grade (3)
Parameter
TM4KBEH
TM4KDATAASU
TM4KDATAAH
TM4KADDRASU
TM4KADDRAH
TM4KDATABSU
TM4KDATABH
TM4KRADDRBSU
TM4KRADDRBH
TM4KDATACO1
TM4KDATACO2
TM4KCLKH
TM4KCLKL
Unit
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
234
—
267
—
267
—
ps
—
—
250
—
267
—
ps
35
—
46
—
46
—
ps
—
—
40
—
46
—
ps
234
—
267
—
267
—
ps
—
—
250
—
267
—
ps
35
—
46
—
46
—
ps
—
—
40
—
46
—
ps
234
—
267
—
267
—
ps
—
—
250
—
267
—
ps
35
—
46
—
46
—
ps
—
—
40
—
46
—
ps
234
—
267
—
267
—
ps
—
—
250
—
267
—
ps
35
—
46
—
46
—
ps
—
—
40
—
46
—
ps
234
—
267
—
267
—
ps
—
—
250
—
267
—
ps
466
724
445
826
445
930
ps
—
—
466
—
466
—
ps
2345
3680
2234
4157
2234
4636
ps
—
—
2345
—
2345
—
ps
1923
—
2769
—
2769
—
ps
—
—
2307
—
2769
—
ps
1923
—
2769
—
2769
—
ps
—
—
2307
—
2769
—
ps
5–22
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–19. M4K Block Internal Timing Microparameters (Part 3 of 3)
–6 Speed Grade (1)
–7 Speed Grade (2)
–8 Speed Grade (3)
Parameter
Unit
TM4KCLR
Min
Max
Min
Max
Min
Max
191
—
244
—
244
—
ps
—
—
217
—
244
—
ps
Notes to Table 5–19:
(1)
For the –6 speed grades, the minimum timing is for the commercial temperature grade. The –7 speed grade devices
offer the automotive temperature grade. The –8 speed grade devices offer the industrial temperature grade.
For each parameter of the –7 speed grade columns, the value in the first row represents the minimum timing
parameter for automotive devices. The second row represents the minimum timing parameter for commercial
devices.
For each parameter of the –8 speed grade columns, the value in the first row represents the minimum timing
parameter for industrial devices. The second row represents the minimum timing parameter for commercial
devices.
(2)
(3)
Cyclone II Clock Timing Parameters
Refer to Tables 5–20 through 5–34 for Cyclone II clock timing parameters.
Table 5–20. Cyclone II Clock Timing Parameters
Symbol
Parameter
tC I N
Delay from clock pad to I/O input register
tC O U T
Delay from clock pad to I/O output register
tP L L C I N
Delay from PLL inclk pad to I/O input register
tP L L C O U T
Delay from PLL inclk pad to I/O output register
EP2C5/A Clock Timing Parameters
Tables 5–21 and 5–22 show the clock timing parameters for EP2C5/A
devices.
Table 5–21. EP2C5/A Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters (Part 1 of 2)
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
tC I N
1.283
1.343
2.329
2.484
2.688
2.688
ns
tC O U T
1.297
1.358
2.363
2.516
2.717
2.717
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.188
–0.201
0.076
0.038
0.042
0.052
ns
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–23
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–21. EP2C5/A Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters (Part 2 of 2)
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
tP L L C O U T
–0.174
–0.186
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
0.11
0.07
0.071
0.081
ns
Notes to Table 5–21:
(1)
(2)
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
Table 5–22. EP2C5/A Row Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
tC I N
1.212
1.267
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
2.210
2.351
2.54
2.540
ns
tC O U T
1.214
1.269
2.226
2.364
2.548
2.548
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.259
–0.277
–0.043
–0.095
–0.106
–0.096
ns
tP L L C O U T
–0.257
–0.275
–0.027
–0.082
–0.098
–0.088
ns
Notes to Table 5–22:
(1)
(2)
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
EP2C8/A Clock Timing Parameters
Tables 5–23 and 5–24 show the clock timing parameters for EP2C8/A
devices.
Table 5–23. EP2C8/A Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters (Part 1 of 2)
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
tC I N
1.339
1.404
2.405
2.565
2.764
2.774
ns
tC O U T
1.353
1.419
2.439
2.597
2.793
2.803
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.193
–0.204
0.055
0.015
0.016
0.026
ns
5–24
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–23. EP2C8/A Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters (Part 2 of 2)
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
tP L L C O U T
–0.179
–0.189
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
0.089
0.047
0.045
0.055
ns
Notes to Table 5–23:
(1)
(2)
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
Table 5–24. EP2C8/A Row Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Parameter
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
1.314
2.270
2.416
2.596
2.606
ns
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
tC I N
1.256
tC O U T
1.258
1.316
2.286
2.429
2.604
2.614
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.276
–0.294
–0.08
–0.134
–0.152
–0.142
ns
tP L L C O U T
–0.274
–0.292
–0.064
–0.121
–0.144
–0.134
ns
Notes to Table 5–24:
(1)
(2)
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
EP2C15A Clock Timing Parameters
Tables 5–25 and 5–26 show the clock timing parameters for EP2C15A
devices.
Table 5–25. EP2C15A Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
tC I N
1.621
1.698
2.590
2.766
3.009
2.989
ns
tC O U T
1.635
1.713
2.624
2.798
3.038
3.018
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.351
–0.372
0.045
0.008
0.046
0.016
ns
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–25
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–25. EP2C15A Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
tP L L C O U T
–0.337
–0.357
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
0.079
0.04
0.075
0.045
ns
Notes to Table 5–25:
(1)
(2)
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
Table 5–26. EP2C15A Row Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
tC I N
1.542
1.615
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
2.490
2.651
2.886
2.866
ns
tC O U T
1.544
1.617
2.506
2.664
2.894
2.874
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.424
–0.448
–0.057
–0.107
–0.077
–0.107
ns
tP L L C O U T
–0.422
–0.446
–0.041
–0.094
–0.069
–0.099
ns
Notes to Table 5–26:
(1)
(2)
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
EP2C20/A Clock Timing Parameters
Tables 5–27 and 5–28 show the clock timing parameters for EP2C20/A
devices.
Table 5–27. EP2C20/A Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters (Part 1 of 2)
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
tC I N
1.621
1.698
2.590
2.766
3.009
2.989
ns
tC O U T
1.635
1.713
2.624
2.798
3.038
3.018
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.351
–0.372
0.045
0.008
0.046
0.016
ns
5–26
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–27. EP2C20/A Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters (Part 2 of 2)
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
tP L L C O U T
–0.337
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
0.079
0.04
0.075
0.045
ns
–0.357
Notes to Table 5–27:
(1)
(2)
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
Table 5–28. EP2C20/A Row Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Parameter
Industrial/
Commercial
Automotive
tC I N
1.542
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
(1)
–7 Speed
Grade
(2)
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
2.490
2.651
2.886
2.866
ns
1.615
tC O U T
1.544
1.617
2.506
2.664
2.894
2.874
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.424
–0.448
–0.057
–0.107
–0.077
–0.107
ns
tP L L C O U T
–0.422
–0.446
–0.041
–0.094
–0.069
–0.099
ns
Notes to Table 5–28:
(1)
(2)
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
EP2C35 Clock Timing Parameters
Tables 5–29 and 5–30 show the clock timing parameters for EP2C35
devices.
Table 5–29. EP2C35 Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Industrial
Commercial
–6 Speed
Grade
tC I N
1.499
1.569
2.652
2.878
3.155
ns
tC O U T
1.513
1.584
2.686
2.910
3.184
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.026
–0.032
0.272
0.316
0.41
ns
tP L L C O U T
–0.012
–0.017
0.306
0.348
0.439
ns
Parameter
Altera Corporation
February 2008
–7 Speed
Grade
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
5–27
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–30. EP2C35 Row Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Industrial
Commercial
–6 Speed
Grade
1.410
1.476
2.514
2.724
2.986
ns
Parameter
tC I N
–7 Speed
Grade
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
tC O U T
1.412
1.478
2.530
2.737
2.994
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.117
–0.127
0.134
0.162
0.241
ns
tP L L C O U T
–0.115
–0.125
0.15
0.175
0.249
ns
EP2C50 Clock Timing Parameters
Tables 5–31 and 5–32 show the clock timing parameters for EP2C50
devices.
Table 5–31. EP2C50 Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Industrial
Commercial
–6 Speed
Grade
Parameter
–7 Speed
Grade
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
tC I N
1.575
1.651
2.759
2.940
3.174
ns
tC O U T
1.589
1.666
2.793
2.972
3.203
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.149
–0.158
0.113
0.075
0.089
ns
tP L L C O U T
–0.135
–0.143
0.147
0.107
0.118
ns
Table 5–32. EP2C50 Row Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Industrial
Commercial
–6 Speed
Grade
tC I N
1.463
1.533
2.624
2.791
3.010
ns
tC O U T
1.465
1.535
2.640
2.804
3.018
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.261
–0.276
–0.022
–0.074
–0.075
ns
tP L L C O U T
–0.259
–0.274
–0.006
–0.061
–0.067
ns
Parameter
5–28
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
–7 Speed
Grade
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
EP2C70 Clock Timing Parameters
Tables 5–33 and 5–34 show the clock timing parameters for EP2C70
devices.
Table 5–33. EP2C70 Column Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Industrial
Commercial
–6 Speed
Grade
tC I N
1.575
1.651
2.914
3.105
3.174
ns
tC O U T
1.589
1.666
2.948
3.137
3.203
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.149
–0.158
0.27
0.268
0.089
ns
tP L L C O U T
–0.135
–0.143
0.304
0.3
0.118
ns
Parameter
–7 Speed
Grade
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
Table 5–34. EP2C70 Row Pins Global Clock Timing Parameters
Fast Corner
Commercial
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
Industrial
tC I N
1.463
1.533
2.753
2.927
3.010
ns
tC O U T
1.465
1.535
2.769
2.940
3.018
ns
tP L L C I N
–0.261
–0.276
0.109
0.09
–0.075
ns
tP L L C O U T
–0.259
–0.274
0.125
0.103
–0.067
ns
Parameter
Clock Network Skew Adders
Table 5–35 shows the clock network specifications.
Table 5–35. Clock Network Specifications
Name
Description
Max
Unit
Clock skew adder
EP2C5/A, EP2C8/A (1)
Inter-clock network, same bank
±88
ps
Inter-clock network, same side and
entire chip
±88
ps
Clock skew adder
EP2C15A, EP2C20/A,
EP2C35, EP2C50,
EP2C70 (1)
Inter-clock network, same bank
±118
ps
Inter-clock network, same side and
entire chip
±138
ps
Note to Table 5–35:
(1)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
This is in addition to intra-clock network skew, which is modeled in the
Quartus II software.
5–29
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
IOE Programmable Delay
Refer to Table 5–36 and 5–37 for IOE programmable delay.
Table 5–36. Cyclone II IOE Programmable Delay on Column Pins Notes (1), (2)
Number
Parameter Paths Affected
of
Settings
Input Delay Pad -> I/O
from Pin to dataout to core
Internal
Cells
7
Input Delay Pad -> I/O
from Pin to input register
Input
Register
8
Delay from
Output
Register to
Output Pin
I/O output
register -> Pad
2
Fast Corner
(3)
–7 Speed
Grade
(4)
–6 Speed
Grade
–8 Speed
Grade
Unit
Min Max Min Max Min
Max
Min
Max
Offset Offset Offset Offset Offset Offset Offset Offset
0
2233
0
3827
0
4232
0
4349
ps
0
2344
—
—
0
4088
—
—
ps
0
2656
0
4555
0
4914
0
4940
ps
0
2788
—
—
0
4748
—
—
ps
0
303
0
563
0
638
0
670
ps
0
318
—
—
0
617
—
—
ps
Notes to Table 5–36:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The incremental values for the settings are generally linear. For exact values of each setting, use the latest version
of the Quartus II software.
The minimum and maximum offset timing numbers are in reference to setting “0” as available in the Quartus II
software.
The value in the first row for each parameter represents the fast corner timing parameter for industrial and
automotive devices. The second row represents the fast corner timing parameter for commercial devices.
The value in the first row is for automotive devices. The second row is for commercial devices.
Table 5–37. Cyclone II IOE Programmable Delay on Row Pins Notes (1), (2) (Part 1 of 2)
Paths
Parameter
Affected
Input Delay
from Pin to
Internal
Cells
Pad ->
I/O
dataout
to core
Number Fast Corner (3)
of
Max
Settings Min
Offset Offset
7
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade (4)
–8 Speed Grade
Unit
Min
Offset
Max
Offset
Min
Offset
Max
Offset
Min
Offset
Max
Offset
0
2240
0
3776
0
4174
0
4290
ps
0
2352
—
—
0
4033
—
—
ps
5–30
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–37. Cyclone II IOE Programmable Delay on Row Pins Notes (1), (2) (Part 2 of 2)
Paths
Parameter
Affected
Number Fast Corner (3)
of
Max
Settings Min
Offset Offset
Input Delay Pad ->
from Pin to I/O input
register
Input
Register
8
I/O
output
register > Pad
2
Delay from
Output
Register to
Output Pin
–6 Speed
Grade
–7 Speed
Grade (4)
–8 Speed Grade
Unit
Min
Offset
Max
Offset
Min
Offset
Max
Offset
Min
Offset
Max
Offset
0
2669
0
4482
0
4834
0
4859
ps
0
2802
—
—
0
4671
—
—
ps
0
308
0
572
0
648
0
682
ps
0
324
—
—
0
626
—
—
ps
Notes to Table 5–37 :
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The incremental values for the settings are generally linear. For exact values of each setting, use the latest version
of the Quartus II software.
The minimum and maximum offset timing numbers are in reference to setting “0” as available in the Quartus II
software.
The value in the first row represents the fast corner timing parameter for industrial and automotive devices. The
second row represents the fast corner timing parameter for commercial devices.
The value in the first row is for automotive devices. The second row is for commercial devices.
Default Capacitive Loading of Different I/O Standards
Refer to Table 5–38 for default capacitive loading of different I/O
standards.
Table 5–38. Default Loading of Different I/O Standards for Cyclone II Device
(Part 1 of 2)
I/O Standard
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Capacitive Load
Unit
LVTTL
0
pF
LVCMOS
0
pF
2.5V
0
pF
1.8V
0
pF
1.5V
0
pF
PCI
10
pF
PCI-X
10
pF
SSTL_2_CLASS_I
0
pF
SSTL_2_CLASS_II
0
pF
SSTL_18_CLASS_I
0
pF
5–31
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–38. Default Loading of Different I/O Standards for Cyclone II Device
(Part 2 of 2)
I/O Standard
SSTL_18_CLASS_II
Capacitive Load
Unit
0
pF
1.5V_HSTL_CLASS_I
0
pF
1.5V_HSTL_CLASS_II
0
pF
1.8V_HSTL_CLASS_I
0
pF
1.8V_HSTL_CLASS_II
0
pF
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_2_CLASS_I
0
pF
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_2_CLASS_II
0
pF
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_18_CLASS_I
0
pF
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_18_CLASS_II
0
pF
1.5V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_CLASS_I
0
pF
1.5V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_CLASS_II
0
pF
1.8V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_CLASS_I
0
pF
1.8V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_CLASS_II
0
pF
LVDS
0
pF
1.2V_HSTL
0
pF
1.2V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL
0
pF
5–32
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
I/O Delays
Refer to Tables 5–39 through 5–43 for I/O delays.
Table 5–39. I/O Delay Parameters
Symbol
Parameter
tD I P
Delay from I/O datain to output pad
tO P
Delay from I/O output register to output pad
tP C O U T
Delay from input pad to I/O dataout to core
tP I
Delay from input pad to I/O input register
Table 5–40. Cyclone II I/O Input Delay for Column Pins (Part 1 of 3)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
LVTTL
2.5V
1.8V
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Parameter Industrial/ Commer Speed
Speed Unit
Grade Grade
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(1)
(2)
tP I
581
609
1222
1228
tP C O U T
367
385
760
783
tP I
624
654
1192
1238
tP C O U T
410
430
730
793
1282
1282
ps
854
854
ps
1283
1283
ps
855
855
ps
tP I
725
760
1372
1428
1484
1484
ps
tP C O U T
511
536
910
983
1056
1056
ps
tP I
790
828
1439
1497
1556
1556
ps
tP C O U T
576
604
977
1052
1128
1128
ps
tP I
581
609
1222
1228
1282
1282
ps
tP C O U T
367
385
760
783
854
854
ps
SSTL_2_CLASS_I
tP I
533
558
990
1015
1040
1040
ps
tP C O U T
319
334
528
570
612
612
ps
SSTL_2_CLASS_II
tP I
533
558
990
1015
1040
1040
ps
tP C O U T
319
334
528
570
612
612
ps
1.5V
LVCMOS
SSTL_18_CLASS_I
SSTL_18_CLASS_II
Altera Corporation
February 2008
tP I
577
605
1027
1035
1045
1045
ps
tP C O U T
363
381
565
590
617
617
ps
tP I
577
605
1027
1035
1045
1045
ps
tP C O U T
363
381
565
590
617
617
ps
5–33
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–40. Cyclone II I/O Input Delay for Column Pins (Part 2 of 3)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
1.5V_HSTL_CLASS_I
1.5V_HSTL_CLASS_II
1.8V_HSTL_CLASS_I
1.8V_HSTL_CLASS_II
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_2_
CLASS_I
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_2_
CLASS_II
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_18_
CLASS_I
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_18_
CLASS_II
1.8V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_I
1.8V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_II
1.5V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_I
1.5V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_II
LVDS
1.2V_HSTL
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Parameter Industrial/ Commer Speed
Speed Unit
Grade Grade
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(1)
(2)
tP I
589
617
1145
1176
1208
1208
ps
tP C O U T
375
393
683
731
780
780
ps
tP I
589
617
1145
1176
1208
1208
ps
tP C O U T
375
393
683
731
780
780
ps
tP I
577
605
1027
1035
1045
1045
ps
tP C O U T
363
381
565
590
617
617
ps
tP I
577
605
1027
1035
1045
1045
ps
tP C O U T
363
381
565
590
617
617
ps
tP I
533
558
990
1015
1040
1040
ps
tP C O U T
319
334
528
570
612
612
ps
tP I
533
558
990
1015
1040
1040
ps
tP C O U T
319
334
528
570
612
612
ps
tP I
577
605
1027
1035
1045
1045
ps
tP C O U T
363
381
565
590
617
617
ps
tP I
577
605
1027
1035
1045
1045
ps
tP C O U T
363
381
565
590
617
617
ps
tP I
577
605
1027
1035
1045
1045
ps
tP C O U T
363
381
565
590
617
617
ps
tP I
577
605
1027
1035
1045
1045
ps
tP C O U T
363
381
565
590
617
617
ps
tP I
589
617
1145
1176
1208
1208
ps
tP C O U T
375
393
683
731
780
780
ps
tP I
589
617
1145
1176
1208
1208
ps
tP C O U T
375
393
683
731
780
780
ps
tP I
623
653
1072
1075
1078
1078
ps
tP C O U T
409
429
610
630
650
650
ps
tP I
570
597
1263
1324
1385
1385
ps
tP C O U T
356
373
801
879
957
957
ps
5–34
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–40. Cyclone II I/O Input Delay for Column Pins (Part 3 of 3)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
1.2V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Parameter Industrial/ Commer Speed
Speed Unit
Grade Grade
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(1)
(2)
tP I
570
597
1263
1324
1385
1385
ps
tP C O U T
356
373
801
879
957
957
ps
Notes to Table 5–40 :
(1)
(2)
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
Table 5–41. Cyclone II I/O Input Delay for Row Pins (Part 1 of 2)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
LVTTL
2.5V
1.8V
1.5V
LVCMOS
SSTL_2_CLASS_I
SSTL_2_CLASS_II
SSTL_18_CLASS_I
SSTL_18_CLASS_II
1.5V_HSTL_CLASS_I
Altera Corporation
February 2008
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Parameter Industrial/ Commer Speed
Speed Unit
Grade Grade
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(1)
(2)
tP I
583
611
1129
1160
1240
1240
ps
tP C O U T
366
384
762
784
855
855
ps
tP I
629
659
1099
1171
1244
1244
ps
tP C O U T
412
432
732
795
859
859
ps
tP I
729
764
1278
1360
1443
1443
ps
tP C O U T
512
537
911
984
1058
1058
ps
tP I
794
832
1345
1429
1513
1513
ps
tP C O U T
577
605
978
1053
1128
1128
ps
tP I
583
611
1129
1160
1240
1240
ps
tP C O U T
366
384
762
784
855
855
ps
tP I
536
561
896
947
998
998
ps
tP C O U T
319
334
529
571
613
613
ps
tP I
536
561
896
947
998
998
ps
tP C O U T
319
334
529
571
613
613
ps
tP I
581
609
933
967
1004
1004
ps
tP C O U T
364
382
566
591
619
619
ps
tP I
581
609
933
967
1004
1004
ps
tP C O U T
364
382
566
591
619
619
ps
tP I
593
621
1051
1109
1167
1167
ps
tP C O U T
376
394
684
733
782
782
ps
5–35
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–41. Cyclone II I/O Input Delay for Row Pins (Part 2 of 2)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
1.5V_HSTL_CLASS_II
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Parameter Industrial/ Commer Speed
Speed Unit
Grade Grade
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(1)
(2)
tP I
593
621
1051
1109
1167
1167
ps
tP C O U T
376
394
684
733
782
782
ps
1.8V_HSTL_CLASS_I
tP I
581
609
933
967
1004
1004
ps
tP C O U T
364
382
566
591
619
619
ps
1.8V_HSTL_CLASS_II
tP I
581
609
933
967
1004
1004
ps
tP C O U T
364
382
566
591
619
619
ps
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_2_
CLASS_I
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_2_
CLASS_II
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_18_
CLASS_I
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_18_
CLASS_II
1.8V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_I
1.8V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_II
1.5V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_I
1.5V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_II
LVDS
PCI
PCI-X
tP I
536
561
896
947
998
998
ps
tP C O U T
319
334
529
571
613
613
ps
tP I
536
561
896
947
998
998
ps
tP C O U T
319
334
529
571
613
613
ps
tP I
581
609
933
967
1004
1004
ps
tP C O U T
364
382
566
591
619
619
ps
tP I
581
609
933
967
1004
1004
ps
tP C O U T
364
382
566
591
619
619
ps
tP I
581
609
933
967
1004
1004
ps
tP C O U T
364
382
566
591
619
619
ps
tP I
581
609
933
967
1004
1004
ps
tP C O U T
364
382
566
591
619
619
ps
tP I
593
621
1051
1109
1167
1167
ps
tP C O U T
376
394
684
733
782
782
ps
tP I
593
621
1051
1109
1167
1167
ps
tP C O U T
376
394
684
733
782
782
ps
tP I
651
682
1036
1075
1113
1113
ps
tP C O U T
434
455
669
699
728
728
ps
tP I
595
623
1113
1156
1232
1232
ps
tP C O U T
378
396
746
780
847
847
ps
tP I
595
623
1113
1156
1232
1232
ps
tP C O U T
378
396
746
780
847
847
ps
Notes to Table 5–41 :
(1)
(2)
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
5–36
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–42. Cyclone II I/O Output Delay for Column Pins (Part 1 of 6)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
LVTTL
Drive
Parameter
Strength
4 mA
8 mA
12 mA
16 mA
1524
1599
2903
3125
3341
3348
ps
tD I P
1656
1738
3073
3319
3567
3567
ps
tO P
1343
1409
2670
2866
3054
3061
ps
tD I P
1475
1548
2840
3060
3280
3280
ps
tO P
1287
1350
2547
2735
2917
2924
ps
tD I P
1419
1489
2717
2929
3143
3143
ps
tO P
1239
1299
2478
2665
2844
2851
ps
1371
1438
2648
2859
3070
3070
ps
tO P
1228
1288
2456
2641
2820
2827
ps
tD I P
1360
1427
2626
2835
3046
3046
ps
24 mA
(1)
tO P
1220
1279
2452
2637
2815
2822
ps
tD I P
1352
1418
2622
2831
3041
3041
ps
4 mA
tO P
1346
1412
2509
2695
2873
2880
ps
tD I P
1478
1551
2679
2889
3099
3099
ps
8 mA
tO P
1240
1300
2473
2660
2840
2847
ps
tD I P
1372
1439
2643
2854
3066
3066
ps
12 mA
16 mA
20 mA
24 mA
(1)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
tO P
tD I P
20 mA
LVCMOS
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Industrial/ Commer Speed Grade Grade Speed Unit
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(2)
(3)
tO P
1221
1280
2428
2613
2790
2797
ps
tD I P
1353
1419
2598
2807
3016
3016
ps
tO P
1203
1262
2403
2587
2765
2772
ps
tD I P
1335
1401
2573
2781
2991
2991
ps
tO P
1194
1252
2378
2562
2738
2745
ps
tD I P
1326
1391
2548
2756
2964
2964
ps
tO P
1192
1250
2382
2566
2742
2749
ps
tD I P
1324
1389
2552
2760
2968
2968
ps
5–37
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–42. Cyclone II I/O Output Delay for Column Pins (Part 2 of 6)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
2.5V
Drive
Parameter
Strength
4 mA
tO P
1208
1267
2478
2614
2743
2750
ps
tD I P
1340
1406
2648
2808
2969
2969
ps
tO P
1190
1248
2307
2434
2554
2561
ps
tD I P
1322
1387
2477
2628
2780
2780
ps
tO P
1154
1210
2192
2314
2430
2437
ps
tD I P
1286
1349
2362
2508
2656
2656
ps
16 mA
(1)
tO P
1140
1195
2152
2263
2375
2382
ps
tD I P
1272
1334
2322
2457
2601
2601
ps
2 mA
tO P
1682
1765
3988
4279
4563
4570
ps
tD I P
1814
1904
4158
4473
4789
4789
ps
tO P
1567
1644
3301
3538
3768
3775
ps
tD I P
1699
1783
3471
3732
3994
3994
ps
6 mA
tO P
1475
1547
2993
3195
3391
3398
ps
tD I P
1607
1686
3163
3389
3617
3617
ps
8 mA
tO P
1451
1522
2882
3074
3259
3266
ps
tD I P
1583
1661
3052
3268
3485
3485
ps
8 mA
12 mA
1.8V
4 mA
10 mA
12 mA
(1)
1.5V
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Industrial/ Commer Speed Grade Grade Speed Unit
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(2)
(3)
2 mA
tO P
1438
1508
2853
3041
3223
3230
ps
tD I P
1570
1647
3023
3235
3449
3449
ps
tO P
1438
1508
2853
3041
3223
3230
ps
tD I P
1570
1647
3023
3235
3449
3449
ps
tO P
2083
2186
4477
4870
5256
5263
ps
tD I P
2215
2325
4647
5064
5482
5482
ps
4 mA
tO P
1793
1881
3649
3965
4274
4281
ps
tD I P
1925
2020
3819
4159
4500
4500
ps
6 mA
tO P
1770
1857
3527
3823
4112
4119
ps
tD I P
1902
1996
3697
4017
4338
4338
ps
tO P
1703
1787
3537
3827
4111
4118
ps
tD I P
1835
1926
3707
4021
4337
4337
ps
8 mA
(1)
5–38
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–42. Cyclone II I/O Output Delay for Column Pins (Part 3 of 6)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
SSTL_2_
CLASS_I
SSTL_2_
CLASS_II
Drive
Parameter
Strength
8 mA
tO P
1196
1254
2388
2516
2638
2645
ps
tD I P
1328
1393
2558
2710
2864
2864
ps
12 mA
(1)
tO P
1174
1231
2277
2401
2518
2525
ps
tD I P
1306
1370
2447
2595
2744
2744
ps
16 mA
tO P
1158
1214
2245
2365
2479
2486
ps
tD I P
1290
1353
2415
2559
2705
2705
ps
20 mA
SSTL_18_
CLASS_I
tO P
1152
1208
2231
2351
2464
2471
ps
tD I P
1284
1347
2401
2545
2690
2690
ps
24 mA
(1)
tO P
1152
1208
2225
2345
2458
2465
ps
tD I P
1284
1347
2395
2539
2684
2684
ps
6 mA
tO P
1472
1544
3140
3345
3542
3549
ps
tD I P
1604
1683
3310
3539
3768
3768
ps
tO P
1469
1541
3086
3287
3482
3489
ps
tD I P
1601
1680
3256
3481
3708
3708
ps
tO P
1466
1538
2980
3171
3354
3361
ps
tD I P
1598
1677
3150
3365
3580
3580
ps
12 mA
(1)
tO P
1466
1538
2980
3171
3354
3361
ps
tD I P
1598
1677
3150
3365
3580
3580
ps
16 mA
tO P
1454
1525
2905
3088
3263
3270
ps
tD I P
1586
1664
3075
3282
3489
3489
ps
18 mA
(1)
tO P
1453
1524
2900
3082
3257
3264
ps
tD I P
1585
1663
3070
3276
3483
3483
ps
8 mA
tO P
1460
1531
3222
3424
3618
3625
ps
tD I P
1592
1670
3392
3618
3844
3844
ps
tO P
1462
1534
3090
3279
3462
3469
ps
tD I P
1594
1673
3260
3473
3688
3688
ps
tO P
1462
1534
3090
3279
3462
3469
ps
tD I P
1594
1673
3260
3473
3688
3688
ps
8 mA
10 mA
SSTL_18_
CLASS_II
1.8V_HSTL_
CLASS_I
10 mA
12 mA
(1)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Industrial/ Commer Speed Grade Grade Speed Unit
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(2)
(3)
5–39
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–42. Cyclone II I/O Output Delay for Column Pins (Part 4 of 6)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
1.8V_HSTL_
CLASS_II
Drive
Parameter
Strength
tO P
1449
1520
2936
3107
3271
3278
ps
tD I P
1581
1659
3106
3301
3497
3497
ps
18 mA
tO P
1450
1521
2924
3101
3272
3279
ps
tD I P
1582
1660
3094
3295
3498
3498
ps
20 mA
(1)
tO P
1452
1523
2926
3096
3259
3266
ps
tD I P
1584
1662
3096
3290
3485
3485
ps
8 mA
tO P
1779
1866
4292
4637
4974
4981
ps
tD I P
1911
2005
4462
4831
5200
5200
ps
tO P
1784
1872
4031
4355
4673
4680
ps
tD I P
1916
2011
4201
4549
4899
4899
ps
12 mA
(1)
tO P
1784
1872
4031
4355
4673
4680
ps
tD I P
1916
2011
4201
4549
4899
4899
ps
1.5V_HSTL_
CLASS_II
16 mA
(1)
tO P
1750
1836
3844
4125
4399
4406
ps
tD I P
1882
1975
4014
4319
4625
4625
ps
DIFFERENTIAL_
SSTL_2_CLASS_I
8 mA
tO P
1196
1254
2388
2516
2638
2645
ps
tD I P
1328
1393
2558
2710
2864
2864
ps
12 mA
(1)
tO P
1174
1231
2277
2401
2518
2525
ps
tD I P
1306
1370
2447
2595
2744
2744
ps
16 mA
tO P
1158
1214
2245
2365
2479
2486
ps
tD I P
1290
1353
2415
2559
2705
2705
ps
1.5V_HSTL_
CLASS_I
16 mA
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Industrial/ Commer Speed Grade Grade Speed Unit
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(2)
(3)
10 mA
DIFFERENTIAL_
SSTL_2_CLASS_II
20 mA
24 mA
(1)
tO P
1152
1208
2231
2351
2464
2471
ps
tD I P
1284
1347
2401
2545
2690
2690
ps
tO P
1152
1208
2225
2345
2458
2465
ps
tD I P
1284
1347
2395
2539
2684
2684
ps
5–40
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–42. Cyclone II I/O Output Delay for Column Pins (Part 5 of 6)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
DIFFERENTIAL_
SSTL_18_CLASS_I
Drive
Parameter
Strength
6 mA
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Industrial/ Commer Speed Grade Grade Speed Unit
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(2)
(3)
tO P
1472
1544
3140
3345
3542
3549
ps
tD I P
1604
1683
3310
3539
3768
3768
ps
tO P
1469
1541
3086
3287
3482
3489
ps
tD I P
1601
1680
3256
3481
3708
3708
ps
tO P
1466
1538
2980
3171
3354
3361
ps
tD I P
1598
1677
3150
3365
3580
3580
ps
12 mA
(1)
tO P
1466
1538
2980
3171
3354
3361
ps
tD I P
1598
1677
3150
3365
3580
3580
ps
16 mA
tO P
1454
1525
2905
3088
3263
3270
ps
tD I P
1586
1664
3075
3282
3489
3489
ps
tO P
1453
1524
2900
3082
3257
3264
ps
tD I P
1585
1663
3070
3276
3483
3483
ps
tO P
1460
1531
3222
3424
3618
3625
ps
tD I P
1592
1670
3392
3618
3844
3844
ps
tO P
1462
1534
3090
3279
3462
3469
ps
tD I P
1594
1673
3260
3473
3688
3688
ps
12 mA
(1)
tO P
1462
1534
3090
3279
3462
3469
ps
tD I P
1594
1673
3260
3473
3688
3688
ps
1.8V_DIFFERENTIAL 16 mA
_HSTL_CLASS_II
tO P
1449
1520
2936
3107
3271
3278
ps
tD I P
1581
1659
3106
3301
3497
3497
ps
8 mA
10 mA
DIFFERENTIAL_
SSTL_18_CLASS_II
18 mA
(1)
1.8V_DIFFERENTIAL 8 mA
_HSTL_CLASS_I
10 mA
18 mA
20 mA
(1)
1.5V_DIFFERENTIAL 8 mA
_HSTL_CLASS_I
10 mA
12 mA
(1)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
tO P
1450
1521
2924
3101
3272
3279
ps
tD I P
1582
1660
3094
3295
3498
3498
ps
tO P
1452
1523
2926
3096
3259
3266
ps
tD I P
1584
1662
3096
3290
3485
3485
ps
tO P
1779
1866
4292
4637
4974
4981
ps
tD I P
1911
2005
4462
4831
5200
5200
ps
tO P
1784
1872
4031
4355
4673
4680
ps
tD I P
1916
2011
4201
4549
4899
4899
ps
tO P
1784
1872
4031
4355
4673
4680
ps
tD I P
1916
2011
4201
4549
4899
4899
ps
5–41
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–42. Cyclone II I/O Output Delay for Column Pins (Part 6 of 6)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
Drive
Parameter
Strength
1.5V_DIFFERENTIAL 16 mA
_HSTL_CLASS_II
(1)
–7
–7
–6
–8
Speed Speed
Industrial/ Commer Speed Grade Grade Speed Unit
Grade
Grade
Automotive
-cial
(2)
(3)
tO P
1750
1836
3844
4125
4399
4406
ps
tD I P
1882
1975
4014
4319
4625
4625
ps
LVDS
—
tO P
1258
1319
2243
2344
2438
2445
ps
tD I P
1390
1458
2413
2538
2664
2664
ps
RSDS
—
tO P
1258
1319
2243
2344
2438
2445
ps
tD I P
1390
1458
2413
2538
2664
2664
ps
MINI_LVDS
SIMPLE_RSDS
1.2V_HSTL
1.2V_DIFFERENTIAL
_HSTL
—
—
—
—
tO P
1258
1319
2243
2344
2438
2445
ps
tD I P
1390
1458
2413
2538
2664
2664
ps
tO P
1221
1280
2258
2435
2605
2612
ps
tD I P
1353
1419
2428
2629
2831
2831
ps
tO P
2403
2522
4635
5344
6046
6053
ps
tD I P
2535
2661
4805
5538
6272
6272
ps
tO P
2403
2522
4635
5344
6046
6053
ps
tD I P
2535
2661
4805
5538
6272
6272
ps
Notes to Table 5–42:
(1)
(2)
(3)
This is the default setting in the Quartus II software.
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
5–42
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–43. Cyclone II I/O Output Delay for Row Pins (Part 1 of 4)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
LVTTL
Drive
Parameter Industrial
Strength
/Automotive
4 mA
8 mA
12 mA
16 mA
20 mA
24 mA
(1)
LVCMOS
4 mA
–7
Speed
Grade
(3)
–8
Speed
Grade
Unit
tO P
1343
1408
2539
2694
2885
2891
ps
tD I P
1467
1540
2747
2931
3158
3158
ps
tO P
1198
1256
2411
2587
2756
2762
ps
tD I P
1322
1388
2619
2824
3029
3029
ps
tO P
1156
1212
2282
2452
2614
2620
ps
tD I P
1280
1344
2490
2689
2887
2887
ps
tO P
1124
1178
2286
2455
2618
2624
ps
tD I P
1248
1310
2494
2692
2891
2891
ps
tO P
1112
1165
2245
2413
2574
2580
ps
tD I P
1236
1297
2453
2650
2847
2847
ps
tO P
1105
1158
2253
2422
2583
2589
ps
tD I P
1229
1290
2461
2659
2856
2856
ps
tO P
1200
1258
2231
2396
2555
2561
ps
1324
1390
2439
2633
2828
2828
ps
tO P
1125
1179
2260
2429
2591
2597
ps
tD I P
1249
1311
2468
2666
2864
2864
ps
12 mA
(1)
tO P
1106
1159
2217
2383
2543
2549
ps
tD I P
1230
1291
2425
2620
2816
2816
ps
4 mA
tO P
1126
1180
2350
2477
2598
2604
ps
tD I P
1250
1312
2558
2714
2871
2871
ps
tO P
1105
1158
2177
2296
2409
2415
ps
tD I P
1229
1290
2385
2533
2682
2682
ps
8 mA
(1)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
–7
Speed
Grade
(2)
tD I P
8 mA
2.5V
Commercial
–6
Speed
Grade
5–43
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–43. Cyclone II I/O Output Delay for Row Pins (Part 2 of 4)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
1.8V
Drive
Parameter Industrial
Strength
/Automotive
2 mA
4 mA
6 mA
8 mA
10 mA
12 mA
(1)
1.5V
2 mA
–7
Speed
Grade
(2)
–7
Speed
Grade
(3)
–8
Speed
Grade
Unit
tO P
1503
1576
3657
3927
4190
4196
ps
tD I P
1627
1708
3865
4164
4463
4463
ps
tO P
1400
1468
3010
3226
3434
3440
ps
tD I P
1524
1600
3218
3463
3707
3707
ps
tO P
1388
1455
2857
3050
3236
3242
ps
tD I P
1512
1587
3065
3287
3509
3509
ps
tO P
1347
1412
2714
2897
3072
3078
ps
tD I P
1471
1544
2922
3134
3345
3345
ps
tO P
1347
1412
2714
2897
3072
3078
ps
tD I P
1471
1544
2922
3134
3345
3345
ps
tO P
1332
1396
2678
2856
3028
3034
ps
tD I P
1456
1528
2886
3093
3301
3301
ps
tO P
1853
1943
4127
4492
4849
4855
ps
tD I P
1977
2075
4335
4729
5122
5122
ps
tO P
1694
1776
3452
3747
4036
4042
ps
tD I P
1818
1908
3660
3984
4309
4309
ps
6 mA (1) tO P
1694
1776
3452
3747
4036
4042
ps
tD I P
1818
1908
3660
3984
4309
4309
ps
tO P
1090
1142
2152
2268
2376
2382
ps
4 mA
SSTL_2_
CLASS_I
Commercial
–6
Speed
Grade
8 mA
tD I P
1214
1274
2360
2505
2649
2649
ps
12 mA
(1)
tO P
1097
1150
2131
2246
2354
2360
ps
tD I P
1221
1282
2339
2483
2627
2627
ps
SSTL_2_
CLASS_II
16 mA
(1)
tO P
1068
1119
2067
2177
2281
2287
ps
tD I P
1192
1251
2275
2414
2554
2554
ps
SSTL_18_
CLASS_I
6 mA
tO P
1371
1437
2828
3018
3200
3206
ps
tD I P
1495
1569
3036
3255
3473
3473
ps
tO P
1365
1431
2832
3024
3209
3215
ps
tD I P
1489
1563
3040
3261
3482
3482
ps
tO P
1374
1440
2806
2990
3167
3173
ps
tD I P
1498
1572
3014
3227
3440
3440
ps
8 mA
10 mA
(1)
5–44
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–43. Cyclone II I/O Output Delay for Row Pins (Part 3 of 4)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
1.8V_HSTL_
CLASS_I
Drive
Parameter Industrial
Strength
/Automotive
8 mA
10 mA
Commercial
–6
Speed
Grade
–7
Speed
Grade
(2)
–7
Speed
Grade
(3)
–8
Speed
Grade
Unit
tO P
1364
1430
2853
3017
3178
3184
ps
tD I P
1488
1562
3061
3254
3451
3451
ps
tO P
1332
1396
2842
3011
3173
3179
ps
tD I P
1456
1528
3050
3248
3446
3446
ps
12 mA
(1)
tO P
1332
1396
2842
3011
3173
3179
ps
tD I P
1456
1528
3050
3248
3446
3446
ps
8 mA
(1)
tO P
1657
1738
3642
3917
4185
4191
ps
tD I P
1781
1870
3850
4154
4458
4458
ps
DIFFERENTIAL_ 8 mA
SSTL_2_
CLASS_I
12 mA
(1)
tO P
1090
1142
2152
2268
2376
2382
ps
tD I P
1214
1274
2360
2505
2649
2649
ps
tO P
1097
1150
2131
2246
2354
2360
ps
tD I P
1221
1282
2339
2483
2627
2627
ps
DIFFERENTIAL_ 16 mA
(1)
SSTL_2_
CLASS_II
tO P
1068
1119
2067
2177
2281
2287
ps
tD I P
1192
1251
2275
2414
2554
2554
ps
DIFFERENTIAL_ 6 mA
SSTL_18_
CLASS_I
8 mA
tO P
1371
1437
2828
3018
3200
3206
ps
tD I P
1495
1569
3036
3255
3473
3473
ps
tO P
1365
1431
2832
3024
3209
3215
ps
tD I P
1489
1563
3040
3261
3482
3482
ps
10 mA
(1)
tO P
1374
1440
2806
2990
3167
3173
ps
tD I P
1498
1572
3014
3227
3440
3440
ps
8 mA
1.8V_
DIFFERENTIAL_
HSTL_
10 mA
CLASS_I
tO P
1364
1430
2853
3017
3178
3184
ps
tD I P
1488
1562
3061
3254
3451
3451
ps
tO P
1332
1396
2842
3011
3173
3179
ps
tD I P
1456
1528
3050
3248
3446
3446
ps
tO P
1332
1396
2842
3011
3173
3179
ps
tD I P
1456
1528
3050
3248
3446
3446
ps
tO P
1657
1738
3642
3917
4185
4191
ps
tD I P
1781
1870
3850
4154
4458
4458
ps
1.5V_HSTL_
CLASS_I
12 mA
(1)
8 mA
1.5V_
DIFFERENTIAL_ (1)
HSTL_
CLASS_I
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–45
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–43. Cyclone II I/O Output Delay for Row Pins (Part 4 of 4)
Fast Corner
I/O Standard
Drive
Parameter Industrial
Strength
/Automotive
LVDS
RSDS
MINI_LVDS
PCI
—
—
—
—
PCI-X
—
Commercial
–6
Speed
Grade
–7
Speed
Grade
(2)
–7
Speed
Grade
(3)
–8
Speed
Grade
Unit
tO P
1216
1275
2089
2184
2272
2278
ps
tD I P
1340
1407
2297
2421
2545
2545
ps
tO P
1216
1275
2089
2184
2272
2278
ps
tD I P
1340
1407
2297
2421
2545
2545
ps
tO P
1216
1275
2089
2184
2272
2278
ps
tD I P
1340
1407
2297
2421
2545
2545
ps
tO P
989
1036
2070
2214
2352
2358
ps
tD I P
1113
1168
2278
2451
2625
2625
ps
tO P
989
1036
2070
2214
2352
2358
ps
tD I P
1113
1168
2278
2451
2625
2625
ps
Notes to Table 5–43:
(1)
(2)
(3)
This is the default setting in the Quartus II software.
These numbers are for commercial devices.
These numbers are for automotive devices.
Maximum Input and Output Clock Rate
Maximum clock toggle rate is defined as the maximum frequency
achievable for a clock type signal at an I/O pin. The I/O pin can be a
regular I/O pin or a dedicated clock I/O pin.
The maximum clock toggle rate is different from the maximum data bit
rate. If the maximum clock toggle rate on a regular I/O pin is 300 MHz,
the maximum data bit rate for dual data rate (DDR) could be potentially
as high as 600 Mbps on the same I/O pin.
Table 5–44 specifies the maximum input clock toggle rates. Table 5–45
specifies the maximum output clock toggle rates at default load.
Table 5–46 specifies the derating factors for the output clock toggle rate
for non-default load.
To calculate the output toggle rate for a non-default load, use this
formula:
The toggle rate for a non-default load
5–46
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
= 1000 / (1000/toggle rate at default load + derating factor * load
value in pF/1000)
For example, the output toggle rate at 0 pF (default) load for SSTL-18
Class II 18mA I/O standard is 270 MHz on a –6 device column I/O pin.
The derating factor is 29 ps/pF. For a 10pF load, the toggle rate is
calculated as:
1000 / (1000/270 + 29 × 10/1000) = 250 (MHz)
Tables 5–44 through 5–46 show the I/O toggle rates for Cyclone II
devices.
Table 5–44. Maximum Input Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (Part 1 of 2)
Maximum Input Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (MHz)
Column I/O Pins
Row I/O Pins
I/O Standard
Dedicated Clock
Inputs
–7
–8
–6
–6
–7
–8
–8
–6
–7
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
LVTTL
450
405
360
450
405
360
420
380
340
2.5V
450
405
360
450
405
360
450
405
360
1.8V
450
405
360
450
405
360
450
405
360
1.5V
300
270
240
300
270
240
300
270
240
LVCMOS
450
405
360
450
405
360
420
380
340
SSTL_2_CLASS_I
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
SSTL_2_CLASS_II
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
SSTL_18_CLASS_I
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
SSTL_18_CLASS_II
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
1.5V_HSTL_CLASS_I
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
1.5V_HSTL_CLASS_II
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
1.8V_HSTL_CLASS_I
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
1.8V_HSTL_CLASS_II
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
PCI
—
—
—
350
315
280
350
315
280
PCI-X
—
—
—
350
315
280
350
315
280
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_2_
CLASS_I
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_2_
CLASS_II
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–47
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–44. Maximum Input Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (Part 2 of 2)
Maximum Input Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (MHz)
Column I/O Pins
Dedicated Clock
Inputs
Row I/O Pins
I/O Standard
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_18_
CLASS_I
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_18_
CLASS_II
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
1.8V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_I
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
1.8V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_II
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
1.5V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_I
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
1.5V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_II
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
LVPECL
—
—
—
—
—
—
402
402
402
LVDS
402
402
402
402
402
402
402
402
402
1.2V_HSTL
110
90
80
—
—
—
110
90
80
1.2V_DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL
110
90
80
—
—
—
110
90
80
Table 5–45. Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (Part 1 of 4)
Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (MHz)
I/O Standard
LVTTL
Drive
Strength
Column I/O Pins (1)
Row I/O Pins (1)
Dedicated Clock
Outputs
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
4 mA
120
100
80
120
100
80
120
100
80
8 mA
200
170
140
200
170
140
200
170
140
12 mA
280
230
190
280
230
190
280
230
190
16 mA
290
240
200
290
240
200
290
240
200
20 mA
330
280
230
330
280
230
330
280
230
24 mA
360
300
250
360
300
250
360
300
250
5–48
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–45. Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (Part 2 of 4)
Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (MHz)
I/O Standard
LVCMOS
2.5V
1.8V
1.5V
SSTL_2_CLASS_I
SSTL_2_CLASS_II
SSTL_18_
CLASS_I
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Drive
Strength
Column I/O Pins (1)
Row I/O Pins (1)
Dedicated Clock
Outputs
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
4 mA
250
210
170
250
210
170
250
210
170
8 mA
280
230
190
280
230
190
280
230
190
12 mA
310
260
210
310
260
210
310
260
210
16 mA
320
270
220
—
—
—
—
—
—
20 mA
350
290
240
—
—
—
—
—
—
24 mA
370
310
250
—
—
—
—
—
—
4 mA
180
150
120
180
150
120
180
150
120
8 mA
280
230
190
280
230
190
280
230
190
12 mA
440
370
300
—
—
—
—
—
—
16 mA
450
405
350
—
—
—
—
—
—
2 mA
120
100
80
120
100
80
120
100
80
4 mA
180
150
120
180
150
120
180
150
120
6 mA
220
180
150
220
180
150
220
180
150
8 mA
240
200
160
240
200
160
240
200
160
10 mA
300
250
210
300
250
210
300
250
210
12 mA
350
290
240
350
290
240
350
290
240
2 mA
80
60
50
80
60
50
80
60
50
4 mA
130
110
90
130
110
90
130
110
90
6 mA
180
150
120
180
150
120
180
150
120
8 mA
230
190
160
—
—
—
—
—
—
8 mA
400
340
280
400
340
280
400
340
280
12 mA
400
340
280
400
340
280
400
340
280
16 mA
350
290
240
350
290
240
350
290
240
20 mA
400
340
280
—
—
—
—
—
—
24 mA
400
340
280
—
—
—
—
—
—
6 mA
260
220
180
260
220
180
260
220
180
8 mA
260
220
180
260
220
180
260
220
180
10 mA
270
220
180
270
220
180
270
220
180
12 mA
280
230
190
—
—
—
—
—
—
5–49
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–45. Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (Part 3 of 4)
Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (MHz)
I/O Standard
SSTL_18_ CLASS_II
1.8V_HSTL_ CLASS_I
Drive
Strength
Column I/O Pins (1)
Row I/O Pins (1)
Dedicated Clock
Outputs
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
16 mA
260
220
180
—
—
—
—
—
—
18 mA
270
220
180
—
—
—
—
—
—
8 mA
260
220
180
260
220
180
260
220
180
10 mA
300
250
210
300
250
210
300
250
210
12 mA
320
270
220
320
270
220
320
270
220
1.8V_HSTL_ CLASS_II 16 mA
230
190
160
—
—
—
—
—
—
18 mA
240
200
160
—
—
—
—
—
—
20 mA
250
210
170
—
—
—
—
—
—
8 mA
210
170
140
210
170
140
210
170
140
10 mA
220
180
150
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.5V_HSTL_ CLASS_I
12 mA
230
190
160
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.5V_HSTL_ CLASS_II 16 mA
210
170
140
—
—
—
—
—
—
DIFFERENTIAL_
SSTL_2_CLASS_I
8 mA
400
340
280
400
340
280
400
340
280
12 mA
400
340
280
400
340
280
400
340
280
DIFFERENTIAL_
SSTL_2_CLASS_II
16 mA
350
290
240
350
290
240
350
290
240
20 mA
400
340
280
—
—
—
—
—
—
DIFFERENTIAL_
SSTL_18_CLASS_I
24 mA
400
340
280
—
—
—
—
—
—
6 mA
260
220
180
260
220
180
260
220
180
8 mA
260
220
180
260
220
180
260
220
180
10 mA
270
220
180
270
220
180
270
220
180
12 mA
280
230
190
—
—
—
—
—
—
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL 16 mA
_18_CLASS_II
18 mA
260
220
180
—
—
—
—
—
—
270
220
180
—
—
—
—
—
—
8 mA
1.8V_
DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL
10 mA
_CLASS_I
12 mA
260
220
180
260
220
180
260
220
180
300
250
210
300
250
210
300
250
210
320
270
220
320
270
220
320
270
220
16 mA
1.8V_
DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL
18 mA
_CLASS_II
20 mA
230
190
160
—
—
—
—
—
—
240
200
160
—
—
—
—
—
—
250
210
170
—
—
—
—
—
—
5–50
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–45. Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (Part 4 of 4)
Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate on Cyclone II Devices (MHz)
I/O Standard
Drive
Strength
Column I/O Pins (1)
Row I/O Pins (1)
Dedicated Clock
Outputs
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
8 mA
1.5V_
DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL
10 mA
_CLASS_I
12 mA
210
170
140
210
170
140
210
170
140
220
180
150
—
—
—
—
—
—
230
190
160
—
—
—
—
—
—
16 mA
1.5V_
DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL
_CLASS_II
210
170
140
—
—
—
—
—
—
LVDS
—
400
340
280
400
340
280
400
340
280
RSDS
—
400
340
280
400
340
280
400
340
280
MINI_LVDS
—
400
340
280
400
340
280
400
340
280
SIMPLE_RSDS
—
380
320
260
380
320
260
380
320
260
1.2V_HSTL
—
80
80
80
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.2V_
DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL
—
80
80
80
—
—
—
—
—
—
PCI
—
—
—
—
350
315
280
350
315
280
PCI-X
—
—
—
350
315
280
350
315
280
LVTTL
OCT_25_
OHMS
—
360
300
250
360
300
250
360
300
250
LVCMOS
OCT_25_
OHMS
360
300
250
360
300
250
360
300
250
2.5V
OCT_50_
OHMS
240
200
160
240
200
160
240
200
160
1.8V
OCT_50_
OHMS
290
240
200
290
240
200
290
240
200
SSTL_2_CLASS_I
OCT_50_
OHMS
240
200
160
240
200
160
—
—
—
SSTL_18_CLASS_I
OCT_50_
OHMS
290
240
200
290
240
200
—
—
—
Note to Table 5–45:
(1)
This is based on single data rate I/Os.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–51
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–46. Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate Derating Factors (Part 1 of 4)
Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate Derating Factors (ps/pF)
I/O Standard
LVTTL
LVCMOS
2.5V
1.8V
1.5V
SSTL_2_CLASS_I
Drive
Strength
Column I/O Pins
Dedicated Clock
Outputs
Row I/O Pins
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
4 mA
438
439
439
338
362
387
338
362
387
8 mA
306
321
336
267
283
299
267
283
299
12 mA
139
179
220
193
198
202
193
198
202
16 mA
145
158
172
139
147
156
139
147
156
20 mA
65
77
90
74
79
84
74
79
84
24 mA
19
20
21
14
18
22
14
18
22
4 mA
298
305
313
197
205
214
197
205
214
8 mA
190
205
219
112
118
125
112
118
125
12 mA
43
72
101
27
31
35
27
31
35
16 mA
87
99
110
—
—
—
—
—
—
20 mA
36
46
56
—
—
—
—
—
—
24 mA
24
25
27
—
—
—
—
—
—
4 mA
228
233
237
270
306
343
270
306
343
8 mA
173
177
180
191
199
208
191
199
208
12 mA
119
121
123
—
—
—
—
—
—
16 mA
64
65
66
—
—
—
—
—
—
2 mA
452
457
461
332
367
403
332
367
403
4 mA
321
347
373
244
291
337
244
291
337
6 mA
227
255
283
178
222
266
178
222
266
8 mA
37
118
199
58
133
207
58
133
207
10 mA
41
72
103
46
85
123
46
85
123
12 mA
7
8
10
13
28
44
13
28
44
2 mA
738
764
789
540
604
669
540
604
669
4 mA
499
518
536
300
354
408
300
354
408
6 mA
261
271
282
60
103
146
60
103
146
8 mA
22
25
29
—
—
—
—
—
—
8 mA
46
47
49
25
40
56
25
40
56
12 mA
67
69
70
23
42
60
23
42
60
5–52
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–46. Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate Derating Factors (Part 2 of 4)
Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate Derating Factors (ps/pF)
I/O Standard
SSTL_2_CLASS_II
SSTL_18_
CLASS_I
SSTL_18_ CLASS_II
1.8V_HSTL_ CLASS_I
1.8V_HSTL_ CLASS_II
1.5V_HSTL_ CLASS_I
Drive
Strength
Column I/O Pins
Dedicated Clock
Outputs
Row I/O Pins
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
16 mA
42
43
45
15
29
42
15
29
42
20 mA
41
42
44
—
—
—
—
—
—
24 mA
40
42
43
—
—
—
—
—
—
6 mA
20
22
24
46
47
49
46
47
49
8 mA
20
22
24
47
49
51
47
49
51
10 mA
20
22
25
23
25
27
23
25
27
12 mA
19
23
26
—
—
—
—
—
—
16 mA
30
33
36
—
—
—
—
—
—
18 mA
29
29
29
—
—
—
—
—
—
8 mA
26
28
29
59
61
63
59
61
63
10 mA
46
47
48
65
66
68
65
66
68
12 mA
67
67
67
71
71
72
71
71
72
16 mA
62
65
68
—
—
—
—
—
—
18 mA
59
62
65
—
—
—
—
—
—
20 mA
57
59
62
—
—
—
—
—
—
8 mA
40
40
41
28
32
36
28
32
36
10 mA
41
42
42
—
—
—
—
—
—
12 mA
43
43
43
—
—
—
—
—
—
16 mA
18
20
21
—
—
—
—
—
—
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_2 8 mA
_CLASS_I
12 mA
46
47
49
25
40
56
25
40
56
67
69
70
23
42
60
23
42
60
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_2 16 mA
_CLASS_II
20 mA
42
43
45
15
29
42
15
29
42
41
42
44
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.5V_HSTL_ CLASS_II
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_
18_CLASS_I
Altera Corporation
February 2008
24 mA
40
42
43
—
—
—
—
—
—
6 mA
20
22
24
46
47
49
46
47
49
8 mA
20
22
24
47
49
51
47
49
51
10 mA
20
22
25
23
25
27
23
25
27
12 mA
19
23
26
—
—
—
—
—
—
5–53
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–46. Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate Derating Factors (Part 3 of 4)
Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate Derating Factors (ps/pF)
I/O Standard
Drive
Strength
Column I/O Pins
Dedicated Clock
Outputs
Row I/O Pins
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
DIFFERENTIAL_SSTL_
18_CLASS_II
16 mA
30
33
36
—
—
—
—
—
—
18 mA
29
29
29
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.8V_
DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_I
8 mA
26
28
29
59
61
63
59
61
63
10 mA
46
47
48
65
66
68
65
66
68
12 mA
67
67
67
71
71
72
71
71
72
16 mA
62
65
68
—
—
—
—
—
—
18 mA
59
62
65
—
—
—
—
—
—
20 mA
57
59
62
—
—
—
—
—
—
8 mA
40
40
41
28
32
36
28
32
36
10 mA
41
42
42
—
—
—
—
—
—
12 mA
43
43
43
—
—
—
—
—
—
16 mA
18
20
21
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.8V_
DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_II
1.5V_
DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_I
1.5V_
DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL_
CLASS_II
LVDS
—
11
13
16
11
13
15
11
13
15
RSDS
—
11
13
16
11
13
15
11
13
15
MINI_LVDS
—
11
13
16
11
13
15
11
13
15
SIMPLE_RSDS
—
15
19
23
15
19
23
15
19
23
1.2V_HSTL
—
130
132
133
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.2V_
DIFFERENTIAL_HSTL
—
130
132
133
—
—
—
—
—
—
PCI
—
—
—
—
99
120
142
99
120
142
PCI-X
—
—
—
—
99
121
143
99
121
143
LVTTL
OCT_25
_OHMS
13
14
14
21
27
33
21
27
33
LVCMOS
OCT_25
_OHMS
13
14
14
21
27
33
21
27
33
2.5V
OCT_50
_OHMS
346
369
392
324
326
327
324
326
327
1.8V
OCT_50
_OHMS
198
203
209
202
203
204
202
203
204
5–54
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–46. Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate Derating Factors (Part 4 of 4)
Maximum Output Clock Toggle Rate Derating Factors (ps/pF)
I/O Standard
Drive
Strength
Column I/O Pins
Dedicated Clock
Outputs
Row I/O Pins
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
–6
–7
–8
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
SSTL_2_CLASS_I
OCT_50
_OHMS
67
69
70
25
42
60
25
42
60
SSTL_18_CLASS_I
OCT_50
_OHMS
30
33
36
47
49
51
47
49
51
High Speed I/O Timing Specifications
The timing analysis for LVDS, mini-LVDS, and RSDS is different
compared to other I/O standards because the data communication is
source-synchronous.
You should also consider board skew, cable skew, and clock jitter in your
calculation. This section provides details on the timing parameters for
high-speed I/O standards in Cyclone II devices.
Table 5–47 defines the parameters of the timing diagram shown in
Figure 5–3.
Table 5–47. High-Speed I/O Timing Definitions (Part 1 of 2)
Parameter
Symbol
Description
High-speed clock
fH S C K L K
High-speed receiver and transmitter input and output clock frequency.
Duty cycle
tD U T Y
Duty cycle on high-speed transmitter output clock.
High-speed I/O data rate
HSIODR
High-speed receiver and transmitter input and output data rate.
Time unit interval
TUI
TUI = 1/HSIODR.
Channel-to-channel skew
TCCS
The timing difference between the fastest and slowest output edges,
including tCO variation and clock skew. The clock is included in the
TCCS measurement.
TCCS = TUI – SW – (2 × RSKM)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–55
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–47. High-Speed I/O Timing Definitions (Part 2 of 2)
Parameter
Symbol
Description
Sampling window
SW
The period of time during which the data must be valid in order for you
to capture it correctly. Sampling window is the sum of the setup time,
hold time, and jitter. The window of tSU + tH is expected to be centered
in the sampling window.
SW = TUI – TCCS – (2 × RSKM)
Receiver input skew
margin
RSKM
RSKM is defined by the total margin left after accounting for the
sampling window and TCCS.
RSKM = (TUI – SW – TCCS) / 2
Input jitter (peak to peak)
—
Peak-to-peak input jitter on high-speed PLLs.
Output jitter (peak to peak)
—
Peak-to-peak output jitter on high-speed PLLs.
Signal rise time
tR I S E
Low-to-high transmission time.
Signal fall time
tFA L L
High-to-low transmission time.
Lock time
tL O C K
Lock time for high-speed transmitter and receiver PLLs.
Figure 5–3. High-Speed I/O Timing Diagram
External
Input Clock
Time Unit Interval (TUI)
Internal Clock
Receiver
Input Data
TCCS
RSKM
RSKM
TCCS
Sampling Window (SW)
Figure 5–4 shows the high-speed I/O timing budget.
5–56
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Figure 5–4. High-Speed I/O Timing Budget
Note (1)
Internal Clock Period
0.5 × TCCS RSKM
SW
RSKM
0.5 × TCCS
Note to Figure 5–4:
(1)
The equation for the high-speed I/O timing budget is:
period = TCCS + RSKM + SW + RSKM.
Table 5–48 shows the RSDS timing budget for Cyclone II devices at
311 Mbps. RSDS is supported for transmitting from Cyclone II devices.
Cyclone II devices cannot receive RSDS data because the devices are
intended for applications where they will be driving display drivers.
Cyclone II devices support a maximum RSDS data rate of 311 Mbps using
DDIO registers. Cyclone II devices support RSDS only in the commercial
temperature range.
Table 5–48. RSDS Transmitter Timing Specification (Part 1 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade
Symbol
fH S C L K
(input
clock
frequency)
Device
operation
in Mbps
tD U T Y
–7 Speed Grade
–8 Speed Grade
Conditions
Unit
Min
Typ
Max(1)
Min
Typ
Max(1)
Min
Typ
Max(1)
×10
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
MHz
×8
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
MHz
×7
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
MHz
×4
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
MHz
×2
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
MHz
×1
10
—
311
10
—
311
10
—
311
MHz
×10
100
—
311
100
—
311
100
—
311
Mbps
×8
80
—
311
80
—
311
80
—
311
Mbps
×7
70
—
311
70
—
311
70
—
311
Mbps
×4
40
—
311
40
—
311
40
—
311
Mbps
×2
20
—
311
20
—
311
20
—
311
Mbps
×1
10
—
311
10
—
311
10
—
311
Mbps
—
45
—
55
45
—
55
45
—
55
%
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–57
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–48. RSDS Transmitter Timing Specification (Part 2 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade
Symbol
–7 Speed Grade
–8 Speed Grade
Conditions
Unit
Min
Typ
Max(1)
Min
Typ
Max(1)
Min
Typ
Max(1)
TCCS
—
—
—
200
—
—
200
—
—
200
ps
Output
jitter (peak
to peak)
—
—
—
500
—
—
500
—
—
500
ps
tR I S E
20–80%,
CL O A D = 5 pF
—
500
—
—
500
—
—
500
—
ps
tF A L L
80–20%,
CL O A D = 5 pF
—
500
—
—
500
—
—
500
—
ps
tL O C K
—
—
100
—
100
—
—
100
μs
Note to Table 5–48:
(1)
These specifications are for a three-resistor RSDS implementation. For single-resistor RSDS in ×10 through ×2
modes, the maximum data rate is 170 Mbps and the corresponding maximum input clock frequency is 85 MHz.
For single-resistor RSDS in ×1 mode, the maximum data rate is 170 Mbps, and the maximum input clock frequency
is 170 MHz. For more information about the different RSDS implementations, refer to the High-Speed Differential
Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices chapter of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
In order to determine the transmitter timing requirements, RSDS receiver
timing requirements on the other end of the link must be taken into
consideration. RSDS receiver timing parameters are typically defined as
tSU and tH requirements. Therefore, the transmitter timing parameter
specifications are tCO (minimum) and tCO (maximum). Refer to Figure 5–4
for the timing budget.
The AC timing requirements for RSDS are shown in Figure 5–5.
5–58
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Figure 5–5. RSDS Transmitter Clock to Data Relationship
Transmitter
Clock (5.88 ns)
Channel-to-Channel
Skew (1.68 ns)
At transmitter
tx_data[11..0]
Transmitter
Valid
Data
Transmitter
Valid
Data
At receiver
rx_data[11..0]
Valid
Data
Valid
Data
Total
Skew
tSU (2 ns)
tH (2 ns)
Table 5–49 shows the mini-LVDS transmitter timing budget for Cyclone II
devices at 311 Mbps. Cyclone II devices cannot receive mini-LVDS data
because the devices are intended for applications where they will be
driving display drivers. A maximum mini-LVDS data rate of 311 Mbps is
supported for Cyclone II devices using DDIO registers. Cyclone II
devices support mini-LVDS only in the commercial temperature range.
Table 5–49. Mini-LVDS Transmitter Timing Specification (Part 1 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade
Symbol
–8 Speed Grade
Unit
Min
fH S C L K
(input
clock
frequency)
–7 Speed Grade
Conditions
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
×10
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
MHz
×8
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
MHz
×7
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
MHz
×4
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
MHz
×2
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
10
—
155.5
MHz
×1
10
—
311
10
—
311
10
—
311
MHz
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–59
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–49. Mini-LVDS Transmitter Timing Specification (Part 2 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade
Symbol
tD U T Y
–8 Speed Grade
Unit
Min
Device
operation
in Mbps
–7 Speed Grade
Conditions
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
×10
100
—
311
100
—
311
100
—
311
Mbps
×8
80
—
311
80
—
311
80
—
311
Mbps
×7
70
—
311
70
—
311
70
—
311
Mbps
×4
40
—
311
40
—
311
40
—
311
Mbps
×2
20
—
311
20
—
311
20
—
311
Mbps
×1
10
—
311
10
—
311
10
—
311
Mbps
—
45
—
55
45
—
55
45
—
55
%
TCCS
—
—
—
200
—
—
200
—
—
200
ps
Output
jitter (peak
to peak)
—
—
—
500
—
—
500
—
—
500
ps
tR I S E
20–80%
—
—
500
—
—
500
—
—
500
ps
tF A L L
80–20%
—
—
500
—
—
500
—
—
500
ps
—
—
100
—
—
100
—
—
100
μs
tL O C K
In order to determine the transmitter timing requirements, mini-LVDS
receiver timing requirements on the other end of the link must be taken
into consideration. The mini-LVDS receiver timing parameters are
typically defined as tSU and tH requirements. Therefore, the transmitter
timing parameter specifications are tCO (minimum) and tCO (maximum).
Refer to Figure 5–4 for the timing budget.
The AC timing requirements for mini-LVDS are shown in Figure 5–6.
Figure 5–6. mini-LVDS Transmitter AC Timing Specification
TUI
LVDSCLK[]n
LVDSCLK[]p
tSU (1)
tH (2)
tSU (1)
tH (2)
LVDS[]p
LVDS[]n
Notes to Figure 5–6:
(1)
(2)
The data setup time, tSU, is 0.225 × TUI.
The data hold time, tH, is 0.225 × TUI.
5–60
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Tables 5–50 and 5–51 show the LVDS timing budget for Cyclone II
devices. Cyclone II devices support LVDS receivers at data rates up to
805 Mbps, and LVDS transmitters at data rates up to 640 Mbps.
Table 5–50. LVDS Transmitter Timing Specification (Part 1 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade
Symbol
Conditions
–7 Speed Grade
–8 Speed Grade
Max
(1)
(2)
—
155.5
(4)
320
(6)
MHz
10
—
155.5
(4)
320
(6)
MHz
320
10
—
155.5
(4)
320
(6)
MHz
275
320
10
—
155.5
(4)
320
(6)
MHz
—
275
320
10
—
155.5
(4)
320
(6)
MHz
10
—
402.5
402.5
10
—
402.5
(8)
402.5
(8)
MHz
640
100
—
550
640
100
—
311
(5)
550
(7)
Mbps
640
640
80
—
550
640
80
—
311
(5)
550
(7)
Mbps
—
640
640
70
—
550
640
70
—
311
(5)
550
(7)
Mbps
40
—
640
640
40
—
550
640
40
—
311
(5)
550
(7)
Mbps
×2
20
—
640
640
20
—
550
640
20
—
311
(5)
550
(7)
Mbps
×1
10
—
402.5
402.5
10
—
402.5
402.5
10
—
402.5
(9)
402.5
(9)
Mbps
—
45
—
55
—
45
—
55
—
45
—
55
—
%
—
—
—
—
160
—
312.5
—
TCCS
(3)
—
—
Output
jitter
(peak to
peak)
—
20–80%
HSIODR
tD U T Y
tR I S E
Max
(1)
(2)
—
275
10
—
320
10
320
320
—
320
10
—
×10
100
×8
Unit
Max
fH S C L K
(input
clock
frequency)
Max
Max
Max
(1)
(2)
—
320
10
—
×7
10
×4
Min
Typ
Min
Typ
320
10
320
10
320
320
275
320
—
320
—
275
10
—
10
—
×2
10
320
10
×1
402.5
402.5
—
640
80
—
×7
70
×4
Min
Typ
×10
10
×8
Altera Corporation
February 2008
—
—
—
200
—
—
—
200
—
—
—
—
500
—
—
500
150
200
250
150
200
250
363.6
ps
—
200
ps
—
—
550 (10)
ps
150
200
250 (11)
ps
5–61
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
Table 5–50. LVDS Transmitter Timing Specification (Part 2 of 2)
–6 Speed Grade
Symbol
Conditions
Min
Typ
–7 Speed Grade
Max
Max
(1)
(2)
Min
Typ
–8 Speed Grade
Max
Max
(1)
(2)
Min
Typ
Max
Max
(1)
(2)
Unit
tF A L L
80–20%
150
200
250
150
200
250
150
200
250 (11)
ps
tL O C K
—
—
—
100
—
—
100
—
—
100 (12)
μs
Notes to Table 5–50:
(1)
(2)
The maximum data rate that complies with duty cycle distortion of 45–55%.
The maximum data rate when taking duty cycle in absolute ps into consideration that may not comply with 45–55%
duty cycle distortion. If the downstream receiver can handle duty cycle distortion beyond the 45–55% range, you
may use the higher data rate values from this column. You can calculate the duty cycle distortion as a percentage
using the absolute ps value. For example, for a data rate of 640 Mbps (UI = 1562.5 ps) and a tD U T Y of 250 ps, the
duty cycle distortion is ± tD U T Y /(UI*2) *100% = ± 250 ps/(1562.5 *2) * 100% = ± 8%, which gives you a duty cycle
distortion of 42–58%.
(3) The TCCS specification applies to the entire bank of LVDS, as long as the SERDES logic is placed within the LAB
adjacent to the output pins.
(4) For extended temperature devices, the maximum input clock frequency for ×10 through ×2 modes is 137.5 MHz.
(5) For extended temperature devices, the maximum data rate for ×10 through ×2 modes is 275 Mbps.
(6) For extended temperature devices, the maximum input clock frequency for ×10 through ×2 modes is 200 MHz.
(7) For extended temperature devices, the maximum data rate for ×10 through ×2 modes is 400 Mbps.
(8) For extended temperature devices, the maximum input clock frequency for ×1 mode is 340 MHz.
(9) For extended temperature devices, the maximum data rate for ×1 mode is 340 Mbps.
(10) For extended temperature devices, the maximum output jitter (peak to peak) is 600 ps.
(11) For extended temperature devices, the maximum tR I S E and tFA L L are 300 ps.
(12) For extended temperature devices, the maximum lock time is 500 us.
5–62
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–51. LVDS Receiver Timing Specification
–6 Speed Grade
Symbol
fH S C L K
(input clock
frequency)
–7 Speed Grade
–8 Speed Grade
Conditions
×10
Unit
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Min
Typ
Max
10
—
402.5
10
—
320
10
—
320 (1)
MHz
×8
10
—
402.5
10
—
320
10
—
320 (1)
MHz
×7
10
—
402.5
10
—
320
10
—
320 (1)
MHz
×4
10
—
402.5
10
—
320
10
—
320 (1)
MHz
×2
10
—
402.5
10
—
320
10
—
320 (1)
MHz
×1
10
—
402.5
10
—
402.5
10
—
402.5 (3)
MHz
×10
100
—
805
100
—
640
100
—
640 (2)
Mbps
×8
80
—
805
80
—
640
80
—
640 (2)
Mbps
×7
70
—
805
70
—
640
70
—
640 (2)
Mbps
×4
40
—
805
40
—
640
40
—
640 (2)
Mbps
×2
20
—
805
20
—
640
20
—
640 (2)
Mbps
×1
10
—
402.5
10
—
402.5
10
—
402.5 (4)
Mbps
SW
—
—
—
300
—
—
400
—
—
400
ps
Input jitter
tolerance
—
—
—
500
—
—
500
—
—
550
ps
tL O C K
—
—
—
100
—
—
100
—
—
100 (5)
ps
HSIODR
Notes to Table 5–51:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
For extended temperature devices, the maximum input clock frequency for x10 through x2 modes is 275 MHz.
For extended temperature devices, the maximum data rate for x10 through x2 modes is 550 Mbps.
For extended temperature devices, the maximum input clock frequency for x1 mode is 340 MHz.
For extended temperature devices, the maximum data rate for x1 mode is 340 Mbps.
For extended temperature devices, the maximum lock time is 500 us.
External Memory Interface Specifications
Table 5–52 shows the DQS bus clock skew adder specifications.
Table 5–52. DQS Bus Clock Skew Adder Specifications
Mode
DQS Clock Skew Adder
Unit
×9
155
ps
×18
190
ps
Note to Table 5–52:
(1)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
This skew specification is the absolute maximum and minimum skew. For
example, skew on a ×9 DQ group is 155 ps or ±77.5 ps.
5–63
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
JTAG Timing Specifications
Figure 5–7 shows the timing requirements for the JTAG signals.
Figure 5–7. Cyclone II JTAG Waveform
TMS
TDI
t JCP
t JCH
t JCL
t JPSU
t JPH
TCK
tJPZX
t JPXZ
t JPCO
TDO
tJSSU
Signal
to be
Captured
Signal
to be
Driven
5–64
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
tJSZX
tJSH
tJSCO
tJSXZ
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–53 shows the JTAG timing parameters and values for Cyclone II
devices.
Table 5–53. Cyclone II JTAG Timing Parameters and Values
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
tJ C P
TCK clock period
40
—
ns
tJ C H
TCK clock high time
20
—
ns
tJ C L
TCK clock low time
20
—
ns
tJ P S U
JTAG port setup time (2)
5
—
ns
tJ P H
JTAG port hold time
10
—
ns
tJ P C O
JTAG port clock to output (2)
—
13
ns
tJ P Z X
JTAG port high impedance to valid output (2)
—
13
ns
tJ P X Z
JTAG port valid output to high impedance (2)
—
13
ns
tJ S S U
Capture register setup time (2)
5
—
ns
tJ S H
Capture register hold time
10
—
ns
tJ S C O
Update register clock to output
—
25
ns
tJ S Z X
Update register high impedance to valid output
—
25
ns
tJ S X Z
Update register valid output to high impedance
—
25
ns
Notes to Table 5–53:
(1)
(2)
This information is preliminary.
This specification is shown for 3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS and 2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS operation of the JTAG pins. For
1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS and 1.5-V LVCMOS, the JTAG port and capture register clock setup time is 3 ns and port
clock to output time is 15 ns.
1
f
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II devices must be within the first 17 devices in a JTAG
chain. All of these devices have the same JTAG controller. If any
of the Cyclone II devices are in the 18th position or after they will
fail configuration. This does not affect the SignalTap® II logic
analyzer.
For more information on JTAG, refer to the IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG)
Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices chapter in the Cyclone II
Handbook.
5–65
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Timing Specifications
PLL Timing Specifications
Table 5–54 describes the Cyclone II PLL specifications when operating in
the commercial junction temperature range (0° to 85° C), the industrial
junction temperature range (–40° to 100° C), the automotive junction
temperature range (–40° to 125° C), and the extended temperature range
(–40° to 125° C). Follow the PLL specifications for –8 speed grade devices
when operating in the industrial, automotive, or extended temperature
range.
Table 5–54. PLL Specifications Note (1) (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
fI N
fI N P F D
fI N D U T Y
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Input clock frequency (–6 speed grade)
10
—
(4)
MHz
Input clock frequency (–7 speed grade)
10
—
(4)
MHz
Input clock frequency (–8 speed grade)
10
—
(4)
MHz
PFD input frequency (–6 speed grade)
10
—
402.5
MHz
PFD input frequency (–7 speed grade)
10
—
402.5
MHz
PFD input frequency (–8 speed grade)
10
—
402.5
MHz
Input clock duty cycle
40
—
60
%
tI N J I T T E R (5)
Input clock period jitter
—
200
—
ps
fO U T _ E X T (external
clock output)
PLL output frequency (–6 speed grade)
10
—
(4)
MHz
fO U T (to global clock)
PLL output frequency (–7 speed grade)
10
—
(4)
MHz
PLL output frequency (–8 speed grade)
10
—
(4)
MHz
PLL output frequency (–6 speed grade)
10
—
500
MHz
PLL output frequency (–7 speed grade)
10
—
450
MHz
PLL output frequency (–8 speed grade)
10
—
402.5
MHz
tO U T D U T Y
Duty cycle for external clock output (when
set to 50%)
45
—
55
%
tJ I T T E R (p-p) (2)
Period jitter for external clock output
fO U T _ E X T > 100 MHz
—
—
300
ps
fO U T _ E X T ≤100 MHz
—
—
30
mUI
tL O C K
Time required to lock from end of device
configuration
—
—
100 (6)
μs
tPLL_PSERR
Accuracy of PLL phase shift
—
—
±60
ps
5–66
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–54. PLL Specifications Note (1) (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
fV C O (3)
PLL internal VCO operating range
300
—
1,000
MHz
tA R E S E T
Minimum pulse width on areset signal.
10
—
—
ns
Notes to Table 5–54:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
These numbers are preliminary and pending silicon characterization.
The tJITTER specification for the PLL[4..1]_OUT pins are dependent on the I/O pins in its VCCIO bank, how many
of them are switching outputs, how much they toggle, and whether or not they use programmable current strength.
If the VCO post-scale counter = 2, a 300- to 500-MHz internal VCO frequency is available.
This parameter is limited in the Quartus II software by the I/O maximum frequency. The maximum I/O frequency
is different for each I/O standard.
Cyclone II PLLs can track a spread-spectrum input clock that has an input jitter within ±200 ps.
For extended temperature devices, the maximum lock time is 500 us.
Duty Cycle
Distortion
Duty cycle distortion (DCD) describes how much the falling edge of a
clock is off from its ideal position. The ideal position is when both the
clock high time (CLKH) and the clock low time (CLKL) equal half of the
clock period (T), as shown in Figure 5–8. DCD is the deviation of the
non-ideal falling edge from the ideal falling edge, such as D1 for the
falling edge A and D2 for the falling edge B (Figure 5–8). The maximum
DCD for a clock is the larger value of D1 and D2.
Figure 5–8. Duty Cycle Distortion
Ideal Falling Edge
CLKH = T/2
CLKL = T/2
D1
Falling Edge A
D2
Falling Edge B
Clock Period (T)
DCD expressed in absolution derivation, for example, D1 or D2 in
Figure 5–8, is clock-period independent. DCD can also be expressed as a
percentage, and the percentage number is clock-period dependent. DCD
as a percentage is defined as:
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–67
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Duty Cycle Distortion
(T/2 – D1) / T (the low percentage boundary)
(T/2 + D2) / T (the high percentage boundary)
DCD Measurement Techniques
DCD is measured at an FPGA output pin driven by registers inside the
corresponding I/O element (IOE) block. When the output is a single data
rate signal (non-DDIO), only one edge of the register input clock (positive
or negative) triggers output transitions (Figure 5–9). Therefore, any DCD
present on the input clock signal, or caused by the clock input buffer, or
different input I/O standard, does not transfer to the output signal.
Figure 5–9. DCD Measurement Technique for Non-DDIO (Single-Data Rate) Outputs
IOE
DFF
D
Q
output
clk
However, when the output is a double data rate input/output (DDIO)
signal, both edges of the input clock signal (positive and negative) trigger
output transitions (Figure 5–10). Therefore, any distortion on the input
clock and the input clock buffer affect the output DCD.
5–68
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Figure 5–10. DCD Measurement Technique for DDIO (Double-Data Rate) Outputs
DFF
PRN
clk
D
INPUT
VCC
GND
Q
CLRN
1
0
output
VCC DFF
PRN
D
Q
CLRN
When an FPGA PLL generates the internal clock, the PLL output clocks
the IOE block. As the PLL only monitors the positive edge of the reference
clock input and internally re-creates the output clock signal, any DCD
present on the reference clock is filtered out. Therefore, the DCD for a
DDIO output with PLL in the clock path is better than the DCD for a
DDIO output without PLL in the clock path.
Tables 5–55 through 5–58 give the maximum DCD in absolution
derivation for different I/O standards on Cyclone II devices. Examples
are also provided that show how to calculate DCD as a percentage.
Table 5–55. Maximum DCD for Single Data Outputs (SDR) on Row I/O
Pins Notes (1), (2) (Part 1 of 2)
Row I/O Output Standard
Altera Corporation
February 2008
C6
C7
C8
Unit
LVCMOS
165
230
230
ps
LVTTL
195
255
255
ps
2.5-V
120
120
135
ps
1.8-V
115
115
175
ps
1.5-V
130
130
135
ps
SSTL-2 Class I
60
90
90
ps
SSTL-2 Class II
65
75
75
ps
SSTL-18 Class I
90
165
165
ps
HSTL-15 Class I
145
145
205
ps
HSTL-18 Class I
85
155
155
ps
5–69
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Duty Cycle Distortion
Table 5–55. Maximum DCD for Single Data Outputs (SDR) on Row I/O
Pins Notes (1), (2) (Part 2 of 2)
Row I/O Output Standard
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
C6
C7
C8
Unit
60
90
90
ps
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
65
75
75
ps
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
90
165
165
ps
Differential HSTL-18 Class I
85
155
155
ps
Differential HSTL-15 Class I
145
145
205
ps
LVDS
60
60
60
ps
Simple RSDS
60
60
60
ps
Mini LVDS
60
60
60
ps
PCI
195
255
255
ps
PCI-X
195
255
255
ps
Notes to Table 5–55:
(1)
(2)
The DCD specification is characterized using the maximum drive strength
available for each I/O standard.
Numbers are applicable for commercial, industrial, and automotive devices.
Here is an example for calculating the DCD as a percentage for an SDR
output on a row I/O on a –6 device:
If the SDR output I/O standard is SSTL-2 Class II, the maximum DCD is
65 ps (refer to Table 5–55). If the clock frequency is 167 MHz, the clock
period T is:
T = 1/ f = 1 / 167 MHz = 6 ns = 6000 ps
To calculate the DCD as a percentage:
(T/2 – DCD) / T = (6000 ps/2 – 65 ps) / 6000 ps = 48.91% (for low
boundary)
(T/2 + DCD) / T = (6000 ps/2 + 65 ps) / 6000ps = 51.08% (for high
boundary
Table 5–56. Maximum DCD for SDR Output on Column I/O Notes (1), (2)
(Part 1 of 2)
Column I/O Output Standard
C6
C7
C8
Unit
LVCMOS
195
285
285
ps
LVTTL
210
305
305
ps
5–70
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
Table 5–56. Maximum DCD for SDR Output on Column I/O Notes (1), (2)
(Part 2 of 2)
Column I/O Output Standard
C6
C7
C8
Unit
2.5-V
140
140
155
ps
1.8-V
115
115
165
ps
1.5-V
745
745
770
ps
SSTL-2 Class I
60
60
75
ps
SSTL-2 Class II
60
60
80
ps
SSTL-18 Class I
60
130
130
ps
SSTL-18 Class II
60
135
135
ps
HSTL-18 Class I
60
115
115
ps
HSTL-18 Class II
75
75
100
ps
HSTL-15 Class I
150
150
150
ps
HSTL-15 Class II
135
135
155
ps
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
60
60
75
ps
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
60
60
80
ps
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
60
130
130
ps
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
60
135
135
ps
Differential HSTL-18 Class I
60
115
115
ps
Differential HSTL-18 Class II
75
75
100
ps
Differential HSTL-15 Class I
150
150
150
ps
Differential HSTL-15 Class II
135
135
155
ps
LVDS
60
60
60
ps
Simple RSDS
60
70
70
ps
Mini-LVDS
60
60
60
ps
Notes to Table 5–56:
(1)
(2)
The DCD specification is characterized using the maximum drive strength
available for each I/O standard.
Numbers are applicable for commercial, industrial, and automotive devices.
Table 5–57. Maximum for DDIO Output on Row Pins with PLL in the Clock
Path Notes (1), (2) (Part 1 of 2)
Row Pins with PLL in the Clock Path
Altera Corporation
February 2008
C6
C7
C8
Unit
LVCMOS
270
310
310
ps
LVTTL
285
305
335
ps
2.5-V
180
180
220
ps
1.8-V
165
175
205
ps
5–71
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Duty Cycle Distortion
Table 5–57. Maximum for DDIO Output on Row Pins with PLL in the Clock
Path Notes (1), (2) (Part 2 of 2)
Row Pins with PLL in the Clock Path
C6
C7
C8
Unit
1.5-V
280
280
280
ps
SSTL-2 Class I
150
190
230
ps
SSTL-2 Class II
155
200
230
ps
SSTL-18 Class I
180
240
260
ps
HSTL-18 Class I
180
235
235
ps
HSTL-15 Class I
205
220
220
ps
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
150
190
230
ps
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
155
200
230
ps
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
180
240
260
ps
Differential HSTL-18 Class I
180
235
235
ps
Differential HSTL-15 Class I
205
220
220
ps
LVDS
95
110
120
ps
Simple RSDS
100
155
155
ps
Mini LVDS
95
110
120
ps
PCI
285
305
335
ps
PCI-X
285
305
335
ps
Notes to Table 5–57:
(1)
(2)
The DCD specification is characterized using the maximum drive strength
available for each I/O standard.
Numbers are applicable for commercial, industrial, and automotive devices.
For DDIO outputs, you can calculate actual half period from the
following equation:
Actual half period = ideal half period – maximum DCD
For example, if the DDR output I/O standard is SSTL-2 Class II, the
maximum DCD for a –5 device is 155 ps (refer to Table 5–57). If the clock
frequency is 167 MHz, the half-clock period T/2 is:
T/2 = 1/(2* f )= 1 /(2*167 MHz) = 3 ns = 3000 ps
5–72
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
The actual half period is then = 3000 ps – 155 ps = 2845 ps
Table 5–58. Maximum DCD for DDIO Output on Column I/O Pins with PLL in
the Clock Path Notes (1), (2)
Column I/O Pins in the Clock Path
C6
C7
C8
Unit
LVCMOS
285
400
445
ps
LVTTL
305
405
460
ps
2.5-V
175
195
285
ps
1.8-V
190
205
260
ps
1.5-V
605
645
645
ps
SSTL-2 Class I
125
210
245
ps
SSTL-2 Class II
195
195
195
ps
SSTL-18 Class I
130
240
245
ps
SSTL-18 Class II
135
270
330
ps
HSTL-18 Class I
135
240
240
ps
HSTL-18 Class II
165
240
285
ps
HSTL-15 Class I
220
335
335
ps
HSTL-15 Class II
190
210
375
ps
Differential SSTL-2 Class I
125
210
245
ps
Differential SSTL-2 Class II
195
195
195
ps
Differential SSTL-18 Class I
130
240
245
ps
Differential SSTL-18 Class II
132
270
330
ps
Differential HSTL-18 Class I
135
240
240
ps
Differential HSTL-18 Class II
165
240
285
ps
Differential HSTL-15 Class I
220
335
335
ps
Differential HSTL-15 Class II
190
210
375
ps
LVDS
110
120
125
ps
Simple RSDS
125
125
275
ps
Mini-LVDS
110
120
125
ps
Notes to Table 5–58:
(1)
(2)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
The DCD specification is characterized using the maximum drive strength
available for each I/O standard.
Numbers are applicable for commercial, industrial, and automotive devices.
5–73
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Referenced Documents
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following documents:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Document
Revision History
Cyclone II Architecture chapter in Cyclone II Device Handbook
High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices chapter of the
Cyclone II Device Handbook
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
chapter in the Cyclone II Handbook
Operating Requirements for Altera Devices Data Sheet
PowerPlay Early Power Estimator User Guide
PowerPlay Power Analysis chapters in volume 3 of the Quartus II
Handbook
Table 5–59 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 5–59. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
February 2008
v4.0
April 2007
v3.2
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
Added I/O timing numbers for
automotive-grade devices.
●
Updated the following tables with I/O timing
numbers for automotive-grade devices:
Tables 5–2, 5–12, 5–13, 5–15, 5–16, 5–17, 5–18,
5–19, 5–21, 5–22, 5–23, 5–25, 5–26, 5–27, 5–28,
5–36, 5–37, 5–40, 5–41, 5–42, 5–43, 5–55, 5–56,
5–57, and 5–58.
Added “Referenced Documents”.
●
Updated Table 5–3.
Updated RCONF typical and maximum
values in Table 5–3.
●
5–74
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications
February 2007
v3.1
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Added document revision history.
Added VCCA minimum and maximum limitations in
Table 5–1.
Updated Note (1) in Table 5–2.
Updated the maximum VCC rise time for Cyclone II
“A” devices in Table 5–2.
Updated RCONF information in Table 5–3.
Changed VI to Ii in Table 5–3.
Updated LVPECL clock inputs in Note (6) to
Table 5–8.
Updated Note (1) to Table 5–12.
Updated CV R E F capacitance description in
Table 5–13.
Updated “Timing Specifications” section.
Updated Table 5–45.
Added Table 5–46 with information on toggle rate
derating factors.
Corrected calculation of the period based on a
640 Mbps data rate as 1562.5 ps in Note (2) to
Table 5–50.
Updated “PLL Timing Specifications” section.
Updated VCO range of 300–500 MHz in Note (3) to
Table 5–54.
Updated chapter with extended temperature
information.
—
December 2005 Updated PLL Timing Specifications
v2.2
—
November 2005 Updated technical content throughout.
v2.1
—
July 2005
v2.0
—
Updated technical content throughout.
November 2004 Updated the “Differential I/O Standards” section.
v1.1
Updated Table 5–54.
—
June 2004
v1.0
—
Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
5–75
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
5–76
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
6. Reference & Ordering
Information
CII51006-1.4
Software
Cyclone® II devices are supported by the Altera® Quartus® II design
software, which provides a comprehensive environment for
system-on-a-programmable-chip (SOPC) design. The Quartus II software
includes HDL and schematic design entry, compilation and logic
synthesis, full simulation and advanced timing analysis, SignalTap® II
logic analyzer, and device configuration. See the Quartus II Handbook for
more information on the Quartus II software features.
The free Quartus II Web Edition software, available at www.Altera.com,
supports Microsoft Windows XP and Windows 2000. The full version of
Quartus II software is available through the Altera subscription program.
The full version of Quartus II software supports all Altera devices, is
available for Windows XP, Windows 2000, Sun Solaris, and Red Hat
Linux operating systems, and includes a free suite of popular IP
MegaCore® functions for DSP applications and interfacing to external
memory devices. Quartus II software and Quartus II Web Edition
software support seamless integration with your favorite third party
EDA tools.
Device Pin-Outs
Device pin-outs for Cyclone II devices are available on the Altera web site
(www.altera.com). For more information contact Altera Applications.
Ordering
Information
Figure 6–1 describes the ordering codes for Cyclone II devices. For more
information on a specific package, contact Altera Applications.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
6–1
Document Revision History
Figure 6–1. Cyclone II Device Packaging Ordering Information
EP2C
70
A
F
324
C
7
ES
Family Signature
Optional Suffix
Indicates specific device options or
shipment method.
ES: Engineering sample
N: Lead-free devices
EP2C: Cyclone II
Device Type
5
8
15
20
35
50
70
Speed Grade
6, 7, or 8, with 6 being the fastest
Fast-On
Indicates devices with fast
POR (Power on Reset) time.
Operating Temperature
C: Commercial temperature (tJ = 0° C to 85° C)
I: Industrial temperature (tJ = -40° C to 100° C)
Package Type
T:
Q:
F:
U:
Pin Count
Thin quad flat pack (TQFP)
Plastic quad flat pack (PQFP)
FineLine BGA
Ultra FineLine BGA
Document
Revision History
Number of pins for a particular package
Table 6–1 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 6–1. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2007
v1.5
Changes Made
●
●
Added document revision history.
Updated Figure 6–1.
Summary of Changes
●
Added Ultra FineLine BGA
detail in UBGA Package
information in Figure 6–1.
November 2005 Updated software introduction.
v1.2
November 2004 Updated Figure 6–1.
v1.1
June 2004 v1.0
Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
6–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Section II. Clock
Management
This section provides information on the phase-locked loops (PLLs).
Cyclone® II PLLs offer general-purpose clock management with
multiplication and phase shifting and also have the ability to drive off
chip to control system-level clock networks. This section contains
detailed information on the features, the interconnections to the logic
array and off chip, and the specifications for Cyclone II PLLs.
This section includes the following chapter:
■
Revision History
Altera Corporation
Chapter 7, PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section II–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section II–2
Preliminary
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
7. PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
CII51007-3.1
Introduction
Cyclone® II devices have up to four phase-locked loops (PLLs) that
provide robust clock management and synthesis for device clock
management, external system clock management, and I/O interfaces.
Cyclone II PLLs are versatile and can be used as a zero delay buffer, a
jitter attenuator, a low skew fan out buffer, or a frequency synthesizer.
Each Cyclone II device has up to four PLLs, supporting advanced
capabilities such as clock switchover and programmable switchover.
These PLLs offer clock multiplication and division, phase shifting, and
programmable duty cycle and can be used to minimize clock delay and
clock skew, and to reduce or adjust clock-to-out (tCO) and set-up (tSU)
times.
Cyclone II devices also support a power-down mode where unused clock
networks can be turned off. The Altera® Quartus® II software enables the
PLLs and their features without requiring any external devices.
1
Cyclone II PLLs have been characterized to operate in the
commercial junction temperature range (0° to 85° C), the
industrial junction temperature range (-40° to 100° C) and the
extended temperature range (-40° to 125° C).
Table 7–1 shows the PLLs available in each Cyclone II device.
Table 7–1. Cyclone II Device PLL Availability
Device
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLL1
PLL2
PLL3
PLL4
EP2C5
v
v
EP2C8
v
v
EP2C15
v
EP2C20
v
v
v
EP2C35
v
v
v
v
EP2C50
v
v
v
v
EP2C70
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
7–1
Cyclone II PLL Hardware Overview
Table 7–2 provides an overview of the Cyclone II PLL features.
Table 7–2. Cyclone II PLL Features
Feature
Description
Clock multiplication and division
m / (n × post-scale counter) (1)
Phase shift
Down to 125-ps increments (2), (3)
v
Programmable duty cycle
Number of internal clock outputs
Up to three per PLL (4)
Number of external clock outputs
One per PLL (4)
Locked port can feed logic array
v
PLL clock outputs can feed logic array
v
Manual clock switchover
v
Gated lock
v
Notes to Table 7–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Cyclone II PLL
Hardware
Overview
m and post-scale counter values range from 1 to 32. n ranges from 1 to 4.
The smallest phase shift is determined by the voltage control oscillator (VCO)
period divided by 8.
For degree increments, Cyclone II devices can shift output frequencies in
increments of at least 45°. Smaller degree increments are possible depending on
the VCO frequency.
The Cyclone II PLL has three output counters that drive the global clock network.
One of these output counters (c2) can also drive a dedicated external I/O pin
(single ended or differential). This counter output can also drive the external clock
output (PLL<#>_OUT) and internal global clock network at the same time.
Cyclone II devices contain up to four PLLs that are arranged in the four
corners of the Cyclone II device as shown in Figure 7–1, which shows a
top-level diagram of the Cyclone II device and the PLL locations.
7–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 7–1. Cyclone II Device PLL Locations
Note (1)
CLK[8..11]
PLL
3
I/O Bank 3
I/O Bank 4
PLL
2
GCLK[8..11]
I/O Bank 2
I/O Bank 5
GCLK[0..3]
GCLK[4..7]
CLK[0..3]
CLK[4..7]
I/O Bank 1
I/O Bank 6
GCLK[12..15]
PLL
1
I/O Bank 8
I/O Bank 7
PLL
4
CLK[12..15]
Note to Figure 7–1:
(1)
This figure shows the PLL and clock inputs in the EP2C15 through EP2C70 devices. The EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices
only have eight global clocks (CLK[0..3] and CLK[4..7]) and PLLs 1 and 2.
The main purpose of a PLL is to synchronize the phase and frequency of
the VCO to an input reference clock. There are a number of components
that comprise a PLL to achieve this phase alignment.
The PLL compares the rising edge of the reference input clock to a
feedback clock using a phase-frequency detector (PFD). The PFD
produces an up or down signal that determines whether the VCO needs
to operate at a higher or lower frequency. The PFD output is applied to
the charge pump and loop filter, which produces a control voltage for
setting the frequency of the VCO. If the PFD transitions the up signal
high, then the VCO frequency increases. If the PFD transitions the down
signal high, then the VCO frequency decreases.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
7–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Cyclone II PLL Hardware Overview
The loop filter converts these up and down signals to a voltage that is
used to bias the VCO. If the charge pump receives a logic high on the up
signal, current is driven into the loop filter. If the charge pump receives a
logic high on the down signal, current is drawn from the loop filter. The
loop filter filters out glitches from the charge pump and prevents voltage
over-shoot, which minimizes the jitter on the VCO.
The voltage from the charge pump determines how fast the VCO
operates. The VCO is implemented as an four-stage differential ring
oscillator. A divide counter, m, is inserted in the feedback loop to increase
the VCO frequency above the input reference frequency, making the VCO
frequency fVCO = m × fREF. Therefore, the feedback clock, fFB, applied to
one input of the PFD, is locked to the input reference clock, fREF (fIN/n),
applied to the other input of the PFD.
The VCO output can feed up to three post-scale counters (c0, c1, and c2).
These post-scale counters allow a number of harmonically related
frequencies to be produced by the PLL.
Additionally, Cyclone II PLLs have internal delay elements to
compensate for routing on the global clock networks and I/O buffers.
These internal delays are fixed and not accessible to the user.
Figure 7–2 shows a simplified block diagram of the major components of
a Cyclone II device PLL.
7–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 7–2. Cyclone II PLL Block Diagram
VCO Phase Selection
Selectable at Each
PLL Output Port
Post-Scale
Counters
Manual Clock
Switchover
Select Signal
8
Reference
Input Clock
fREF = fIN /n
÷c0
Global
Clock
÷c1
Global
Clock
÷c2
(2)
Global
Clock
fVCO
CLK0 (1)
up
CLK1
inclk0
CLK2 (1)
inclk1
fIN
÷n
Charge
Pump
PFD
Loop
Filter
down
8
VCO
÷k
(3)
CLK3
8
fFB
÷m
Lock Detect
& Filter
PLL<#>_OUT
To I/O or
general routing
Notes to Figure 7–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
This input can be single-ended or differential. If you are using a differential I/O standard, then the design uses two
clock pins. LVDS input is supported via the secondary function of the dedicated clock pins. For example, the CLK0
pin’s secondary function is LVDSCLK1p and the CLK1 pin’s secondary function is LVDSCLK1n. Figure 7–2 shows
the possible clock input connections to PLL 1.
This counter output is shared between a dedicated external clock output (PLL<#>_OUT) and the global clock
network.
If the VCO post scale counter = 2, a 300- to 500-MHz internal VCO frequency is available.
The Cyclone II PLL supports up to three global clock outputs and one
dedicated external clock output. The output frequency to the global clock
network or dedicated external clock output is determined by using the
following equation:
fglobal/external = fIN
m
n×C
fIN is the clock input to the PLL and C is the setting on the c0, c1, or c2
counter.
The VCO frequency is determined in all cases by using the following
equation:
fVCO = fIN
Altera Corporation
February 2007
m
n
7–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Cyclone II PLL Hardware Overview
The VCO frequency is a critical parameter that must be between 300 and
1,000 MHz to ensure proper operation of the PLL. The Quartus II
software automatically sets the VCO frequency within the recommended
range based on the clock output and phase-shift requirements in your
design.
PLL Reference Clock Generation
In Cyclone II devices, up to four clock pins can drive the PLL, as shown
in Figure 7–11 on page 7–26. The multiplexer output feeds the PLL
reference clock input. The PLL has internal delay elements that
compensate for the clock delay from the input pin to the clock input port
of the PLL.
Table 7–3 shows the clock input pin connections to the PLLs in the
Cyclone II device.
Table 7–3. PLL Clock Input Pin Connections
PLL 1
Device
PLL 2
PLL 3
CLK8
CLK9
PLL 4
CLK0
CLK1
CLK2
CLK3
CLK4
CLK5
CLK6
CLK7
CLK10 CLK12 CLK14
CLK11 CLK13 CLK15
EP2C5
v
v
v
v
EP2C8
v
v
v
v
EP2C15
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
EP2C20
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
EP2C35
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
EP2C50
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
EP2C70
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
Each PLL can be fed by one of four single-ended or two differential clock
input pins. For example, PLL 1 can be fed by CLK[3..0] when using a
single-ended I/O standard. When your design uses a differential I/O
standard, these same clock pins have a secondary function as
LVDSCLK[2..1]p and LVDSCLK[2..1]n pins. When using differential
clocks, the CLK0 pin’s secondary function is LVDSCLK1p, the CLK1 pin’s
secondary function is LVDSCLK1n, etc.
7–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Software
Overview
You can use the altpll megafunction in the Quartus II software to
enable Cyclone II PLLs. Figure 7–3 shows the available ports in
Cyclone II PLLs and their sources and destinations. The c0 and c1
counters feed the internal global clock networks and the c2 counter can
feed the global clock network and a dedicated external clock output pin
(PLL<#>_OUT) at the same time.
Figure 7–3. Cyclone II PLL Signals
(1)
inclk[1..0] (2)
c[1..0]
pllena
(3) c2
areset
locked
pfdena
clkswitch
Physical Pins
Signal driven by internal logic
Signal driven to internal logic
Internal clock signal
Physical pins and internal clock signal
Notes to Figure 7–3:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Altera Corporation
February 2007
These signals can be assigned to either a single-ended or differential I/O standard.
The inclk must be driven by one of two dedicated clock input pins.
This counter output can drive both a dedicated external clock output
(PLL<#>_OUT) and the global clock network.
7–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Software Overview
Tables 7–4 and 7–5 describe the Cyclone II PLL input and output ports.
Table 7–4. PLL Input Signals
Port
Description
Source
Destination
inclk[1..0]
Primary and secondary clock inputs to the PLL.
pllena
pllena is an active high signal that acts as an
Logic array or
enable and reset signal for the PLL. It can be used input pin
for enabling or disabling each PLL. When
pllena transitions low, the PLL clock output
ports are driven to GND and the PLL loses lock.
Once pllena transitions high again, the lock
process begins and the PLL re-synchronizes to its
input reference clock. The pllena port can be
driven by an LE output or any general-purpose I/O
pin.
PLL control signal
areset
areset is an active high signal that resets all PLL Logic array or
PLL control signal
Dedicated clock
input pins
n counter
counters to their initial values. When this signal is input pin
driven high the PLL resets its counters, clears the
PLL outputs and loses lock. Once this signal is
driven low again, the lock process begins and the
PLL re-synchronizes to its input reference clock.
The areset port can be driven by an LE output
or any general-purpose I/O pin.
pfdena
pfdena is an active high signal that enables or
Logic array or
input pin
disables the up/down output signals from the
PFD. When pfdena is driven low, the PFD is
disabled, while the VCO continues to operate. The
PLL clock outputs continue to toggle regardless of
the input clock, but may experience some longterm drift. Because the output clock frequency
does not change for some time, you can use the
pfdena port as a shutdown or cleanup function
when a reliable input clock is no longer available.
The pfdena port can be driven by an LE output
or any general-purpose I/O pin.
PFD
clkswitch
clkswitch is an active high switchover signal
PLL control signal
used to initiate manual clock switchover.
7–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Logic array or
input pin
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Table 7–5. PLL Output signals
Port
Description
Source
Destination
c[2..0]
PLL clock outputs driving the internal global clock PLL post-scale
counter
network or external clock output pin
(PLL<#>_OUT)
Global clock
network or
external I/O pin
Locked
Gives the status of the PLL lock. When the PLL is PLL lock detect
locked, this port drives VC C . When the PLL is out circuit
of lock, this port drives GND. The locked port may
pulse high and low during the PLL lock process.
Logic array or
output pin
Table 7–6 shows a list of I/O standards supported in Cyclone II device
PLLs.
Table 7–6. I/O Standards Supported for Cyclone II PLLs (Part 1 of 2)
Input
Output
I/O Standard
Altera Corporation
February 2007
inclk
lock
pll_out
LVTTL (3.3, 2.5, and 1.8 V)
v
v
v
LVCMOS (3.3, 2.5, 1.8, and
1.5 V)
v
v
v
3.3-V PCI
v
v
v
3.3-V PCI-X (1)
v
v
v
LVPECL
v
LVDS
v
v
v
v (2)
1.5 and 1.8 V differential
HSTL class I and class II
v
1.8 and 2.5 V differential
SSTL class I and class II
v
1.5-V HSTL class I
v
v
v
1.5-V HSTL class II (3)
v
v
v
1.8-V HSTL class I
v
v
v
1.8-V HSTL class II (3)
v
v
v
SSTL-18 class I
v
v
v
SSTL-18 class II (3)
v
v
v
SSTL-25 class I
v
v
v
v (2)
7–9
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Clock Feedback Modes
Table 7–6. I/O Standards Supported for Cyclone II PLLs (Part 2 of 2)
Input
Output
I/O Standard
SSTL-25 class II
RSDS/mini-LVDS (4)
inclk
lock
pll_out
v
v
v
v
v
Notes to Table 7–6:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Clock Feedback
Modes
The PCI-X I/O standard is supported only on side I/O pins.
Differential SSTL and HSTL outputs are only supported on the PLL<#>_OUT pins.
These I/O standards are only supported on top and bottom I/O pins.
The RSDS and mini-LVDS pins are only supported on output pins.
Cyclone II PLLs support four clock feedback modes: normal mode, zero
delay buffer mode, no compensation mode, and source synchronous
mode. Cyclone II PLLs do not have support for external feedback mode.
All the supported clock feedback modes allow for multiplication and
division, phase shifting, and programmable duty cycle. The phase
relationships shown in the waveforms in Figures 7–4 through 7–6 are for
the default (zero degree) phase shift setting. Changing the phase-shift
setting changes the relationships between the output clocks from the PLL.
Normal Mode
In normal mode, the PLL phase-aligns the input reference clock with the
clock signal at the ports of the registers in the logic array I/O registers to
compensate for the internal global clock network delay. Use the altpll
megafunction in the Quartus II software to define which internal clock
output from the PLL (c0, c1, or c2) to compensate for.
If an external clock output pin (PLL<#>_OUT) is used in this mode, there
is a phase shift with respect to the clock input pin. Similarly, if the internal
PLL clock outputs are used to drive general-purpose I/O pins, there is be
phase shift with respect to the clock input pin.
Figure 7–4 shows an example waveform of the PLL clocks’ phase
relationship in this mode.
7–10
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 7–4. Phase Relationship between Cyclone II PLL Clocks in Normal
Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL inclk
PLL clock at the
register clock port
External PLL clock outputs (1)
Note to Figure 7–4:
(1)
The external clock output can lead or lag the PLL clock signals.
Zero Delay Buffer Mode
In zero delay buffer mode, the clock signal on the PLL external clock
output pin (PLL<#>_OUT), fed by the c2 counter, is phase-aligned with
the PLL input clock pin for zero delay. If the c[1..0] ports drive internal
clock ports, there is a phase shift with respect to the input clock pin.
Figure 7–5 shows an example waveform of the PLL clocks’ phase
relationship in this mode.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
7–11
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Clock Feedback Modes
Figure 7–5. Phase Relationship between Cyclone II PLL Clocks in Zero Delay
Buffer Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input Pin
PLL clock at the
register clock port (1)
External PLL clock
outputs at the Output Pin
Note to Figure 7–5:
(1)
1
The internal clock output(s) can lead or lag the external PLL clock output
(PLL<#>_OUT) signals.
Altera recommends using the same I/O standard on the input
and output clocks when using the Cyclone II PLL in zero delay
buffer mode.
No Compensation Mode
In no compensation mode, the PLL does not compensate for any clock
networks, which leads to better jitter performance. Because the clock
feedback into the PFD does not pass through as much circuitry, both the
PLL internal clock outputs and external clock outputs are phase shifted
with respect to the PLL clock input. Figure 7–6 shows an example
waveform of the PLL clocks’ phase relationship in this mode.
7–12
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 7–6. Phase Relationship between Cyclone II PLL Clocks in No
Compensation Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL inclk
PLL clock at the
register clock port (1)
External PLL clock outputs (2)
Notes to Figure 7–6:
(1)
(2)
Internal clocks fed by the PLL are in phase with each other.
The external clock outputs can lead or lag the PLL internal clocks.
Source-Synchronous Mode
If data and clock arrive at the same time at the input pins, they are
guaranteed to keep the same phase relationship at the clock and data
ports of any IOE input register. Figure 7–7 shows an example waveform
of the clock and data in this mode. This mode is recommended for
source-synchronous data transfer. Data and clock signals at the IOE
experience similar buffer delays as long as the same I/O standard is used.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
7–13
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Hardware Features
Figure 7–7. Phase Relationship between Cyclone II PLL Clocks in
Source-Synchronous Compensation Mode
Data pin
inclk
Data at register
Clock at register
1
Hardware
Features
Set the input pin to the register delay chain within the IOE to
zero in the Quartus II software for all data pins clocked by a
source-synchronous mode PLL.
Cyclone II device PLLs support a number of features for general-purpose
clock management. This section discusses clock multiplication and
division implementation, phase-shifting implementation and PLL lock
circuits.
Clock Multiplication & Division
Cyclone II device PLLs provide clock synthesis for PLL output ports
using m/(n × post-scale) scaling factors. Every PLL has one pre-scale
divider, n, with a range of 1 to 4 and one multiply counter, m, with a range
of 1 to 32. The input clock, fIN, is divided by a pre-scale counter, n, to
produce the input reference clock, fREF, to the PFD. This input reference
clock, fREF, is then multiplied by the m feedback factor. The control loop
drives the VCO frequency to match fIN × (m/n). The equations for these
frequencies are:
fREF =
fIN
n
fVCO = fREF × m = fIN
7–14
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
m
n
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Each output port has a unique post-scale counter to divide down the
high-frequency VCO. There are three post-scale counters (c0, c1, and c2),
which range from 1 to 32. The following equations show the frequencies
for the three post-scale counters:
f
m
fC0 = VCO = fIN
C0
n × C0
f
m
fC1 = VCO = fIN
C1
n × C1
f
m
fC2 = VCO = fIN
C2
n × C2
All three output counters can drive the global clock network. The c2
output counter can also drive a dedicated external I/O pin (single ended
or differential). This counter output can drive a dedicated external clock
output pin (PLL<#>_OUT) and the global clock network at the same time.
For multiple PLL outputs with different frequencies, the VCO is set to the
least common multiple of the output frequencies that meets the VCO
frequency specifications. Then, the post-scale counters scale down the
VCO frequency for each PLL clock output port. For example, if clock
output frequencies required from one PLL are 33 and 66 MHz, the VCO
is set to 330 MHz (the least common multiple in the VCO’s range).
Programmable Duty Cycle
The programmable duty cycle feature allows you to set the PLL clock
output duty cycles. The duty cycle is the ratio of the clock output high and
low time to the total clock cycle time, expressed as a percentage of high
time. This feature is supported on all three PLL post-scale counters, c0, c1,
and c2, and when using all clock feedback modes.
The duty cycle is set by using a low- and high-time count setting for the
post-scale counters. The Quartus II software uses the input frequency and
target multiply/divide ratio to select the post-scale counter. The
granularity of the duty cycle is determined by the post-scale counter
value chosen on a PLL clock output and is defined as 50% ÷ post-scale
counter value. For example, if the post-scale counter value is 3, then the
allowable duty cycle precision would be 50% ÷ 3 = 16.67%. Because the
altpll megafunction does not accept non-integer values for the duty
cycle values, the allowable duty cycles are 17% 33% 50% and 67%. For
example, if the c0 counter is 10, then steps of 5% are possible for duty
cycle choices between 5 to 90%.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
7–15
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Hardware Features
Phase-Shifting Implementation
Cyclone II devices use fine or coarse phase shifts for clock delays because
they are more efficient than delay elements and are independent of
process, voltage, and temperature.
Phase shift is implemented by using a combination of the VCO phase
output and the counter starting time. The VCO phase taps and counter
starting time are independent of process, voltage, and temperature. The
VCO phase taps allow you to phase shift the Cyclone II PLL output clocks
with fine resolution. The counter starting time allows you to phase shift
the Cyclone II PLL output clocks with coarse resolution.
Fine-resolution phase shifting is implemented using any of the eight VCO
phases for the output counters (c[2..0]) or the feedback counter (m)
reference clock. This provides the finest resolution for phase shift. The
minimum delay time that may be inserted using this method is defined
by the equation:
ΔtFINE =
1
8
tVCO =
1
8 × fVCO
=
n
8 × m × fIN
fIN is input reference clock frequency.
For example, if fIN is 100 MHz, n is 1 and m is 8, then fVCO is 800 MHz and
Δt is 156.25 ps. This delay time is defined by the PLL operating frequency
which is governed by the reference clock and the counter settings.
The second way to implement phase shifts is by delaying the start of the
m and post-scale counters for a predetermined number of counter clocks.
This delay time may be expressed as:
ΔtCOARSE =
S−1
fVCO
=
(S − 1) × n
m × fIN
where S is the value set for the counter starting time. The counter starting
time is called the Initial setting in the PLL Usage section of the
compilation report in the Quartus II software.
Figure 7–8 shows an example of delay insertion using these two methods.
The eight phases from the VCO are shown and labeled for reference. For
this example, OUTCLK0 is based off the 0° phase from the VCO and has
the S value for the counter set to 1. It is divided by 4 (two VCO clocks for
high time and two VCO clocks for low time). OUTCLK1 is based off the
135° phase tap from the VCO and also has the S value for the counter set
to 1. It is also divided by 4. In this case, the two clocks are offset by three
7–16
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
ΔtFINE periods. OUTCLK2 is based off the 0° phase from the VCO but has
the S value for the counter set to 3. This creates a delay of two ΔtCOARSE
periods.
Figure 7–8. Cyclone II PLL Phase Shifting using VCO Phase Output & Counter Delay Time
1/8 tVCO
tVCO
0˚
45˚
90˚
135˚
180˚
225˚
270˚
315˚
OUTCLK0
td0-1
OUTCLK1
td0-2
OUTCLK2
Control Signals
The four control signals in Cyclone II PLLs (pllena, areset, pfdena,
and locked) control PLL operation.
pllena
The PLL enable signal, pllena, enables and disables the PLL. You can
either enable/disable a single PLL (by connecting pllena port
independently) or multiple PLLs (by connecting pllena ports together).
The pllena signal is an active-high signal. When pllena is low, the PLL
clock output ports are driven by GND and the PLL loses lock. All PLL
counters, including gated lock counter return to default state. When
pllena transitions high, the PLL relocks and resynchronizes to the input
clock. In Cyclone II devices, the pllena port can be fed by an LE output
or any general-purpose I/O pin. There is no dedicated pllena pin. This
increases flexibility since each PLL can have its own pllena control
circuitry or all PLLs can share the same pllena circuitry. The pllena
signal is optional. When it is not enabled in the Quartus II software, the
port is internally tied to VCC.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
7–17
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Hardware Features
areset
The PLL areset signal is the reset and resynchronization input for each
PLL. The areset signal should be asserted every time the PLL loses lock
to guarantee correct phase relationship between the PLL input and
output clocks. You should include the areset signal in designs if any of
the following conditions are true:
■
■
■
Manual clock switchover is enabled in the design
Phase relationships between input and output clocks need to be
maintained after a loss of lock condition
If the input clock to the PLL is not toggling or is unstable upon
powerup, assert the areset signal after the input clock is toggling,
staying within the input jitter specification
1
Altera recommends using the areset and locked signals in
your designs to control and observe the status of your PLL.
The areset signal is an active high signal and, when driven high, the
PLL counters reset, clearing the PLL output and causing the PLL to lose
lock. The VCO is also set back to its nominal frequency. The clock outputs
from the PLL are driven to ground as long as areset is active. When
areset transitions low, the PLL resynchronizes to its input clock as the
PLL relocks. If the target VCO frequency is below this nominal frequency,
then the PLL clock output frequency starts at a higher value than desired
during the lock process. In this case, Altera recommends monitoring the
gated locked signal to ensure the PLL is fully in lock before enabling the
clock outputs from the PLL. The Cyclone II device can drive this PLL
input signal from LEs or any general-purpose I/O pin. The areset
signal is optional. When it is not enabled in the Quartus II software, the
port is internally tied to GND.
pfdena
The pfdena signal is an active high signal that controls the PFD output
in the PLL with a programmable gate. If you disable the PFD by
transitioning pfdena low, the VCO operates at its last set control voltage
and frequency value with some long-term drift to a lower frequency. Even
though the PLL clock outputs continue to toggle regardless of the input
clock, the PLL could lose lock. The system continues running when the
PLL goes out of lock or if the input clock is disabled. By maintaining the
current frequency, the system has time to store its current settings before
shutting down. If the pfdena signal transitions high, the PLL relocks and
resynchronizes to the input clock. The pfdena input signal can be driven
by any general-purpose I/O pin or from LEs. This signal is optional.
When it is not enabled in the Quartus II software, the port is internally
tied to VCC.
7–18
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
locked
When the locked port output is a logic high level, this indicates a stable
PLL clock output in phase with the PLL reference input clock. The
locked port may toggle as the PLL begins tracking the reference clock.
The locked port of the PLL can feed any general-purpose I/O pin or LEs.
The locked signal is optional, but is useful in monitoring the PLL lock
process.
The locked output indicates that the PLL has locked onto the reference
clock. You may need to gate the locked signal for use as a system-control
signal. Either a gated locked signal or an ungated locked signal from
the locked port can drive the logic array or an output pin. Cyclone II
PLLs include a programmable counter that holds the locked signal low
for a user-selected number of input clock transitions. This allows the PLL
to lock before transitioning the locked signal high. You can use the
Quartus II software to set the 20-bit counter value. The device resets and
enables both the counter and the PLL simultaneously upon power-up
and/or the assertion of the pllenable signal. To ensure correct lock
circuit operation, and to ensure that the output clocks have the correct
phase relationship with respect to the input clock, Altera recommends
that the input clock be running before the Cyclone II device is configured.
Figure 7–9 shows the timing waveform for LOCKED and gated LOCKED
signals.
Figure 7–9. Timing Waveform for LOCKED & Gated LOCKED Signals
PLLENA
Reference Clock
Feedback Clock
Locked
Filter Counter
Reaches
Value Count
Gated Lock
Altera Corporation
February 2007
7–19
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Hardware Features
Manual Clock Switchover
The Cyclone II PLLs support manual switchover of the reference clock
through internal logic. This enables you to switch between two reference
input clocks. Use this feature for a dual clock domain application such as
in a system that turns on the redundant clock if the primary clock stops
running.
Figure 7–10 shows how the PLL input clock (fIN) is generated from one of
four possible clock sources. The first stage multiplexing consists of two
dedicated multiplexers that generate two single-ended or two differential
clocks from four dedicated clock pins. These clock signals are then
multiplexed to generate fIN by using another dedicated 2-to-1
multiplexer. The first stage multiplexers are controlled by configuration
bit settings in the configuration file generated by the Quartus II software,
while the second stage multiplexer is either controlled by the
configuration bit settings or logic array signal to allow the fIN to be
controlled dynamically. This allows the implementation of a manual
clock switchover circuit where the PLL reference clock can be switched
during user mode for applications that requires clock redundancy.
Figure 7–10. Cyclone II PLL Input Clock Generation
(1)
(2)
inclk1
fIN
CLK[n + 3]
CLK[n + 2]
CLK[n + 1]
inclk0
(1)
CLK[n]
Notes to Figure 7–10:
(1)
(2)
This select line is set through the configuration file.
This select line can either be set through the configuration file or it can be
dynamically set in user mode when using the manual switchover feature.
7–20
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
PLL
Specifications
See the DC & Switching Characteristics chapter in Volume 1 of the
Cyclone II Device Handbook for information on PLL timing specifications.
Clocking
Cyclone II devices provide up to 16 dedicated clock pins (CLK[15..0])
that can drive the global clock networks. The smaller Cyclone II devices
(EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices) support four dedicated clock pins on each
side (left and right) capable of driving a total of eight global clock
networks, while the larger devices (EP2C15 devices and larger) support
four clock pins on all four sides of the device. These clock pins can drive
a total of 16 global clock networks.
Table 7–7 shows the number of global clocks available across the
Cyclone II family members.
Table 7–7. Number of Global Clocks Available in Cyclone II Devices
Device
Number of Global Clocks
EP2C5
8
EP2C8
8
EP2C15
16
EP2C20
16
EP2C35
16
EP2C50
16
EP2C70
16
Global Clock Network
Global clocks drive throughout the entire device, feeding all device
quadrants. All resources within the device (IOEs, logic array blocks
(LABs), dedicated multiplier blocks, and M4K memory blocks) can use
the global clock networks as clock sources. These clock network resources
can also be used for control signals, such as clock enables and
synchronous or asynchronous clears fed by an external pin. Internal logic
can also drive the global clock networks for internally generated global
clocks and asynchronous clears, clock enables, or other control signals
with high fan-out.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
7–21
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Clocking
Table 7–8 shows the clock sources connectivity to the global clock
networks.
Table 7–8. Global Clock Network Connections (Part 1 of 3)
Global Clock
Network Clock
Sources
CLK0/LVDSCLK0p
Global Clock Networks
All Cyclone II Devices
0
v
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
v
v
v
v
v
v
CLK6/LVDSCLK3p
v
v
CLK7/LVDSCLK3n
v
v
CLK8/LVDSCLK4n
v
v
CLK9/LVDSCLK4p
v
v
CLK10/LVDSCLK5n
v
v
CLK11/LVDSCLK5p
v
v
CLK12/LVDSCLK6n
v
v
CLK13/LVDSCLK6p
v
CLK14/LVDSCLK7n
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
CLK15/LVDSCLK7p
PLL1_c1
15
v
CLK5/LVDSCLK2n
PLL1_c0
14
v
CLK4/LVDSCLK2p
PLL1_c2
13
v
v
CLK3/LVDSCLK1n
3
v
v
CLK1/LVDSCLK0n
CLK2/LVDSCLK1p
1
EP2C15 through EP2C70 Devices Only
v
v
PLL2_c0
v
PLL2_c1
v
PLL2_c2
v
v
v
v
v
v
PLL3_c0
v
PLL3_c1
v
PLL3_c2
7–22
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
v
v
v
v
v
v
Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Table 7–8. Global Clock Network Connections (Part 2 of 3)
Global Clock
Network Clock
Sources
Global Clock Networks
All Cyclone II Devices
0
1
2
3
4
5
EP2C15 through EP2C70 Devices Only
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
PLL4_c0
v
v
PLL4_c1
v
DPCLK0 (1)
DPCLK1 (1)
DPCLK10 (1), (2)
CDPCLK0 or
CDPCLK7 (3)
DPCLK2 (1), (2)
CDPCLK1 or
CDPCLK2 (3)
DPCLK7 (1)
DPCLK6 (1)
DPCLK8 (1), (2)
CDPCLK5 or
CDPCLK6 (3)
DPCLK4 (1), (2)
CDPCLK4 or
CDPCLK3 (3)
DPCLK8 (1)
DPCLK11 (1)
DPCLK9 (1)
DPCLK10 (1)
DPCLK5 (1)
DPCLK2 (1)
DPCLK4 (1)
Altera Corporation
February 2007
15
v
v
v
PLL4_c2
14
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
7–23
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Clocking
Table 7–8. Global Clock Network Connections (Part 3 of 3)
Global Clock
Network Clock
Sources
Global Clock Networks
All Cyclone II Devices
0
1
2
3
4
5
EP2C15 through EP2C70 Devices Only
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
v
DPCLK3 (1)
Notes to Table 7–8:
(1)
(2)
(3)
See the Cyclone II Architecture chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook for more information on DPCLK
pins.
This pin only applies to EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices.
These pins only apply to EP2C15 devices and larger. Only one of the two CDPCLK pins can feed the clock control
block. The other pin can be used as a regular I/O pin.
If the dedicated clock pins are not used to feed the global clock networks,
they can be used as general-purpose input pins to feed the logic array
using the MultiTrack interconnect. However, if they are used as
general-purpose input pins, they do not have support for an I/O register
and must use LE-based registers in place of an I/O register.
Clock Control Block
Every global clock network is driven by a clock control block residing
either on the top, bottom, left, or right side of the Cyclone II device. The
global clock network has been optimized for minimum clock skew and
delay.
Table 7–9 lists the sources that can feed the clock control block, which in
turn feeds the global clock networks.
Table 7–9. Clock Control Block Inputs (Part 1 of 2)
Input
Dedicated clock inputs
Description
Dedicated clock input pins can drive clocks or
global signals, such as asynchronous clears,
presets, or clock enables onto a given global
clock network.
Dual-purpose clock (DPCLK and DPCLK and CDPCLK I/O pins are bidirectional
dual function pins that can be used for high fanCDPCLK) I/O inputs
out control signals, such as protocol signals,
TRDY and IRDY signals for PCI, or DQS for
DDR, via the global clock network.
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February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Table 7–9. Clock Control Block Inputs (Part 2 of 2)
Input
Description
PLL outputs
The PLL counter outputs can drive the global
clock network.
Internal logic
The global clock network can also be driven
through the logic array routing to enable
internal logic (LEs) to drive a high fan-out, low
skew signal path.
In Cyclone II devices, the dedicated clock input pins, PLL counter
outputs, dual-purpose clock I/O inputs, and internal logic can all feed the
clock control block for each global clock network. The output from the
clock control block in turn feeds the corresponding global clock network.
The clock control blocks are arranged on the device periphery and there
are a maximum of 16 clock control blocks available per Cyclone II device.
The control block has two functions:
■
■
Dynamic global clock network clock source selection
Global clock network power-down (dynamic enable and disable)
Figure 7–11 shows the clock control block.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
7–25
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Clocking
Figure 7–11. Clock Control Block
Clock Control Block
Internal Logic
Static Clock Select (3)
DPCLK or
CDPCLK
(3)
CLK[n + 3]
CLK[n + 2]
CLK[n + 1]
CLK[n]
inclk1
inclk0
fIN
CLKSWITCH (1)
PLL
Enable/
Disable
Global
Clock
Static Clock
Select (3)
C0
C1
C2
CLKSELECT[1..0] (2)
CLKENA (4)
Notes to Figure 7–11:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The CLKSWITCH signal can either be set through the configuration file or dynamically set when using the manual
PLL switchover feature. The output of the multiplexer is the input reference clock (fIN) for the PLL.
The CLKSELECT[1..0] signals are fed by internal logic and can be used to dynamically select the clock source for
the global clock network when the device is in user mode.
The static clock select signals are set in the configuration file and cannot be dynamically controlled when the device
is in user mode.
Internal logic can be used to enable or disable the global clock network in user mode.
Each PLL generates three clock outputs through the c[1..0] and c2
counters. Two of these clocks can drive the global clock network through
the clock control block.
Global Clock Network Clock Source Generation
There are a total of 8 clock control blocks on the smaller Cyclone II devices
(EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices) and a total of 16 clock control blocks on the
larger Cyclone II devices (EP2C15 devices and larger). Figure 7–12 shows
the Cyclone II clock inputs and the clock control blocks placement.
7–26
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February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 7–12. Cyclone II Clock Control Blocks Placement
Clock Control
Block
Output from PLL
Input to PLL
CLK[8..11]
4
PLL
3
PLL
2
3
GCLK[8..11]
Output from PLL
3
GCLK[0..3]
4
Clock Control
Block
GCLK[4..7]
CLK[0..3]
CLK[4..7]
Clock Control
Block
4
3
Output from PLL
GCLK[12..15]
PLL
1
3
PLL
4
4
CLK[12..15]
Clock Control
Block
Output from PLL
The inputs to the four clock control blocks on each side are chosen from
among the following clock sources:
■
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Four clock input pins
Three PLL counter outputs
Two DPCLK pins and two CDPCLK pins from both the left and right
sides and four DPCLK pins and two CDPCLK pins from both the top
and bottom
Four signals from internal logic
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Clocking
From the clock sources listed above, only two clock input pins, two PLL
clock outputs, one DPCLK or CDPCLK pin, and one source from internal
logic can drive into any given clock control blocks, as shown in
Figure 7–11. Out of these six inputs to any clock control block, the two
clock input pins and two PLL outputs can be dynamic selected to feed a
global clock network. The clock control block supports static selection of
the DPCLK or CDPCLK pin and the signal from internal logic.
Figure 7–13 shows the simplified version of the four clock control blocks
on each side of the Cyclone II device periphery. The Cyclone II devices
support up to 16 of these clock control blocks and this allows for up to a
maximum of 16 global clocks in Cyclone II devices.
Figure 7–13. Clock Control Blocks on Each Side of the Cyclone II Device
Clock Input Pins
PLL Outputs
CDPCLK
4
3
2
2 or 4 (1)
Clock
Control
Block
4
GCLK
DPCLK
Internal Logic
4
Four Clock Control
Blocks on Each Side
of the Device
Note to Figure 7–13:
(1)
The left and right sides of the device have two DPCLK pins, and the top and bottom
of the device have four DPCLK pins.
Global Clock Network Power Down
The Cyclone II global clock network can be disabled (powered down) by
both static and dynamic approaches. When a clock network is powered
down, all the logic fed by the clock network is in an off-state, thereby
reducing the overall power consumption of the device.
The global clock networks that are not used are automatically powered
down through configuration bit settings in the configuration file
generated by the Quartus II software.
The dynamic clock enable or disable feature allows internal logic to
synchronously control power up or down on the global clock networks in
the Cyclone II device. This function is independent of the PLL and is
applied directly on the clock network, as shown in Figure 7–11. The input
7–28
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February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
clock sources and the clkena signals for the global clock network
multiplexers can be set through the Quartus II software using the
altclkctrl megafunction.
clkena signals
In Cyclone II devices, the clkena signals are supported at the clock
network level. Figure 7–14 shows how the clkena is implemented. This
allows you to gate off the clock even when a PLL is not being used. Upon
re-enabling the output clock, the PLL does not need a resynchronization
or relock period because the clock is gated off at the clock network level.
Also, the PLL can remain locked independent of the clkena signals since
the loop-related counters are not affected.
Figure 7–14. clkena Implementation
clkena
D
Q
clkena_out
clkin
clk_out
Figure 7–15 shows the waveform example for a clock output enable.
clkena is synchronous to the falling edge of the clock (clkin).
This feature is useful for applications that require a low power or sleep
mode. The exact amount of power saved when using this feature is
pending device characterization.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Board Layout
Figure 7–15. clkena Implementation
clkin
clkena
clkout
The clkena signal can also disable clock outputs if the system is not
tolerant to frequency overshoot during PLL resynchronization.
Altera recommends using the clkena signals when switching the clock
source to the PLLs or the global clock network. The recommended
sequence to be followed is:
Board Layout
1.
Disable the primary output clock by de-asserting the clkena signal.
2.
Switch to the secondary clock using the dynamic select signals of the
clock control block.
3.
Allow some clock cycles of the secondary clock to pass before
re-asserting the clkena signal. The exact number of clock cycles
you need to wait before enabling the secondary clock is design
dependent. You can build custom logic to ensure glitch-free
transition when switching between different clock sources.
The PLL circuits in Cyclone II devices contain analog components
embedded in a digital device. These analog components have separate
power and ground pins to minimize noise generated by the digital
components.
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Altera Corporation
February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
VCCA & GNDA
Each Cyclone II PLL uses separate VCC and ground pin pairs for their
analog circuitry. The analog circuit power and ground pin for each PLL is
called VCCA_PLL<PLL number> and GNDA_ PLL<PLL number>. Connect
the VCCA power pin to a 1.2-V power supply, even if you do not use the
PLL. Isolate the power connected to VCCA from the power to the rest of
the Cyclone II device or any other digital device on the board. You can use
one of three different methods of isolating the VCCA pin:
■
■
■
Use separate VCCA power planes
Use a partitioned VCCA island within the VCCINT plane
Use thick VCCA traces
Separate VCCA Power Plane
A mixed signal system is already partitioned into analog and digital
sections, each with its own power planes on the board. To isolate the VCCA
pin using a separate VCCA power plane, connect the VCCA pin to the
analog 1.2-V power plane.
Partitioned VCCA Island Within the VCCINT Plane
Fully digital systems do not have a separate analog power plane on the
board. Since it is expensive to add new planes to the board, you can create
islands for VCCA_PLL. Figure 7–16 shows an example board layout with
an analog power island. The dielectric boundary that creates the island
should be 25 mils thick. Figure 7–16 shows a partitioned plane within
VCCINT for VCCA.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Board Layout
Figure 7–16. VCCINT Plane Partitioned for VCCA Island
Thick VCCA Trace
Because of board constraints, you may not be able to partition a VCCA
island. Instead, run a thick trace from the power supply to each VCCA
pin. The traces should be at least 20 mils thick.
In each of these three cases, you should filter each VCCA pin with a
decoupling circuit shown in Figure 7–17. Place a ferrite bead that exhibits
high impedance at frequencies of 50 MHz or higher and a 10 µF tantalum
parallel capacitor where the power enters the board. Decouple each
VCCA pin with a 0.1 µF and 0.001 µF parallel combination of ceramic
capacitors located as close as possible to the Cyclone II device. You can
connect the GNDA pins directly to the same ground plane as the device’s
digital ground.
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February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 7–17. PLL Power Schematic for Cyclone II PLLs
Ferrite Bead
1.2V Supply
10 μF
GND
PLL<#>_VCCA
.1 µF
.001 µF
PLL<#>_GNDA
VCCINT
PLL<#>VCCD
PLL<#>_GND
GND
Cyclone II Device
Repeat for Each PLL
Power & Groundset
Note to Figure 7–17:
(1)
Applies to PLLs 1 through 4.
VCCD & GND
The digital power and ground pins are labeled VCCD_ PLL<PLL number>
and GND_PLL<PLL number>. The VCCD pin supplies the power for the
digital circuitry in the PLL. Connect these VCCD pins to the quietest
digital supply on the board. In most systems, this is the digital 1.2-V
supply supplied to the device’s VCCINT pins. Connect the VCCD pins to a
power supply even if you do not use the PLL. When connecting the VCCD
pins to VCCINT, you do not need any filtering or isolation. You can connect
the GND pins directly to the same ground plane as the device’s digital
ground. See Figure 7–17.
Conclusion
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II device PLLs provide you with complete control of device
clocks and system timing. These PLLs support clock
multiplication/division, phase shift, and programmable duty cycle for
your cost-sensitive clock synthesis applications.
7–33
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Conclusion
In addition, the clock networks in the Cyclone II device support dynamic
selection of the clock source and also support a power-down mode where
clock networks that are not being used can easily be turned off, reducing
the overall power consumption of the device.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
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February 2007
PLLs in Cyclone II Devices
Document
Revision History
Table 7–10 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 7–10. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2007
v3.1
Changes Made
●
●
●
●
●
●
Summary of Changes
Added document revision history.
Updated handpara note in “Introduction”.
Updated Note (3) in Table 7–2.
Updated Figure 7–5.
Updated “Control Signals” section.
Updated “Thick VCCA Trace” section.
●
●
●
Updated chapter with
extended temperature
information.
Updated pllena
information in “Control
Signals” section.
Corrected capacitor unit
from10-F to 10 µF.
December 2005 Updated industrial temperature range
v2.2
November 2005
v2.1
●
July 2005 v2.0
●
●
●
●
●
●
Updated Figure 7–12.
Updated Figure 7–17.
Updated Table 7–6.
Updated “Hardware Features” section.
Updated “areset” section.
Updated Table 7–8.
Added “Board Layout” section.
February 2005
v1.2
Updated information concerning signals.
Added a note to Figures 7-9 through 7-13 regarding violating
the setup or hold time on address registers.
November,
2004 v1.1
Updated “Introduction” section.
June 2004 v1.0
Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
7–36
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Section III. Memory
This section provides information on embedded memory blocks in
Cyclone® II devices and the supported external memory interfaces.
This section includes the following chapters:
Revision History
Altera Corporation
■
Chapter 8, Cyclone II Memory Blocks
■
Chapter 9, External Memory Interfaces
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section III–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section III–2
Preliminary
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
8. Cyclone II Memory Blocks
CII51008-2.4
Introduction
Cyclone® II devices feature embedded memory structures to address the
on-chip memory needs of FPGA designs. The embedded memory
structure consists of columns of M4K memory blocks that can be
configured to provide various memory functions such as RAM, first-in
first-out (FIFO) buffers, and ROM. M4K memory blocks provide over
1 Mbit of RAM at up to 250-MHz operation (see Table 8–2 on page 8–2 for
total RAM bits per density).
Overview
The M4K blocks support the following features:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Over 1 Mbit of RAM available without reducing available logic
4,096 memory bits per block (4,608 bits per block including parity)
Variable port configurations
True dual-port (one read and one write, two reads, or two writes)
operation
Byte enables for data input masking during writes
Initialization file to pre-load content of memory in RAM and ROM
modes
Up to 250-MHz operation
Table 8–1 summarizes the features supported by the M4K memory.
Table 8–1. Summary of M4K Memory Features (Part 1 of 2)
Feature
Maximum performance (1)
Total RAM bits (including parity bits)
Configurations
Altera Corporation
February 2008
M4K Blocks
250 MHz
4,608
4K × 1
2K × 2
1K × 4
512 × 8
512 × 9
256 × 16
256 × 18
128 × 32
128 × 36
Parity bits
v
Byte enable
v
8–1
Overview
Table 8–1. Summary of M4K Memory Features (Part 2 of 2)
Feature
M4K Blocks
Packed mode
v
Address clock enable
v
Single-port mode
v
Simple dual-port mode
v
True dual-port mode
v
Embedded shift register mode (2)
v
ROM mode
v
FIFO buffer (2)
v
Simple dual-port mixed width support
v
True dual-port mixed width support
v
Memory Initialization File (.mif)
v
v
Mixed-clock mode
Power-up condition
Outputs cleared
Register clears
Output registers only
Same-port read-during-write
New data available at positive clock
edge
Mixed-port read-during-write
Old data available at positive clock
edge
Notes to Table 8–1:
(1)
(2)
Maximum performance information is preliminary until device characterization.
FIFO buffers and embedded shift registers require external logic elements (LEs)
for implementing control logic.
Table 8–2 shows the capacity and distribution of the M4K memory blocks
in each Cyclone II device family member.
Table 8–2. Number of M4K Blocks in Cyclone II Devices (Part 1 of 2)
Device
M4K Blocks
Total RAM Bits
EP2C5
26
119,808
EP2C8
36
165,888
EP2C15
52
239,616
EP2C20
52
239,616
EP2C35
105
483,840
8–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Table 8–2. Number of M4K Blocks in Cyclone II Devices (Part 2 of 2)
Device
M4K Blocks
Total RAM Bits
EP2C50
129
594,432
EP2C70
250
1,152,000
Control Signals
Figure 8–1 shows how the register clocks, clears, and control signals are
implemented in the Cyclone II memory block.
The clock enable control signal controls the clock entering the entire
memory block, not just the input and output registers. The signal disables
the clock so that the memory block does not see any clock edges and will
not perform any operations.
Cyclone II devices do not support asynchronous clear signals to input
registers. Only output registers support asynchronous clears. There are
three ways to reset the registers in the M4K blocks: power up the device,
use the aclr signal for output register only, or assert the device-wide
reset signal using the DEV_CLRn option.
1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
When applied to output registers, the asynchronous clear signal
clears the output registers and the effects are seen immediately.
8–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Overview
Figure 8–1. M4K Control Signal Selection
Dedicated
Row LAB
Clocks
6
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
Local
Interconnect
clocken_b
clock_b
Local
Interconnect
clock_a
clocken_a
renwe_b
renwe_a
aclr_b
aclr_a
addressstall_b
addressstall_a
byteena_b
byteena_a
Parity Bit Support
Error detection using parity check is possible using the parity bit, with
additional logic implemented in LEs to ensure data integrity. Parity-size
data words can also be used for other purposes such as storing
user-specified control bits.
f
Refer to the Using Parity to Detect Errors White Paper for more
information.
Byte Enable Support
All M4K memory blocks support byte enables that mask the input data so
that only specific bytes of data are written. The unwritten bytes retain the
previous written value. The write enable (wren) signals, along with the
byte enable (byteena) signals, control the RAM block’s write operations.
The default value for the byte enable signals is high (enabled), in which
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
case writing is controlled only by the write enable signals. There is no
clear port to the byte enable registers. M4K blocks support byte enables
when the write port has a data width of 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 16, 18, 32, or 36 bits.
When using data widths of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 9 bits, the byte enable behaves
as a redundant write enable because the data width is less than or equal
to a single byte. Table 8–3 summarizes the byte selection.
Table 8–3. Byte Enable for Cyclone II M4K Blocks Note (1)
Affected Bytes
byteena[3..0]
datain
×1
datain
×2
datain
×4
datain
×8
datain
×9
[0] = 1
[0]
[1..0]
[3..0]
[7..0]
[8..0]
[7..0]
[8..0]
[7..0]
[8..0]
[1] = 1
-
-
-
-
-
[15..8]
[17..9]
[15..8]
[17..9]
[2] = 1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[23..16]
[26..18]
[3] = 1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
[31..24]
[35..27]
datain
× 16
datain
× 18
datain
× 32
datain
× 36
Note to Table 8–3:
(1)
Any combination of byte enables is possible.
Table 8–4 shows the byte enable port control for true dual-port mode.
Table 8–4. Byte Enable Port Control for True Dual-Port Mode
byteena [3:0]
Affected Port
[1:0]
Port A (1)
[3:2]
Port B (1)
Note to Table 8–4:
(1)
For any data width up to ×18 for each port.
Figure 8–2 shows how the wren and byteena signals control the
operations of the RAM.
When a byte enable bit is de-asserted during a write cycle, the
corresponding data byte output appears as a “don’t care” or unknown
value. When a byte enable bit is asserted during a write cycle, the
corresponding data byte output is the newly written data.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
8–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Overview
Figure 8–2. Cyclone II Byte Enable Functional Waveform
inclock
wren
address
data
byteena
contents at a0
a0
an
a2
a0
a1
ABCD
XXXX
10
XX
a2
XXXX
01
XX
11
FFFF
ABFF
FFFF
contents at a1
FFCD
FFFF
contents at a2
q (asynch)
a1
doutn
ABXX
ABCD
XXCD
ABCD
ABFF
FFCD
ABCD
Packed Mode Support
Cyclone II M4K memory blocks support packed mode. You can
implement two single-port memory blocks in a single block under the
following conditions:
■
■
f
Each of the two independent block sizes is less than or equal to half
of the M4K block size. The maximum data width for each
independent block is 18 bits wide.
Each of the single-port memory blocks is configured in single-clock
mode.
See “Single-Port Mode” on page 8–9 and “Single-Clock Mode” on
page 8–24 for more information.
Address Clock Enable
Cyclone II M4K memory blocks support address clock enables, which
holds the previous address value until needed. When the memory blocks
are configured in dual-port mode, each port has its own independent
address clock enable.
8–6
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Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Figure 8–3 shows an address clock enable block diagram. The address
register output is fed back to its input via a multiplexer. The multiplexer
output is selected by the address clock enable (addressstall) signal.
Address latching is enabled when the addressstall signal goes high
(active high). The output of the address register is then continuously fed
into the input of the register until the addressstall signal goes low.
Figure 8–3. Cyclone II Address Clock Enable Block Diagram
address[0]
1
0
address[N]
1
0
address[0]
register
address[N]
register
address[0]
address[N]
addressstall
clock
The address clock enable is typically used for cache memory applications
to improve efficiency during a cache-miss. The default value for the
address clock enable signals is low (disabled). Figures 8–4 and 8–5 show
the address clock enable waveforms during the read and write cycles,
respectively.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
8–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Memory Modes
Figure 8–4. Cyclone II Address Clock Enable During Read Cycle Waveform
inclock
rdaddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
rden
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
an
q (synch) doutn-1
q (asynch)
a1
a0
dout0
doutn
dout0
doutn
dout1
dout1
dout1
dout1
dout1
a4
a5
dout1
dout4
dout4
dout5
Figure 8–5. Cyclone II Address Clock Enable During Write Cycle Waveform
inclock
wraddress
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
data
wren
addressstall
latched address
(inside memory)
contents at a0
contents at a1
an
a1
a0
a5
00
XX
XX
01
02
contents at a2
XX
contents at a3
XX
contents at a4
03
04
XX
XX
contents at a5
Memory Modes
a4
05
Cyclone II M4K memory blocks include input registers that synchronize
writes and output registers to pipeline data, thereby improving system
performance. All M4K memory blocks are fully synchronous, meaning
that you must send all inputs through a register, but you can either send
outputs through a register (pipelined) or bypass the register
(flow-through).
8–8
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Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
1
M4K memory blocks do not support asynchronous memory
(unregistered inputs).
The M4K memory blocks support the following modes:
■
■
■
■
■
■
1
Single-port
Simple dual-port
True dual-port (bidirectional dual-port)
Shift register
ROM
FIFO buffers
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block address
registers could corrupt memory contents. This applies to both
read and write operations.
Single-Port Mode
Single-port mode supports non-simultaneous read and write operations.
Figure 8–6 shows the single-port memory configuration for Cyclone II
memory blocks.
Figure 8–6. Single-Port Mode Note (1)
data[ ]
address[ ]
wren
byteena[ ]
addressstall
inclock
inclocken
q[ ]
outclock
outclocken
outaclr
Note to Figure 8–6:
(1)
Two single-port memory blocks can be implemented in a single M4K block in
packed mode.
In single-port mode, the outputs are in read-during-write mode, which
means that during the write operation, data written to the RAM flows
through to the RAM outputs. When the output registers are bypassed, the
new data is available on the rising edge of the same clock cycle on which
it was written.
f
See “Read-During- Write Operation at the Same Address” on page 8–28
for more information about read-during-write mode.
The port width configurations for M4K blocks in single-port mode are as
follows:
Altera Corporation
February 2008
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Memory Modes
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
4K × 1
2K × 2
1K × 4
512 × 8
512 × 9
256 × 16
256 × 18
128 × 32
128 × 36
Figure 8–7 shows timing waveforms for read and write operations in
single-port mode.
Figure 8–7. Cyclone II Single-Port Timing Waveforms
inclock
wren
address
an-1
an
data (1)
din-1
din
q (synch)
q (asynch)
din-2
din-1
a0
din-1
din
a1
din
dout0
a2
dout0
dout1
a3
dout1
dout2
a4
a5
a6
din4
din5
din6
dout2
dout3
dout3
din4
din4
din5
Note to Figure 8–7:
(1)
The crosses in the data waveform during read mean “don’t care.”
Simple Dual-Port Mode
Simple dual-port mode supports simultaneous read and write operation.
Figure 8–8 shows the simple dual-port memory configuration.
8–10
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Figure 8–8. Cyclone II Simple Dual-Port Mode
Note (1)
Simple Dual-Port Memory
data[ ]
wraddress[ ]
wren
byteena[ ]
wr_addressstall
wrclock
wrclocken
rdaddress[ ]
rden
q[ ]
rd_addressstall
rdclock
rdclocken
rd_aclr
Note to Figure 8–8:
(1)
Simple dual-port RAM supports input and output clock mode in addition to the
read and write clock mode shown.
Cyclone II memory blocks support mixed-width configurations, allowing
different read and write port widths. Tables 8–5 and 8–6 show the
mixed-width configurations.
Table 8–5. Cyclone II Memory Block Mixed-Width Configurations (Simple Dual-Port Mode)
Write Port
Read Port
4K × 1
2K × 2
1K × 4
512 × 8 256 × 16 128 × 32 512 × 9 256 × 18 128 × 36
4K × 1
v
v
v
v
v
v
2K × 2
v
v
v
v
v
v
1K × 4
v
v
v
v
v
v
512 × 8
v
v
v
v
v
v
256 × 16
v
v
v
v
v
v
128 × 32
v
v
v
v
v
v
512 × 9
v
v
v
256 × 18
v
v
v
128 × 36
v
v
v
In simple dual-port mode, the memory blocks have one write enable and
one read enable signal. They do not support a clear port on the write
enable and read enable registers. When the read enable is deactivated, the
current data is retained at the output ports. If the read enable is activated
during a write operation with the same address location selected, the
simple dual-port RAM output is the old data stored at the memory
Altera Corporation
February 2008
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Memory Modes
address. See “Read-During- Write Operation at the Same Address” on
page 8–28 for more information. Figure 8–9 shows timing waveforms for
read and write operations in simple dual-port mode.
Figure 8–9. Cyclone II Simple Dual-Port Timing Waveforms
wrclock
wren
wraddress
an-1
an
data (1)
din-1
din
a0
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
din4
din5
din6
rdclock
rden
rdaddress
bn
q (synch)
doutn-2
q (asynch)
doutn-1
b1
b0
doutn-1
doutn
doutn
b2
b3
dout0
dout0
Note to Figure 8–9:
(1)
The crosses in the data waveform during read mean “don’t care.”
True Dual-Port Mode
True dual-port mode supports any combination of two-port operations:
two reads, two writes, or one read and one write at two different clock
frequencies. Figure 8–10 shows Cyclone II true dual-port memory
configuration.
8–12
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Figure 8–10. Cyclone II True Dual-Port Mode
Note (1)
data_a[ ]
address_a[ ]
wren_a
byteena_a[ ]
addressstall_a
clock_a
data_b[ ]
address_b[ ]
wren_b
byteena_b[ ]
addressstall_b
clock_b
enable_b
enable_a
aclr_a
q_a[ ]
aclr_b
q_b[ ]
Note to Figure 8–10:
(1)
True dual-port memory supports input and output clock mode in addition to the
independent clock mode shown.
The widest bit configuration of the M4K blocks in true dual-port mode is
256 × 16-bit (18-bit with parity).
The 128 × 32-bit (36-bit with parity) configuration of the M4K block is
unavailable because the number of output drivers is equivalent to the
maximum bit width. The maximum width of the true dual-port RAM
equals half of the total number of output drivers because true dual-port
RAM has outputs on two ports. Table 8–6 lists the possible M4K block
mixed-port width configurations.
Table 8–6. Cyclone II Memory Block Mixed-Port Width Configurations (True
Dual-Port)
Write Port
Read Port
4K × 1 2K × 2 1K × 4 512 × 8 256 × 16 512 × 9 256 × 18
4K × 1
v
v
v
v
v
2K × 2
v
v
v
v
v
1K × 4
v
v
v
v
v
512 × 8
v
v
v
v
v
256 × 16
v
v
v
v
v
512 × 9
v
v
256 × 18
v
v
In true dual-port configuration, the RAM outputs are in
read-during-write mode. This means that during a write operation, data
being written to the A or B port of the RAM flows through to the A or B
Altera Corporation
February 2008
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Memory Modes
outputs, respectively. When the output registers are bypassed, the new
data is available on the rising edge of the same clock cycle on which it was
written. See “Read-During- Write Operation at the Same Address” on
page 8–28 for waveforms and information on mixed-port
read-during-write mode.
Potential write contentions must be resolved external to the RAM because
writing to the same address location at both ports results in unknown
data storage at that location.
f
For the maximum synchronous write cycle time, refer to the Cyclone II
Device Family Data Sheet in volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Figure 8–11 shows true dual-port timing waveforms for the write
operation at port A and the read operation at port B.
Figure 8–11. Cyclone II True Dual-Port Timing Waveforms
clk_a
wren_a
address_a
an-1
an
data_a (1)
din-1
din
din-2
q_a (synch)
din-1
q_a (asynch)
a0
din-1
a1
a2
din
din
dout0
dout0
dout1
a3
dout1
dout2
a4
a5
a6
din4
din5
din6
dout2
dout3
dout3
din4
din4
din5
clk_b
wren_b
address_b
bn
q_b (synch)
doutn-2
q_b (asynch)
doutn-1
b1
b0
doutn-1
doutn
doutn
dout0
b2
b3
dout1
dout0
dout1
dout2
Note to Figure 8–11:
(1)
The crosses in the data_a waveform during write indicate “don’t care.”
Shift Register Mode
Cyclone II memory blocks can implement shift registers for digital signal
processing (DSP) applications, such as finite impulse response (FIR)
filters, pseudo-random number generators, multi-channel filtering, and
auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. These and other DSP
8–14
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
applications require local data storage, traditionally implemented with
standard flip-flops that quickly exhaust many logic cells for large shift
registers. A more efficient alternative is to use embedded memory as a
shift register block, which saves logic cell and routing resources.
The size of a (w × m × n) shift register is determined by the input data
width (w), the length of the taps (m), and the number of taps (n), and must
be less than or equal to the maximum number of memory bits, which is
4,608 bits. In addition, the size of (w × n) must be less than or equal to the
maximum width of the block, which is 36 bits. If a larger shift register is
required, the memory blocks can be cascaded.
Data is written into each address location at the falling edge of the clock
and read from the address at the rising edge of the clock. The shift register
mode logic automatically controls the positive and negative edge
clocking to shift the data in one clock cycle. Figure 8–12 shows the
Cyclone II memory block in the shift register mode.
Figure 8–12. Cyclone II Shift Register Mode Configuration
w × m × n Shift Register
m-Bit Shift Register
W
W
m-Bit Shift Register
W
W
n Number of Taps
m-Bit Shift Register
W
W
m-Bit Shift Register
W
Altera Corporation
February 2008
W
8–15
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Clock Modes
ROM Mode
Cyclone II memory blocks support ROM mode. A MIF initializes the
ROM contents of these blocks. The address lines of the ROM are
registered. The outputs can be registered or unregistered. The ROM read
operation is identical to the read operation in the single-port RAM
configuration.
FIFO Buffer Mode
A single clock or dual clock FIFO buffer may be implemented in the
memory blocks. Dual clock FIFO buffers are useful when transferring
data from one clock domain to another clock domain. All FIFO memory
configurations have synchronous inputs. However, the FIFO buffer
outputs are always combinational (i.e., not registered). Simultaneous read
and write from an empty FIFO buffer is not supported.
f
Clock Modes
For more information on FIFO buffers, refer to the Single- & Dual-Clock
FIFO Megafunctions User Guide.
Depending on which memory mode is selected, the following clock
modes are available:
■
■
■
■
Independent
Input/output
Read/write
Single-clock
Table 8–7 shows these clock modes supported by all memory blocks
when configured in each respective memory modes.
Table 8–7. Cyclone II Memory Clock Modes
Clocking Modes
True Dual-Port
Mode
Independent
v
Input/output
v
8–16
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Single-Port
Mode
v
v
v
Read/write
Single clock
Simple Dual-Port
Mode
v
v
v
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Independent Clock Mode
Cyclone II memory blocks can implement independent clock mode for
true dual-port memory. In this mode, a separate clock is available for each
port (A and B). Clock A controls all registers on the port A side, while
clock B controls all registers on the port B side. Each port also supports
independent clock enables for port A and B registers. However, ports do
not support asynchronous clear signals for the registers.
Figure 8–13 shows a memory block in independent clock mode.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
(1)
8–18
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
clock_a
enable_a
wren_a
addressstall_a
address_a[ ]
byteena_a[ ]
data_a[ ]
6
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
6 LAB Row Clocks
Q
Q
Q
Q
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
Data Out
Write/Read
Enable
Address B
Q
D
ENA
Data Out
Write/Read
Enable
Address Clock
Enable B
q_a[ ] q_b[ ]
Address Clock
Enable A
Address A
Data In
B
Byte Enable B
Memory Block
256 × 16 (2)
512 × 8
1,024 × 4
2,048 × 2
4,096 × 1
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
Q
Q
Q
D
ENA
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
6
clock_b
enable_b
wren_b
addressstall_b
address_b[ ]
byteena_b[ ]
data_b[ ]
Figure 8–13. Cyclone II Memory Block in Independent Clock Mode
ENA
D
A
Byte Enable A
Data In
Clock Modes
Note (1)
Note to Figure 8–13:
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block address registers could corrupt memory contents. This applies
to both read and write operations.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Input/Output Clock Mode
Cyclone II memory blocks can implement the input/output clock mode
for true and simple dual-port memory. On each of the two ports, A and B,
one clock controls all registers for the data, write enable, and address
inputs into the memory block. The other clock controls the blocks’ data
output registers. Each memory block port also supports independent
clock enables for input and output registers. Asynchronous clear signals
for the registers are not supported.
Figures 8–14 through 8–16 show the memory block in input/output clock
mode for true dual-port, simple dual-port, and single-port modes,
respectively.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
(1)
8–20
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
inclock
inclocken
wren_a
addressstall_a
address_a[ ]
byteena_a[ ]
data_a[ ]
6
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
6 LAB Row Clocks
Q
Q
Q
Q
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
Data Out
Write/Read
Enable
Address B
Q
D
ENA
Data Out
Write/Read
Enable
Address Clock
Enable B
q_a[ ] q_b[ ]
Address Clock
Enable A
Address A
Data In
B
Byte Enable B
Memory Block
256 × 16 (2)
512 × 8
1,024 × 4
2,048 × 2
4,096 × 1
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
Q
Q
Q
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
6
outclock
outclocken
wren_b
addressstall_b
address_b[ ]
byteena_b[ ]
data_b[ ]
Figure 8–14. Cyclone II Input/Output Clock Mode in True Dual-Port Mode
ENA
D
A
Byte Enable A
Data In
Clock Modes
Note (1)
Note to Figure 8–14:
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block address registers could corrupt memory contents. This applies
to both read and write operations.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Figure 8–15. Cyclone II Input/Output Clock Mode in Simple Dual-Port Mode
Notes (1), (2)
6 LAB Row
Clocks
Memory Block
256 ´ 16
Data In 512 ´ 8
1,024 ´ 4
2,048 ´ 2
4,096 ´ 1
6
data[ ]
D
Q
ENA
rdaddress[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Read Address
Data Out
byteena[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Byte Enable
wraddress[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Write Address
rd_addressstall
Read Address
Clock Enable
wr_addressstall
Write Address
Clock Enable
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect (2)
rden (1)
Read Enable
D
Q
ENA
wren
Write Enable
outclocken
inclocken
inclock
D
Q
ENA
Write
Pulse
Generator
outclock
Notes to Figure 8–15:
(1)
(2)
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block address registers could corrupt memory contents. This applies
to both read and write operations.
See the Cyclone II Device Family Data Sheet in volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook for more information on the
MultiTrack™ interconnect.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Clock Modes
Figure 8–16. Cyclone II Input/Output Clock Mode in Single-Port Mode
Notes (1), (2)
6 LAB Row
Clocks
Memory Block
256 ´ 16
Data In 512 ´ 8
1,024 ´ 4
2,048 ´ 2
4,096 ´ 1
6
data[ ]
D
Q
ENA
address[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Address
Data Out
byteena[ ]
Byte Enable
D
Q
ENA
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect (2)
Address
Clock Enable
addressstall
wren
Write Enable
outclocken
inclocken
D
Q
ENA
inclock
Write
Pulse
Generator
outclock
Notes to Figure 8–16:
(1)
(2)
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block address registers could corrupt memory contents. This applies
to both read and write operations.
For more information about the MultiTrack interconnect, refer to Cyclone II Device Family Data Sheet in volume 1 of
the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Read/Write Clock Mode
Cyclone II memory blocks can implement read/write clock mode for
simple dual-port memory. The write clock controls the blocks’ data
inputs, write address, and write enable signals. The read clock controls
the data output, read address, and read enable signals. The memory
blocks support independent clock enables for each clock for the read- and
write-side registers. This mode does not support asynchronous clear
signals for the registers. Figure 8–17 shows a memory block in read/write
clock mode.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Figure 8–17. Cyclone II Read/Write Clock Mode
Notes (1), (2)
6 LAB Row
Clocks
Memory Block
256 ´ 16
Data In 512 ´ 8
1,024 ´ 4
2,048 ´ 2
4,096 ´ 1
6
data[ ]
D
Q
ENA
rdaddress[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Read Address
Data Out
byteena[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Byte Enable
wraddress[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Write Address
rd_addressstall
Read Address
Clock Enable
wr_addressstall
Write Address
Clock Enable
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect (2)
rden (1)
Read Enable
D
Q
ENA
wren
Write Enable
rdclocken
wrclocken
wrclock
D
Q
ENA
Write
Pulse
Generator
rdclock
Notes to Figure 8–17:
(1)
(2)
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block address registers could corrupt memory contents. This applies
to both read and write operations.
For more information about the MultiTract interconnect, refer to Cyclone II Device Family Data Sheet in volume 1 of
the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Clock Modes
Single-Clock Mode
Cyclone II memory blocks support single-clock mode for true dual-port,
simple dual-port, and single-port memory. In this mode, a single clock,
together with a clock enable, controls all registers of the memory block.
This mode does not support asynchronous clear signals for the registers.
Figures 8–18 through 8–20 show the memory block in single-clock mode
for true dual-port, simple dual-port, and single-port modes, respectively.
8–24
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
(1)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
clock
enable
wren_a
addressstall_a
address_a[ ]
byteena_a[ ]
data_a[ ]
6
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
6 LAB Row Clocks
Q
Q
Q
Q
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
Data Out
Write/Read
Enable
Address B
Q
D
ENA
Data Out
Write/Read
Enable
Address Clock
Enable B
q_a[ ] q_b[ ]
Address Clock
Enable A
Address A
Data In
B
Byte Enable B
Memory Block
256 × 16 (2)
512 × 8
1,024 × 4
2,048 × 2
4,096 × 1
Write
Pulse
Generator
Q
Q
Q
Q
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
ENA
D
6
wren_b
addressstall_b
address_b[ ]
byteena_b[ ]
data_b[ ]
Figure 8–18. Cyclone II Single-Clock Mode in True Dual-Port Mode
ENA
D
A
Byte Enable A
Data In
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Note (1)
Note to Figure 8–18:
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block address registers could corrupt memory contents. This applies
to both read and write operations.
8–25
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Clock Modes
Figure 8–19. Cyclone II Single-Clock Mode in Simple Dual-Port Mode
Notes (1), (2)
6 LAB Row
Clocks
Memory Block
256 ´ 16
Data In 512 ´ 8
1,024 ´ 4
2,048 ´ 2
4,096 ´ 1
6
data[ ]
D
Q
ENA
rdaddress[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Read Address
Data Out
byteena[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Byte Enable
wraddress[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Write Address
rd_addressstall
Read Address
Clock Enable
wr_addressstall
Write Address
Clock Enable
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect (2)
rden (1)
Read Enable
D
Q
ENA
wren
Write Enable
enable
D
Q
ENA
clock
Write
Pulse
Generator
Notes to Figure 8–19:
(1)
(2)
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block address registers could corrupt memory contents. This applies
to both read and write operations.
See the Cyclone II Device Family Data Sheet in volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook for more information on the
MultiTrack interconnect.
8–26
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Figure 8–20. Cyclone II Single-Clock Mode in Single-Port Mode
Notes (1), (2)
6 LAB Row
Clocks
Memory Block
256 ´ 16
Data In 512 ´ 8
1,024 ´ 4
2,048 ´ 2
4,096 ´ 1
6
data[ ]
D
Q
ENA
address[ ]
D
Q
ENA
Address
Data Out
byteena[ ]
Byte Enable
D
Q
ENA
D
Q
ENA
To MultiTrack
Interconnect (2)
Address
Clock Enable
addressstall
wren
Write Enable
enable
clock
D
Q
ENA
Write
Pulse
Generator
Notes to Figure 8–20:
(1)
(2)
Violating the setup or hold time on the memory block address registers could corrupt memory contents. This applies
to both read and write operations.
See the Cyclone II Device Family Data Sheet in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook for more information on the
MultiTrack interconnect.
Power-Up Conditions & Memory Initialization
The Cyclone II memory block outputs always power-up to zero,
regardless of whether the output registers are used or bypassed. Even if
an MIF pre-loads the contents of the memory block, the outputs still
power up cleared. For example, if address 0 is pre-initialized to FF, M4K
blocks power up with the output at 00. A subsequent read after power up
from address 0 outputs the pre-initialized value of FF.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Read-During- Write Operation at the Same Address
Read-DuringWrite Operation
at the Same
Address
The “Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode” and “Mixed-Port
Read-During-Write Mode” sections describe the functionality of the
various RAM configurations when reading from an address during a
write operation at that same address. There are two read-during-write
data flows: same-port and mixed-port. Figure 8–21 shows the difference
between these flows.
Figure 8–21. Cyclone II Read-During-Write Data Flow
Port A
data in
Port B
data in
Mixed-port
data flow
Same-port
data flow
Port A
data out
Port B
data out
Same-Port Read-During-Write Mode
For read-during-write operation of a single-port RAM or the same port of
a true dual-port RAM, the new data is available on the rising edge of the
same clock cycle on which it was written. Figure 8–22 shows a sample
functional waveform. When using byte enables in true dual-port RAM
mode, the outputs for the masked bytes on the same port are unknown
(see Figure 8–2 on page 8–6). The non-masked bytes are read out as
shown in Figure 8–22.
8–28
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Figure 8–22. Cyclone II Same-Port Read-During-Write Functionality Note (1)
inclock
A
data
B
wren
q Old
A
Note to Figure 8–22:
(1)
Outputs are not registered.
Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode
This mode applies to a RAM in simple or true dual-port mode, which has
one port reading and the other port writing to the same address location
with the same clock.
In this mode, you also have two output choices: old data or don't care. In
Old Data Mode, a read-during-write operation to different ports causes
the RAM outputs to reflect the old data at that address location. In Don't
Care Mode, the same operation results in a "don't care" or unknown value
on the RAM outputs.
Figure 8–23. Cyclone II Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: Old Data Mode
inclock
address_a and
address_b
data_a
Note (1)
Address Q
A
B
wren_a
wren_b
q_b
Old
A
B
Note to Figure 8–23:
(1)
Outputs are not registered.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Conclusion
Figure 8–24. Cyclone II Mixed-Port Read-During-Write: Don’t Care Mode
inclock
address_a and
address_b
data_a
Note (1)
Address Q
A
B
wren_a
wren_b
q_b
Unknown
B
Note to Figure 8–24:
(1)
Outputs are not registered.
Mixed-port read-during-write is not supported when two different clocks
are used in a dual-port RAM. The output value is unknown during a
mixed-port read-during-write operation.
Conclusion
The M4K memory structure of Cyclone II devices provides a flexible
memory architecture with high memory bandwidth. It addresses the
needs of different memory applications in FPGA designs with features
such as different memory modes, byte enables, parity bit storage, address
clock enables, mixed clock mode, shift register mode, mixed-port width
support, and true dual-port mode.
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following documents:
■
■
■
Cyclone II Device Family Data Sheet in volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device
Handbook
Single- and Dual-Clock FIFO Megafunction User Guide
Using Parity to Detect Errors White Paper
8–30
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II Memory Blocks
Document
Revision History
Table 8–8 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 8–8. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
Changes Made
February 2008
v2.4
Corrected Figure 8–12.
February 2007
v2.3
●
●
●
Summary of Changes
—
Added document revision history.
Updated “Packed Mode Support” section.
Updated “Mixed-Port Read-During-Write Mode” section
and added new Figure 8–24.
●
●
November 2005 Updated Figures 8–13 through 8–20.
v2.1
In packed mode support,
the maximum data width for
each of the two memory
block is 18 bits wide.
Added don’t care mode
information to mixed-port
read-during-write mode
section.
—
July 2005 v2.0
Added Clear Signals section.
—
February 2005
v1.1
Added a note to Figures 8-13 through 8-20 regarding
violating the setup and hold time on address registers.
—
June 2004 v1.0
Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
—
Altera Corporation
February 2008
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Document Revision History
8–32
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Altera Corporation
February 2008
9. External Memory
Interfaces
CII51009-3.1
Introduction
Improving data bandwidth is an important design consideration when
trying to enhance system performance without complicating board
design. Traditionally, doubling the data bandwidth of a system required
either doubling the system frequency or doubling the number of data I/O
pins. Both methods are undesirable because they complicate the overall
system design and increase the number of I/O pins. Using double data
rate (DDR) I/O pins to transmit and receive data doubles the data
bandwidth while keeping I/O counts low. The DDR architecture uses
both edges of a clock to transmit data, which facilitates data transmission
at twice the rate of a single data rate (SDR) architecture using the same
clock speed while maintaining the same number of I/O pins. DDR
transmission should be used where fast data transmission is required for
a broad range of applications such as networking, communications,
storage, and image processing.
Cyclone® II devices support a broad range of external memory interfaces,
such as SDR SDRAM, DDR SDRAM, DDR2 SDRAM, and QDRII SRAM.
Dedicated clock delay control circuitry allows Cyclone II devices to
interface with an external memory device at clock speeds up to
167 MHz/333 Mbps for DDR and DDR2 SDRAM devices and
167 MHz/667 Mbps for QDRII SRAM devices. Although Cyclone II
devices also support SDR SDRAM, this chapter focuses on the
implementations of a double data rate I/O interface using the hardware
features available in Cyclone II devices and explains briefly how each
memory standard uses the Cyclone II features.
The easiest way to interface to external memory devices is by using one
of the Altera® external memory IP cores listed below.
■
■
■
DDR2 SDRAM Controller MegaCore® Function
DDR SDRAM Controller MegaCore Function
QDRII SRAM Controller MegaCore Function
OpenCore® Plus evaluations of these cores are available for free to
Quartus® II Web Edition software users. In addition, Altera software
subscription customers now receive full licenses to these MegaCore
functions as part of the IP-BASE suite.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
9–1
External Memory Interface Standards
External
Memory
Interface
Standards
The following sections describe how to use Cyclone II device external
memory interfacing features.
DDR & DDR2 SDRAM
DDR SDRAM is a memory architecture that transmits and receives data
at twice the clock speed. These devices transfer data on both the rising
and falling edge of the clock signal. DDR2 SDRAM is the second
generation memory based on the DDR SDRAM architecture and is
capable of data transfer rates of up to 533 Mbps. Cyclone II devices
support DDR and DDR2 SDRAM at up to 333 Mbps.
Interface Pins
DDR and DDR2 SDRAM devices use interface pins such as data (DQ),
data strobe (DQS), clock, command, and address pins to communicate
with the memory controller. Data is sent and captured at twice the system
clock rate by transferring data on the positive and negative edge of the
clock. The commands and addresses use only one active (positive) edge
of a clock.
DDR SDRAM uses single-ended data strobe DQS, while DDR2 SDRAM
has the option to use differential data strobes DQS and DQS#. Cyclone II
devices do not use the optional differential data strobes for DDR2
SDRAM interfaces. You can leave the DDR2 SDRAM memory DQS# pin
unconnected, because only the shifted DQS signal from the clock delay
control circuitry captures data. DDR and DDR2 SDRAM ×16 devices use
two DQS pins, and each DQS pin is associated with eight DQ pins.
However, this is not the same as the ×16/×18 mode in Cyclone II devices.
You need to configure the Cyclone II devices to use two sets of pins in ×8
mode. Similarly, if your ×72 memory module uses nine DQS pins where
each DQS pin is associated with eight DQ pins, configure the Cyclone II
device to use nine sets of DQS/DQ groups in ×8 mode.
Connect the memory device’s DQ and DQS pins to the Cyclone II DQ and
DQS pins, respectively, as listed in the Cyclone II pin tables. DDR and
DDR2 SDRAM also use active-high data mask (DM) pins for writes. DM
pins are pre-assigned in pin outs for Cyclone II devices, and these are the
preferred pins. However, you may connect the memory device’s DM pins
to any of the Cyclone II I/O pins in the same bank as the DQ pins of the
FPGA. There is one DM pin per DQS/DQ group. If the DDR or DDR2
SDRAM device supports ECC, the design uses an extra DQS/DQ group
for the ECC pins.
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February 2007
External Memory Interfaces
You can use any of the user I/O pins for commands and addresses.
Because of the symmetrical setup and hold time for the command and
address pins at the memory device, you may need to generate these
signals from the negative edge of the system clock.
The clocks to the SDRAM device are called CK and CK#. Use any of the
user I/O pins via the DDR registers to generate the CK and CK# signals
to meet the tDQSS requirements of the DDR SDRAM or DDR2 SDRAM
device. The memory device’s tDQSS requires the positive edge of the write
DQS signal to be within 25% of the positive edge of the DDR SDRAM and
DDR2 SDRAM clock input. Because of strict skew requirements between
CK and CK# signals, use adjacent pins to generate the clock pair.
Surround the pair with buffer pins tied to VCC and pins tied to ground for
better noise immunity from other signals.
Read & Write Operation
When reading from the memory, DDR and DDR2 SDRAM devices send
the data edge-aligned relative to the data strobe. To properly read the
data, the data strobe must be center-aligned relative to the data inside the
FPGA. Cyclone II devices feature clock delay control circuitry to shift the
data strobe to the middle of the data window. Figure 9–1 shows an
example of how the memory sends out the data and data strobe for a
burst-of-two operation.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
External Memory Interface Standards
Figure 9–1. Example of a 90° Shift on the DQS Signal
Notes (1), (2)
DQS pin to
register delay
DQS at
FPGA pin
Preamble
Postamble
DQ at
FPGA pin
90˚ degree (3)
DQS at
IOE registers
DQ at
IOE registers
DQ pin to
register delay
Notes to Figure 9–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
RLDRAM II and QDRII SRAM memory interfaces do not have preamble and postamble specifications.
DDR2 SDRAM does not support a burst length of two.
The phase shift required for your system should be based on your timing analysis and may not be 90°.
During write operations to a DDR or DDR2 SDRAM device, the FPGA
must send the data strobe to the memory device center-aligned relative to
the data. Cyclone II devices use a PLL to center-align the data strobe by
generating a 0° phase-shifted system clock for the write data strobes and
a –90° phase-shifted write clock for the write data pins for the DDR and
DDR2 SDRAM. Figure 9–2 shows an example of the relationship between
the data and data strobe during a burst-of-two write.
Figure 9–2. DQ & DQS Relationship During a DDR & DDR2 SDRAM Write
DQS at
FPGA Pin
DQ at
FPGA Pin
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February 2007
External Memory Interfaces
QDRII SRAM
QDRII SRAM is the second generation of QDR SRAM devices. QDRII
SRAM devices, which can transfer four words per clock cycle, fulfill the
requirements facing next-generation communications system designers.
QDRII SRAM devices provide concurrent reads and writes, zero latency,
increased data throughput, and allow simultaneous access to the same
address location.
Interface Pins
QDRII SRAM devices use two separate, unidirectional data ports for read
and write operations, enabling four times the data transfer compared to
single data rate devices. QDRII SRAM devices use common control and
address lines for read and write operations. Figure 9–3 shows the block
diagram for QDRII SRAM burst-of-two architecture.
Figure 9–3. QDRII SRAM Block Diagram for Burst-of-Two Architecture
Discrete QDRII SRAM Device
A
18
2
BWSn
WPSn
D
Write
Port
18
36
Data
256K × 18
Memory
Array
256K × 18
Memory
Array
36
Read
Port
18
Data
2
K, Kn
C, Cn (Optional)
RPSn
Q
CQ, CQn
2
VREF
Control
Logic
QDRII SRAM burst-of-two devices sample the read address on the rising
edge of the clock and the write address on the falling edge of the clock.
QDRII SRAM burst-of-four devices sample both read and write addresses
on the clock’s rising edge. Connect the memory device’s Q ports (read
data) to the Cyclone II DQ pins. You can use any of the Cyclone II device’s
user I/O pins in the top and bottom I/O banks for the D ports (write
data), commands, and addresses. For maximum performance, Altera
recommends connecting the D ports (write data) to the Cyclone II DQ
pins, because the DQ pins are pre-assigned to ensure minimal skew.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
External Memory Interface Standards
QDRII SRAM devices use the following clock signals:
■
■
■
Input clocks K and K#
Optional output clocks C and C#
Echo clocks CQ and CQn
Clocks C#, K#, and CQn are logical complements of clocks C, K, and CQ,
respectively. Clocks C, C#, K, and K# are inputs to the QDRII SRAM, and
clocks CQ and CQn are outputs from the QDRII SRAM. Cyclone II
devices use single-clock mode for QDRII SRAM interfacing. The K and
K# clocks are used for both read and write operations, and the C and C#
clocks are unused.
You can generate C, C#, K, and K# clocks using any of the I/O registers
via the DDR registers. Due to strict skew requirements between K and K#
signals, use adjacent pins to generate the clock pair. Surround the pair
with buffer pins tied to VCC and pins tied to ground for better noise
immunity from other signals.
In Cyclone II devices, another DQS pin implements the CQn pin in the
QDRII SRAM memory interface. These pins are denoted by DQS/CQ# in
the pin table. Connect CQ and CQn pins to the Cyclone II DQS/CQ and
DQS/CQ# pins of the same DQ groups, respectively. You must configure
the DQS/CQ and DQS/CQ# as bidirectional pins. However, because CQ
and CQn pins are output-only pins from the memory device, the
Cyclone II device’s QDRII SRAM memory interface requires that you
ground the DQS/CQ and DQS/CQ# output enable. To capture data
presented by the memory device, connect the shifted CQ signal to register
CI and input register AI. Connect the shifted CQn to input register BI.
Figure 9–4 shows the CQ and CQn connections for a QDRII SRAM read.
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February 2007
External Memory Interfaces
Figure 9–4. CQ & CQn Connection for QDRII SRAM Read
dataout_h
LE
Register
sync_reg_l
dataout_l
LE
Register
DQ
LE
Register
Input Register A I
LE
Register
neg_reg_out
LE
Register
Dt
sync_reg_h
Register C I
resynch_clk
DQS/CQ# (CQn)
Clock Delay
Control Circuitry
Input Register BI
Dt
DQS/CQ (CQ)
Read & Write Operation
Figure 9–5 shows the data and clock relationships in QDRII SRAM
devices at the memory pins during reads. QDRII SRAM devices send data
within tCO time after each rising edge of the read clock C or C# in multiclock mode or the input clock K or K# in single clock mode. Data is valid
until tDOH time after each rising edge of the read clock C or C# in multiclock mode or the input clock K or K# in single clock mode. The CQ and
CQn clocks are edge-aligned with the read data signal. These clocks
accompany the read data for data capture in Cyclone II devices.
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February 2007
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External Memory Interface Standards
Figure 9–5. Data & Clock Relationship During a QDRII SRAM Report
C/K
Cn/Kn
tCO (2)
tCO (2)
QA
Q
tCLZ (3)
QA + 1
tDOH (2)
QA + 2
QA + 3
tCHZ (3)
CQ
tCQD (4)
CQn
tCCQO (5)
tCQOH (4)
tCQD (4)
Notes to Figure 9–5:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
The timing parameter nomenclature is based on the Cypress QDRII SRAM data sheet for CY7C1313V18.
tC O is the data clock-to-out time and tD O H is the data output hold time between burst.
tC L Z and tC H Z are bus turn-on and turn-off times, respectively.
tC Q D is the skew between CQn and data edges.
tC C Q O and tC Q O H are skew measurements between the C or C# clocks (or the K or K# clocks in single-clock mode)
and the CQ or CQn clocks.
When writing to QDRII SRAM devices, the write clock generates the data
while the K clock is 90° shifted from the write clock, creating a centeraligned arrangement.
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February 2007
External Memory Interfaces
Cyclone II DDR
Memory Support
Overview
Table 9–1 shows the external memory interfaces supported in Cyclone II
devices.
Table 9–1. External Memory Support in Cyclone II Devices
Memory Standard
DDR SDRAM
DDR2 SDRAM
QDRII SRAM (4)
I/O Standard
Note (1)
Maximum Bus
Width
Maximum Clock
Rate Supported
(MHz)
Maximum Data
Rate Supported
(Mbps)
SSTL-2 class I (2)
72
167
333 (1)
SSTL-2 class II (2)
72
133
267 (1)
SSTL-18 class I (2)
72
167
333 (1)
SSTL-18 class II (3)
72
125
250 (1)
1.8-V HSTL class I (2)
36
167
667 (1)
1.8-V HSTL class II (3)
36
100
400 (1)
Notes to Table 9–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The data rate is for designs using the clock delay control circuitry.
These I/O standards are supported on all the I/O banks of the Cyclone II device.
These I/O standards are supported only on the I/O banks on the top and bottom of the Cyclone II device.
For maximum performance, Altera recommends using the 1.8-V HSTL I/O standard because of higher I/O drive
strength. QDRII SRAM devices also support the 1.5-V HSTL I/O standard.
Cyclone II devices support the data strobe or read clock signal (DQS)
used in DDR SDRAM with the clock delay control circuitry that can shift
the incoming DQS signals to center them within the data window. To
achieve DDR operation, the DDR input and output registers are
implemented using the internal logic element (LE) registers. You should
use the altdqs and altdq megafunctions in the Quartus II software to
implement the DDR registers used for DQS and DQ signals, respectively.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
DDR Memory Interface Pins
DDR Memory
Interface Pins
Cyclone II devices use data (DQ), data strobe (DQS), and clock pins to
interface with external memory. Figure 9–6 shows the DQ and DQS pins
in the ×8/×9 mode.
Figure 9–6. Cyclone II Device DQ & DQS Groups in ×8/×9 Mode
DQS Pin (2)
DQ Pins
Notes (1), (3)
DQ Pins
DM Pin
Notes to Figure 9–6:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Each DQ group consists of a DQS pin, a DM pin, and up to nine DQ pins.
For the QDRII memory interface, other DQS pins implement the CQn pins. These pins are denoted by DQS/CQ# in
the pin table.
This is an idealized pin layout. For the actual pin layout, refer to the pin tables in the PCB Layout Guidelines section
of the Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1.
Data & Data Strobe Pins
Cyclone II data pins for the DDR memory interfaces are called DQ pins.
Cyclone II devices can use either bidirectional data strobes or
unidirectional read clocks. Depending on the external memory interface,
either the memory device’s read data strobes or read clocks feed the DQS
pins.
In Cyclone II devices, all the I/O banks support DDR and DDR2 SDRAM
and QDRII SRAM memory at up to 167 MHz. All the I/O banks support
DQS signals with the DQ bus modes of ×8/×9 and ×16/×18. Cyclone II
devices can support either bidirectional data strobes or unidirectional
read clocks.
1
DDR2 and QDRII interfaces with class II I/O standard can only
be implemented on the top and bottom I/O banks of the
Cyclone II device.
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External Memory Interfaces
In ×8 and ×16 modes, one DQS pin drives up to 8 or 16 DQ pins,
respectively, within the group. In the ×9 and ×18 modes, a pair of DQS
pins (CQ and CQ#) drives up to 9 or 18 DQ pins within the group to
support one or two parity bits and the corresponding data bits. If the
parity bits or any data bits are not used, the extra DQ pins can be used as
regular user I/O pins. The ×9 and ×18 modes are used to support the
QDRII memory interface. Table 9–2 shows the number of DQS/DQ
groups supported in each Cyclone II density/package combination.
Table 9–2. Cyclone II DQS & DQ Bus Mode Support
Device
EP2C5
EP2C8
EP2C15
EP2C20
Package
144-pin TQFP (2)
Number of ×8
Groups
Note (1)
Number of ×9 Number of ×16 Number of ×18
Groups (5), (6)
Groups
Groups (5), (6)
3
3
0
0
208-pin PQFP
7 (3)
4
3
3
256-pin FineLine BGA
8 (3)
4 (7)
4
4 (7)
3
3
0
0
144-pin TQFP (2)
208-pin PQFP
7 (3)
4 (7)
3
3
256-pin FineLine BGA®
8 (3)
4 (7)
4
4 (7)
256-pin FineLine BGA
8
4
4
4
484-pin FineLine BGA
16 (4)
8 (8)
8
8 (8)
240-pin PQFP
8
4
4
4
256-pin FineLine BGA
8
4
4
4
484-pin FineLine BGA
16 (4)
8 (8)
8
8 (8)
EP2C35
484-pin FineLine BGA
16 (4)
8 (8)
8
8 (8)
672-pin FineLine BGA
20 (4)
8 (8)
8
8 (8)
EP2C50
484-pin FineLine BGA
16 (4)
8 (8)
8
8 (8)
672-pin FineLine BGA
20 (4)
8 (8)
8
8 (8)
EP2C70
672-pin FineLine BGA
20 (4)
8 (8)
8
8 (8)
896-pin FineLine BGA
20 (4)
8 (8)
8
8 (8)
Notes to Table 9–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Numbers are preliminary.
EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices in the 144-pin TQFP package do not have any DQ pin groups in I/O bank 1.
Because of available clock resources, only a total of 6 DQ/DQS groups can be implemented.
Because of available clock resources, only a total of 14 DQ/DQS groups can be implemented.
The ×9 DQS/DQ groups are also used as ×8 DQS/DQ groups. The ×18 DQS/DQ groups are also used as ×16
DQS/DQ groups.
For QDRII implementation, if you connect the D ports (write data) to the Cyclone II DQ pins, the total available ×9
DQS /DQ and ×18 DQS/DQ groups are half of that shown in Table 9–2.
Because of available clock resources, only a total of 3 DQ/DQS groups can be implemented.
Because of available clock resources, only a total of 7 DQ/DQS groups can be implemented.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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DDR Memory Interface Pins
The DQS pins are listed in the Cyclone II pin tables as DQS[1..0]T,
DQS[1..0]B, DQS[1..0]L, and DQS[1..0]R for the EP2C5 and EP2C8
devices and DQS[5..0]T, DQS[5..0]B, DQS[3..0]L, and
DQS[3..0]R for the larger devices. The T denotes pins on the top of the
device, the B denotes pins on the bottom of the device, the L denotes pins
on the left of the device, and the R denotes pins on the right of the device.
The corresponding DQ pins are marked as DQ[5..0]T[8..0],
where [5..0] indicates which DQS group the pins belong to.
In the Cyclone II pinouts, the DQ groups with 9 DQ pins are also used in
the ×8 mode with the corresponding DQS pins, leaving the unused DQ
pin available as a regular I/O pin. The DQ groups that have 18 DQ pins
are also used in the ×16 mode with the corresponding DQS pins, leaving
the two unused DQ pins available as regular I/O pins. For example,
DQ1T[8..0] can be used in the ×8 mode, provided it is used with DQS1T.
The remaining unused DQ pin, DQ1T8, is available as a regular I/O pin.
When not used as DQ or DQS pins, these pins are available as regular I/O
pins. Table 9–3 shows the number of DQS pins supported in each I/O
bank in each Cyclone II device density.
Table 9–3. Available DQS Pins in Each I/O Bank & Each Device
Device
Note (1)
Top I/O Bank
Bottom I/O Bank
Left I/O Bank
Right I/O Bank
EP2C5, EP2C8
DQS[1..0]T
DQS[1..0]B
DQS[1..0]L
DQS[1..0]R
EP2C15, EP2C20,
EP2C35, EP2C50,
EP2C70
DQS[5..0]B
DQS[5..0]T
DQS[3..0]L
DQS[3..0]R
Note to Table 9–3:
(1)
Numbers are preliminary.
The DQ pin numbering is based on ×8/×9 mode. There are up to 8
DQS/DQ groups in ×8 mode or 4 DQS/DQ groups in ×9 mode in I/O
banks for EP2C5 and EP2C8. For the larger devices, there are up to 20
DQS/DQ groups in ×8 mode or 8 DQS/DQ groups in ×9 mode. Although
there are up to 20 DQS/DQ groups in the ×8 mode available in the larger
Cyclone II devices, but because of the available clock resources in the
Cyclone II devices, only 16 DQS/DQ groups can be utilized for the
external memory interface. There is a total of 16 global clock buses
available for routing DQS signals but 2 of them are needed for routing the
–90° write clock and the system clock to the external memory devices.
This reduces the global clock resources to 14 global clock buses for
routing DQS signals. Incoming DQS signals are all routed to the clock
control block, and are then routed to the global clock bus to clock the DDR
LE registers. For EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices, the DQS signals are routed
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External Memory Interfaces
directly to the clock control block. For the larger Cyclone II devices, the
corner DQS signals are multiplexed before they are routed to the clock
control block. When you use the corner DQS pins for DDR
implementation, there is a degradation in the performance of the memory
interface. The clock control block is used to select from a number of input
clock sources, in this case either PLL clock outputs or DQS pins, to drive
onto the global clock bus. Figure 9–7 shows the corner DQS signal
mappings for EP2C15 through EP2C70 devices.
Figure 9–7. Corner DQS Signal Mapping for EP2C15–EP2C70 Devices
DQS1T
DQS[5..2]T
DQS0T
4
PLL 3
(4)
PLL 2
(4)
3
DQS2R
DQS2L
(3)
(3)
4
3
Clock Control
Block (1)
Global Clock
Bus (2)
DQS0L
DQS0R
4
4
DQS1R
DQS1L
Clock Control
Block (1)
3
4
(3)
(3)
DQS3L
DQS3R
3
PLL 1
(4)
PLL 4
(4)
4
DQS1B
DQS[5..2]B
DQS0B
Notes to Figure 9–7:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
There are four control blocks on each side.
There are a total of 16 global clocks available.
Only one of the corner DQS pins in each corner can feed the clock control block at a time. The other DQS pins can
be used as general purpose I/O pins.
PLL resource can be lost if all DQS pins from one side are used at the same time.
Top/bottom and side IOE have different timing.
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February 2007
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DDR Memory Interface Pins
For example, to implement a 72-bit wide SDRAM memory interface in
Cyclone II devices, use 5 DQS/DQ groups in the top I/O bank and 4
DQS/DQ groups in the bottom I/O bank, or vice-versa. In this case, if
DQS0T or DQS1T is used for the fifth DQS signal, the DQS2R or DQS2L
pins become regular I/O pins and are unavailable for DQS signals in
memory interface. For detailed information about the global clock
network, refer to the Global Clock Network & Phase Locked Loops section in
the Cyclone II Architecture chapter of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
You must configure the DQ and DQS pins as bidirectional DDR pins on
all the I/O banks of the device. Use the altdq and altdqs
megafunctions to configure the DQ and DQS paths, respectively. If you
only want to use the DQ or DQS pins as inputs, for instance in the QDRII
memory interface where DQ and DQS are unidirectional read data and
read clock, set the output enable of the DQ or DQS pins to ground. For
further information, please refer to the section “QDRII SRAM” on
page 9–5 of this handbook.
Clock, Command & Address Pins
You can use any of the user I/O pins on all the I/O banks (that support
the external memory’s I/O standard) of the device to generate clocks and
command and address signals to the memory device.
Parity, DM & ECC Pins
You can use any of the DQ pins for the parity pins in Cyclone II devices.
Cyclone II devices support parity in the ×8/×9 and ×16/×18 modes.
There is one parity bit available per 8 bits of data pins.
The data mask (DM) pins are required when writing to DDR SDRAM and
DDR2 SDRAM devices. A low signal on the DM pin indicates that the
write is valid. If the DM signal is high, the memory masks the DQ signals.
In Cyclone II devices, the DM pins are pre-assigned in the device pin outs,
and these are the preferred pins. Each group of DQS and DQ signals
requires a DM pin. Similar to the DQ output signals, the DM signals are
clocked by the –90° shifted clock.
Some DDR SDRAM and DDR2 SDRAM devices support error correction
coding (ECC) or parity. Parity bit checking is a way to detect errors, but it
has no correction capabilities. ECC can detect and automatically correct
errors in data transmission. In 72-bit DDR SDRAM, there are 8 ECC pins
on top of the 64 data pins. Connect the DDR and DDR2 SDRAM ECC pins
to a Cyclone II device’s DQS/DQ group. The memory controller needs
extra logic to encode and decode the ECC data.
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External Memory Interfaces
Phase Lock Loop (PLL)
When using the Cyclone II I/O banks to interface with the DDR memory,
at least one PLL with two outputs is needed to generate the system clock
and the write clock. The system clock generates the DQS write signals,
commands, and addresses. The write clock shifts by –90° from the system
clock and generates the DQ signals during writes.
Clock Delay Control
Clock delay control circuit on each DQS pin allows a phase shift that
center-aligns the incoming DQS signals within the data window of their
corresponding DQ data signals. The phase-shifted DQS signals drive the
global clock network. This global DQS signal then clocks the DQ signals
on internal LE registers. The clock delay control circuitry is used during
the read operations where the DQS signals are acting as input clocks or
strobes.
Figure 9–8 illustrates DDR SDRAM interfacing from the I/O pins
through the dedicated circuitry to the logic array.
Figure 9–8. DDR SDRAM Interfacing
DQS
OE
DQ
OE
LE
Register
LE
Register
t
Adjacent LAB LEs
LE
Register
clk
PLL
LE
Register
VCC
LE
Register
DataA
LE
Register
LE
Register
GND
LE
Register
DataB
LE
Register
LE
Register
LE
Register
LE
Register
LE
Register
Clock Delay
Control Circuitry
en/dis
-90˚ Shifted clk
Clock Control
Block
ENOUT
Global Clock
Resynchronizing
to System Clock
Dynamic Enable/Disable
Circuitry
ena_register_mode
Figure 9–1 on page 9–4 shows an example where the DQS signal is shifted
by 90°. The DQS signal goes through the 90° shift delay set by the clock
delay control circuitry and global clock routing delay from the clock delay
control circuitry to the DQ LE registers. The DQ signals only goes through
routing delays from the DQ pin to the DQ LE registers. The delay from
Altera Corporation
February 2007
9–15
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
DDR Memory Interface Pins
DQS pin to the DQ LE register does not necessarily match the delay from
the DQ pin to the DQ LE register. Therefore, you must adjust the clock
delay control circuitry to compensate for this difference in delays.
DQS Postamble
For external memory interfaces that use a bidirectional read strobe, such
as DDR and DDR2 SDRAM, the DQS signal is low before going to or
coming from the high-impedance state (see Figure 9–1). The state where
DQS is low just after high-impedance is called the preamble and the state
where DQS is low just before it goes to high-impedance is called the
postamble. There are preamble and postamble specifications for both
read and write operations in DDR and DDR2 SDRAM. If the Cyclone II
device or the DDR/DDR2 SDRAM device does not drive the DQ and
DQS pins, the signals go to a high-impedance state. Because a pull-up
resistor terminates both DQ and DQS to VTT (1.25 V for SSTL-2 and 0.9 V
for SSTL-18), the effective voltage on the high-impedance line is either
1.25 V or 0.9 V. According to the JEDEC JESD8-9 specification for SSTL-2
I/O standard and the JESD8-15A specification for SSTL-18 I/O standard,
this is an indeterminate logic level, and the input buffer can interpret this
as either a logic high or logic low. If there is any noise on the DQS line, the
input buffer may interpret that noise as actual strobe edges.
Cyclone II devices have non-dedicated logic that can be configured to
prevent a false edge trigger at the end of the DQS postamble. Each
Cyclone II DQS signal is connected to postamble logic that consists of a D
flip flop (see Figure 9–9). This register is clocked by the shifted DQS
signal. Its input is connected to ground. The controller needs to include
extra logic to tell the reset signal to release the preset signal on the falling
DQS edge at the start of the postamble. This disables any glitches that
happen right after the postamble. This postamble logic is automatically
implemented by the Altera MegaCore DDR/DDR2 SDRAM Controller in
the LE register as part of the open-source datapath.
9–16
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
External Memory Interfaces
Figure 9–9. Cyclone II DQS Postamble Circuitry Connection
Capture Register
D
Q
ENA
Capture Register
DQ[7..0]
D
DQS'
Capture Register
Q
D
ENA
Q
ENA
Δt
DQS
Reset
DQS Programmable
Delay Chain
Circuitry
PRN
EnableN
Q
D
Postamble
Logic
CLRN
Global
Clock Network
Figure 9–10 shows the timing waveform for Figure 9–9. When the
postamble logic detects the falling DQS edge at the start of postamble, it
sends out a signal to disable the capture registers to prevent any
accidental latching.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
9–17
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
DDR Memory Interface Pins
Figure 9–10. Cyclone II DQS Postamble Circuitry Control Timing Waveform
DQS
DQS'
Reset
EnableN
DDR Input Registers
In Cyclone II devices, the DDR input registers are implemented with five
internal LE registers located in the logic array block (LAB) adjacent to the
DDR input pin (see Figure 9–11). The DDR data is fed to the first two
registers, input register AI and input register BI. Input register BI
captures the DDR data present during the rising edge of the clock. Input
register AI captures the DDR data present during the falling edge of the
clock. Register CI aligns the data before it is transferred to the
resynchronization registers.
Figure 9–11. DDR Input Implementation
DDR Input Configuration in Cyclone II
dataout_h
DQ
LE
Register
LE
Register
sync_reg_h
Input Register A I
neg_reg_out
dataout_l
LE
Register
sync_reg_l
resynch_clk
9–18
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
LE
Register
Register CI
LE
Register
Input Register B I
Inverted &
Delayed DQS
Clock Delay
Control Circuitry
t
DQS
Altera Corporation
February 2007
External Memory Interfaces
Registers sync_reg_h and sync_reg_l synchronize the two data
streams to the rising edge of the resynchronization clock. Figure 9–12
shows examples of functional waveforms from a double data rate input
implementation.
Figure 9–12. DDR Input Functional Waveforms
DQS
Delay_DQS
DQ
Q0
Q1
Output of
Input Register A I
Output of
Input Register B I
Output of
Register CI
Q2
Q3
Q1
Q3
Q0
Q2
Q0
Q2
resync_clk
dataout_h
Q1
Q3
dataout_l
Q0
Q2
The Cyclone II DDR input registers require you to invert the incoming
DQS signal to ensure proper data transfer. The altdq megafunction
automatically adds the inverter on the clock port of the DQ signals. As
shown in Figure 9–11, the inverted DQS signal’s rising edge clocks
register AI, its falling edge clocks register BI, and register CI aligns the
data clocked by register BI with register AI on the inverted DQS signal’s
rising edge. In a DDR memory read operation, the last data coincides with
the falling edge of DQS signal. If you do not invert the DQS pin, you do
not get this last data because the register does not latch until the next
rising edge of the DQS signal.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
9–19
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
DDR Memory Interface Pins
Figure 9–13 shows waveforms of the circuit shown in Figure 9–11. The
first set of waveforms in Figure 9–13 shows the edge-aligned relationship
between the DQ and DQS signals at the Cyclone II device pins. The
second set of waveforms in Figure 9–13 shows what happens if the
shifted DQS signal is not inverted. In this case, the last data, Qn, does not
get latched into the logic array as DQS goes to tri-state after the read
postamble time. The third set of waveforms in Figure 9–13 shows a
proper read operation with the DQS signal inverted after the 90° shift.
The last data, Qn, does get latched. In this case the outputs of register AI
and register CI, which correspond to dataout_h and dataout_l ports,
are now switched because of the DQS inversion. Register AI, register BI,
and register CI refer to the nomenclature in Figure 9–11.
Figure 9–13. DQ Captures With Noninverted & Inverted Shifted DQS
DQ & DQS Signals
DQ at the Pin
Qn - 2
Qn - 1
Qn
DQS at the Pin
Shifted DQS Signal is Not Inverted
DQS Shifted by 90˚
Output of Register AI (dataout_h)
Output of Register BI
Output of Register CI (dataout_l)
Qn - 1
Qn - 2
Qn
Qn - 2
Shifted DQS Signal is Inverted
DQS Inverted and
Shifted by 90˚
Output of Register AI
(dataout_h)
Output of Register BI
Output of Register CI
(dataout_I)
9–20
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Qn - 2
Qn
Qn - 1
Qn - 3
Qn - 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
External Memory Interfaces
DDR Output Registers
Figure 9–14 shows a schematic representation of DDR output
implemented in a Cyclone II device. The DDR output logic is
implemented using LEs in the LAB adjacent to the output pin. Two
registers synchronize two serial data streams. The registered outputs are
then multiplexed by the common clock to drive the DDR output pin at
two times the data rate.
Figure 9–14. DDR Output Implementation for DDR Memory Interfaces
datain_h
LE
Register
data1
Output Register AO
datain_l
DQ
data0 sel
LE
Register
Output Register BO
-90˚ Shifted clk
While the clock signal is logic-high, the output from output register AO is
driven onto the DDR output pin. While the clock signal is logic-low, the
output from output register BO is driven onto the DDR output pin. The
DDR output pin can be any available user I/O pin. Altera recommends
the use of altdq and altdqs megafunctions to implement this output
logic. This automatically provides the required tight placement and
routing constraints on the LE registers and the output multiplexer.
Figure 9–15 shows examples of functional waveforms from a DDR output
implementation.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
9–21
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
DDR Memory Interface Pins
Figure 9–15. DDR Output Waveforms
outclk
datain_h
D0
D2
D4
D6
D8
datain_l
D1
D3
D5
D7
D9
data1
D0
D2
D4
D6
D8
data0
D1
D3
D5
D7
D9
DQ
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
Bidirectional DDR Registers
Figure 9–16 shows a bidirectional DDR interface constructed using the
DDR input and DDR output examples described in the previous two
sections. As with the DDR input and DDR output examples, the
bidirectional DDR pin can be any available user I/O pin. The registers
that implement DDR bidirectional logic are LEs in the LAB adjacent to
that pin. The tri-state buffer controls when the device drives data onto the
bidirectional DDR pin.
9–22
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
External Memory Interfaces
Figure 9–16. Bidirectional DDR Implementation for DDR Memory Interfaces Note (1)
OE
datain_h
LE
Register
data1
Output Register AO
datain_l
data0
sel
LE
Register
TRI
Output Register BO
outclk
dataout_h
dataout_l
LE
Register
LE
Register
sync_reg_h
Input Register AI
LE
Register
LE
Register
sync_reg_l
Register CI
neg_reg_out
LE
Register
DQ
Clock Delay
Control Circuitry
Input Register BI
t
resynch_clk
VCC
DQS
LE
Register
TRI
sel
GND
LE
Register
Note to Figure 9–16:
(1)
You can use the altdq and altdqs megafunctions to generate the DQ and DQS signals.
Figure 9–17 shows example waveforms from a bidirectional DDR
implementation.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
9–23
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Conclusion
Figure 9–17. DDR Bidirectional Waveforms
outclk
OE
datain h
D0
D2
datain_l
D1
D3
data1
D0
D2
data0
D1
D3
DQ
D0
D1
D2
D3
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
DQS
Output of
Input Register A I
Q1
Output of
Input Register B I
Q3
Q0
Output of
Register C I
Q2
Q0
Q2
resync_clk
dataout_h
Q1
Q3
dataout_l
Q0
Q2
Conclusion
Cyclone II devices support SDR SDRAM, DDR SDRAM, DDR2 SDRAM,
and QDRII SRAM external memories. Cyclone II devices feature highspeed interfaces that transfer data between external memory devices at
up to 167 MHz/333 Mbps for DDR and DDR2 SDRAM devices and
167 MHz/667 Mbps for QDRII SRAM devices. The clock delay control
circuitry allows you to fine tune the phase shift for the input clocks or
strobes to properly align clock edges as needed to capture data.
9–24
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
External Memory Interfaces
Document
Revision History
Table 9–4 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 9–4. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2007
v3.1
Changes Made
●
●
●
November
2005, v2.1
●
●
●
Added document revision history.
Added handpara note in “Data & Data Strobe Pins”
section.
Updated “DDR Output Registers” section.
Updated Table 9–2.
November
2004, v1.1
●
●
●
Elaboration of DDR2 and
QDRII interfaces supported
by I/O bank included.
Introduction
Updated Table 9–2.
Updated Figure 9–7.
July 2005, v2.0
●
Summary of Changes
Moved the “External Memory Interface Standards”
section to follow the “Introduction” section.
Updated the “Data & Data Strobe Pins” section.
Updated Figures 9–11, 9–12, 9–15, 9–16, and 9–17.
June 2004, v1.0 Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
9–25
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
9–26
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Section IV. I/O Standards
This section provides information on Cyclone® II single-ended, voltage
referenced, and differential I/O standards.
This section includes the following chapters:
Revision History
Altera Corporation
■
Chapter 10, Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
■
Chapter 11, High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section IV–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section IV–2
Preliminary
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
10. Selectable I/O Standards
in Cyclone II Devices
CII51010-2.4
Introduction
The proliferation of I/O standards and the need for improved I/O
performance have made it critical that low-cost devices have flexible I/O
capabilities. Selectable I/O capabilities such as SSTL-18, SSTL-2, and
LVDS compatibility allow Cyclone® II devices to connect to other devices
on the same printed circuit board (PCB) that may require different
operating and I/O voltages. With these aspects of implementation easily
manipulated using the Altera® Quartus® II software, the Cyclone II
device family allows you to use low cost FPGAs while keeping pace with
increasing design complexity.
This chapter is a guide to understanding the input and output capabilities
of the Cyclone II devices, including:
■
■
■
■
■
f
Supported I/O standards
Cyclone II I/O banks
Programmable current drive strength
I/O termination
Pad placement and DC guidelines
For information on hot socketing, refer to the Hot Socketing & Power-On
Reset chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
For information on ESD specifications, refer to the Altera Reliability Report.
Supported I/O
Standards
f
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Cyclone II devices support the I/O standards shown in Table 10–1.
For more details on the I/O standards discussed in this section,
including target data rates and voltage values for each I/O standard,
refer to the DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications chapter in
volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
10–1
Supported I/O Standards
f
For information about the I/O standards supported for external memory
applications, refer to the External Memory Interfaces chapter in volume 1
of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Table 10–1. Cyclone II Supported I/O Standards and Constraints (Part 1 of 2)
VCCIO Level
I/O Standard
Type
Input Output
Top and
Bottom I/O
Pins
Side I/O Pins
CLK, User I/O CLK,
PLL_OUT
DQS
Pins
DQS
User I/O
Pins
3.3-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
Single ended
3.3 V/
2.5 V
3.3 V
v
v
v
v
v
2.5-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
Single ended
3.3 V/
2.5 V
2.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
1.8-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
Single ended
1.8 V/
1.5 V
1.8 V
v
v
v
v
v
1.5-V LVCMOS
Single ended
1.8 V/
1.5 V
1.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-2 class I
Voltage
referenced
2.5 V
2.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-2 class II
Voltage
referenced
2.5 V
2.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-18 class I
Voltage
referenced
1.8 V
1.8 V
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-18 class II
Voltage
referenced
1.8 V
1.8 V
v
v
(1)
(1)
(1)
HSTL-18 class I
Voltage
referenced
1.8 V
1.8 V
v
v
v
v
v
HSTL-18 class II
Voltage
referenced
1.8 V
1.8 V
v
v
(1)
(1)
(1)
HSTL-15 class I
Voltage
referenced
1.5 V
1.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
HSTL-15 class II
Voltage
referenced
1.5 V
1.5 V
v
v
(1)
(1)
(1)
PCI and PCI-X (2)
Single ended
3.3 V
3.3 V
—
—
v
v
v
(4)
2.5 V
—
—
—
v
—
2.5 V
(4)
v
—
v
—
—
v (6)
—
—
—
Differential SSTL-2 class I or Pseudo
class II
differential (3)
(5)
Differential SSTL-18 class I
or class II
Pseudo
differential (3)
(4)
1.8 V
—
—
1.8 V
(4)
v
—
(5)
10–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
(5)
v
(5)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Table 10–1. Cyclone II Supported I/O Standards and Constraints (Part 2 of 2)
VCCIO Level
I/O Standard
Type
Input Output
Differential HSTL-15 class I
or class II
Pseudo
differential (3)
Top and
Bottom I/O
Pins
CLK, User I/O CLK,
PLL_OUT
DQS
Pins
DQS
Pseudo
differential (3)
User I/O
Pins
(4)
1.5 V
—
—
—
v (6)
—
1.5 V
(4)
v
—
v
—
—
(5)
Differential HSTL-18 class I
or class II
Side I/O Pins
(4)
1.8 V
(5)
1.8 V
—
—
—
v (6)
—
(4)
v
—
v
—
—
(5)
(5)
LVDS
Differential
2.5 V
2.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
RSDS and mini-LVDS (7)
Differential
(4)
2.5 V
—
v
—
v
v
LVPECL (8)
Differential
3.3 V/
2.5 V/
1.8 V/
1.5 V
—
—
(4)
—
v
v
Notes to Table 10–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
These pins support SSTL-18 class II and 1.8- and 1.5-V HSTL class II inputs.
PCI-X does not meet the IV curve requirement at the linear region. PCI-clamp diode is not available on top and
bottom I/O pins.
Pseudo-differential HSTL and SSTL outputs use two single-ended outputs with the second output programmed
as inverted. Pseudo-differential HSTL and SSTL inputs treat differential inputs as two single-ended HSTL and
SSTL inputs and only decode one of them.
This I/O standard is not supported on these I/O pins.
This I/O standard is only supported on the dedicated clock pins.
PLL_OUT does not support differential SSTL-18 class II and differential 1.8 and 1.5-V HSTL class II.
mini-LVDS and RSDS are only supported on output pins.
LVPECL is only supported on clock inputs, not DQS and dual-purpose clock pins.
3.3-V LVTTL (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-B)
The 3.3-V LVTTL I/O standard is a general-purpose, single-ended
standard used for 3.3-V applications. The LVTTL standard defines the DC
interface parameters for digital circuits operating from a 3.0-/3.3-V
power supply and driving or being driven by LVTTL-compatible devices.
The LVTTL input standard specifies a wider input voltage range of
– 0.3 V ≤VI ≤3.9 V. Altera recommends an input voltage range of
– 0.5 V ≤VI ≤4.1 V.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Supported I/O Standards
3.3-V LVCMOS (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-B)
The 3.3-V LVCMOS I/O standard is a general-purpose, single-ended
standard used for 3.3-V applications. The LVCMOS standard defines the
DC interface parameters for digital circuits operating from a 3.0- or 3.3-V
power supply and driving or being driven by LVCMOS-compatible
devices.
The LVCMOS standard specifies the same input voltage requirements as
LVTTL (– 0.3 V ≤VI ≤3.9 V). The output buffer drives to the rail to meet the
minimum high-level output voltage requirements. The 3.3-V I/O
standard does not require input reference voltages or board terminations.
Cyclone II devices support both input and output levels specified by the
3.3-V LVCMOS I/O standard.
3.3-V (PCI Special Interest Group [SIG] PCI Local Bus
Specification Revision 3.0)
The PCI local bus specification is used for applications that interface to
the PCI local bus, which provides a processor-independent data path
between highly integrated peripheral controller components, peripheral
add-in boards, and processor/memory systems. The conventional PCI
specification revision 3.0 defines the PCI hardware environment
including the protocol, electrical, mechanical, and configuration
specifications for the PCI devices and expansion boards. This standard
requires a 3.3-V VCCIO. The 3.3-V PCI standard does not require input
reference voltages or board terminations.
The side (left and right) I/O banks on all Cyclone II devices are fully
compliant with the 3.3V PCI Local Bus Specification Revision 3.0 and
meet 32-bit/66 MHz operating frequency and timing requirements.
Table 10–2 lists the specific Cyclone II devices that support 64- and 32-bit
PCI at 66 MHz.
Table 10–2. Cyclone II 66-MHz PCI Support (Part 1 of 2)
–6 and –7 Speed Grades
Device
Package
64 Bits
EP2C5
10–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
32 Bits
144-pin TQFP
208-pin PQFP
v
256-pin FineLineBGA®
v
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Table 10–2. Cyclone II 66-MHz PCI Support (Part 2 of 2)
–6 and –7 Speed Grades
Device
Package
64 Bits
EP2C8
EP2C15
144-pin TQFP
208-pin PQFP
v
256-pin FineLine BGA
v
256-pin FineLine BGA
v
484-pin FineLine BGA
EP2C20
EP2C35
EP2C50
EP2C70
32 Bits
v
v
240-pin PQFP
v
256-pin FineLine BGA
v
484-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
484-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
672-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
484-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
672-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
672-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
896-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
Table 10–3 lists the specific Cyclone II devices that support 64-bit and
32-bit PCI at 33 MHz.
Table 10–3. Cyclone II 33-MHz PCI Support (Part 1 of 2)
–6, –7 and –8 Speed Grades
Device
EP2C5
EP2C8
EP2C15
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Package
64 Bits
32 Bits
144-pin TQFP
—
—
208-pin PQFP
—
v
256-pin FineLine BGA
—
v
144-pin TQFP
—
—
208-pin PQFP
—
v
256-pin FineLine BGA
—
v
256-pin FineLine BGA
—
v
484-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
10–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Supported I/O Standards
Table 10–3. Cyclone II 33-MHz PCI Support (Part 2 of 2)
–6, –7 and –8 Speed Grades
Device
EP2C20
EP2C35
EP2C50
EP2C70
Package
64 Bits
32 Bits
240-pin PQFP
—
v
256-pin FineLine BGA
—
v
484-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
484-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
672-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
484-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
672-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
672-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
896-pin FineLine BGA
v
v
3.3-V PCI-X
The 3.3-V PCI-X I/O standard is formulated under PCI-X Local Bus
Specification Revision 1.0 developed by the PCI SIG.
The PCI-X 1.0 standard is used for applications that interface to the PCI
local bus. The standard enables the design of systems and devices that
operate at clock speeds up to 133 MHz, or 1 gigabit per second (Gbps) for
a 64-bit bus. The PCI-X 1.0 protocol enhancements enable devices to
operate much more efficiently, providing more usable bandwidth at any
clock frequency. By using the PCI-X 1.0 standard, devices can be designed
to meet PCI-X 1.0 requirements and operate as conventional 33- and
66-MHz PCI devices when installed in those systems. This standard
requires 3.3-V VCCIO. Cyclone II devices are fully compliant with the 3.3-V
PCI-X Specification Revision 1.0a and meet the 133 MHz operating
frequency and timing requirements. The 3.3-V PCI-X standard does not
require input reference voltages or board terminations. Cyclone II devices
support both input and output levels operation for left and right I/O
banks.
Easy-to-Use, Low-Cost PCI Express Solution
PCI Express is rapidly establishing itself as the successor to PCI,
providing higher performance, increased flexibility, and scalability for
next-generation systems without increasing costs, all while maintaining
software compatibility with existing PCI applications. Now you can
easily design high volume, low-cost PCI Express ×1 solutions today
featuring:
10–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
■
■
■
Cyclone II FPGA (EP2C15 or larger)
Altera PCI Express Compiler ×1 MegaCore® function
External PCI Express transceiver/PHY
2.5-V LVTTL (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-5)
The 2.5-V I/O standard is used for 2.5-V LVTTL applications. This
standard defines the DC interface parameters for high-speed,
low-voltage, non-terminated digital circuits driving or being driven by
other 2.5-V devices.
The 2.5-V standard does not require input reference voltages or board
terminations. Cyclone II devices support input and output levels for
2.5-V LVTTL.
2.5-V LVCMOS (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-5)
The 2.5-V I/O standard is used for 2.5-V LVCMOS applications. This
standard defines the DC interface parameters for high-speed,
low-voltage, non-terminated digital circuits driving or being driven by
other 2.5-V parts.
The 2.5-V standard does not require input reference voltages or board
terminations. Cyclone II devices support input and output levels for
2.5-V LVCMOS.
SSTL-2 Class I and II (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-9A)
The SSTL-2 I/O standard is a 2.5-V memory bus standard used for
applications such as high-speed double data rate (DDR) SDRAM
interfaces. This standard defines the input and output specifications for
devices that operate in the SSTL-2 logic switching range of 0.0 to 2.5 V.
This standard improves operations in conditions where a bus must be
isolated from large stubs. The SSTL-2 standard specifies an input voltage
range of – 0.3 V ≤VI ≤VCCIO + 0.3 V. SSTL-2 requires a VREF value of 1.25 V
and a VTT value of 1.25 V connected to the termination resistors (refer to
Figures 10–1 and 10–2).
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Supported I/O Standards
Figure 10–1. SSTL-2 Class I Termination
VTT = 1.25 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
25 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 1.25 V
Figure 10–2. SSTL-2 Class II Termination
VTT = 1.25 V
VTT = 1.25 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 1.25 V
Cyclone II devices support both input and output SSTL-2 class I and II
levels.
Pseudo-Differential SSTL-2
The differential SSTL-2 I/O standard (EIA/JEDEC standard JESD8-9A) is
a 2.5-V standard used for applications such as high-speed DDR SDRAM
clock interfaces. This standard supports differential signals in systems
using the SSTL-2 standard and supplements the SSTL-2 standard for
differential clocks. The differential SSTL-2 standard specifies an input
voltage range of – 0.3 V ≤VI ≤VCCIO + 0.3 V. The differential SSTL-2
standard does not require an input reference voltage. Refer to
Figures 10–3 and 10–4 for details on differential SSTL-2 terminations.
Cyclone II devices do not support true differential SSTL-2 standards.
Cyclone II devices support pseudo-differential SSTL-2 outputs for
PLL_OUT pins and pseudo-differential SSTL-2 inputs for clock pins.
Pseudo-differential inputs require an input reference voltage as opposed
to the true differential inputs. Refer to Table 10–1 on page 10–2 for
information about pseudo-differential SSTL.
10–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 10–3. SSTL-2 Class I Differential Termination
VTT = 1.25 V
Differential
Transmitter
50 Ω
VTT = 1.25 V
Differential
Receiver
50 Ω
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
Figure 10–4. SSTL-2 Class II Differential Termination
VTT = 1.25 V
Differential
Transmitter
50 Ω
VTT = 1.25 V
50 Ω
VTT = 1.25 V
50 Ω
VTT = 1.25 V
50 Ω
Differential
Receiver
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
1.8-V LVTTL (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-7)
The 1.8-V I/O standard is used for 1.8-V LVTTL applications. This
standard defines the DC interface parameters for high-speed,
low-voltage, non-terminated digital circuits driving or being driven by
other 1.8-V parts.
The 1.8-V standard does not require input reference voltages or board
terminations. Cyclone II devices support input and output levels for
1.8-V LVTTL.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–9
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Supported I/O Standards
1.8-V LVCMOS (EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD8-7)
The 1.8-V I/O standard is used for 1.8-V LVCMOS applications. This
standard defines the DC interface parameters for high-speed,
low-voltage, non-terminated digital circuits driving or being driven by
other 1.8-V parts.
The 1.8-V standard does not require input reference voltages or board
terminations. Cyclone II devices support input and output levels for
1.8-V LVCMOS.
SSTL-18 Class I and II
The 1.8-V SSTL-18 standard is formulated under JEDEC Standard,
JESD815: Stub Series Terminated Logic for 1.8V (SSTL-18).
The SSTL-18 I/O standard is a 1.8-V memory bus standard used for
applications such as high-speed DDR2 SDRAM interfaces. This standard
is similar to SSTL-2 and defines input and output specifications for
devices that are designed to operate in the SSTL-18 logic switching range
0.0 to 1.8 V. SSTL-18 requires a 0.9-V VREF and a 0.9-V VTT, with the
termination resistors connected to both. There are no class definitions for
the SSTL-18 standard in the JEDEC specification. The specification of this
I/O standard is based on an environment that consists of both series and
parallel terminating resistors. Altera provides solutions to two derived
applications in JEDEC specification and names them class I and class II to
be consistent with other SSTL standards. Figures 10–5 and 10–6 show
SSTL-18 class I and II termination, respectively. Cyclone II devices
support both input and output levels.
Figure 10–5. 1.8-V SSTL Class I Termination
VTT = 0.9 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
25 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 0.9 V
10–10
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 10–6. 1.8-V SSTL Class II Termination
VTT = 0.9 V
VTT = 0.9 V
50 Ω
50 Ω
Output Buffer
Z = 50 Ω
25 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 0.9 V
1.8-V HSTL Class I and II
The HSTL standard is a technology independent I/O standard developed
by JEDEC to provide voltage scalability. It is used for applications
designed to operate in the 0.0- to 1.8-V HSTL logic switching range such
as quad data rate (QDR) memory clock interfaces.
Although JEDEC specifies a maximum VCCIO value of 1.6 V, there are
various memory chip vendors with HSTL standards that require a VCCIO
of 1.8 V. Cyclone II devices support interfaces with VCCIO of 1.8 V for
HSTL. Figures 10–7 and 10–8 show the nominal VREF and VTT required to
track the higher value of VCCIO. The value of VREF is selected to provide
optimum noise margin in the system. Cyclone II devices support both
input and output levels of operation.
Figure 10–7. 1.8-V HSTL Class I Termination
VTT = 0.9 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 0.9 V
Figure 10–8. 1.8-V HSTL Class II Termination
VTT = 0.9 V
VTT = 0.9 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
50 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 0.9 V
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–11
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Supported I/O Standards
Pseudo-Differential SSTL-18 Class I and Differential SSTL-18
Class II
The 1.8-V differential SSTL-18 standard is formulated under JEDEC
Standard, JESD8-15: Stub Series Terminated Logic for 1.8V (SSTL-18).
The differential SSTL-18 I/O standard is a 1.8-V standard used for
applications such as high-speed DDR2 SDRAM interfaces. This standard
supports differential signals in systems using the SSTL-18 standard and
supplements the SSTL-18 standard for differential clocks. Refer to
Figures 10–9 and 10–10 for details on differential SSTL-18 termination.
Cyclone II devices do not support true differential SSTL-18 standards.
Cyclone II devices support pseudo-differential SSTL-18 outputs for
PLL_OUT pins and pseudo-differential SSTL-18 inputs for clock pins.
Pseudo-differential inputs require an input reference voltage as opposed
to the true differential inputs. Refer to Table 10–1 on page 10–2 for
information about pseudo-differential SSTL.
Figure 10–9. Differential SSTL-18 Class I Termination
VTT = 0.9 V
Differential
Transmitter
50 Ω
VTT = 0.9 V
50 Ω
Differential
Receiver
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
10–12
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 10–10. Differential SSTL-18 Class II Termination
VTT = 0.9 V
Differential
Transmitter
50 Ω
VTT = 0.9 V
VTT = 0.9 V
50 Ω
50 Ω
VTT = 0.9 V
50 Ω
Differential
Receiver
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
1.8-V Pseudo-Differential HSTL Class I and II
The 1.8-V differential HSTL specification is the same as the 1.8-V
single-ended HSTL specification. It is used for applications designed to
operate in the 0.0 to 1.8-V HSTL logic switching range such as QDR
memory clock interfaces. Cyclone II devices support both input and
output levels. Refer to Figures 10–11 and 10–12 for details on 1.8-V
differential HSTL termination.
Cyclone II devices do not support true 1.8-V differential HSTL standards.
Cyclone II devices support pseudo-differential HSTL outputs for
PLL_OUT pins and pseudo-differential HSTL inputs for clock pins.
Pseudo-differential inputs require an input reference voltage as opposed
to the true differential inputs. Refer to Table 10–1 on page 10–2 for
information about pseudo-differential HSTL.
Figure 10–11. 1.8-V Differential HSTL Class I Termination
VTT = 0.9 V
Differential
Transmitter
50 Ω
VTT = 0.9 V
50 Ω
Differential
Receiver
Z0 = 50 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–13
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Supported I/O Standards
Figure 10–12. 1.8-V Differential HSTL Class II Termination
VTT = 0.9 V
Differential
Transmitter
50 Ω
VTT = 0.9 V
50 Ω
VTT = 0.9 V
50 Ω
VTT = 0.9 V
50 Ω
Differential
Receiver
Z0 = 50 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
1.5-V LVCMOS (EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD8-11)
The 1.5-V I/O standard is used for 1.5-V applications. This standard
defines the DC interface parameters for high-speed, low-voltage,
non-terminated digital circuits driving or being driven by other 1.5-V
devices.
The 1.5-V standard does not require input reference voltages or board
terminations. Cyclone II devices support input and output levels for
1.5-V LVCMOS.
1.5-V HSTL Class I and II
The 1.5-V HSTL standard is formulated under EIA/JEDEC Standard,
EIA/JESD8-6: A 1.5V Output Buffer Supply Voltage Based Interface
Standard for Digital Integrated Circuits.
The 1.5-V HSTL I/O standard is used for applications designed to operate
in the 0.0- to 1.5-V HSTL logic nominal switching range. This standard
defines single-ended input and output specifications for all
HSTL-compliant digital integrated circuits. The 1.5-V HSTL I/O standard
in Cyclone II devices is compatible with the 1.8-V HSTL I/O standard in
APEX™ 20KE, APEX 20KC, Stratix® II, Stratix GX, Stratix, and in
Cyclone II devices themselves because the input and output voltage
thresholds are compatible. Refer to Figures 10–13 and 10–14. Cyclone II
devices support both input and output levels with VREF and VTT.
10–14
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 10–13. 1.5-V HSTL Class I Termination
VTT = 0.75 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 0.75 V
Figure 10–14. 1.5-V HSTL Class II Termination
VTT = 0.75 V
VTT = 0.75 V
Output Buffer
50 Ω
50 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Input Buffer
VREF = 0.75 V
1.5-V Pseudo-Differential HSTL Class I and II
The 1.5-V differential HSTL standard is formulated under EIA/JEDEC
Standard, EIA/JESD8-6: A 1.5V Output Buffer Supply Voltage Based
Interface Standard for Digital Integrated Circuits.
The 1.5-V differential HSTL specification is the same as the 1.5-V
single-ended HSTL specification. It is used for applications designed to
operate in the 0.0- to 1.5-V HSTL logic switching range, such as QDR
memory clock interfaces. Cyclone II devices support both input and
output levels. Refer to Figures 10–15 and 10–16 for details on the 1.5-V
differential HSTL termination.
Cyclone II devices do not support true 1.5-V differential HSTL standards.
Cyclone II devices support pseudo-differential HSTL outputs for
PLL_OUT pins and pseudo-differential HSTL inputs for clock pins.
Pseudo-differential inputs require an input reference voltage as opposed
to the true differential inputs. Refer to Table 10–1 on page 10–2 for
information about pseudo-differential HSTL.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–15
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Supported I/O Standards
Figure 10–15. 1.5-V Differential HSTL Class I Termination
VTT = 0.75 V
Differential
Transmitter
50 Ω
VTT = 0.75 V
Differential
Receiver
50 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
Figure 10–16. 1.5-V Differential HSTL Class II Termination
VTT = 0.75 V
Differential
Transmitter
50 Ω
VTT = 0.75 V
50 Ω
VTT = 0.75 V
50 Ω
VTT = 0.75 V
50 Ω
Differential
Receiver
Z0 = 50 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
LVDS, RSDS and mini-LVDS
The LVDS standard is formulated under ANSI/TIA/EIA Standard,
ANSI/TIA/EIA-644: Electrical Characteristics of Low Voltage
Differential Signaling Interface Circuits.
The LVDS I/O standard is a differential high-speed, low-voltage swing,
low-power, general-purpose I/O interface standard. This standard is
used in applications requiring high-bandwidth data transfer, backplane
drivers, and clock distribution. Cyclone II devices are capable of running
at a maximum data rate of 805 Mbps for input and 640 Mbps for output
and still meet the ANSI/TIA/EIA-644 standard.
Because of the low voltage swing of the LVDS I/O standard, the
electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects are much smaller than
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS),
10–16
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL), and positive (or pseudo) emitter
coupled logic (PECL). This low EMI makes LVDS ideal for applications
with low EMI requirements or noise immunity requirements. The LVDS
standard does not require an input reference voltage. However, it does
require a termination resistor of 90 to 110 Ω between the two signals at the
input buffer. Cyclone II devices support true differential LVDS inputs and
outputs.
f
LVDS outputs on Cyclone II need external resistor network to work
properly. Refer to the High Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook for more
information.
For reduced swing differential signaling (RSDS), VOD ranges from 100 to
600 mV. For mini-LVDS, VOD ranges from 300 to 600 mV. The differential
termination resistor value ranges from 95 to 105 Ω for both RSDS and
mini-LVDS. Cyclone II devices support RSDS/mini-LVDS outputs only.
Differential LVPECL
The low voltage positive (or pseudo) emitter coupled logic (LVPECL)
standard is a differential interface standard recommending VCCIO of
3.3 V. The LVPECL standard also supports VCCIO of 2.5 V, 1.8 V and 1.5 V.
The standard is used in applications involving video graphics,
telecommunications, data communications, and clock distribution. The
high-speed, low-voltage swing LVPECL I/O standard uses a positive
power supply and is similar to LVDS. However, LVPECL has a larger
differential output voltage swing than LVDS. The LVPECL standard does
not require an input reference voltage, but it does require an external
100-Ω termination resistor between the two signals at the input buffer.
Figures 10–17 and 10–18 show two alternate termination schemes for
LVPECL. LVPECL input standard is supported at the clock input pins on
Cyclone II devices. LVPECL output standard is not supported.
Figure 10–17. LVPECL DC Coupled Termination
Output Buffer
Input Buffer
Z = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–17
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Cyclone II I/O Banks
Figure 10–18. LVPECL AC Coupled Termination
VCCIO
VCCIO
Output Buffer
10 to 100 nF
Z = 50 Ω
R1
R1
R2
R2
Input Buffer
100 Ω
10 to 100 nF
Cyclone II I/O
Banks
Z = 50 Ω
The I/O pins on Cyclone II devices are grouped together into I/O banks,
and each bank has a separate power bus. This allows you to select the
preferred I/O standard for a given bank, enabling tremendous flexibility
in the Cyclone II device’s I/O support.
EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices support four I/O banks. EP2C15, EP2C20,
EP2C35, EP2C50, and EP2C70 devices support eight I/O banks. Each
device I/O pin is associated with one of these specific, numbered I/O
banks (refer to Figures 10–19 and 10–20). To accommodate
voltage-referenced I/O standards, each Cyclone II I/O bank has separate
VREF bus. Each bank in EP2C5, EP2C8, EP2C15, EP2C20, EP2C35, and
EP2C50 devices supports two VREF pins and each bank in EP2C70
devices supports four VREF pins. In the event these pins are not used as
VREF pins, they may be used as regular I/O pins. However, they are
expected to have slightly higher pin capacitance than other user I/O pins
when used with regular user I/O pins.
10–18
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 10–19. EP2C5 and EP2C8 Device I/O Banks Notes (1), (2)
Regular I/O Bank
2
Individual Power Bus
Regular I/O Bank
1
3
Regular I/O Bank
4
Regular I/O Bank
Notes to Figure 10–19:
(1)
(2)
This is a top view of the silicon die.
This is a graphic representation only. Refer to the pin list and the Quartus II software for exact pin locations.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–19
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Cyclone II I/O Banks
Figure 10–20. EP2C15, EP2C20, EP2C35, EP2C50, and EP2C70 Device I/O Banks Notes (1), (2)
Regular I/O Bank
Regular I/O Bank
3
4
Individual Power Bus
Regular I/O Bank
2
5
Regular I/O Bank
Regular I/O Bank
1
6
Regular I/O Bank
8
7
Regular I/O Bank
Regular I/O Bank
Notes to Figure 10–20:
(1)
(2)
This is a top view of the silicon die.
This is a graphic representation only. Refer to the pin list and the Quartus II software for exact pin locations.
10–20
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Additionally, each Cyclone II I/O bank has its own VCCIO pins. Any
single I/O bank can only support one VCCIO setting from among 1.5, 1.8,
2.5 or 3.3 V. Although there can only be one VCCIO voltage per I/O bank,
Cyclone II devices permit additional input signaling capabilities, as
shown in Table 10–4.
Table 10–4. Acceptable Input Levels for LVTTL and LVCMOS
Acceptable Input Levels (V)
Bank VCCIO (V)
3.3
2.5
1.8
1.5
3.3
v
v (1)
2.5
v
v
1.8
v (2)
v (2)
v
v (1)
1.5
v (2)
v (2)
v
v
Notes to Table 10–4:
(1)
(2)
Because the input level does not drive to the rail, the input buffer does not
completely shut off, and the I/O current is slightly higher than the default value.
These input values overdrive the input buffer, so the pin leakage current is
slightly higher than the default value. To drive inputs higher than VCCIO but less
than 4.0 V, disable the PCI clamping diode and turn on Allow voltage overdrive
for LVTTL/LVCMOS input pins in Settings > Device > Device and Pin Options
> Pin Placement tab. This setting allows input pins with LVTTL or LVCMOS I/O
standards to be placed by the Quartus II software in an I/O bank with a lower
VCCIO voltage than the voltage specified by the pins.
Any number of supported single-ended or differential standards can be
simultaneously supported in a single I/O bank as long as they use
compatible VCCIO levels for input and output pins. For example, an I/O
bank with a 2.5-V VCCIO setting can support 2.5-V LVTTL inputs and
outputs, 2.5-V LVDS-compatible inputs and outputs, and 3.3-V LVCMOS
inputs only.
Voltage-referenced standards can be supported in an I/O bank using any
number of single-ended or differential standards as long as they use the
same VREF and a compatible VCCIO value. For example, if you choose to
implement both SSTL-2 and SSTL-18 in your Cyclone II device, I/O pins
using these standards—because they require different VREF values—must
be in different banks from each other. However, the same I/O bank can
support SSTL-2 and 2.5-V LVCMOS with the VCCIO set to 2.5 V and the
VREF set to 1.25 V.
Refer to “Pad Placement and DC Guidelines” on page 10–27 for more
information.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–21
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Cyclone II I/O Banks
Table 10–5 shows I/O standards supported when a pin is used as a
regular I/O pin in the I/O banks of Cyclone II devices.
10–22
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Table 10–5. Cyclone II Regular I/O Standards Support
I/O Standard
I/O Banks for EP2C15, EP2C20, EP2C35, EP2C50 and
EP2C70 Devices
I/O Banks for EP2C5 and
EP2C8 Devices
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
LVTTL
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
LVCMOS
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
2.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
1.8 V
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
1.5 V
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
3.3-V PCI
v
v
—
—
v
v
—
—
v
—
v
—
3.3-V PCI-X
v
v
—
—
v
v
—
—
v
—
v
—
SSTL-2 class I
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-2 class II
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-18 class I
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
SSTL-18 class II
(1)
(1)
v
v
(1)
(1)
v
v
(1)
v
(1)
v
1.8-V HSTL class I
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
1.8-V HSTL class II
(1)
(1)
v
v
(1)
(1)
v
v
(1)
v
(1)
v
1.5-V HSTL class I
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
1.5-V HSTL class II
(1)
(1)
v
v
(1)
(1)
v
v
(1)
v
(1)
v
Pseudo-differential
SSTL-2
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Pseudo-differential
SSTL-18
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
1.8-V pseudodifferential HSTL
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
1.5-V pseudodifferential HSTL
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
LVDS
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
RSDS and mini-LVDS
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
Differential LVPECL
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
Notes to Table 10–5:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
These I/O banks support SSTL-18 class II and 1.8- and 1.5-V HSTL class II inputs.
Pseudo-differential I/O standards are only supported for clock inputs and dedicated PLL_OUT outputs. Refer to
Table 10–1 for more information.
This I/O standard is only supported for outputs.
This I/O standard is only supported for the clock inputs.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–23
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Programmable Current Drive Strength
Programmable
Current Drive
Strength
The Cyclone II device I/O standards support various output current
drive settings as shown in Table 10–6. These programmable drivestrength settings are a valuable tool in helping decrease the effects of
simultaneously switching outputs (SSO) in conjunction with reducing
system noise. The supported settings ensure that the device driver meets
the specifications for IOH and IOL of the corresponding I/O standard.
Table 10–6. Programmable Drive Strength
I/O Standard
LVTTL (3.3 V)
LVCMOS (3.3 V)
LVTTL and LVCMOS (2.5 V)
LVTTL and LVCMOS (1.8 V)
LVCMOS (1.5 V)
10–24
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
(Part 1 of 2)
IOH/IOL Current Strength Setting (mA)
Top and Bottom I/O Pins
Side I/O Pins
4
4
8
8
12
12
16
16
20
20
24
24
4
4
8
8
12
12
16
—
20
—
24
—
4
4
8
8
12
—
16
—
2
2
4
4
6
6
8
8
10
10
12
12
2
2
4
4
6
6
8
—
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Table 10–6. Programmable Drive Strength
I/O Standard
(Part 2 of 2)
IOH/IOL Current Strength Setting (mA)
Top and Bottom I/O Pins
Side I/O Pins
SSTL-2 class I
8
8
12
12
SSTL-2 class II
16
16
20
—
24
—
6
6
8
8
10
10
12
—
16
—
18
—
SSTL-18 class I
SSTL-18 class II
HSTL-18 class I
HSTL-18 class II
HSTL-15 class I
HSTL-15 class II
8
8
10
10
12
12
16
N/A
18
—
20
—
8
8
10
—
12
—
16
N/A
These drive-strength settings are programmable on a per-pin basis using
the Quartus II software.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–25
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Termination
I/O Termination
The majority of the Cyclone II I/O standards are single-ended,
non-voltage-referenced I/O standards and, as such, the following I/O
standards do not specify a recommended termination scheme:
■
■
■
■
■
3.3-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
2.5-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
1.8-V LVTTL and LVCMOS
1.5-V LVCMOS
3.3-V PCI and PCI-X
Voltage-Referenced I/O Standard Termination
Voltage-referenced I/O standards require both an input reference
voltage, VREF, and a termination voltage, VTT. The reference voltage of the
receiving device tracks the termination voltage of the transmitting device.
For more information on termination for voltage-referenced I/O
standards, refer to “Supported I/O Standards” on page 10–1.
Differential I/O Standard Termination
Differential I/O standards typically require a termination resistor
between the two signals at the receiver. The termination resistor must
match the differential load impedance of the bus.
Cyclone II devices support differential I/O standards LVDS, RSDS, and
mini-LVDS, and differential LVPECL.
For more information on termination for differential I/O standards, refer
to “Supported I/O Standards” on page 10–1.
10–26
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
I/O Driver Impedance Matching (RS) and Series Termination (RS)
Cyclone II devices support driver impedance matching to the impedance
of the transmission line, typically 25 or 50 Ω. When used with the output
drivers, on-chip termination (OCT) sets the output driver impedance to
25 or 50 Ω by choosing the driver strength. Once matching impedance is
selected, driver current can not be changed. Table 10–7 provides a list of
output standards that support impedance matching. All I/O banks and
I/O pins support impedance matching and series termination. Dedicated
configuration pins and JTAG pins do not support impedance matching or
series termination.
Table 10–7. Selectable I/O Drivers with Impedance Matching and Series
Termination
I/O Standard
Target RS (Ω)
3.3-V LVTTL/CMOS
25 (1)
2.5-V LVTTL/CMOS
50 (1)
1.8-V LVTTL/CMOS
50 (1)
SSTL-2 class I
50 (1)
SSTL-18 class I
50 (1)
Note to Table 10–7:
(1)
Pad Placement
and DC
Guidelines
These RS values are nominal values. Actual impedance varies across process,
voltage, and temperature conditions. Tolerance is specified in the DC
Characteristics and Timing Specifications chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone II
Handbook.
This section provides pad placement guidelines for the programmable
I/O standards supported by Cyclone II devices and includes essential
information for designing systems using the devices’ selectable I/O
capabilities. This section also discusses the DC limitations and guidelines.
Quartus II software provides user controlled restriction relaxation
options for some placement constraints. When a default restriction is
relaxed by a user, the Quartus II fitter generates warnings.
f
Altera Corporation
February 2008
For more information about how Quartus II software checks I/O
restrictions, refer to the I/O Management chapter in volume 2 of the
Quartus II Handbook.
10–27
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines
Differential Pad Placement Guidelines
To maintain an acceptable noise level on the VCCIO supply, there are
restrictions on placement of single-ended I/O pads in relation to
differential pads in the same I/O bank. Use the following guidelines for
placing single-ended pads with respect to differential pads and for
differential output pads placement in Cyclone II devices.
For the LVDS I/O standard:
■
■
■
■
1
Single-ended inputs can be no closer than four pads away from an
LVDS I/O pad.
Single-ended outputs can be no closer than five pads away from an
LVDS I/O pad.
Maximum of four 155-MHz (or greater) LVDS output channels per
VCCIO and ground pair.
Maximum of three 311-MHz (or greater) LVDS output channels per
VCCIO and ground pair.
For optimal signal integrity at the LVDS input pad, Altera
recommends the LVDS, RSDS and mini-LVDS outputs are
placed five or more pads away from an LVDS input pad.
The Quartus II software only checks the first two cases.
For the RSDS and mini-LVDS I/O standards:
■
■
■
Single-ended inputs can be no closer than four pads away from an
RSDS and mini-LVDS output pad.
Single-ended outputs can be no closer than five pads away from an
RSDS and mini-LVDS output pad.
Maximum of three 85-MHz (or greater) RSDS and mini-LVDS output
channels per VCCIO and ground pair.
The Quartus II software only checks the first two cases.
For the LVPECL I/O standard:
■
■
1
Single-ended inputs can be no closer than four pads away from an
LVPECL input pad.
Single-ended outputs can be no closer than five pads away from an
LVPECL input pad.
For optimal signal integrity at the LVPECL input pad, Altera
recommends the LVDS, RSDS and mini-LVDS outputs are
placed five or more pads away from an LVPECL input pad.
10–28
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
VREF Pad Placement Guidelines
To maintain an acceptable noise level on the VCCIO supply and to prevent
output switching noise from shifting the VREF rail, there are restrictions on
the placement of single-ended voltage referenced I/Os with respect to
VREF pads and VCCIO and ground pairs. Use the following guidelines for
placing single-ended pads in Cyclone II devices.
The Quartus II software automatically does all the calculations in this
section.
Input Pads
Each VREF pad supports up to 15 input pads on each side of the VREF pad
for FineLine BGA devices. Each VREF pad supports up to 10 input pads on
each side of the VREF pad for quad flat pack (QFP) devices. This is
irrespective of VCCIO and ground pairs, and is guaranteed by the
Cyclone II architecture.
Output Pads
When a voltage referenced input or bidirectional pad does not exist in a
bank, there is no limit to the number of output pads that can be
implemented in that bank. When a voltage referenced input exists, each
VCCIO and ground pair supports 9 output pins for Fineline BGA
packages (not more than 9 output pins per 12 consecutive row I/O pins)
or 5 output pins for QFP packages (not more than 5 output pins per 12
consecutive row I/O pins or 8 consecutive column I/O pins). Any
non-SSTL and non-HSTL output can be no closer than two pads away
from a VREF pad. Altera recommends that any SSTL or HSTL output,
except for pintable defined DQ and DQS outputs, to be no closer than two
pads away from a VREF pad to maintain acceptable noise levels.
1
Quartus II software will not check for the SSTL and HSTL
output pads placement rule.
Refer to “DDR and QDR Pads” on page 10–32 for details about guidelines
for DQ and DQS pads placement.
Bidirectional Pads
Bidirectional pads must satisfy input and output guidelines
simultaneously.
Refer to “DDR and QDR Pads” on page 10–32 for details about guidelines
for DQ and DQS pads placement.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–29
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines
If the bidirectional pads are all controlled by the same output enable (OE)
and there are no other outputs or voltage referenced inputs in the bank,
then there is no case where there is a voltage referenced input is active at
the same time as an output. Therefore, the output limitation does not
apply. However, since the bidirectional pads are linked to the same OE,
all the bidirectional pads act as inputs at the same time. Therefore, the
input limitation of 30 input pads (15 on each side of the VREF pad) for
FineLine BGA packages and 20 input pads (10 on each side of the VREF
pad) for QFP packages applies.
If the bidirectional pads are all controlled by different OEs, and there are
no other outputs or voltage referenced inputs in the bank, then there may
be a case where one group of bidirectional pads is acting as inputs while
another group is acting as outputs. In such cases, apply the formulas
shown in Table 10–8.
Table 10–8. Input-Only Bidirectional Pad Limitation Formulas
Package Type
Formula
FineLine BGA
(Total number of bidirectional pads) – (Total number of pads
from the smallest group of pads controlled by an OE) ≤9
(per VCCIO and ground pair)
QFP
(Total number of bidirectional pads) – (Total number of pads
from the smallest group of pads controlled by an OE) ≤5
(per VCCIO and ground pair).
Consider a FineLine BGA package with four bidirectional pads controlled
by the first OE, four bidirectional pads controlled by the second OE, and
two bidirectional pads controlled by the third OE. If the first and second
OEs are active and the third OE is inactive, there are 10 bidirectional pads,
but it is safely allowable because there would be 8 or fewer outputs per
VCCIO/GND pair.
When at least one additional voltage referenced input and no other
outputs exist in the same VREF bank, the bidirectional pad limitation
applies in addition to the input and output limitations. See the following
equations:
Total number of bidirectional pads + total number of input pads ≤30
(15 on each side of your VREF pad) for Fineline BGA packages
Total number of bidirectional pads + total number of input pads ≤20
(10 on each side of your VREF pad) for QFP packages
10–30
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
After applying the equation above, apply one of the equations in
Table 10–9, depending on the package type.
Table 10–9. Bidirectional Pad Limitation Formulas (Where VREF Inputs Exist)
Package Type
Formula
FineLine BGA
(Total number of bidirectional pads) ≤9 (per VCCIO and
ground pair)
QFP
(Total number of bidirectional pads) ≤5 (per VCCIO and
ground pair)
When at least one additional output exists but no voltage referenced
inputs exist, apply the appropriate formula from Table 10–10.
Table 10–10. Bidirectional Pad Limitation Formulas (Where VREF Outputs
Exist)
Package Type
Formula
FineLine BGA
(Total number of bidirectional pads) + (Total number of
additional output pads) – (Total number of pads from the
smallest group of pads controlled by an OE) ≤9 (per VCCIO
and ground pair)
QFP
(Total number of bidirectional pads) + (Total number of
additional output pads) – (Total number of pads from the
smallest group of pads controlled by an OE) ≤5 (per VCCIO
and ground pair)
When additional voltage referenced inputs and other outputs exist in the
same VREF bank, the bidirectional pad limitation must again
simultaneously adhere to the input and output limitations. As such, the
following rules apply:
Total number of bidirectional pads + total number of input pads ≤30
(15 on each side of your VREF pad) for Fineline BGA packages
Total number of bidirectional pads + total number of input pads ≤20
(10 on each side of your VREF pad) for QFP packages
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–31
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Pad Placement and DC Guidelines
After applying the equation above, apply one of the equations in
Table 10–11, depending on the package type.
Table 10–11. Bidirectional Pad Limitation Formulas (Multiple VREF Inputs
and Outputs)
Package Type
Formula
FineLine BGA
(Total number of bidirectional pads) + (Total number of
output pads) ≤9 (per VCCIO/GND pair)
QFP
Total number of bidirectional pads + Total number of output
pads ≤5 (per VCCIO/GND pair)
Each I/O bank can only be set to a single VCCIO voltage level and a single
VREF voltage level at a given time. Pins of different I/O standards can
share the bank if they have compatible VCCIO values (refer to Table 10–4
for more details) and compatible VREF voltage levels.
DDR and QDR Pads
For dedicated DQ and DQS pads on a DDR interface, DQ pads have to be
on the same power bank as DQS pads. With the DDR and DDR2 memory
interfaces, a VCCIO and ground pair can have a maximum of five DQ
pads.
For a QDR interface, D is the QDR output and Q is the QDR input. D pads
and Q pads have to be on the same power bank as CQ. With the QDR and
QDRII memory interfaces, a VCCIO and ground pair can have a
maximum of five D and Q pads.
By default, the Quartus II software assigns D and Q pads as regular I/O
pins. If you do not specify the function of a D or Q pad in the Quartus II
software, the software sets them as regular I/O pins. If this occurs,
Cyclone II QDR and QDRII performance is not guaranteed.
DC Guidelines
There is a current limit of 240 mA per eight consecutive output top and
bottom pins per power pair, as shown by the following equation:
pin+7
Σ IPIN < 240mA per power pair
pin
There is a current limit of 240 mA per 12 consecutive output side (left and
right) pins per power pair, as shown by the following equation:
10–32
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
pin+11
Σ IPIN < 240mA per power pair
pin
In all cases listed above, the Quartus II software generates an error
message for illegally placed pads.
Table 10–12 shows the I/O standard DC current specification.
Table 10–12. Cyclone II I/O Standard DC Current Specification (Preliminary) (Part 1 of 2)
IPIN (mA)
I/O Standard
Top and Bottom Banks
Side Banks
LVTTL
(1)
(1)
LVCMOS
(1)
(1)
2.5 V
(1)
(1)
1.8 V
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
3.3-V PCI
Not supported
1.5
3.3-V PCI-X
1.5 V
Not supported
1.5
SSTL-2 class I
12 (2)
12 (2)
SSTL-2 class II
24 (2)
20 (2)
SSTL-18 class I
12 (2)
12 (2)
SSTL-18 class II
8 (2)
Not supported
1.8-V HSTL class I
12 (2)
12 (2)
1.8-V HSTL class II
20 (2)
Not supported
1.5-V HSTL class I
12 (2)
10 (2)
1.5-V HSTL class II
18 (2)
Not supported
Differential SSTL-2 class I (3)
8.1 (4)
Differential SSTL-2 class II (3)
16.4 (4)
Differential SSTL-18 class I (3)
6.7 (4)
Differential SSTL-18 class II (3)
13.4 (4)
1.8-V differential HSTL class I (3)
8 (4)
1.8-V differential HSTL class II (3)
16 (4)
1.5-V differential HSTL class I (3)
8 (4)
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–33
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
5.0-V Device Compatibility
Table 10–12. Cyclone II I/O Standard DC Current Specification (Preliminary) (Part 2 of 2)
IPIN (mA)
I/O Standard
Top and Bottom Banks
1.5-V differential HSTL class II (3)
LVDS, RSDS and mini-LVDS
Side Banks
16 (4)
12
12
Notes to Table 10–12:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The DC power specification of each I/O standard depends on the current sourcing and sinking capabilities of the
I/O buffer programmed with that standard, as well as the load being driven. LVTTL and LVCMOS, and 2.5-, 1.8-,
and 1.5-V outputs are not included in the static power calculations because they normally do not have resistor
loads in real applications. The voltage swing is rail-to-rail with capacitive load only. There is no DC current in the
system.
This IPIN value represents the DC current specification for the default current strength of the I/O standard. The IPIN
varies with programmable drive strength and is the same as the drive strength as set in Quartus II software. Refer
to the Cyclone II Architecture chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook for more information on the
programmable drive strength feature of voltage referenced I/O standards.
The current value obtained for differential HSTL and differential SSTL standards is per pin and not per differential
pair, as opposed to the per-pair current value of LVDS standard.
This I/O standard is only supported for clock input pins and PLL_OUT pins.
Table 10–12 only shows the limit on the static power consumed by an I/O
standard. The amount of total power used at any moment could be much
higher, and is based on the switching activities.
5.0-V Device
Compatibility
A Cyclone II device may not correctly interoperate with a 5.0-V device if
the output of the Cyclone II device is connected directly to the input of the
5.0-V device. If VOUT of the Cyclone II device is greater than VCCIO, the
PMOS pull-up transistor still conducts if the pin is driving high,
preventing an external pull-up resistor from pulling the signal to 5.0-V.
A Cyclone II device can drive a 5.0-V LVTTL device by connecting the
VCCIO pins of the Cyclone II device to 3.3 V. This is because the output
high voltage (VOH) of a 3.3-V interface meets the minimum high-level
voltage of 2.4-V of a 5.0-V LVTTL device. (A Cyclone II device cannot
drive a 5.0-V LVCMOS device.)
Because the Cyclone II devices are 3.3-V, 64- and 32-bit, 66- and 33-MHz
PCI and 64-bit 133-MHz PCI-X compliant, the input circuitry accepts a
maximum high-level input voltage (VIH) of 4.1-V. To drive a Cyclone II
device with a 5.0-V device, you must connect a resistor (R2) between the
Cyclone II device and the 5.0-V device. Refer to Figure 10–21.
10–34
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 10–21. Driving a Cyclone II Device with a 5.0-Volt Device
Cyclone II Device
5.0 V Device
3.0 - 3.4 V ± 0.25 V
VCCIO
5.0 V ± 0.25 V
VCC
VCCIO
PCI Clamp
I
I
R2
Model as R1
B
If VCCIO is between 3.0 V and 3.6 V and the PCI clamping diode is enabled,
the voltage at point B in Figure 10–21 is 4.3 V or less. To limit large current
draw from the 5.0-V device, R2 should be small enough for a fast signal
rise time and large enough so that it does not violate the high-level output
current (IOH) specifications of the devices driving the trace. The PCI
clamping diode in the Cyclone II device can support 25 mA of current.
To compute the required value of R2, first calculate the model of the
pull-up transistors on the 5.0-V device. This output resistor (R1) can be
modeled by dividing the 5.0-V device supply voltage (VCC) by the
IOH: R1 = VCC/IOH.
Figure 10–22 shows an example of typical output drive characteristics of
a 5.0-V device.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–35
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Conclusion
Figure 10–22. Output Drive Characteristics of a 5.0-V Device
IOL
150
135
120
VCCINT = 5.0 V
VCCIO = 5.0 V
90
60
Typical Io
Output
Current (mA)
IOH
30
0
1
2
3
4
5
Vo Output Voltage (V)
As shown above, R1 = 5.0-V/135 mA.
1
The values shown in data sheets usually reflect typical operating
conditions. Subtract 20% from the data sheet value for guard
band. This subtraction when applied in the example in
Figure 10–22 gives R1 a value of 30 Ω.
R2 should be selected so that it does not violate the driving device’s IOH
specification. For example, if the device has a maximum IOH of 8 mA,
given that the PCI clamping diode, VIN = VCCIO + 0.7-V = 3.7-V, and the
maximum supply load of a 5.0-V device (VCC) is 5.25-V, the value of R2 can
be calculated as follows:
R2 = (5.25 V – 3.7 V) – (8 mA × 30 Ω) = 164 Ω
8 mA
This analysis assumes worst case conditions. If your system does not have
a wide variation in voltage-supply levels, you can adjust these
calculations accordingly.
1
Conclusion
Because 5.0-V device tolerance in Cyclone II devices requires use
of the PCI clamp, and this clamp is activated during
configuration, 5.0-V signals may not be driven into the device
until it is configured.
Cyclone II device I/O capabilities enable you to keep pace with
increasing design complexity utilizing a low-cost FPGA device family.
Support for I/O standards including SSTL and LVDS compatibility allow
Cyclone II devices to fit into a wide variety of applications. The Quartus II
10–36
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
software makes it easy to use these I/O standards in Cyclone II device
designs. After design compilation, the software also provides clear, visual
representations of pads and pins and the selected I/O standards. Taking
advantage of the support of these I/O standards in Cyclone II devices
allows you to lower your design costs without compromising design
flexibility or complexity.
References
For more information on the I/O standards referred to in this document,
refer to the following sources:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Stub Series Terminated Logic for 2.5-V (SSTL-2), JESD8-9A,
Electronic Industries Association, December 2000.
1.5-V +/- 0.1-V (Normal Range) and 0.9-V - 1.6-V (Wide Range)
Power Supply Voltage and Interface Standard for Non-terminated
Digital Integrated Circuits, JESD8-11, Electronic Industries
Association, October 2000.
1.8-V +/- 0.15-V (Normal Range) and 1.2-V - 1.95-V (Wide Range)
Power Supply Voltage and Interface Standard for Non-terminated
Digital Integrated Circuits, JESD8-7, Electronic Industries
Association, February 1997.
2.5-V +/- 0.2-V (Normal Range) and 1.8-V to 2.7-V (Wide Range)
Power Supply Voltage and Interface Standard for Non-terminated
Digital Integrated Circuits, JESD8-5, Electronic Industries
Association, October 1995.
Interface Standard for Nominal 3-V/ 3.3-V Supply Digital Integrated
Circuits, JESD8-B, Electronic Industries Association, September 1999.
PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2, PCI Special Interest Group,
December 1998.
Electrical Characteristics of Low Voltage Differential Signaling
(LVDS) Interface Circuits, ANSI/TIA/EIA-644, American National
Standards Institute/Telecommunications Industry/Electronic
Industries Association, October 1995.
10–37
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Referenced Documents
Referenced
Documents
This chapter references the following documents:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Document
Revision History
Altera Reliability Report
AN 75: High-Speed Board Designs
Cyclone II Architecture chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device
Handbook
Cyclone II Device Family Data Sheet, section 1 of the Cyclone II Device
Handbook
DC Characteristics and Timing Specifications chapter in volume 1 of the
Cyclone II Device Handbook
External Memory Interfaces chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device
Handbook
High Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices chapter in
volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook
Hot Socketing & Power-On Reset chapter in volume 1 of the Cyclone II
Device Handbook
I/O Management chapter in volume 2 of the Quartus II Handbook
Table 10–13 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 10–13. Document Revision History
Date and
Document
Version
Changes Made
February 2008
v2.4
●
February 2007
v2.3
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Summary of Changes
—
Added “Referenced Documents” section.
Updated “Differential Pad Placement
Guidelines” section.
Added document revision history.
Updated “Introduction” and its feetpara
note.
Updated Note (2) in Table 10–4.
Updated “Differential LVPECL” section.
Updated “Differential Pad Placement
Guidelines” section.
Updated “Output Pads” section.
Added new section “5.0-V Device
Compatibility” with two new figures.
●
●
●
●
●
●
10–38
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Added reference detail for ESD
specifications.
Added information about differential
placement restrictions applying only to pins
in the same bank.
Added information that Cyclone II device
supports LVDS on clock inputs at 3.3V
VCCIO.
Added more information on DC placement
guidelines.
Added information stating SSTL and HSTL
outputs can be closer than 2 pads from
VREF..
Added 5.0 Device tolerence solution.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
November 2005
v2.1
●
●
●
July 2005 v2.0
Updated Tables 10–2 and 10–3.
Added PCI Express information.
Updated Table 10–6.
—
Updated Table 10–1.
—
November 2004 Updated Table 10–7.
v1.1
—
June 2004 v1.0
—
Added document to the Cyclone II Device
Handbook.
Altera Corporation
February 2008
10–39
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
10–40
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2008
11. High-Speed Differential
Interfaces in Cyclone II
Devices
CII51011-2.2
Introduction
From high-speed backplane applications to high-end switch boxes,
low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) is the technology of choice.
LVDS is a low-voltage differential signaling standard, allowing higher
noise immunity than single-ended I/O technologies. Its low-voltage
swing allows for high-speed data transfers, low power consumption, and
reduced electromagnetic interference (EMI). LVDS I/O signaling is a data
interface standard defined in the TIA/EIA-644 and IEEE Std. 1596.3
specifications.
The reduced swing differential signaling (RSDS) and mini-LVDS
standards are derivatives of the LVDS standard. The RSDS and
mini-LVDS I/O standards are similar in electrical characteristics to
LVDS, but have a smaller voltage swing and therefore provide increased
power benefits and reduced EMI. National Semiconductor Corporation
and Texas Instruments introduced the RSDS and mini-LVDS
specifications, respectively. Currently, many designers use these
specifications for flat panel display links between the controller and the
drivers that drive display column drivers. Cyclone® II devices support
the RSDS and mini-LVDS I/O standards at speeds up to 311 megabits per
second (Mbps) at the transmitter.
Altera® Cyclone II devices can transmit and receive data through LVDS
signals at a data rate of up to 640 Mbps and 805 Mbps, respectively. For
the LVDS transmitter and receiver, the Cyclone II device’s input and
output pins support serialization and deserialization through internal
logic.
This chapter describes how to use Cyclone II I/O pins for differential
signaling and contains the following topics:
■
■
■
■
■
Cyclone II HighSpeed I/O Banks
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II high-speed I/O banks
Cyclone II high-speed I/O interface
LVDS, RSDS, mini-LVDS, LVPECL, differential HSTL, and
differential SSTL I/O standards support in Cyclone II devices
High-speed I/O timing in Cyclone II devices
Design guidelines
Cyclone II device I/O banks are shown in Figures 11–1 and 11–2. The
EP2C5 and EP2C8 devices offer four I/O banks and EP2C15, EP2C20,
EP2C35, EP2C50, and EP2C70 devices offer eight I/O banks. A subset of
11–1
Cyclone II High-Speed I/O Banks
pins in each I/O bank (on both rows and columns) support the highspeed I/O interface. Cyclone II pin tables list the pins that support the
high-speed I/O interface.
Figure 11–1. I/O Banks in EP2C5 & EP2C8 Devices
I/O Bank 2 Also Supports
the SSTL-18 Class II,
HSTL-18 Class II, & HSTL-15
Class II I/O Standards
I/O Bank 2
I/O Bank 1
Also Supports the
3.3-V PCI & PCI-X
I/O Standards
I/O Bank 1
All I/O Banks Support
■ 3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.5-V LVCMOS
■ LVDS
■ RSDS
■ mini-LVDS
■ LVPECL (1)
■ SSTL-2 Class I and II
■ SSTL-18 Class I
■ HSTL-18 Class I
■ HSTL-15 Class I
■ Differential SSTL-2 (2)
■ Differential SSTL-18 (2)
■ Differential HSTL-18 (3)
■ Differential HSTL-15 (3)
I/O Bank 3
Also Supports the
3.3-V PCI & PCI-X
I/O Standards
I/O Bank 3
Individual
Power Bus
I/O Bank 4
I/O Bank 4 Also Supports
the SSTL-18 Class II,
HSTL-18 Class II, & HSTL-15
Class II I/O Standards
Notes to Figure 11–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins. This I/O standard is not supported on output
pins.
The differential SSTL-18 and SSTL-2 I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
The differential 1.8-V and 1.5-V HSTL I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
11–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 11–2. I/O Banks in EP2C15, EP2C20, EP2C35, EP2C50 & EP2C70 Devices
I/O Banks 3 & 4 Also Support
the SSTL-18 Class II,
HSTL-18 Class II, & HSTL-15
Class II I/O Standards
I/O Bank 3
I/O Bank 4
Individual
Power Bus
I/O Bank 2
I/O Banks 1 & 2 Also
Support the 3.3-V PCI
& PCI-X I/O Standards
I/O Bank 1
All I/O Banks Support
■ 3.3-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 2.5-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.8-V LVTTL/LVCMOS
■ 1.5-V LVCMOS
■ LVDS
■ RSDS
■ mini-LVDS
■ LVPECL (1)
■ SSTL-2 Class I and II
■ SSTL-18 Class I
■ HSTL-18 Class I
■ HSTL-15 Class I
■ Differential SSTL-2 (2)
■ Differential SSTL-18 (2)
■ Differential HSTL-18 (3)
■ Differential HSTL-15 (3)
Regular I/O Block
Bank 8
I/O Bank 5
I/O Banks 5 & 6 Also
Support the 3.3-V PCI
& PCI-X I/O Standards
I/O Bank 6
Regular I/O Block
Bank 7
I/O Banks 7 & 8 Also Support
the SSTL-18 Class II,
HSTL-18 Class II, & HSTL-15
Class II I/O Standards
Notes to Figure 11–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The LVPECL I/O standard is only supported on clock input pins. This I/O standard is not supported on output
pins.
The differential SSTL-18 and SSTL-2 I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
The differential 1.8-V and 1.5-V HSTL I/O standards are only supported on clock input pins and PLL output clock
pins.
Cyclone II
High-Speed I/O
Interface
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II devices provide a multi-protocol interface that allows
communication between a variety of I/O standards, including LVDS,
LVPECL, RSDS, mini-LVDS, differential HSTL, and differential SSTL.
This feature makes the Cyclone II device family ideal for applications that
require multiple I/O standards, such as protocol translation.
11–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Standards Support
You can use I/O pins and internal logic to implement a high-speed I/O
receiver and transmitter in Cyclone II devices. Cyclone II devices do not
contain dedicated serialization or deserialization circuitry. Therefore,
shift registers, internal global phase-locked loops (PLLs), and I/O cells
are used to perform serial-to-parallel conversions on incoming data and
parallel-to-serial conversion on outgoing data.
I/O Standards
Support
This section provides information on the I/O standards that Cyclone II
devices support.
LVDS Standard Support in Cyclone II Devices
The LVDS I/O standard is a high-speed, low-voltage swing, low power,
and general purpose I/O interface standard. The Cyclone II device meets
the ANSI/TIA/EIA-644 standard.
I/O banks on all four sides of the Cyclone II device support LVDS
channels. See the pin tables on the Altera web site for the number of LVDS
channels supported throughout different family members. Cyclone II
LVDS receivers (input) support a data rate of up to 805 Mbps while LVDS
transmitters (output) support up to 640 Mbps. The maximum internal
clock frequency for a receiver and for a transmitter is 402.5 MHz. The
maximum input data rate of 805 Mbps and the maximum output data
rate of 640 Mbps is only achieved when DDIO registers are used. The
LVDS standard does not require an input reference voltage; however, it
does require a 100-Ω termination resistor between the two signals at the
input buffer.
f
For LVDS data rates in Cyclone II devices with different speed grades,
see the DC Characteristics & Timing Specifications chapter of the Cyclone II
Device Handbook.
Table 11–1 shows LVDS I/O specifications.
Table 11–1. LVDS I/O Specifications (Part 1 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Note (1)
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Units
VCCINT
Supply voltage
1.15
1.2
1.25
V
VCCIO
I/O supply voltage
2.375
2.5
2.625
V
VOD
Differential output voltage RL = 100 Ω
600
mV
ΔVOD
Change in VOD between
H and L
RL = 100 Ω
50
mV
VOS
Output offset voltage
RL = 100 Ω
1.375
V
11–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
250
1.125
1.25
Altera Corporation
February 2007
High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
Table 11–1. LVDS I/O Specifications (Part 2 of 2)
Symbol
Parameter
Note (1)
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Units
VI D
Input differential voltage
(single-ended)
0.1
0.65
V
VI C M
Input common mode
voltage
0.1
2.0
V
ΔVOS
Change in VOS between
H and L
50
mV
RL
Receiver differential input
resistor
110
Ω
RL = 100 Ω
90
100
Note to Table 11–1:
(1)
The specifications apply at the resistor network output.
LVDS Receiver & Transmitter
Figure 11–3 shows a simple point-to-point LVDS application where the
source of the data is an LVDS transmitter. These LVDS signals are
typically transmitted over a pair of printed circuit board (PCB) traces, but
a combination of a PCB trace, connectors, and cables is a common
application setup.
Figure 11–3. Typical LVDS Application
Cyclone II Device
Transmitting Device
txout +
txout +
rxin +
Cyclone II
Logic
Array
100 Ω
txout -
120 Ω
120 Ω
rxin txout -
Receiving Device
rxin +
170 Ω
100 Ω
rxin -
Input Buffer
Output Buffer
Figures 11–4 and 11–5 show the signaling levels for LVDS receiver inputs
and transmitter outputs, respectively.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
11–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Standards Support
Figure 11–4. Receiver Input Waveforms for the LVDS Differential I/O Standard
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p) = VOH
VID
Negative Channel (n) = VOL
VICM
Ground
Differential Waveform (Mathematical Function of Positive & Negative Channel)
VID
0V
VID
VID
p − n (1)
Note to Figure 11–4:
(1)
The p – n waveform is a function of the positive channel (p) and the negative channel (n).
Figure 11–5. Transmitter Output Waveform for the LVDS Differential I/O Standard Note (2)
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p) = VOH
VOD
Negative Channel (n) = VOL
VOS
Ground
Differential Waveform (Mathematical Function of Positive & Negative Channel)
VOD
0V
VOD
p − n (2)
Notes to Figure 11–5:
(1)
(2)
The VOD specifications apply at the resistor network output.
The p – n waveform is a function of the positive channel (p) and the negative channel (n).
11–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
RSDS I/O Standard Support in Cyclone II Devices
The RSDS specification is used in chip-to-chip applications between the
timing controller and the column drivers on display panels. Cyclone II
devices meet the National Semiconductor Corporation RSDS Interface
Specification and support the RSDS output standard. Table 11–2 shows
the RSDS electrical characteristics for Cyclone II devices.
Table 11–2. RSDS Electrical Characteristics for Cyclone II Devices
Symbol
Parameter
VC C I O
Output supply voltage
VOD (2)
Differential output voltage
VOS (3)
Tr/Tf
Condition
Note (1)
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
2.375
2.5
2.625
V
600
mV
RL = 100 Ω
100
Output offset voltage
RL = 100 Ω
1.125
Transition time
20% to 80%
1.25
1.375
500
V
ps
Notes to Table 11–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The specifications apply at the resistor network output.
VOD = VOH - VOL.
VOS = (VOH + VOL) / 2.
Figure 11–6 shows the RSDS transmitter output signal waveforms.
Figure 11–6. Transmitter Output Signal Level Waveforms for RSDS Note (1)
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p) = VOH
VOD
Negative Channel (n) = VOL
VOS
Ground
Differential Waveform (Mathematical Function of Positive & Negative Channel)
VOD
0V
VOD
p − n (2)
Notes to Figure 11–6:
(1)
(2)
The VOD specifications apply at the resistor network output.
The p – n waveform is a function of the positive channel (p) and the negative channel (n).
Altera Corporation
February 2007
11–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Standards Support
Designing with RSDS
Cyclone II devices support the RSDS output standard using the LVDS
I/O buffer types. For transmitters, the LVDS output buffer can be used
with the external resistor network shown in Figure 11–7.
Figure 11–7. RSDS Resistor Network
Note (1)
Cyclone II Device
≤ 1 inch
Resistor Network
LVDS Transmitter
RSDS Receiver
50 Ω
RP
50 Ω
RL = 100 Ω
Note to Figure 11–7:
(1) RS = 120 Ω and RP = 170 Ω.
f
For more information on the RSDS I/O standard, see the RSDS
specification from the National Semiconductor web site
(www.national.com).
A resistor network is required to attenuate the LVDS output voltage
swing to meet the RSDS specifications. The resistor network values can be
modified to reduce power or improve the noise margin. The resistor
values chosen should satisfy the following equation:
R
RS × P
2
RS + RP
2
= 50 Ω
Additional simulations using the IBIS models should be performed to
validate that custom resistor values meet the RSDS requirements.
Single Resistor RSDS Solution
The external single resistor solution reduces the external resistor count
while still achieving the required signaling level for RSDS. To transmit
the RSDS signal, an external resistor (RP) is connected in parallel between
the two adjacent I/O pins on the board as shown in Figure 11–8. The
recommended value of the resistor RP is 100 Ω.
11–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 11–8. RSDS Single Resistor Network
Note (1)
Cyclone II Device
≤ 1 inch
Resistor Network
LVDS Transmitter
RSDS Receiver
50 Ω
RP
50 Ω
RL = 100 Ω
Note to Figure 11–8:
(1) Rp = 100 Ω.
RSDS Software Support
When designing for the RSDS I/O standard, assign the RSDS I/O
standard to the I/O pins intended for RSDS in the Quartus® II software.
Contact Altera Applications for reference designs.
mini-LVDS Standard Support in Cyclone II Devices
The mini-LVDS specification defines its use in chip-to-chip applications
between the timing controller and the column drivers on display panels.
Cyclone II devices meet the Texas Instruments mini-LVDS Interface
Specification and support the mini-LVDS output standard. Table 11–3
shows the mini-LVDS electrical characteristics for Cyclone II devices.
Table 11–3. mini-LVDS Electrical Characteristics for Cyclone II Devices
Symbol
VCCIO
Parameters
Condition
Output supply voltage
Note (1)
Min
Typ
Max
Units
2.375
2.5
2.625
V
600
mV
1250
1375
mV
500
ps
VOD (2)
Differential output voltage
RL = 100 Ω
300
VOS (3)
Output offset voltage
RL = 100 Ω
1125
Tr / Tf
Transition time
20% to 80%
Notes to Table 11–3:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The VOD specifications apply at the resistor network output.
VOD = VOH – VOL.
VOS = (VOH + VOL) / 2.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
11–9
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Standards Support
Figure 11–9 shows the mini-LVDS receiver and transmitter signal
waveforms.
Figure 11–9. Transmitter Output Signal Level Waveforms for mini-LVDS
Note (1)
Single-Ended Waveform
Positive Channel (p) = VOH
VOD
Negative Channel (n) = VOL
VOS
Ground
Differential Waveform
VOD
0V
VOD
Note to Figure 11–9:
(1)
The VOD specifications apply at the resistor network output.
Designing with mini-LVDS
Similar to RSDS, Cyclone II devices support the mini-LVDS output
standard using the LVDS I/O buffer types. For transmitters, the LVDS
output buffer can be used with the external resistor network shown in
Figure 11–10. The resistor values chosen should satisfy the equation on
page 11-8.
11–10
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 11–10. mini-LVDS Resistor Network
Cyclone II Device
≤ 1 inch
Resistor Network
LVDS Transmitter
mini-LVDS Receiver
RS
50 Ω
RP
RL = 100 Ω
50 Ω
RS
Note to Figure 11–10:
(1) RS = 120 Ω and RP = 170 Ω.
mini-LVDS Software Support
When designing for the mini-LVDS I/O standard, assign the mini-LVDS
I/O standard to the I/O pins intended for mini-LVDS in the Quartus II
software. Contact Altera Applications for reference designs.
LVPECL Support in Cyclone II
The LVPECL I/O standard is a differential interface standard requiring a
3.3-V VCCIO and is used in applications involving video graphics,
telecommunications, data communications, and clock distribution. The
high-speed, low-voltage swing LVPECL I/O standard uses a positive
power supply and is similar to LVDS. However, LVPECL has a larger
differential output voltage swing than LVDS. Cyclone II devices support
the LVPECL input standard at the clock input pins only. Table 11–4 shows
the LVPECL electrical characteristics for Cyclone II devices. Figure 11–11
shows the LVPECL I/O interface.
Table 11–4. LVPECL Electrical Characteristics for Cyclone II Devices
Symbol
Parameters
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Units
3.3
3.465
V
VCCIO
Output supply voltage
3.135
VIH
Input high voltage
2,100
2,880
mV
VIL
Input low voltage
0
2,200
mV
VID
Differential input voltage
950
mV
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Peak to peak
100
600
11–11
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
I/O Standards Support
Figure 11–11. LVPECL I/O Interface
LVDS Transmitter
Cyclone II Receiver
Z = 50 Ω
100 Ω
Z = 50 Ω
Differential SSTL Support in Cyclone II Devices
The differential SSTL I/O standard is a memory bus standard used for
applications such as high-speed double data rate (DDR) SDRAM
interfaces. The differential SSTL I/O standard is similar to voltage
referenced SSTL and requires two differential inputs with an external
termination voltage (VTT) of 0.5 × VCCIO to which termination resistors
are connected. A 2.5-V output source voltage is required for differential
SSTL-2, while a 1.8-V output source voltage is required for differential
SSTL-18. The differential SSTL output standard is only supported at
PLLCLKOUT pins using two single-ended SSTL output buffers
programmed to have opposite polarity.
The differential SSTL input standard is supported at the global clock
(GCLK) pins only, treating differential inputs as two single-ended SSTL,
and only decoding one of them.
f
For SSTL signaling characteristics, see the DC Characteristics & Timing
Specification chapter and the Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
Figures 11–12 and 11–13 show the differential SSTL class I and II
interfaces, respectively.
11–12
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
Figure 11–12. Differential SSTL Class I Interface
VTT
VTT
50 Ω
Output Buffer
50 Ω
Receiver
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
Figure 11–13. Differential SSTL Class II Interface
VTT
VTT
50 Ω
Output Buffer
VTT
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
25 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
Differential HSTL Support in Cyclone II Devices
The differential HSTL AC and DC specifications are the same as the HSTL
single-ended specifications. The differential HSTL I/O standard is
available on the GCLK pins only, treating differential inputs as two singleended HSTL, and only decoding one of them. The differential HSTL
output I/O standard is only supported at the PLLCLKOUT pins using two
single-ended HSTL output buffers with the second output programmed
as inverted. The standard requires two differential inputs with an
external termination voltage (VTT) of 0.5 × VCCIO to which termination
resistors are connected.
f
Altera Corporation
February 2007
For the HSTL signaling characteristics, see the DC Characteristics &
Timing Specifications chapter and the Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II
Devices chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
11–13
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
High-Speed I/O Timing in Cyclone II Devices
Figures 11–14 and 11–15 show differential HSTL class I and II interfaces,
respectively.
Figure 11–14. Differential HSTL Class I Interface
VTT
VTT
50 Ω
Output Buffer
50 Ω
Receiver
Z0 = 50 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
Figure 11–15. Differential HSTL Class II Interface
VTT
Output Buffer
VTT
50 Ω
VTT
VTT
50 Ω
50 Ω
50 Ω
Receiver
Z0 = 50 Ω
Z0 = 50 Ω
High-Speed I/O
Timing in
Cyclone II
Devices
This section discusses the timing budget, waveforms, and specifications
for source-synchronous signaling in Cyclone II devices. LVDS, LVPECL,
RSDS, and mini-LVDS I/O standards enable high-speed data
transmission. Timing for these high-speed signals is based on skew
between the data and the clock signals.
High-speed differential data transmission requires timing parameters
provided by integrated circuit (IC) vendors and requires consideration of
board skew, cable skew, and clock jitter. This section provides details on
high-speed I/O standards timing parameters in Cyclone II devices.
11–14
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
Table 11–5 defines the parameters of the timing diagram shown in
Figure 11–16. Figure 11–17 shows the Cyclone II high-speed I/O timing
budget.
Table 11–5. High-Speed I/O Timing Definitions
Parameter
Symbol
Description
Transmitter channel-tochannel skew (1)
TCCS
The timing difference between the fastest and slowest output edges,
including tCO variation and clock skew. The clock is included in the
TCCS measurement.
Sampling window
SW
The period of time during which the data must be valid in order for you
to capture it correctly. The setup and hold times determine the ideal
strobe position within the sampling window.
TSW = TSU + Thd + PLL jitter.
Receiver input skew margin
RSKM
RSKM is defined by the total margin left after accounting for the
sampling window and TCCS. The RSKM equation is: RSKM = (TUI
– SW – TCCS) / 2.
Input jitter tolerance (peakto-peak)
Allowed input jitter on the input clock to the PLL that is tolerable while
maintaining PLL lock.
Output jitter (peak-to-peak)
Peak-to-peak output jitter from the PLL.
Note to Table 11–5:
(1)
The TCCS specification applies to the entire bank of LVDS as long as the SERDES logic are placed within the LAB
adjacent to the output pins.
Figure 11–16. High-Speed I/O Timing Diagram
External
Input Clock
Time Unit Interval (TUI)
Internal Clock
Receiver
Input Data
Altera Corporation
February 2007
TCCS
RSKM
RSKM
TCCS
Sampling Window (SW)
11–15
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Design Guidelines
Figure 11–17. Cyclone II High-Speed I/O Timing Budget Note (1)
Internal Clock Period
0.5 × TCCS
RSKM
SW
RSKM
0.5 × TCCS
Note to Figure 11–17:
(1)
The equation for the high-speed I/O timing budget is: Period = 0.5/TCCS + RSKM + SW + RSKM + 0.5/TCCS.
Design
Guidelines
This section provides guidelines for designing with Cyclone II devices.
Differential Pad Placement Guidelines
To maintain an acceptable noise level on the VCCIO supply, there are
restrictions on placement of single-ended I/O pins in relation to
differential pads.
f
See the guidelines in the Selectable I/O Standards in Cyclone II Devices
chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook for placing singleended pads with respect to differential pads in Cyclone II devices.
Board Design Considerations
This section explains how to get the optimal performance from the
Cyclone II I/O interface and ensure first-time success in implementing a
functional design with optimal signal quality. The critical issues of
controlled impedance of traces and connectors, differential routing, and
termination techniques must be considered to get the best performance
from the IC. The Cyclone II device generates signals that travel over the
media at frequencies as high as 805 Mbps. Use the following general
guidelines for improved signal quality:
■
Base board designs on controlled differential impedance. Calculate
and compare all parameters such as trace width, trace thickness, and
the distance between two differential traces.
11–16
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
High-Speed Differential Interfaces in Cyclone II Devices
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Maintain equal distance between traces in LVDS pairs, as much as
possible. Routing the pair of traces close to each other maximizes the
common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR).
Longer traces have more inductance and capacitance. These traces
should be as short as possible to limit signal integrity issues.
Place termination resistors as close to receiver input pins as possible.
Use surface mount components.
Avoid 90° or 45° corners.
Use high-performance connectors.
Design backplane and card traces so that trace impedance matches
the connector’s and/or the termination’s impedance.
Keep equal number of vias for both signal traces.
Create equal trace lengths to avoid skew between signals. Unequal
trace lengths result in misplaced crossing points and decrease system
margins as the channel-to-channel skew (TCCS) value increases.
Limit vias because they cause discontinuities.
Use the common bypass capacitor values such as 0.001, 0.01, and
0.1 µF to decouple the high-speed PLL power and ground planes.
Keep switching transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) signals away
from differential signals to avoid possible noise coupling.
Do not route TTL clock signals to areas under or above the
differential signals.
Analyze system-level signals.
For PCB layout guidelines, see AN 224: High-Speed Board Layout
Guidelines.
Conclusion
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Cyclone II differential I/O capabilities enable you to keep pace with
increasing design complexity. Support for I/O standards including
LVDS, LVPECL, RSDS, mini-LVDS, differential SSTL and differential
HSTL allows Cyclone II devices to fit into a wide variety of applications.
Taking advantage of these I/O capabilities and Cyclone II pricing allows
you to lower your design costs while remaining on the cutting edge of
technology.
11–17
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
Document
Revision History
Table 11–6 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 11–6. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2007
v2.2
Changes Made
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
November 2005
v2.1
●
●
●
●
July 2005 v2.0
●
●
November 2004
v1.1
●
●
Added document revision history.
Added Note (1) to Table 11–1.
Updated Figure 11–5 and added Note (1)
Added Note (1) to Table 11–2.
Updated Figure 11–6 and added Note (1)
Added Note (1) to Table 11–3.
Added Note (1) to Figure 11–9.
Summary of Changes
●
Added information stating
LVDS/RSDS/mini-LVDS
I/O standards
specifications apply at the
external resistors network
output.
Updated Table 11–2.
Updated Figures 11–7 through 11–9.
Added Resistor Network Solution for RSDS.
Updated note for mini-LVDS Resistor Network table.
Updated “I/O Standards Support” section.
Updated Tables 11–1 through 11–3.
Updated Table 11–1.
Updated Figures 11–4, 11–5, 11–7, and 11–9.
June 2004, v1.0 Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
11–18
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Section V. DSP
This section provides information for design and optimization of digital
signal processing (DSP) functions and arithmetic operations using the
embedded multiplier blocks.
This section includes the following chapter:
■
Revision History
Altera Corporation
Chapter 12, Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section V–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section V–2
Preliminary
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
12. Embedded Multipliers in
Cyclone II Devices
CII51012-1.2
Introduction
Use Cyclone® II FPGAs alone or as digital signal processing (DSP)
co-processors to improve price-to-performance ratios for DSP
applications. You can implement high-performance yet low-cost DSP
systems with the following Cyclone II device features and design
support:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Up to 150 18 x 18 multipliers
Up to 1.1 Mbit of on-chip embedded memory
High-speed interface to external memory
DSP Intellectual Property (IP) cores
DSP Builder interface to the Mathworks Simulink and Matlab design
environment
DSP Development Kit, Cyclone II Edition
This chapter focuses on the Cyclone II embedded multiplier blocks.
Cyclone II devices have embedded multiplier blocks optimized for
multiplier-intensive low-cost DSP applications. These embedded
multipliers combined with the flexibility of programmable logic devices
(PLDs), provide you with the ability to efficiently implement various cost
sensitive DSP functions easily. Consumer-based application systems such
as digital television (DTV) and home entertainment systems typically
require a cost effective solution for implementing multipliers to perform
signal processing functions like finite impulse response (FIR) filters, fast
Fourier transform (FFT) functions, and discrete cosine transform (DCT)
functions.
Along with the embedded multipliers, the M4K memory blocks in
Cyclone II devices also support various soft multiplier implementations.
These, in combination with the embedded multipliers increase the
available number of multipliers in Cyclone II devices and provide the
user with a wide variety of implementation options and flexibility when
designing their systems.
f
Altera Corporation
February 2007
See the Cyclone II Device Family Data Sheet section in Volume 1 of the
Cyclone II Device Handbook for more information on Cyclone II
devices.
12–1
Embedded Multiplier Block Overview
Embedded
Multiplier Block
Overview
Each Cyclone II device has one to three columns of embedded multipliers
that implement multiplication functions. Figure 12–1 shows one of the
embedded multiplier columns with the surrounding LABs. Each
embedded multiplier can be configured to support one 18 × 18 multiplier
or two 9 × 9 multipliers.
Figure 12–1. Embedded Multipliers Arranged in Columns with Adjacent LABs
Embedded
Multiplier
Column
1 LAB
Row
12–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Embedded
Multiplier
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices
The number of embedded multipliers per column and the number of
columns available increases with device density. Table 12–1 shows the
number of embedded multipliers in each Cyclone II device and the
multipliers that you can implement.
Table 12–1. Number of Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices
Embedded
Multipliers
9 × 9 Multipliers
(1)
18 × 18
Multipliers (1)
EP2C5
13
26
13
EP2C8
18
36
18
EP2C20
26
52
26
EP2C35
35
70
35
Device
EP2C50
86
172
86
EP2C70
150
300
150
Note to Table 12–1:
(1)
Each device has either the number of 9 × 9 or 18 × 18 multipliers shown. The total
number of multipliers for each device is not the sum of all the multipliers.
In addition to the embedded multipliers, you can also implement soft
multipliers using Cyclone II M4K memory blocks. The availability of soft
multipliers increases the number of multipliers available within the
device. Table 12–2 shows the total number of multipliers available in
Cyclone II devices using embedded multipliers and soft multipliers.
Table 12–2. Number of Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices
Embedded Multipliers
(18 × 18)
Soft Multipliers
(16 × 16) (1)
Total Multipliers
(2)
EP2C5
13
26
39
EP2C8
18
36
54
Device
EP2C20
26
52
78
EP2C35
35
105
140
EP2C50
86
129
215
EP2C70
150
250
400
Notes to Table 12–2:
(1)
(2)
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Soft multipliers are implemented in sum of multiplication mode. The M4K
memory blocks are configured with 18-bit data widths to support 16-bit
coefficients. The sum of the coefficients requires 18 bits of resolution to account for
overflow.
The total number of multipliers may vary according to the multiplier mode used.
12–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Architecture
See the Cyclone II Memory Blocks chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II
Device Handbook for more information on Cyclone II M4K memory
blocks.
f
Architecture
Refer to AN 306: Techniques for Implementing Multipliers in FPGA Devices
for more information on soft multipliers.
Each embedded multiplier consists of the following elements:
■
■
■
Multiplier stage
Input and output registers
Input and output interfaces
Figure 12–2 shows the multiplier block architecture.
Figure 12–2. Multiplier Block Architecture
signa (1)
signb (1)
aclr
clock
ena
Data A
D
Q
ENA
Data Out
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
CLRN
Data B
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Input
Register
Output
Register
Embedded Multiplier Block
Note to Figure 12–2:
(1)
If necessary, you can send these signals through one register to match the data
signal path.
Input Registers
You can send each multiplier input signal into an input register or directly
into the multiplier in 9- or 18-bit sections depending on the operational
mode of the multiplier. You can send each multiplier input signal through
a register independently of each other (e.g., you can send the multiplier’s
12–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices
data A signal through a register and send the data B signal directly to the
multiplier). The following control signals are available to each register
within the embedded multiplier:
■
■
■
clock
clock enable
asynchronous clear
All input and output registers within a single embedded multiplier are
fed by the same clock, clock enable, or asynchronous clear signal.
Multiplier Stage
The multiplier stage supports 9 × 9 or 18 × 18 multipliers as well as other
smaller multipliers in between these configurations. See “Operational
Modes” on page 12–6 for details. Depending on the data width or
operational mode of the multiplier, a single embedded multiplier can
perform one or two multiplications in parallel.
Each multiplier operand can be a unique signed or unsigned number.
Two signals, signa and signb, control whether a multiplier’s input is a
signed or unsigned value. If the signa signal is high, the data A operand
is a signed number, and if the signa signal is low, the data A operand is
an unsigned number. Table 12–3 shows the sign of the multiplication
result for the various operand sign representations. The result of the
multiplication is signed if any one of the operands is a signed value.
Table 12–3. Multiplier Sign Representation
Data A
Data B
Result
signa Value
Logic Level
signb Value
Logic Level
Unsigned
Low
Unsigned
Low
Unsigned
Unsigned
Low
Signed
High
Signed
Signed
High
Unsigned
Low
Signed
Signed
High
Signed
High
Signed
There is only one signa and one signb signal for each embedded
multiplier. The signa and signb signals can be changed dynamically to
modify the sign representation of the input operands at run time. You can
send the signa and signb signals through a dedicated input register.
The multiplier offers full precision regardless of the sign representation.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
12–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Operational Modes
1
When the signa and signb signals are unused, the Quartus® II
software sets the multiplier to perform unsigned multiplication
by default.
Output Registers
You can choose to register the embedded multiplier output using the
output registers in 18- or 36-bit sections depending on the operational
mode of the multiplier. The following control signals are available to each
output register within the embedded multiplier:
■
■
■
clock
clock enable
asynchronous clear
All input and output registers within a single embedded multiplier are
fed by the same clock, clock enable, or asynchronous clear signal.
f
Operational
Modes
See the Cyclone II Architecture chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II
Device Handbook for more information on the embedded multiplier
routing and interface.
The embedded multiplier can be used in one of two operational modes,
depending on the application needs:
■
■
One 18-bit multiplier
Up to two 9-bit independent multipliers
The Quartus II software includes megafunctions used to control the mode
of operation of the multipliers. After you have made the appropriate
parameter settings using the megafunction’s MegaWizard® Plug-In
Manager, the Quartus II software automatically configures the embedded
multiplier.
1
f
The Cyclone II embedded multipliers can also be used to
implement multiplier adder and multiplier accumulator
functions where the multiplier portion of the function is
implemented using embedded multipliers and the adder or
accumulator function is implemented in logic elements (LEs).
For more information on megafunction and Quartus II support for
Cyclone II embedded multipliers, see the “Software Support” section.
12–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices
18-Bit Multipliers
Each embedded multiplier can be configured to support a single
18 × 18 multiplier for input widths from 10- to 18-bits. Figure 12–3 shows
the embedded multiplier configured to support an 18-bit multiplier.
Figure 12–3. 18-Bit Multiplier Mode
signa (1)
signb (1)
aclr
clock
ena
Data A [17..0]
D
Q
ENA
Data Out [35..0]
CLRN
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B [17..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
18 × 18 Multiplier
Embedded Multiplier
Note to Figure 12–3:
(1)
If necessary, you can send these signals through one register to match the data signal path.
All 18-bit multiplier inputs and results can be independently sent through
registers. The multiplier inputs can accept signed integers, unsigned
integers or a combination of both. Additionally, you can change the
signa and signb signals dynamically and can send these signals
through dedicated input registers.
9-Bit Multipliers
Each embedded multiplier can also be configured to support two
9 × 9 independent multipliers for input widths up to 9-bits. Figure 12–4
shows the embedded multiplier configured to support two 9-bit
multipliers.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
12–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Operational Modes
Figure 12–4. 9-Bit Multiplier Mode
signa (1)
signb (1)
aclr
clock
ena
Data A 0 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
Data Out 0 [17..0]
CLRN
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B 0 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
9 × 9 Multiplier
Data A 1 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
Data Out 1 [17..0]
CLRN
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
Data B 1 [8..0]
D
Q
ENA
CLRN
9 × 9 Multiplier
Embedded Multiplier
Note to Figure 12–4:
(1)
If necessary, you can send these signals through one register to match the data signal path.
All 9-bit multiplier inputs and results can be independently sent through
registers. The multiplier inputs can accept signed integers, unsigned
integers, or a combination of both. Each embedded multiplier only has
one signa signal to control the sign representation of both data A inputs
(one for each 9 × 9 multiplier) and one signb signal to control the sign
representation of both data B inputs. Therefore, all of the data A inputs
feeding the same embedded multiplier must have the same sign
representation. Similarly, all of the data B inputs feeding the same
embedded multiplier must have the same sign representation.
12–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Embedded Multipliers in Cyclone II Devices
Software
Support
Altera provides two methods for implementing multipliers in your
design using embedded multiplier resources: instantiation and inference.
Both methods use the following three Quartus II megafunctions:
■
■
■
lpm_mult
altmult_add
altmult_accum
You can instantiate the megafunctions in the Quartus II software to use
the embedded multipliers. You can use the lpm_mult and
altmult_add megafunctions to implement multipliers. Additionally,
you can use the altmult_add megafunctions to implement multiplieradders where the embedded multiplier is used to implement the multiply
function and the adder function is implemented in LEs. The
altmult_accum megafunction implements multiply accumulate
functions where the embedded multiplier implements the multiplier and
the accumulator function is implemented in LEs.
f
See Quartus II On-Line Help for instructions on using the megafunctions
and the MegaWizard Plug-In Manager.
f
For information on our complete DSP Design and Intellectual Property
offerings, see www.Altera.com.
You can also infer the megafunctions by creating an HDL design and
synthesize it using Quartus II integrated synthesis or a third-party
synthesis tool that recognizes and infers the appropriate multiplier
megafunction. Using either method, the Quartus II software maps the
multiplier functionality to the embedded multipliers during compilation.
f
Conclusion
Altera Corporation
February 2007
See the Synthesis section in Volume 1 of the Quartus II Handbook for
more information.
The Cyclone II device embedded multipliers are optimized to support
multiplier-intensive DSP applications such as FIR filters, FFT functions
and encoders. These embedded multipliers can be configured to
implement multipliers of various bit widths up to 18-bits to suit a
particular application resulting in efficient resource utilization and
improved performance and data throughput. The Quartus II software,
together with the LeonardoSpectrum and Synplify software provide a
complete and easy-to-use flow for implementing multiplier functions
using embedded multipliers.
12–9
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
Document
Revision History
Table 12–4 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 12–4. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2007
v1.2
Changes Made
●
●
Added document revision history.
Updated “Software Support” section.
Summary of Changes
●
Removed reference to
third-party synthesis tool:
LeonardoSpectrum and
Synplify.
November 2005 Updated Introduction.
v2.1
June 2004 v1.0
Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
12–10
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Section VI. Configuration
& Test
This section provides configuration information for all of the supported
configuration schemes for Cyclone® II devices. These configuration
schemes use either a microprocessor, configuration device, or download
cable. There is detailed information on how to design with Altera®
configuration devices. The last chapter provides information on JTAG
support in Cyclone II devices.
This section includes the following chapters:
Revision History
Altera Corporation
■
Chapter 13, Configuring Cyclone II Devices
■
Chapter 14, IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for
Cyclone II Devices
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section VI–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section VI–2
Preliminary
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
13. Configuring Cyclone II
Devices
CII51013-3.1
Introduction
Cyclone® II devices use SRAM cells to store configuration data. Since
SRAM memory is volatile, configuration data must be downloaded to
Cyclone II devices each time the device powers up. You can use the active
serial (AS) configuration scheme, which can operate at a DCLK frequency
up to 40 MHz, to configure Cyclone II devices. You can also use the
passive serial (PS) and Joint Test Action Group (JTAG)-based
configuration schemes to configure Cyclone II devices. Additionally,
Cyclone II devices can receive a compressed configuration bitstream and
decompress this data on-the-fly, reducing storage requirements and
configuration time.
This chapter explains the Cyclone II configuration features and describes
how to configure Cyclone II devices using the supported configuration
schemes. This chapter also includes configuration pin descriptions and
the Cyclone II configuration file format.
f
Cyclone II
Configuration
Overview
Altera Corporation
February 2007
For more information on setting device configuration options or creating
configuration files, see the Software Settings chapter in the Configuration
Handbook.
You can use the AS, PS, and JTAG configuration schemes to configure
Cyclone II devices. You can select which configuration scheme to use by
driving the Cyclone II device MSEL pins either high or low as shown in
Table 13–1. The MSEL pins are powered by the VCCIO power supply of the
bank they reside in. The MSEL[1..0] pins have 9-kΩ internal pull-down
resistors that are always active. During power-on reset (POR) and
reconfiguration, the MSEL pins have to be at LVTTL VIL or VIH levels to be
considered a logic low or logic high, respectively. Therefore, to avoid any
problems with detecting an incorrect configuration scheme, you should
connect the MSEL[] pins to the VCCIO of the I/O bank they reside in and
GND without any pull-up or pull-down resistors. The MSEL[] pins
should not be driven by a microprocessor or another device.
13–1
Cyclone II Configuration Overview
Table 13–1. Cyclone II Configuration Schemes
Configuration Scheme
AS (20 MHz)
MSEL1
MSEL0
0
0
PS
0
1
Fast AS (40 MHz) (1)
1
0
(3)
(3)
JTAG-based Configuration (2)
Notes to Table 13–1:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Only the EPCS16 and EPCS64 devices support a DCLK up to 40 MHz clock; other
EPCS devices support a DCLK up to 20 MHz. Refer to the Serial Configuration
Devices Data Sheet for more information.
JTAG-based configuration takes precedence over other configuration schemes,
which means MSEL pin settings are ignored.
Do not leave the MSEL pins floating; connect them to VCCIO or ground. These pins
support the non-JTAG configuration scheme used in production. If you are only
using JTAG configuration, you should connect the MSEL pins to ground.
You can download configuration data to Cyclone II FPGAs with the AS,
PS, or JTAG interfaces using the options in Table 13–2.
Table 13–2. Cyclone II Device Configuration Schemes
Configuration Scheme
Description
AS configuration
Configuration using serial configuration
devices (EPCS1, EPCS4, EPCS16 or
EPCS64 devices)
PS configuration
Configuration using enhanced configuration
devices (EPC4, EPC8, and EPC16 devices),
EPC2 and EPC1 configuration devices, an
intelligent host (microprocessor), or a
download cable
JTAG-based configuration
Configuration via JTAG pins using a
download cable, an intelligent host
(microprocessor), or the Jam™ Standard
Test and Programming Language (STAPL)
13–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Configuration
File Format
Table 13–3 shows the approximate uncompressed configuration file sizes
for Cyclone II devices. To calculate the amount of storage space required
for multiple device configurations, add the file size of each device
together.
Table 13–3. Cyclone II Raw Binary File (.rbf) Sizes
Device
Note (1)
Data Size (Bits)
Data Size (Bytes)
EP2C5
1,265,792
152,998
EP2C8
1,983,536
247,974
EP2C15
3,892,496
486,562
EP2C20
3,892,496
486,562
EP2C35
6,858,656
857,332
EP2C50
9,963,392
1,245,424
EP2C70
14,319,216
1,789,902
Note to Table 13–3:
(1)
These values are preliminary.
Use the data in Table 13–3 only to estimate the file size before design
compilation. Different configuration file formats, such as a Hexadecimal
(.hex) or Tabular Text File (.ttf) format, have different file sizes. However,
for any specific version of the Quartus® II software, any design targeted
for the same device has the same uncompressed configuration file size. If
compression is used, the file size can vary after each compilation since the
compression ratio is dependent on the design.
Configuration
Data
Compression
Cyclone II devices support configuration data decompression, which
saves configuration memory space and time. This feature allows you to
store compressed configuration data in configuration devices or other
memory and transmit this compressed bitstream to Cyclone II devices.
During configuration, the Cyclone II device decompresses the bitstream
in real time and programs its SRAM cells.
1
Preliminary data indicates that compression reduces
configuration bitstream size by 35 to 55%.
Cyclone II devices support decompression in the AS and PS
configuration schemes. Decompression is not supported in JTAG-based
configuration.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
13–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Configuration Data Compression
Although they both use the same compression algorithm, the
decompression feature supported by Cyclone II devices is different from
the decompression feature in enhanced configuration devices (EPC16,
EPC8, and EPC4 devices). The data decompression feature in the
enhanced configuration devices allows them to store compressed data
and decompress the bitstream before transmitting it to the target devices.
In PS mode, you should use the Cyclone II decompression feature since
sending compressed configuration data reduces configuration time. You
should not use both the Cyclone II device and the enhanced configuration
device decompression features simultaneously. The compression
algorithm is not intended to be recursive and could expand the
configuration file instead of compressing it further.
You should use the Cyclone II decompression feature during AS
configuration if you need to save configuration memory space in the
serial configuration device.
When you enable compression, the Quartus II software generates
configuration files with compressed configuration data. This compressed
file reduces the storage requirements in the configuration device or flash,
and decreases the time needed to transmit the bitstream to the Cyclone II
device. The time required by a Cyclone II device to decompress a
configuration file is less than the time needed to transmit the
configuration data to the FPGA.
There are two methods to enable compression for Cyclone II bitstreams:
before design compilation (in the Compiler Settings menu) and after
design compilation (in the Convert Programming Files window).
To enable compression in the project's compiler settings, select Device
under the Assignments menu to bring up the settings window. After
selecting your Cyclone II device open the Device & Pin Options
window, and in the General settings tab enable the check box for
Generate compressed bitstreams (see Figure 13–1).
13–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Figure 13–1. Enabling Compression for Cyclone II Bitstreams in Compiler
Settings
You can also use the following steps to enable compression when creating
programming files from the Convert Programming Files window.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
1.
Click Convert Programming Files (File menu).
2.
Select the Programming File type. Only Programmer Object Files
(.pof), SRAM HEXOUT, RBF, or TTF files support compression.
3.
For POFs, select a configuration device.
4.
Select Add File and add a Cyclone II SRAM Object File(s) (.sof).
5.
Select the name of the file you added to the SOF Data area and click
on Properties.
6.
Check the Compression check box.
13–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
When multiple Cyclone II devices are cascaded, the compression feature
can be selectively enabled for each device in the chain. Figure 13–2
depicts a chain of two Cyclone II devices. The first Cyclone II device has
compression enabled and therefore receives a compressed bitstream from
the configuration device. The second Cyclone II device has the
compression feature disabled and receives uncompressed data.
Figure 13–2. Compressed & Uncompressed Configuration Data in a
Programming File
Serial Data
Serial or Enhanced
Configuration
Device
Compressed
Uncompressed
VCC
Decompression
Controller
10 kΩ
Decompression
Controller
Cyclone II
Device
nCE
nCEO
Cyclone II
Device
nCE
nCEO
N.C.
GND
You can generate programming files (for example, POF files) for this
setup in the Quartus II software.
Active Serial
Configuration
(Serial
Configuration
Devices)
f
In the AS configuration scheme, Cyclone II devices are configured using
a serial configuration device. These configuration devices are low-cost
devices with non-volatile memory that feature a simple, four-pin
interface and a small form factor. These features make serial
configuration devices an ideal low-cost configuration solution.
For more information on serial configuration devices, see the Serial
Configuration Devices Data Sheet in the Configuration Handbook.
13–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Serial configuration devices provide a serial interface to access
configuration data. During device configuration, Cyclone II devices read
configuration data via the serial interface, decompress data if necessary,
and configure their SRAM cells. The FPGA controls the configuration
interface in the AS configuration scheme, while the external host (e.g., the
configuration device or microprocessor) controls the interface in the PS
configuration scheme.
1
The Cyclone II decompression feature is available when
configuring your Cyclone II device using AS mode.
Table 13–4 shows the MSEL pin settings when using the AS configuration
scheme.
Table 13–4. Cyclone II Configuration Schemes
Configuration Scheme
MSEL1
MSEL0
AS (20 MHz)
0
0
Fast AS (40 MHz) (1)
1
0
Note to Table 13–4:
(1)
Only the EPCS16 and EPCS64 devices support a DCLK up to 40 MHz clock; other
EPCS devices support a DCLK up to 20 MHz. Refer to the Serial Configuration
Devices Data Sheet for more information.
Single Device AS Configuration
Serial configuration devices have a four-pin interface: serial clock input
(DCLK), serial data output (DATA), AS data input (ASDI), and an
active-low chip select (nCS). This four-pin interface connects to Cyclone II
device pins, as shown in Figure 13–3.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
13–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
Figure 13–3. Single Device AS Configuration
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
10 kΩ
Cyclone II FPGA
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
N.C. (3)
nCEO
GND
DATA
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
MSEL1
ASDI
ASDO
MSEL0
(2)
VCC
GND
Notes to Figure 13–3:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Connect the pull-up resistors to a 3.3-V supply.
Cyclone II devices use the ASDO to ASDI path to control the configuration device.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not
feed another device’s nCE pin.
Upon power-up, the Cyclone II device goes through a POR. During POR,
the device resets, holds nSTATUS and CONF_DONE low, and tri-states all
user I/O pins. After POR, which typically lasts 100 ms, the Cyclone II
device releases nSTATUS and enters configuration mode when the
external 10-kΩ resistor pulls the nSTATUS pin high. Once the FPGA
successfully exits POR, all user I/O pins continue to be tri-stated.
Cyclone II devices have weak pull-up resistors on the user I/O pins
which are on before and during configuration.
f
The value of the weak pull-up resistors on the I/O pins that are on
before and during configuration are available in the DC Characteristics &
Timing Specifications chapter of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
The configuration cycle consists of the reset, configuration, and
initialization stages.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Reset Stage
When nCONFIG or nSTATUS are low, the device is in reset. After POR, the
Cyclone II device releases nSTATUS. An external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor
pulls the nSTATUS signal high, and the Cyclone II device enters
configuration mode.
1
VCCINT and VCCIO of the banks where the configuration and
JTAG pins reside need to be fully powered to the appropriate
voltage levels in order to begin the configuration process.
Configuration Stage
The serial clock (DCLK) generated by the Cyclone II device controls the
entire configuration cycle and provides the timing for the serial interface.
Cyclone II devices use an internal oscillator to generate DCLK. Using the
MSEL[] pins, you can select either a 20- or 40-MHz oscillator. Although
you can select either 20- or 40-MHz oscillator when designing with serial
configuration devices, the 40-MHz oscillator provides faster
configuration times. There is some variation in the internal oscillator
frequency because of the process, temperature, and voltage conditions in
Cyclone II devices. The internal oscillator is designed such that its
maximum frequency is guaranteed to meet EPCS device specifications.
Table 13–5 shows the AS DCLK output frequencies.
Table 13–5. AS DCLK Output Frequency
Oscillator Selected
Note (1)
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Units
40 MHz
20
26
40
MHz
20 MHz
10
13
20
MHz
Note to Table 13–5:
(1)
These values are preliminary.
In both AS and Fast AS configuration schemes, the serial configuration
device latches input and control signals on the rising edge of DCLK and
drives out configuration data on the falling edge. Cyclone II devices drive
out control signals on the falling edge of DCLK and latch configuration
data on the falling edge of DCLK.
In configuration mode, the Cyclone II device enables the serial
configuration device by driving its nCSO output pin low, which connects
to the chip select (nCS) pin of the configuration device. The Cyclone II
device uses the serial clock (DCLK) and serial data output (ASDO) pins to
send operation commands and/or read address signals to the serial
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
configuration device. The configuration device then provides data on its
serial data output (DATA) pin, which connects to the DATA0 input of the
Cyclone II device.
After the Cyclone II device receives all the configuration bits, it releases
the open-drain CONF_DONE pin, which is then pulled high by an external
10-kΩ resistor. Also, the Cyclone II device stops driving the DCLK signal.
Initialization begins only after the CONF_DONE signal reaches a logic high
level. The CONF_DONE pin must have an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor
in order for the device to initialize. All AS configuration pins (DATA0,
DCLK, nCSO, and ASDO) have weak internal pull-up resistors which are
always active. After configuration, these pins are set as input tri-stated
and are pulled high by the internal weak pull-up resistors.
Initialization Stage
In Cyclone II devices, the initialization clock source is either the
Cyclone II 10-MHz (typical) internal oscillator (separate from the AS
internal oscillator) or the optional CLKUSR pin. The internal oscillator is
the default clock source for initialization. If the internal oscillator is used,
the Cyclone II device provides itself with enough clock cycles for proper
initialization. The advantage of using the internal oscillator is you do not
need to send additional clock cycles from an external source to the
CLKUSR pin during the initialization stage. Additionally, you can use the
CLKUSR pin as a user I/O pin.
If you want to delay the initialization of the device, you can use the
CLKUSR pin option. Using the CLKUSR pin allows you to control when
your device enters user mode. The device can be delayed from entering
user mode for an indefinite amount of time. When you enable the User
Supplied Start-Up Clock option, the CLKUSR pin is the initialization
clock source. Supplying a clock on CLKUSR does not affect the
configuration process. After all configuration data has been accepted and
CONF_DONE goes high, Cyclone II devices require 299 clock cycles to
initialize properly and support a CLKUSR fMAX of 100 MHz.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Cyclone II devices offer an optional INIT_DONE pin which signals the
end of initialization and the start of user mode with a low-to-high
transition. The Enable INIT_DONE output option is available in the
Quartus II software from the General tab of the Device & Pin Options
window. If you use the INIT_DONE pin, an external 10-kΩ pull-up
resistor is required to pull the signal high when nCONFIG is low and
during the beginning of configuration. Once the optional bit to enable
INIT_DONE is programmed into the device (during the first frame of
configuration data), the INIT_DONE pin goes low. When initialization is
complete, the INIT_DONE pin is released and pulled high. This
low-to-high transition signals that the FPGA has entered user mode. If
you do not use the INIT_DONE pin, the initialization period is complete
after CONF_DONE goes high and 299 clock cycles are sent to the CLKUSR
pin or after the time tCF2UM (see Table 13–8) if the Cyclone II device uses
the internal oscillator.
User Mode
When initialization is complete, the FPGA enters user mode. In user
mode, the user I/O pins no longer have weak pull-up resistors and
function as assigned in your design.
When the Cyclone II device is in user mode, you can initiate
reconfiguration by pulling the nCONFIG signal low. The nCONFIG signal
should be low for at least 2 µs. When nCONFIG is pulled low, the
Cyclone II device is reset and enters the reset stage. The Cyclone II device
also pulls nSTATUS and CONF_DONE low and all I/O pins are tri-stated.
Once nCONFIG returns to a logic high level and nSTATUS is released by
the Cyclone II device, reconfiguration begins.
Error During Configuration
If an error occurs during configuration, the Cyclone II device drives the
nSTATUS signal low to indicate a data frame error, and the CONF_DONE
signal stays low. If you enable the Auto-restart configuration after error
option in the Quartus II software from the General tab of the Device &
Pin Options dialog box, the Cyclone II device resets the serial
configuration device by pulsing nCSO, releases nSTATUS after a reset
time-out period (about 40 µs), and retries configuration. If the
Auto-restart configuration after error option is turned off, the external
system must monitor nSTATUS for errors and then pull nCONFIG low for
at least 2 µs to restart configuration.
1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
If you use the optional CLKUSR pin and the nCONFIG pin is
pulled low to restart configuration during device initialization,
ensure CLKUSR continues to toggle during the time nSTATUS is
low (a maximum of 40 μs).
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
f
For more information on configuration issues, see the Debugging
Configuration Problems chapter of the Configuration Handbook and the
FPGA Configuration Troubleshooter on the Altera web site
(www.altera.com).
Multiple Device AS Configuration
You can configure multiple Cyclone II devices using a single serial
configuration device. You can cascade multiple Cyclone II devices using
the chip-enable (nCE) and chip-enable-out (nCEO) pins. Connect the nCE
pin of the first device in the chain to ground and connect the nCEO pin to
the nCE pin of the next device in the chain. Use an external 10-kΩ pull-up
resistor to pull the nCEO signal high to its VCCIO level to help the internal
weak pull-up resistor. When the first device captures all of its
configuration data from the bitstream, it transitions its nCEO pin low,
initiating the configuration of the next device in the chain. You can leave
the nCEO pin of the last device unconnected or use it as a user I/O pin
after configuration if the last device in chain is a Cyclone II device.
1
The Quartus II software sets the Cyclone II device nCEO pin as
an output pin driving to ground by default. If the device is in a
chain, and the nCEO pin is connected to the next device’s nCE
pin, you must make sure that the nCEO pin is not used as a user
I/O pin after configuration. The software setting is in the
Dual-Purpose Pins tab of the Device & Pin Options dialog box
in Quartus II software.
The first Cyclone II device in the chain is the configuration master and
controls the configuration of the entire chain. Select the AS configuration
scheme for the first Cyclone II device and the PS configuration scheme for
the remaining Cyclone II devices (configuration slaves). Any other
Altera® device that supports PS configuration can also be part of the chain
as a configuration slave. In a multiple device chain, the nCONFIG,
nSTATUS, CONF_DONE, DCLK, and DATA0 pins of each device in the chain
are connected (see Figure 13–4). Figure 13–4 shows the pin connections
for this setup.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Figure 13–4. Multiple Device AS Configuration
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
VCC (2)
10 kΩ
Serial Configuration
Device
10 kΩ
Cyclone II FPGA
Slave Device
Cyclone II FPGA
Master Device
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (3)
VCC
GND
VCC
DATA
DATA0
MSEL1
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
MSEL0
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
ASDI
ASDO
MSEL1
MSEL0
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 13–4:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Connect the pull-up resistors to a 3.3-V supply.
Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of I/O bank that the nCEO pin resides in.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed another device’s nCE pin.
As shown in Figure 13–4, the nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins on all target
FPGAs are connected together with external pull-up resistors. These pins
are open-drain bidirectional pins on the FPGAs. When the first device
asserts nCEO (after receiving all of its configuration data), it releases its
CONF_DONE pin. However, the subsequent devices in the chain keep the
CONF_DONE signal low until they receive their configuration data. When
all the target FPGAs in the chain have received their configuration data
and have released CONF_DONE, the pull-up resistor pulls this signal high,
and all devices simultaneously enter initialization mode.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
During initialization, the initialization clock source is either the
Cyclone II 10 MHz (typical) internal oscillator (separate from the AS
internal oscillator) or the optional CLKUSR pin. By default, the internal
oscillator is the clock source for initialization. If the internal oscillator is
used, the Cyclone II device provides itself with enough clock cycles for
proper initialization. The advantage of using the internal oscillator is you
do not need to send additional clock cycles from an external source to the
CLKUSR pin during the initialization stage. You can also make use of the
CLKUSR pin as a user I/O pin, which means you have an additional user
I/O pin.
If you want to delay the initialization of the devices in the chain, you can
use the CLKUSR pin option. The CLKUSR pin allows you to control when
your device enters user mode. This feature also allows you to control the
order of when each device enters user mode by feeding a separate clock
to each device’s CLKUSR pin. By using the CLKUSR pins, you can choose
any device in the multiple device chain to enter user mode first and have
the other devices enter user mode at a later time.
Different device families may require a different number of initialization
clock cycles. Therefore, if your multiple device chain consists of devices
from different families, the devices may enter user mode at a slightly
different time due to the different number of initialization clock cycles
required. However, if the number of initialization clock cycles is similar
across different device families or if the devices are from the same family,
then the devices enter user mode at the same time. See the respective
device family handbook for more information about the number of
initialization clock cycles required.
If an error occurs at any point during configuration, the FPGA with the
error drives the nSTATUS signal low. If you enable the Auto-restart
configuration after error option, the entire chain begins reconfiguration
after a reset time-out period (a maximum of 40 µs). If the Auto-restart
configuration after error option is turned off, a microprocessor or
controller must monitor nSTATUS for errors and then pulse nCONFIG low
to restart configuration. The microprocessor or controller can pulse
nCONFIG if it is under system control rather than tied to VCC.
1
While you can cascade Cyclone II devices, serial configuration
devices cannot be cascaded or chained together.
1
If you use the optional CLKUSR pin and the nCONFIG is pulled
low to restart configuration during device initialization, make
sure the CLKUSR pin continues to toggle while nSTATUS is low
(a maximum of 40 µs).
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
If the configuration bitstream size exceeds the capacity of a serial
configuration device, you must select a larger configuration device
and/or enable the compression feature. When configuring multiple
devices, the size of the bitstream is the sum of the individual devices'
configuration bitstreams.
Configuring Multiple Cyclone II Devices with the Same Design
Certain designs require you to configure multiple Cyclone II devices with
the same design through a configuration bitstream or SOF. You can do
this through one of two methods, as described in this section. For both
methods, the serial configuration devices cannot be cascaded or chained
together.
Multiple SOFs
In the first method, two copies of the SOF file are stored in the serial
configuration device. Use the first copy to configure the master Cyclone II
device and the second copy to configure all remaining slave devices
concurrently. In this setup, the master Cyclone II device is in AS mode,
and the slave Cyclone II devices are in PS mode (MSEL=01). See
Figure 13–5.
To configure four identical Cyclone II devices with the same SOF file,
connect the three slave devices for concurrent configuration as shown in
Figure 13–5. The nCEO pin from the master device drives the nCE input
pins on all three slave devices. Connect the configuration device’s DATA
and DCLK pins to the Cyclone II device’s DATA and DCLK pins in parallel.
During the first configuration cycle, the master device reads its
configuration data from the serial configuration device while holding
nCEO high. After completing its configuration cycle, the master drives
nCE low and transmits the second copy of the configuration data to all
three slave devices, configuring them simultaneously.
The advantage of using the setup in Figure 13–5 is that you can have a
different SOF file for the Cyclone II master device. However, all the
Cyclone II slave devices must be configured with the same SOF file. The
SOF files in this configuration method can be either compressed or
uncompressed.
1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
You can still use this method if the master and slave Cyclone II
devices use the same SOF.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
Figure 13–5. Multiple Device AS Configuration When FPGAs Receive the Same Data with Multiple SOFs
Cyclone II Device Slave
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
VCC (1) VCC (3)
nCONFIG
nCE
10 k9
10 k9
10 k9
10 k9
VCC
DATA0
DCLK
N.C. (4)
nCEO
MSEL0
MSEL1
Cyclone II Device Master
Serial
Configuration
Device
Cyclone II Device Slave
nSTATUS
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCONFIG
nCEO
nCE
VCC
Data
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
MSEL0
nCS
nCSO
MSEL1
ASDI
ASDO
VCC
DATA0
DCLK
N.C. (4)
nCEO
MSEL0
MSEL1
Cyclone II Device Slave
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
VCC
DATA0
DCLK
N.C. (4)
nCEO
MSEL0
MSEL1
Notes to Figure 13–5:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Connect the pull-up resistors to a 3.3-V supply.
Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of I/O bank that the nCEO pin resides in.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed another device’s nCE pin.
13–16
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Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Single SOF
The second method configures both the master and slave Cyclone II
devices with the same SOF. The serial configuration device stores one
copy of the SOF file. This setup is shown in Figure 13–6 where the master
is setup in AS mode, and the slave devices are setup in PS mode
(MSEL=01). You could setup one or more slave devices in the chain and
all the slave devices are setup in the same way as shown in Figure 13–6.
Figure 13–6. Multiple Device AS Configuration When FPGAs Receive the Same Data with a Single SOF
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Serial
Configuration
Device
Cyclone II Device Slave 2
Cyclone II Device Slave 1
Cyclone II Device Master
nSTATUS
nSTATUS
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (3)
VCC
Data
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
MSEL0
nCS
nCSO
MSEL1
ASDI
ASDO
nCE
nCONFIG
nCEO
VCC
DATA0
DCLK
N.C. (3)
MSEL0
MSEL1
nCE
nCEO
VCC
DATA0
DCLK
N.C. (3)
MSEL0
MSEL1
Buffers
Notes to Figure 13–6:
(1)
(2)
Connect the pull-up resistors to a 3.3-V supply.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed another device’s nCE pin.
In this setup, all the Cyclone II devices in the chain are connected for
concurrent configuration. This can reduce the AS configuration time
because all the Cyclone II devices are configured in one configuration
cycle. Connect the nCE input pins of all the Cyclone II devices to ground.
You can either leave the nCEO output pins on all the Cyclone II devices
unconnected or use the nCEO output pins as normal user I/O pins. The
DATA and DCLK pins are connected in parallel to all the Cyclone II
devices.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
You should put a buffer before the DATA and DCLK output from the
master Cyclone II device to avoid signal strength and signal integrity
issues. The buffer should not significantly change the DATA-to-DCLK
relationships or delay them with respect to other AS signals (ASDI and
nCS). Also, the buffer should only drive the slave Cyclone II devices, so
that the timing between the master Cyclone II device and serial
configuration device is unaffected.
This configuration method supports both compressed and uncompressed
SOFs. Therefore, if the configuration bitstream size exceeds the capacity
of a serial configuration device, you can enable the compression feature
in the SOF file used or you can select a larger serial configuration device.
Estimating AS Configuration Time
The AS configuration time is the time it takes to transfer data from the
serial configuration device to the Cyclone II device. The Cyclone II DCLK
output (generated from an internal oscillator) clocks this serial interface.
As listed in Table 13–5, if you are using the 40-MHz oscillator, the DCLK
minimum frequency is 20 MHz (50 ns). Therefore, the maximum
configuration time estimate for an EP2C5 device (1,223,980 bits of
uncompressed data) is:
RBF size × (maximum DCLK period / 1 bit per DCLK cycle) =
estimated maximum configuration time
1,223,980 bits × (50 ns / 1 bit) = 61.2 ms
To estimate the typical configuration time, use the typical DCLK period
listed in Table 13–5. With a typical DCLK period of 38.46 ns, the typical
configuration time is 47.1 ms. Enabling compression reduces the amount
of configuration data that is transmitted to the Cyclone II device, which
also reduces configuration time. On average, compression reduces
configuration time by 50%.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Programming Serial Configuration Devices
Serial configuration devices are non-volatile, flash-memory-based
devices. You can program these devices in-system using the
USB-Blaster™ or ByteBlaster™ II download cable. Alternatively, you can
program them using the Altera Programming Unit (APU), supported
third-party programmers, or a microprocessor with the SRunner
software driver.
You can use the AS programming interface to program serial
configuration devices in-system. During in-system programming, the
download cable disables FPGA access to the AS interface by driving the
nCE pin high. Cyclone II devices are also held in reset by pulling the
nCONFIG signal low. After programming is complete, the download
cable releases the nCE and nCONFIG signals, allowing the pull-down and
pull-up resistor to drive GND and VCC, respectively. Figure 13–7 shows
the download cable connections to the serial configuration device.
f
Altera Corporation
February 2007
For more information on the USB-Blaster download cable, see the
USB-Blaster USB Port Download Cable Data Sheet. For more information
on the ByteBlaster II cable, see the ByteBlaster II Download Cable Data
Sheet.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Active Serial Configuration (Serial Configuration Devices)
Figure 13–7. In-System Programming of Serial Configuration Devices
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone II FPGA
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
Serial
Configuration
Device
nCEO
N.C. (2)
nCONFIG
nCE
10 kΩ
DATA
DATA0
DCLK
DCLK
nCS
nCSO
MSEL1
ASDI
ASDO
MSEL0
VCC
GND
Pin 1
VCC (3)
ByteBlaster II or USB Blaster
10-Pin Male Header
Notes to Figure 13–7:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Connect these pull-up resistors to 3.3-V supply.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed other device’s nCE pin.
Power up the ByteBlaster II or USB Blaster cable’s VCC with a 3.3-V supply.
You can use the Quartus II software with the APU and the appropriate
configuration device programming adapter to program serial
configuration devices. All serial configuration devices are offered in an
8-pin or 16-pin small outline integrated circuit (SOIC) package and can be
programmed using the PLMSEPC-8 adapter.
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Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Altera programming hardware (APU) or other third-party programming
hardware can be used to program blank serial configuration devices
before they are mounted onto PCBs. Alternatively, you can use an onboard microprocessor to program the serial configuration device on the
PCB using C-based software drivers provided by Altera (i.e., the SRunner
software driver).
A serial configuration device can be programmed in-system by an
external microprocessor using SRunner. SRunner is a software driver
developed for embedded serial configuration device programming,
which can be easily customized to fit in different embedded systems.
SRunner can read a Raw Programming Data File (.rpd) and write to the
serial configuration devices. The serial configuration device
programming time using SRunner is comparable to the programming
time when using the Quartus II Programmer.
f
For more information about SRunner, see the SRunner: An Embedded
Solution for EPCS Programming White Paper and the source code on the
Altera web site at www.altera.com. For more information on
programming serial configuration devices, see the Serial Configuration
Devices Data Sheet in the Configuration Handbook.
Figure 13–8 shows the timing waveform for the AS configuration scheme
using a serial configuration device.
Figure 13–8. AS Configuration Timing
tCF2ST1
nCONFIG
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCSO
tCL
DCLK
tCH
tH
Read Address
ASDO
tSU
DATA0
bit N
bit N − 1
bit 1
bit 0
299 Cycles
INIT_DONE
User Mode
User I/O
Tri-stated with internal
pull-up resistor.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
PS Configuration
You can use an Altera configuration device, a download cable, or an
intelligent host, such as a MAX® II device or microprocessor to configure
a Cyclone II device with the PS scheme. In the PS scheme, an external host
(configuration device, MAX II device, embedded processor, or host PC)
controls configuration. Configuration data is input to the target
Cyclone II devices via the DATA0 pin at each rising edge of DCLK.
1
The Cyclone II decompression feature is fully available when
configuring your Cyclone II device using PS mode.
Table 13–6 shows the MSEL pin settings when using the PS configuration
scheme.
Table 13–6. Cyclone II MSEL Pin Settings for PS Configuration Schemes
Configuration Scheme
PS
MSEL1
MSEL0
0
1
Single Device PS Configuration Using a MAX II Device as an
External Host
In the PS configuration scheme, you can use a MAX II device as an
intelligent host that controls the transfer of configuration data from a
storage device, such as flash memory, to the target Cyclone II device.
Configuration data can be stored in RBF, HEX, or TTF format. Figure 13–9
shows the configuration interface connections between the Cyclone II
device and a MAX II device for single device configuration.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Figure 13–9. Single Device PS Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
ADDR
VCC. (1) VCC. (1)
DATA0
10 k Ω
VCC
Cyclone II Device
10 k Ω
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
MSEL0
MSEL1
nCE
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
GND
GND
nCEO
N.C. (2)
DATA0
nCONFIG
DCLK
Notes to Figure 13–9:
(1)
(2)
Connect the pull-up resistor to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for the device. VCC should be high
enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the device and the external host.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed other device’s nCE pin.
Upon power-up, the Cyclone II device goes through a POR, which lasts
approximately 100 ms. During POR, the device resets, holds nSTATUS
low, and tri-states all user I/O pins. Once the FPGA successfully exits
POR, all user I/O pins continue to be tri-stated.
f
The value of the weak pull-up resistors on the I/O pins that are on before
and during configuration can be found in the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
The configuration cycle consists of three stages: reset, configuration, and
initialization.
Reset Stage
While the Cyclone II device’s nCONFIG or nSTATUS pins are low, the
device is in reset. To initiate configuration, the MAX II device must
transition the Cyclone II nCONFIG pin from low to high.
1
VCCINT and VCCIO of the banks where the configuration and
JTAG pins reside need to be fully powered to the appropriate
voltage levels in order to begin the configuration process.
When the Cyclone II nCONFIG pin transitions high, the Cyclone II device
comes out of reset and releases the open-drain nSTATUS pin, which is
then pulled high by an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor. Once nSTATUS is
released, the FPGA is ready to receive configuration data and the MAX II
device can start the configuration at any time.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
Configuration Stage
After the Cyclone II device’s nSTATUS pin transitions high, the MAX II
device should send the configuration data on the DATA0 pin one bit at a
time. If you are using configuration data in RBF, HEX, or TTF format,
send the least significant bit (LSB) of each data byte first. For example, if
the RBF contains the byte sequence 02 1B EE 01 FA, you should transmit
the serial bitstream 0100-0000 1101-1000 0111-0111 1000-0000
0101-1111 to the device first.
The Cyclone II device receives configuration data on its DATA0 pin and
the clock on the DCLK pin. Data is latched into the FPGA on the rising
edge of DCLK. Data is continuously clocked into the target device until the
CONF_DONE pin transitions high. After the Cyclone II device receives all
the configuration data successfully, it releases the open-drain
CONF_DONE pin, which is pulled high by an external 10-kΩ pull-up
resistor. A low-to-high transition on CONF_DONE indicates configuration
is complete and initialization of the device can begin. The CONF_DONE
pin must have an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor in order for the device
to initialize.
The configuration clock (DCLK) speed must be below the specified system
frequency (see Table 13–7) to ensure correct configuration. No maximum
DCLK period exists, which means you can pause configuration by halting
DCLK for an indefinite amount of time.
Initialization Stage
In Cyclone II devices, the initialization clock source is either the
Cyclone II internal oscillator (typically 10 MHz) or the optional CLKUSR
pin. The internal oscillator is the default clock source for initialization. If
you use the internal oscillator, the Cyclone II device makes sure to
provide enough clock cycles for proper initialization. Therefore, if the
internal oscillator is the initialization clock source, sending the entire
configuration file to the device is sufficient to configure and initialize the
device. You do not need to provide additional clock cycles externally
during the initialization stage. Driving DCLK back to the device after
configuration is complete does not affect device operation. Additionally,
if you use the internal oscillator as the clock source, you can use the
CLKUSR pin as a user I/O pin.
If you want to delay the initialization of the device, you can use the
CLKUSR pin. Using the CLKUSR pin allows you to control when your
device enters user mode. You can delay the device from entering user
mode for an indefinite amount of time.
13–24
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
The Enable user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR) option can be
turned on in the Quartus II software from the General tab of the Device
& Pin Options dialog box. Supplying a clock on CLKUSR does not affect
the configuration process. After all configuration data has been accepted
and CONF_DONE goes high, Cyclone II devices require 299 clock cycles to
initialize properly and support a CLKUSR fMAX of 100 MHz.
1
If the optional CLKUSR pin is being used and nCONFIG is pulled
low to restart configuration during device initialization, you
need to ensure that CLKUSR continues toggling during the time
nSTATUS is low (maximum of 40 µs).
An optional INIT_DONE pin signals the end of initialization and the start
of user mode with a low-to-high transition. By default, the INIT_DONE
output is disabled. You can enable the INIT_DONE output by turning on
the Enable INIT_DONE output option in the Quartus II software. If you
use the INIT_DONE pin, an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor pulls the pin
high when nCONFIG is low and during the beginning of configuration.
Once the optional bit to enable INIT_DONE is programmed into the
device (during the first frame of configuration data), the INIT_DONE pin
transitions low. When initialization is complete, the INIT_DONE pin is
released and pulled high. The MAX II device must be able to detect this
low-to-high transition, which signals the FPGA has entered user mode.
If you want to use the INIT_DONE pin as a user I/O pin, you should wait
for the maximum value of tCD2UM (see Table 13–7) after the CONF_DONE
signal transitions high so to ensure the Cyclone II device has been
initialized properly and is in user mode.
Make sure the MAX II device does not drive the CONF_DONE signal low
during configuration, initialization, and before the device enters user
mode.
User Mode
When initialization is complete, the Cyclone II device enters user mode.
In user mode, the user I/O pins no longer have pull-up resistors and
function as assigned in your design.
To ensure DCLK and DATA0 are not left floating at the end of
configuration, the MAX II device must drive them either high or low,
which ever is convenient on your PCB. The Cyclone II device DATA0 pin
is not available as a user I/O pin after configuration.
When the FPGA is in user mode, you can initiate a reconfiguration by
transitioning the nCONFIG pin low-to-high. The nCONFIG pin must be
low for at least 2 µs. When the nCONFIG transitions low, the Cyclone II
Altera Corporation
February 2007
13–25
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
device also pulls nSTATUS and CONF_DONE low and tri-states all I/O
pins. Once the nCONFIG pin returns to a logic high level and the
Cyclone II device releases the nSTATUS pin, the MAX II device can begin
reconfiguration.
Error During Configuration
If an error occurs during configuration, the Cyclone II device transitions
its nSTATUS pin low, resetting itself internally. The low signal on the
nSTATUS pin tells the MAX II device that there is an error. If you turn on
the Auto-restart configuration after error option in the Quartus II
software, the Cyclone II device releases nSTATUS after a reset time-out
period (maximum of 40 µs). After nSTATUS is released and pulled high
by a pull-up resistor, the MAX II device can try to reconfigure the target
device without needing to pulse nCONFIG low. If this option is turned off,
the MAX II device must generate a low-to-high transition (with a low
pulse of at least 2 µs) on nCONFIG to restart the configuration process.
The MAX II device can also monitor the CONF_DONE and INIT_DONE
pins to ensure successful configuration. The MAX II device must monitor
the Cyclone II device's CONF_DONE pin to detect errors and determine
when programming completes. If all configuration data is sent, but
CONF_DONE or INIT_DONE do not transition high, the MAX II device
must reconfigure the target device.
f
For more information on configuration issues, see the Debugging
Configuration Problems chapter of the Configuration Handbook and the
FPGA Configuration Troubleshooter on the Altera web site
(www.altera.com).
Multiple Device PS Configuration Using a MAX II Device as an
External Host
Figure 13–10 shows how to configure multiple devices using a MAX II
device. This circuit is similar to the PS configuration circuit for a single
device, except Cyclone II devices are cascaded for multiple device
configuration.
13–26
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Figure 13–10. Multiple Device PS Configuration Using an External Host
Memory
VCC (1)
ADDR
VCC (1)
VCC
DATA0
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
Cyclone II Device 1
VCC (2)
VCC
10 kΩ Cyclone II Device 2
MSEL1
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
nCE
External Host
(MAX II Device or
Microprocessor)
MSEL1
MSEL0
CONF_DONE
GND
nCEO
MSEL0
nSTATUS
GND
nCE
GND
nCEO
DATA0
DATA0
nCONFIG
nCONFIG
DCLK
DCLK
N.C. (3)
Notes to Figure 13–10:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the
chain. VCC should be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the devices and the external host.
Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of I/O bank that the nCEO pin resides in.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed another device’s nCE pin.
In multiple device PS configuration, connect the first Cyclone II device’s
nCE pin to GND and connect the nCEO pin to the nCE pin of the next
Cyclone II device in the chain. Use an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor to
pull the Cyclone II device’s nCEO pin high to its VCCIO level to help the
internal weak pull-up resistor when the nCEO pin feeds next Cyclone II
device's nCE pin. The input to the nCE pin of the last Cyclone II device in
the chain comes from the previous Cyclone II device. After the first
device completes configuration in a multiple device configuration chain,
its nCEO pin transitions low to activate the second device’s nCE pin,
which prompts the second device to begin configuration. The second
device in the chain begins configuration within one clock cycle.
Therefore, the MAX II device begins to transfer data to the next Cyclone II
device without interruption. The nCEO pin is a dual-purpose pin in
Cyclone II devices. You can leave the nCEO pin of the last device
unconnected or use it as a user I/O pin after configuration if the last
device in chain is a Cyclone II device.
1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
The Quartus II software sets the Cyclone II device nCEO pin as a
dedicated output by default. If the nCEO pin feeds the next
device’s nCE pin, you must make sure that the nCEO pin is not
used as a user I/O after configuration. This software setting is in
the Dual-Purpose Pins tab of the Device & Pin Options dialog
box in Quartus II software.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
You must connect all other configuration pins (nCONFIG, nSTATUS,
DCLK, DATA0, and CONF_DONE) to every Cyclone II device in the chain.
The configuration signals may require buffering to ensure signal integrity
and prevent clock skew problems. You should buffer the DCLK and DATA
lines for every fourth device. Because all device CONF_DONE pins are tied
together, all devices initialize and enter user mode at the same time.
Since all nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins are connected, if any Cyclone II
device detects an error, configuration stops for the entire chain and the
entire chain must be reconfigured. For example, if the first Cyclone II
detects an error, it resets the chain by pulling its nSTATUS pin low. This
behavior is similar to a single Cyclone II device detecting an error.
If the Auto-restart configuration after error option is turned on, the
Cyclone II devices release their nSTATUS pins after a reset time-out
period (maximum of 40 µs). After all nSTATUS pins are released and
pulled high, the MAX II device reconfigures the chain without pulsing
nCONFIG low. If the Auto-restart configuration after error option is
turned off, the MAX II device must generate a low-to-high transition
(with a low pulse of at least 2 µs) on nCONFIG to restart the configuration
process.
If you want to delay the initialization of the devices in the chain, you can
use the CLKUSR pin option. The CLKUSR pin allows you to control when
your device enters user mode. This feature also allows you to control the
order of when each device enters user mode by feeding a separate clock
to each device’s CLKUSR pin. By using the CLKUSR pins, you can choose
any device in the multiple device chain to enter user mode first and have
the other devices enter user mode at a later time.
Different device families may require a different number of initialization
clock cycles. Therefore, if your multiple device chain consists of devices
from different families, the devices may enter user mode at a slightly
different time due to the different number of initialization clock cycles
required. However, if the number of initialization clock cycles is similar
across different device families or if the devices are from the same family,
then the devices enter user mode at the same time. See the respective
device family handbook for more information about the number of
initialization clock cycles required.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
If your system has multiple Cyclone II devices (in the same density and
package) with the same configuration data, you can configure them in
one configuration cycle by connecting all device’s nCE pins to ground and
connecting all the Cyclone II device’s configuration pins (nCONFIG,
nSTATUS, DCLK, DATA0, and CONF_DONE) together. You can also use the
nCEO pin as a user I/O pin after configuration. The configuration signals
may require buffering to ensure signal integrity and prevent clock skew
problems. Make sure the DCLK and DATA lines are buffered for every
fourth device. All devices start and complete configuration at the same
time. Figure 13–11 shows multiple device PS configuration when both
Cyclone II devices are receiving the same configuration data.
Figure 13–11. Multiple Device PS Configuration When Both FPGAs Receive the Same Data
Memory
VCC (1)
ADDR
VCC (1)
VCC
DATA0
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
VCC
Cyclone II Device
Cyclone II Device
MSEL1
MSEL1
CONF_DONE
MSEL0
nSTATUS
External Host
(MAX II Device
or Microprocessor)
nCE
GND
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
GND
nCEO
MSEL0
GND
nCE
N.C. (3)
nCEO
GND
DATA0
DATA0
nCONFIG
nCONFIG
DCLK
DCLK
N.C. (2)
Notes to Figure 13–11:
(1)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to a supply that provides an acceptable input signal for all devices in the
chain. VCC should be high enough to meet the VIH specification of the I/O on the devices and the external host.
(2)
The nCEO pins of both devices can be left unconnected or used as user I/O pins when configuring the same
configuration data into multiple devices.
You can use a single configuration chain to configure Cyclone II devices
with other Altera devices. Connect all the Cyclone II device’s and all
other Altera device’s CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins together so all
devices in the chain complete configuration at the same time or that an
error reported by one device initiates reconfiguration in all devices.
f
Altera Corporation
February 2007
For more information on configuring multiple Altera devices in the same
configuration chain, see Configuring Mixed Altera FPGA Chains in the
Configuration Handbook.
13–29
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
PS Configuration Timing
A PS configuration must meet the setup and hold timing parameters and
the maximum clock frequency. When using a microprocessor or another
intelligent host to control the PS interface, ensure that you meet these
timing requirements.
Figure 13–12 shows the timing waveform for PS configuration for
Cyclone II devices.
Figure 13–12. PS Configuration Timing Waveform
Note (1)
tCF2ST1
tCFG
tCF2CK
nCONFIG
nSTATUS (2)
tSTATUS
tCF2ST0
t
CLK
CONF_DONE (3)
tCF2CD
tST2CK
tCH tCL
DCLK (4)
tDH
DATA
Bit 0 Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3
Bit n
(5)
tDSU
User I/O
Tri-stated with internal pull-up resistor
User Mode
INIT_DONE
tCD2UM
Notes to Figure 13–12:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
The beginning of this waveform shows the device in user mode. In user mode, nCONFIG, nSTATUS and CONF_DONE
are at logic high levels. When nCONFIG is pulled low, a reconfiguration cycle begins.
Upon power-up, the Cyclone II device holds nSTATUS low for the time of the POR delay.
Upon power-up, before and during configuration, CONF_DONE is low.
In user mode, drive DCLK either high or low when using the PS configuration scheme, whichever is more
convenient. When using the AS configuration scheme, DCLK is a Cyclone II output pin and should not be driven
externally.
Do not leave the DATA pin floating after configuration. Drive it high or low, whichever is more convenient.
13–30
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Table 13–7 defines the timing parameters for Cyclone II devices for PS
configuration.
Table 13–7. PS Timing Parameters for Cyclone II Devices
Symbol
Parameter
Minimum
tP O R
POR delay (1)
tC F 2 C D
nCONFIG low to CONF_DONE low
tC F 2 S T 0
nCONFIG low to nSTATUS low
tC F G
nCONFIG low pulse width
2
tS TAT U S
nSTATUS low pulse width
10
tC F 2 S T 1
nCONFIG high to nSTATUS high
Maximum
100
Units
ms
800
800
ns
ns
µs
40 (2)
µs
40 (2)
µs
tC F 2 C K
nCONFIG high to first rising edge on DCLK
40
µs
tS T 2 C K
nSTATUS high to first rising edge on DCLK
1
µs
tD S U
Data setup time before rising edge on DCLK
7
ns
tD H
Data hold time after rising edge on DCLK
0
ns
tC H
DCLK high time
4
ns
tC L
DCLK low time
4
ns
tC L K
DCLK period
10
fM A X
DCLK frequency
tC D 2 U M
CONF_DONE high to user mode (3)
tC D 2 C U
CONF_DONE high to CLKUSR enabled
tC D 2 U M C
18
ns
100
MHz
40
µs
4 × maximum DCLK
period
CONF_DONE high to user mode with CLKUSR tC D 2 C U + (299 × CLKUSR
option on
period)
Notes to Table 13–7:
(1)
(2)
(3)
The POR delay minimum of 100 ms only applies for non “A” devices.
This value is applicable if users do not delay configuration by extending the nCONFIG or nSTATUS low pulse
width.
The minimum and maximum numbers apply only if the internal oscillator is chosen as the clock source for starting
the device.
f
Device configuration options and how to create configuration files are
discussed further in the Software Settings section in Volume 2 of the
Configuration Handbook.
PS Configuration Using a Microprocessor
In the PS configuration scheme, a microprocessor can control the transfer
of configuration data from a storage device, such as flash memory, to the
target Cyclone II device.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
13–31
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
f
All information in the “Single Device PS Configuration Using a MAX II
Device as an External Host” on page 13–22 section is also applicable
when using a microprocessor as an external host. Refer to that section for
all configuration information.
The MicroBlaster™ software driver allows you to configure Altera
FPGAs, including Cyclone II devices, through the ByteBlaster II or
ByteBlasterMV cable in PS mode. The MicroBlaster software driver
supports a RBF programming input file and is targeted for embedded PS
configuration. The source code is developed for the Windows NT
operating system, although you can customize it to run on other
operating systems.
1
f
Since the Cyclone II device can decompress the compressed
configuration data on-the-fly during PS configuration, the
MicroBlaster software can accept a compressed RBF file as its
input file.
For more information on the MicroBlaster software driver, see the
Configuring the MicroBlaster Passive Serial Software Driver White Paper and
source files on the Altera web site at www.altera.com.
If you turn on the Enable user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR) option
in the Quartus II software, the Cyclone II devices does not enter user
mode after the MicroBlaster has transmitted all the configuration data in
the RBF file. You need to supply enough initialization clock cycles to
CLKUSR pin to enter user mode.
Single Device PS Configuration Using a Configuration Device
You can use an Altera configuration device (for example, an EPC2, EPC1,
or enhanced configuration device) to configure Cyclone II devices using
a serial configuration bitstream. Configuration data is stored in the
configuration device. Figure 13–13 shows the configuration interface
connections between the Cyclone II device and a configuration device.
1
f
The figures in this chapter only show the configuration-related
pins and the configuration pin connections between the
configuration device and the FPGA.
For more information on enhanced configuration devices and flash
interface pins (e.g., PGM[2..0], EXCLK, PORSEL, A[20..0], and
DQ[15..0]), see the Enhanced Configuration Devices (EPC4, EPC8 &
EPC16) Data Sheet.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Figure 13–13. Single Device PS Configuration Using an Enhanced
Configuration Device
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone II FPGA
MSEL0
MSEL1
GND
nCEO
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Enhanced
Configuration
Device
DCLK
DATA
OE (3)
nCS (3)
nINIT_CONF (2)
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
VCC
VCC (1)
N.C. (4)
nCE
GND
Notes to Figure 13–13:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
f
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the
configuration device. This pull-up resistor is 10 kΩ.
The nINIT_CONF pin is available on enhanced configuration devices and has an
internal pull-up resistor that is always active, meaning an external pull-up resistor
should not be used on the nINIT_CONF to nCONFIG line. The nINIT_CONF pin
does not need to be connected if its functionality is not used. If nINIT_CONF is not
used, nCONFIG must be pulled to VCC either directly or through a resistor (if
reconfiguration is required, a resistor is necessary).
The enhanced configuration devices’ OE and nCS pins have internal
programmable pull-up resistors. If internal pull-up resistors are used, external
pull-up resistors should not be used on these pins. The internal pull-up resistors
are used by default in the Quartus II software. To turn off the internal pull-up
resistors, check the Disable nCS and OE pull-ups on configuration device option
when generating programming files.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not
feed other device’s nCE pin.
The value of the internal pull-up resistors on the enhanced configuration
devices and EPC2 devices can be found in the Enhanced Configuration
Devices (EPC4, EPC8, & EPC16) Data Sheet or the Configuration Devices for
SRAM-based LUT Devices Data Sheet.
When using enhanced configuration devices or EPC2 devices, you can
connect the Cyclone II nCONFIG pin to the configuration device
nINIT_CONF pin, which allows the INIT_CONF JTAG instruction to
initiate FPGA configuration. You do not need to connect the
nINIT_CONF pin if you are not using it. If nINIT_CONF is not used or not
available (e.g., on EPC1 devices), pull the nCONFIG signal to VCC either
directly or through a resistor (if reconfiguration is required, a resistor is
necessary). An internal pull-up resistor on the nINIT_CONF pin is always
active in enhanced configuration devices and EPC2 devices. Therefore,
you do not need an external pull-up if nCONFIG is connected to
nINIT_CONF.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
13–33
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
Upon power-up, the Cyclone II device goes through a POR. During POR,
the device reset, holds nSTATUS and CONF_DONE low, and tri-states all
user I/O pins. After POR, which typically lasts 100 ms, the Cyclone II
FPGA releases nSTATUS and enters configuration mode when this signal
is pulled high by the external 10-kΩ resistor. Once the FPGA successfully
exits POR, all user I/O pins continue to be tri-stated. Cyclone II devices
have weak pull-up resistors on the user I/O pins which are on before and
during configuration.
The configuration device also goes through a POR delay to allow the
power supply to stabilize. The maximum POR time for EPC2 or EPC1
devices is 200 ms. The POR time for enhanced configuration devices can
be set to 100 ms or 2 ms, depending on the enhanced configuration
device’s PORSEL pin setting. If the PORSEL pin is connected to ground,
the POR delay is 100 ms. If the PORSEL pin is connected to VCC, the POR
delay is 2 ms. You must power the Cyclone II device before or during the
enhanced configuration device POR time. During POR, the configuration
device transitions its OE pin low. This low signal delays configuration
because the OE pin is connected to the target device’s nSTATUS pin. When
the target and configuration devices complete POR, they both release the
nSTATUS to OE line, which is then pulled high by a pull-up resistor.
When the power supplies have reached the appropriate operating
voltages, the target FPGA senses the low-to-high transition on nCONFIG
and initiates the configuration cycle. The configuration cycle consists of
three stages: reset, configuration, and initialization.
1
The Cyclone II device does not have a PORSEL pin.
Reset Stage
While nCONFIG or nSTATUS is low, the device is in reset. You can delay
configuration by holding the nCONFIG or nSTATUS pin low.
1
VCCINT and VCCIO of the banks where the configuration and
JTAG pins reside need to be fully powered to the appropriate
voltage levels in order to begin the configuration process.
When the nCONFIG signal goes high, the device comes out of reset and
releases the nSTATUS pin, which is pulled high by a pull-up resistor.
Enhanced configuration and EPC2 devices have an optional internal
pull-up resistor on the OE pin. You can turn on this option in the
Quartus II software from the General tab of the Device & Pin Options
dialog box. If this internal pull-up resistor is not used, you need to
connect an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor to the OE and nSTATUS line.
Once nSTATUS is released, the FPGA is ready to receive configuration
data and the configuration stage begins.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Configuration Stage
When the nSTATUS pin transitions high, the configuration device’s OE
pin also transitions high and the configuration device clocks data out
serially to the FPGA using its internal oscillator. The Cyclone II device
receives configuration data on its DATA0 pin and the clock is received on
the DCLK pin. Data is latched into the FPGA on the rising edge of DCLK.
After the FPGA has received all configuration data successfully, it
releases the open-drain CONF_DONE pin, which is pulled high by a pullup resistor. Since the Cyclone II device’s CONF_DONE pin is tied to the
configuration device's nCS pin, the configuration device is disabled when
CONF_DONE goes high. Enhanced configuration and EPC2 devices have
an optional internal pull-up resistor on the nCS pin. You can turn this
option on in the Quartus II software from the General tab of the Device
& Pin Options dialog box. If you do not use this internal pull-up resistor,
you need to connect an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor to the nCS and
CONF_DONE line. A low-to-high transition on CONF_DONE indicates
configuration is complete, and the device can begin initialization.
Initialization Stage
In Cyclone II devices, the default initialization clock source is the
Cyclone II internal oscillator (typically 10 MHz). Cyclone II devices can
also use the optional CLKUSR pin. If your design uses the internal
oscillator, the Cyclone II device supplies itself with enough clock cycles
for proper initialization. The advantage of using the internal oscillator is
you do not need to use another device or source to send additional clock
cycles to the CLKUSR pin during the initialization stage. Additionally, you
can use of the CLKUSR pin as a user I/O pin, which means you have an
additional user I/O pin.
If you want to delay the initialization of the device, you can use the
CLKUSR pin. Using the CLKUSR pin allows you to control when the
Cyclone II device enters user mode. You can delay the Cyclone II devices
from entering user mode for an indefinite amount of time. You can turn
on the Enable user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR) option in the
Quartus II software from the General tab of the Device & Pin Options
dialog box. Supplying a clock on CLKUSR does not affect the
configuration process. After all configuration data is accepted and
CONF_DONE goes high, Cyclone II devices require 299 clock cycles to
properly initialize and support a CLKUSR fMAX of 100 MHz.
An optional INIT_DONE pin is available, which signals the end of
initialization and the start of user mode with a low-to-high transition. The
Enable INIT_DONE output option is available in the Quartus II software
from the General tab of the Device & Pin Options dialog box. If you use
the INIT_DONE pin, an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor pulls it high when
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
nCONFIG is low and during the beginning of configuration. Once the
optional bit to enable INIT_DONE is programmed into the device (during
the first frame of configuration data), the INIT_DONE pin goes low. When
initialization is complete, the INIT_DONE pin is released and pulled high.
This low-to-high transition signals that the FPGA has entered user mode.
If you do not use the INIT_DONE pin, the initialization period is complete
after the CONF_DONE signal transitions high and 299 clock cycles are sent
to the CLKUSR pin or after the time tCF2UM (see Table 13–7) if the
Cyclone II device uses the internal oscillator.
After successful configuration, if you intend to synchronize the
initialization of multiple devices that are not in the same configuration
chain, your system must not pull the CONF_DONE signal low to delay
initialization. Instead, use the optional CLKUSR pin to synchronize the
initialization of multiple devices that are not in the same configuration
chain. Devices in the same configuration chain initialize together if their
CONF_DONE pins are tied together.
1
If the optional CLKUSR pin is being used and nCONFIG is pulled
low to restart configuration during device initialization, you
need to ensure that CLKUSR continues toggling during the time
nSTATUS is low (maximum of 40 µs).
User Mode
When initialization is complete, the FPGA enters user mode. In user
mode, the user I/O pins do not have weak pull-up resistors and function
as assigned in your design. Enhanced configuration devices and EPC2
devices drive DCLK low and DATA0 high (EPC1 devices drive the DCLK
pin low and tri-state the DATA pin) at the end of configuration.
When the FPGA is in user mode, pull the nCONFIG pin low to begin
reconfiguration. The nCONFIG pin should be low for at least 2 µs. When
nCONFIG transitions low, the Cyclone II device also pulls the nSTATUS
and CONF_DONE pins low and all I/O pins are tri-stated. Because
CONF_DONE transitions low, this activates the configuration device since
it will see its nCS pin transition low. Once nCONFIG returns to a logic high
level and nSTATUS is released by the FPGA, reconfiguration begins.
Error During Configuration
If an error occurs during configuration, the Cyclone II drives its nSTATUS
pin low, resetting itself internally. Since the nSTATUS pin is tied to OE,
the configuration device is also reset. If you turn on the Auto-restart
configuration after error option in the Quartus II software from the
General tab of the Device & Pin Options dialog box, the FPGA
automatically initiates reconfiguration if an error occurs. The Cyclone II
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February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
device releases its nSTATUS pin after a reset time-out period (maximum
of 40 µs). When the nSTATUS pin is released and pulled high by a pull-up
resistor, the configuration device reconfigures the chain. If this option is
turned off, the external system must monitor nSTATUS for errors and
then pulse nCONFIG low for at least 2 µs to restart configuration. The
external system can pulse the nCONFIG pin if the pin is under system
control rather than tied to VCC.
Additionally, if the configuration device sends all of its data and then
detects that the CONF_DONE pin has not transitioned high, it recognizes
that the FPGA has not configured successfully. Enhanced configuration
devices wait for 64 DCLK cycles after the last configuration bit was sent for
the CONF_DONE pin to transition high. EPC2 devices wait for 16 DCLK
cycles. After that, the configuration device pulls its OE pin low, which in
turn drives the target device’s nSTATUS pin low. If you turn on the Autorestart configuration after error option in the Quartus II software, the
target device resets and then releases its nSTATUS pin after a reset timeout period (maximum of 40 µs). When nSTATUS transitions high again,
the configuration device reconfigures the FPGA.
f
For more information on configuration issues, see the Debugging
Configuration Problems chapter of the Configuration Handbook and the
FPGA Configuration Troubleshooter on the Altera web site
(www.altera.com).
Multiple Device PS Configuration Using a Configuration Device
You can use Altera enhanced configuration devices (EPC16, EPC8, and
EPC4 devices) or EPC2 and EPC1 configuration devices to configure
multiple Cyclone II devices in a PS configuration chain.
Figure 13–14 shows how to configure multiple devices with an enhanced
configuration device. This circuit is similar to the configuration device
circuit for a single device, except Cyclone II devices are cascaded for
multiple device configuration.
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February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
Figure 13–14. Multiple Device PS Configuration Using an Enhanced Configuration Device
VCC (4)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
VCC
MSEL0
MSEL1
Cyclone II Device 1
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL0
MSEL1
(3)
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
DCLK
DATA
OE (3)
nCS (3)
nINIT_CONF (2)
GND
GND
(5) N.C.
10 kΩ
Enhanced
Configuration
Device
VCC
Cyclone II Device 2
(3)
VCC (1)
nCEO
nCEO
nCE
nCE
GND
Notes to Figure 13–14:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the configuration device.
The nINIT_CONF pin is available on enhanced configuration devices and has an internal pull-up resistor that is
always active, meaning an external pull-up resistor should not be used on the nINIT_CONF to nCONFIG line. The
nINIT_CONF pin does not need to be connected if its functionality is not used. If nINIT_CONF is not used, nCONFIG
must be pulled to VCC either directly or through a resistor (if reconfiguration is required, a resistor is necessary).
The enhanced configuration devices’ OE and nCS pins have internal programmable pull-up resistors. If internal
pull-up resistors are used, external pull-up resistors should not be used on these pins. The internal pull-up resistors
are used by default in the Quartus II software. To turn off the internal pull-up resistors, check the Disable nCS and
OE pull-ups on configuration device option when generating programming files.
Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of I/O bank that the nCEO pin resides in.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed other device’s nCE pin.
1
You cannot cascade enhanced configuration devices (EPC16,
EPC8, and EPC4 devices).
When configuring multiple devices, you must generate the configuration
device's POF from each project's SOF. You can combine multiple SOFs
using the Convert Programming Files window in the Quartus II
software.
f
For more information on how to create configuration files for multiple
device configuration chains, see the Software Settings section in Volume 2
of the Configuration Handbook.
When configuring multiple devices with the PS scheme, connect the first
Cyclone II device’s nCE pin to GND and connect its nCEO pin to the nCE
pin of the Cyclone II device in the chain. Use an external 10-kΩ pull-up
resistor to pull the Cyclone II device’s nCEO pin to the VCCIO level when
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February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
it feeds the next device’s nCE pin. After the first device in the chain
completes configuration, its nCEO pin transitions low to activate the
second device's nCE pin, which prompts the second device to begin
configuration. You can leave the nCEO pin of the last device unconnected
or use it as a user I/O pin after configuration. The nCEO pin is a
dual-purpose pin in Cyclone II devices.
1
The Quartus II software sets the Cyclone II device nCEO pin as
an output pin driving to ground by default. If the device is in a
chain, and the nCEO pin is connected to the next device’s nCE
pin, you must make sure that the nCEO pin is not used as a user
I/O pin after configuration. This software setting is in the
Dual-Purpose Pins tab of the Device & Pin Options dialog box
in Quartus II software.
Connect all other configuration pins (nCONFIG, nSTATUS, DCLK, DATA0,
and CONF_DONE) to every Cyclone II device in the chain. The
configuration signals may require buffering to ensure signal integrity and
prevent clock skew problems. Buffer the DCLK and DATA lines for every
fourth device.
When configuring multiple devices, configuration does not begin until all
devices release their OE or nSTATUS pins. Similarly, since all device
CONF_DONE pins are tied together, all devices initialize and enter user
mode at the same time.
You should not pull CONF_DONE low to delay initialization. Instead, use
the Quartus II software’s User-Supplied Start-Up Clock option to
synchronize the initialization of multiple devices that are not in the same
configuration chain. Devices in the same configuration chain initialize
together since their CONF_DONE pins are tied together.
Since all nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins are connected, if any device
detects an error, configuration stops for the entire chain and the entire
chain must be reconfigured. For example, if there is an error when
configuring the first Cyclone II device, it resets the chain by pulling its
nSTATUS pin low. This low signal drives the OE pin low on the enhanced
configuration device and drives nSTATUS low on all FPGAs, which
causes them to enter a reset state.
If the Auto-restart configuration after error option is turned on, the
devices automatically initiate reconfiguration if an error occurs. The
FPGAs release their nSTATUS pins after a reset time-out period (40 µs
maximum). When all the nSTATUS pins are released and pulled high, the
configuration device reconfigures the chain. If the Auto-restart
configuration after error option is turned off, a microprocessor or
controller must monitor the nSTATUS pin for errors and then pulse
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February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
nCONFIG low for at least 2 µs to restart configuration. The microprocessor
or controller can only transition the nCONFIG pin low if the pin is under
system control and not tied to VCC.
The enhanced configuration devices support parallel configuration of up
to eight devices. The n-bit (n = 1, 2, 4, or 8) PS configuration mode allows
enhanced configuration devices to concurrently configure a chain of
FPGAs. These devices do not have to be the same device family or
density; they can be any combination of Altera FPGAs with different
designs. An individual enhanced configuration device DATA pin is
available for each targeted FPGA. Each DATA line can also feed a chain of
FPGAs. Figure 13–15 shows how to concurrently configure multiple
devices using an enhanced configuration device.
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February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Figure 13–15. Concurrent PS Configuration of Multiple Devices Using an Enhanced Configuration Device
(1) VCC
Cyclone II Device 1
N.C.
VCC
nCEO (4)
MSEL1
MSEL0
(3)
10 kΩ
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
DATA1
nCE
OE (3)
DATA[2..6]
nCS (3)
Cyclone II Device 2
N.C.
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCEO (4)
nCONFIG
MSEL1
MSEL0
(3)
Enhanced
Configuration
Device
DCLK
DATA0
GND
VCC
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
GND
nINIT_CONF (2)
DATA 7
nCE
GND
GND
Cyclone II Device 8
N.C.
VCC
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCEO (4)
nCONFIG
MSEL1
MSEL0
GND
nCE
GND
Notes to Table 13–15:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the configuration device.
The nINIT_CONF pin is available on enhanced configuration devices and has an internal pull-up resistor that is
always active, meaning an external pull-up resistor should not be used on the nINIT_CONF to nCONFIG line. The
nINIT_CONF pin does not need to be connected if its functionality is not used. If nINIT_CONF is not used, nCONFIG
must be pulled to VCC either directly or through a resistor (if reconfiguration is required, a resistor is necessary).
The enhanced configuration devices’ OE and nCS pins have internal programmable pull-up resistors. If internal
pull-up resistors are used, external pull-up resistors should not be used on these pins. The internal pull-up resistors
are used by default in the Quartus II software. To turn off the internal pull-up resistors, check the Disable nCS and
OE pull-ups on configuration device option when generating programming files.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed other device’s nCE pin.
The Quartus II software only allows you to set n to 1, 2, 4, or 8. However,
you can use these modes to configure any number of devices from 1 to 8.
For example, if you configure three FPGAs, you would use the 4-bit PS
mode. For the DATA0, DATA1, and DATA2 lines, the corresponding SOF
data is transmitted from the configuration device to the FPGA. For
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February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
DATA3, you can leave the corresponding bit 3 line blank in the Quartus II
software. On the printed circuit board (PCB), leave the DATA3 line from
the enhanced configuration device unconnected. Use the Quartus II
Convert Programming Files window (Tools menu) setup for this scheme.
You can also connect two FPGAs to one of the configuration device’s
DATA pins while the other DATA pins drive one device each. For example,
you could use the 2-bit PS mode to drive two FPGAs with DATA bit 0 (two
EP2C5 devices) and the third device (an EP2C8 device) with DATA bit 1.
In this example, the memory space required for DATA bit 0 is the sum of
the SOF file size for the two EP2C5 devices.
1,223,980 bits + 1,223,980 bits = 2,447,960 bits
The memory space required for DATA bit 1 is the SOF file size for on
EP2C8 device (1,983,792 bits). Since the memory space required for DATA
bit 0 is larger than the memory space required for DATA bit 1, the size of
the POF file is 2 × 2,447,960 = 4,895,920.
f
For more information on using n-bit PS modes with enhanced
configuration devices, see the Using Altera Enhanced Configuration Devices
in the Configuration Handbook.
When configuring SRAM-based devices using n-bit PS modes, use
Table 13–8 to select the appropriate configuration mode for the fastest
configuration times.
Table 13–8. Recommended Configuration Using n-Bit PS Modes
Number of Devices (1)
Recommended Configuration Mode
1
1-bit PS
2
2-bit PS
3
4-bit PS
4
4-bit PS
5
8-bit PS
6
8-bit PS
7
8-bit PS
8
8-bit PS
Note to Table 13–8:
(1)
Assume that each DATA line is only configuring one device, not a daisy chain of
devices.
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Configuring Cyclone II Devices
If your design has multiple Cyclone II devices of the same density and
package that contain the same configuration data, connect the nCE inputs
to GND and leave the nCEO pins floating. You can also use the nCEO pin
as a user I/O pin. Connect the configuration device nCONFIG, nSTATUS,
DCLK, DATA0, and CONF_DONE pins to each Cyclone II device in the
chain. The configuration signals may require buffering to ensure signal
integrity and prevent clock skew problems. Make sure that the DCLK and
DATA lines are buffered for every fourth device. All devices start and
complete configuration at the same time. Figure 13–16 shows multiple
device PS configuration when the Cyclone II devices are receiving the
same configuration data.
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February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
Figure 13–16. Multiple Device PS Configuration Using an Enhanced Configuration Device When FPGAs
Receive the Same Data
(1) VCC
Cyclone II Device 1
(4) N.C.
VCC
nCEO
(4) N.C.
VCC
Cyclone II Device 2
nCEO
(3)
(3)
10 kΩ
Enhanced
Configuration
Device
DCLK
DATA0
OE (3)
nCS (3)
nINIT_CONF (2)
nCE
MSEL1
MSEL0
GND
10 kΩ
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
VCC (1)
GND
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
MSEL1
MSEL0
GND
GND
Cyclone II Device 8
(4) N.C.
VCC
nCEO
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL1
MSEL0
nCE
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 13–16:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the configuration device.
The nINIT_CONF pin is available on enhanced configuration devices and has an internal pull-up resistor that is
always active, meaning an external pull-up resistor should not be used on the nINIT_CONF to nCONFIG line. The
nINIT_CONF pin does not need to be connected if its functionality is not used. If nINIT_CONF is not used, nCONFIG
must be pulled to VCC either directly or through a resistor (if reconfiguration is required, a resistor is necessary).
The enhanced configuration devices’ OE and nCS pins have internal programmable pull-up resistors. If internal
pull-up resistors are used, external pull-up resistors should not be used on these pins. The internal pull-up resistors
are used by default in the Quartus II software. To turn off the internal pull-up resistors, check the Disable nCS and
OE pull-ups on configuration device option when generating programming files.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed other device’s nCE pin.
You can cascade several EPC2 or EPC1 devices to configure multiple
Cyclone II devices. The first configuration device in the chain is the
master configuration device, and the subsequent devices are the slave
devices. The master configuration device sends DCLK to the Cyclone II
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February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
devices and to the slave configuration devices. Connect the first
configuration device’s nCS pin to all the Cyclone II device’s CONF_DONE
pins, and connect the nCASC pin to the nCS pin of the next configuration
device in the chain. Leave the nCASC pin of the last configuration device
floating. When the master configuration device sends all the data to the
Cyclone II device, the configuration device transitions the nCASC pin
low, which drives nCS on the next configuration device. Because a
configuration device requires less than one clock cycle to activate a
subsequent configuration device, the data stream is uninterrupted.
1
Enhanced configuration devices (EPC16, EPC8, and EPC4
devices) cannot be cascaded.
Since all nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins are connected, if any device
detects an error, the master configuration device stops configuration for
the entire chain and the entire chain must be reconfigured. For example,
if the master configuration device does not detect the Cyclone II device’s
CONF_DONE pin transitioning high at the end of configuration, it resets
the entire chain by transitioning its OE pin low. This low signal drives the
OE pin low on the slave configuration device(s) and drives nSTATUS low
on all Cyclone II devices, causing them to enter a reset state. This
behavior is similar to the FPGA detecting an error in the configuration
data.
Figure 13–17 shows how to configure multiple devices using cascaded
EPC2 or EPC1 devices.
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February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
Figure 13–17. Multiple Device PS Configuration Using Cascaded EPC2 or EPC1 Devices
VCC (4)
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
(3) 10 kΩ
VCC
VCC
Cyclone II Device 2
MSEL0
MSEL1
MSEL0
MSEL1
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
nCE
nCEO
10 kΩ (3)
DCLK
DATA
OE (3)
nCS (3)
nCASC
nINIT_CONF (2)
GND
nCEO
(2)
EPC2 or EPC1
Device 1
Cyclone II Device 1
DCLK
DATA0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
GND
(5) N.C.
10 kΩ
EPC2 or EPC1
Device 2
DCLK
DATA
nCS
OE
nINIT_CONF
nCE
GND
Notes to Figure 13–17:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the configuration device.
The nINIT_CONF pin (available on enhanced configuration devices and EPC2 devices only) has an internal pull-up
resistor that is always active, meaning an external pull-up resistor should not be used on the nINIT_CONF to
nCONFIG line. The nINIT_CONF pin does not need to be connected if its functionality is not used. If nINIT_CONF
is not used or not available (e.g., on EPC1 devices), nCONFIG must be pulled to VCC either directly or through a
resistor (if reconfiguration is required, a resistor is necessary).
The enhanced configuration devices’ and EPC2 devices’ OE and nCS pins have internal programmable pull-up
resistors. If internal pull-up resistors are used, external pull-up resistors should not be used on these pins. The
internal pull-up resistors are used by default in the Quartus II software. To turn off the internal pull-up resistors,
check the Disable nCS and OE pull-ups on configuration device option when generating programming files.
Use an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor to pull the nCEO pin high to the I/O bank VCCIO level to help the internal
weak pull-up when it feeds next device’s nCE pin.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed other device’s nCE pin.
When using enhanced configuration devices or EPC2 devices, you can
connect the Cyclone II device’s nCONFIG pin to the configuration
device’s nINIT_CONF pin, which allows the INIT_CONF JTAG
instruction to initiate FPGA configuration. You do not need to connect the
nINIT_CONF pin if it is not used. If the nINIT_CONF pin is not used or
not available (for example, on EPC1 devices), pull the nCONFIG pin to
VCC levels either directly or through a resistor (if reconfiguration is
required, a resistor is necessary). An internal pull-up resistor on the
nINIT_CONF pin is always active in the enhanced configuration devices
and the EPC2 devices. Therefore, do not use an external pull-up resistor
if you connect the nCONFIG pin to nINIT_CONF. If you use multiple
EPC2 devices to configure a Cyclone II device(s), only connect the first
EPC2 device’s nINIT_CONF pin to the device's nCONFIG pin.
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Configuring Cyclone II Devices
You can use a single configuration chain to configure Cyclone II devices
with other Altera devices. To ensure that all devices in the chain complete
configuration at the same time or that an error flagged by one device
initiates reconfiguration in all devices, connect all the Cyclone II device
CONF_DONE pins and connect all Cyclone II device nSTATUS pins
together.
f
For more information on configuring multiple Altera devices in the same
configuration chain, see the Configuring Mixed Altera FPGA Chains
chapter in the Configuration Handbook.
During PS configuration, the design must meet the setup and hold timing
parameters and maximum DCLK frequency. The enhanced configuration
and EPC2 devices are designed to meet these interface timing
specifications.
Figure 13–18 shows the timing waveform for the PS configuration scheme
using a configuration device.
Figure 13–18. Cyclone II PS Configuration Using a Configuration Device Timing Waveform
nINIT_CONF or
VCC/nCONFIG
tPOR
OE/nSTATUS
nCS/CONF_DONE
DCLK
tDSU
tCL
D0
D1
tDH
tOEZX
DATA
tCH
D2
D3
Dn
tCO
User I/O
User Mode
Tri-Stated with internal pull-up resistor
INIT_DONE
t CD2UM (1)
Note to Figure 13–18:
(1)
Cyclone II devices enter user mode 299 clock cycles after CONF_DONE goes high. The initialization clock can come
from the Cyclone II internal oscillator or the CLKUSR pin.
f
For timing information, refer to the Enhanced Configuration Devices
(EPC4, EPC8, and EPC16) Data Sheet or the Configuration Devices for
SRAM-based LUT Devices Data Sheet in the Configuration Handbook.
f
For more information on device configuration options and how to create
configuration files, see the Software Settings section in Volume 2 of the
Configuration Handbook.
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February 2007
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PS Configuration
PS Configuration Using a Download Cable
In PS configuration, an intelligent host (e.g., a PC) can use a download
cable to transfer data from a storage device to the Cyclone II device. You
can use the Altera USB-Blaster universal serial bus (USB) port download
cable, MasterBlaster™ serial/USB communications cable, ByteBlaster II
parallel port download cable, or the ByteBlasterMV™ parallel port as a
download cable.
Upon power up, the Cyclone II device goes through POR, which lasts
approximately 100 ms for non “A” devices. During POR, the device
resets, holds nSTATUS low, and tri-states all user I/O pins. Once the
FPGA successfully exits POR, the nSTATUS pin is released and all user
I/O pins continue to be tri-stated.
f
The value of the weak pull-up resistors on the I/O pins that are on
before and during configuration can be found in the Cyclone II Device
Handbook.
The configuration cycle consists of three stages: reset, configuration, and
initialization. While the nCONFIG or nSTATUS pins are low, the device is
in reset. To initiate configuration in this scheme, the download cable
generates a low-to-high transition on the nCONFIG pin.
1
Make sure VCCINT and VCCIO for the banks where the
configuration and JTAG pins reside are powered to the
appropriate voltage levels in order to begin the configuration
process.
When nCONFIG transitions high, the Cyclone II device comes out of reset
and begins configuration. The Cyclone II device releases the open-drain
nSTATUS pin, which is then pulled high by an external 10-kΩ pull-up
resistor. Once nSTATUS transitions high, the Cyclone II device is ready to
receive configuration data. The programming hardware or download
cable then transmits the configuration data one bit at a time to the
device’s DATA0 pin. The configuration data is clocked into the target
device until CONF_DONE goes high. The CONF_DONE pin must have an
external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor in order for the device to initialize.
When using a download cable, you cannot use the Auto-restart
configuration after error option. You must manually restart
configuration in the Quartus II software when an error occurs.
Additionally, you cannot use the Enable user-supplied start-up clock
(CLKUSR) option when programming the FPGA using the Quartus II
programmer and download cable. This option is disabled in the SOF.
Therefore, if you turn on the CLKUSR option, you do not need to provide
a clock on CLKUSR when you are configuring the FPGA with the
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Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Quartus II programmer and a download cable. Figure 13–19 shows the PS
configuration for Cyclone II devices using a USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster,
ByteBlaster II or ByteBlasterMV cable.
Figure 13–19. PS Configuration Using a USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster, ByteBlaster II or ByteBlasterMV Cable
VCC (1)
(2)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
(2)
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone II Device
VCC
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
10 kΩ
MSEL0
MSEL1
nCE
GND
DCLK
DATA0
nCONFIG
nCEO
N.C. (4)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
MasterBlaster,
or ByteBlasterMV
10-Pin Male Header
Pin 1
VCC
GND
VIO (3)
Shield
GND
Notes to Figure 13–19:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster (VIO pin),
ByteBlaster II, or ByteBlasterMV cable.
The pull-up resistors on DATA0 and DCLK are only needed if the download cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This is to ensure that DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating after configuration. For example, if
you are also using a configuration device, the pull-up resistors on DATA0 and DCLK are not needed.
Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the device’s
VCCIO. Refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable Data Sheet for this value. In the ByteBlasterMV,
this pin is a no connect. In the USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS
programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed other device’s nCE pin.
You can use a download cable to configure multiple Cyclone II devices by
connecting each device’s nCEO pin to the subsequent device’s nCE pin.
Connect the first Cyclone II device’s nCE pin to GND and connect its
nCEO pin to the nCE pin of the next device in the chain. Use an external
10-kΩ pull-up resistor to pull the nCEO pin high to VCCIO when it feeds
next device’s nCE pin. Connect all other configuration pins (nCONFIG,
nSTATUS, DCLK, DATA0, and CONF_DONE) on every device in the chain
together. Because all CONF_DONE pins are connected, all devices in the
chain initialize and enter user mode at the same time.
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PS Configuration
In addition, because the nSTATUS pins are connected, all the Cyclone II
devices in the chain stop configuration if any device detects an error. If
this happens, you must manually restart configuration in the Quartus II
software.
Figure 13–20 shows how to configure multiple Cyclone II devices with a
download cable.
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Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Figure 13–20. Multiple Device PS Configuration Using a USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster, ByteBlaster II or
ByteBlasterMV Cable
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
(2)
VCC
Pin 1
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
DCLK
MSEL0
10 kΩ
VCC (1)
USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
MasterBlaster, or ByteBlasterMV
10-Pin Male Header
(Passive Serial Mode)
10 kΩ
Cyclone II FPGA 1
VCC (4)
10 kΩ
(2)
VCC (2)
MSEL1
VCC (1)
GND
VIO (3)
nCE
10 kΩ
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
VCC
GND
Cyclone II FPGA 2
MSEL0
MSEL1
GND
nCEO
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
DCLK
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (5)
DATA0
nCONFIG
Notes to Figure 13–20:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster (VIO pin),
ByteBlaster II, or ByteBlasterMV cable.
The pull-up resistors on DATA0 and DCLK are only needed if the download cable is the only configuration scheme
used on your board. This is to ensure that DATA0 and DCLK are not left floating after configuration. For example, if
you are also using a configuration device, the pull-up resistors on DATA0 and DCLK are not needed.
Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the device's
VCCIO. Refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable Data Sheet for this value. In the
ByteBlasterMV, this pin is a no connect. In the USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II, this pin is connected to nCE when it
is used for AS programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
Connect the pull-up resistor to the VCCIO supply voltage of I/O bank that the nCEO pin resides in.
The nCEO pin of the last device in chain can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin.
If you are using a download cable to configure Cyclone II devices on a
PCB that also has configuration devices, you should electrically isolate
the configuration devices from the target Cyclone II devices and cable.
One way to isolate the configuration device is to add logic, such as a
multiplexer, that can select between the configuration device and the
cable. The multiplexer should allow bidirectional transfers on the
nSTATUS and CONF_DONE signals. Additionally, you can add switches to
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
PS Configuration
the five common signals (nCONFIG, nSTATUS, DCLK, DATA0, and
CONF_DONE) between the cable and the configuration device. You can
also remove the configuration device from the board when configuring
the FPGA with the cable. Figure 13–21 shows a combination of a
configuration device and a download cable to configure an FPGA.
Figure 13–21. PS Configuration with a Download Cable & Configuration Device Circuit
VCC (1)
VCC
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
(5)
10 kΩ
(5)
Cyclone II FPGA
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
(4)
MSEL0
MSEL1
USB Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
MasterBlaster, or ByteBlasterMV
10-Pin Male Header
(Passive Serial Mode)
CONF_DONE
nSTATUS
DCLK
Pin 1
VCC
GND
VIO (2)
nCE
nCEO
N.C. (6)
GND
DATA0
nCONFIG
(3)
(3)
(3)
GND
Configuration
Device
(3)
(3)
DCLK
DATA
OE (5)
nCS (5)
nINIT_CONF (4)
Notes to Figure 13–21:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the configuration device.
Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the device’s
VCCIO. Refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable Data Sheet for this value. In the ByteBlasterMV,
this pin is a no connect. In the USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS
programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
You should not attempt configuration with a download cable while a configuration device is connected to a
Cyclone II device. Instead, you should either remove the configuration device from its socket when using the
download cable or place a switch on the five common signals between the download cable and the configuration
device.
The nINIT_CONF pin (available on enhanced configuration devices and EPC2 devices only) has an internal pull-up
resistor that is always active. This means an external pull-up resistor should not be used on the nINIT_CONF to
nCONFIG line. The nINIT_CONF pin does not need to be connected if its functionality is not used. If nINIT_CONF
is not used or not available (e.g., on EPC1 devices), nCONFIG must be pulled to VCC either directly or through a
resistor (if reconfiguration is required, a resistor is necessary).
The enhanced configuration devices’ OE and nCS pins have internal programmable pull-up resistors. If internal
pull-up resistors are used, external pull-up resistors should not be used on these pins. The internal pull-up resistors
are used by default in the Quartus II software. To turn off the internal pull-up resistors, check the Disable nCS and
OE pull-ups on configuration device option when generating programming files.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed other device’s nCE pin.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
f
For more information on how to use the USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster,
ByteBlaster II or ByteBlasterMV cables, refer to the following documents:
■
■
■
■
JTAG
Configuration
f
USB-Blaster USB Port Download Cable Data Sheet
MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable Data Sheet
ByteBlaster II Parallel Port Download Cable Data Sheet
ByteBlasterMV Parallel Port Download Cable Data Sheet
The Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) has developed a specification for
boundary-scan testing. This boundary-scan test (BST) architecture allows
you to test components on PCBs with tight lead spacing. The BST
architecture can test pin connections without using physical test probes
and capture functional data while a device is operating normally. The
JTAG circuitry can also be used to shift configuration data into the device.
The Quartus II software automatically generates SOF files that can be
used for JTAG configuration with a download cable in the Quartus II
programmer.
For more information on JTAG boundary-scan testing, see the following
documents:
■
■
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
chapter in Volume 2 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook
Jam Programming & Testing Language Specification
Cyclone II devices are designed such that JTAG instructions have
precedence over any device configuration modes. This means that JTAG
configuration can take place without waiting for other configuration
modes to complete. For example, if you attempt JTAG configuration of
Cyclone II devices during PS configuration, PS configuration terminates
and JTAG configuration begins. If the Cyclone II MSEL pins are set to AS
or fast AS mode, the Cyclone II device does not output a DCLK signal
when JTAG configuration takes place.
1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
You cannot use the Cyclone II decompression feature if you are
configuring your Cyclone II device when using JTAG-based
configuration.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
JTAG Configuration
A device operating in JTAG mode uses the TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK pins.
The TCK pin has a weak internal pull-down resistor while the other JTAG
input pins, TDI and TMS, have weak internal pull-up resistors. All user
I/O pins are tri-stated during JTAG configuration. Table 13–9 explains
each JTAG pin's function.
Table 13–9. Dedicated JTAG Pins
Pin Name
Pin Type
Description
TDI
Test data input Serial input pin for instructions as well as test
and programming data. Data is shifted in on
the rising edge of TCK.
If the JTAG interface is not required on the
board, the JTAG circuitry can be disabled by
connecting this pin to VC C .
TDO
Test data
output
Serial data output pin for instructions as well as
test and programming data. Data is shifted out
on the falling edge of TCK. The pin is tri-stated
if data is not being shifted out of the device.
If the JTAG interface is not required on the
board, the JTAG circuitry can be disabled by
leaving this pin unconnected.
TMS
Test mode
select
Input pin that provides the control signal to
determine the transitions of the TAP controller
state machine. Transitions within the state
machine occur on the rising edge of TCK.
Therefore, TMS must be set up before the
rising edge of TCK. TMS is evaluated on the
rising edge of TCK.
If the JTAG interface is not required on the
board, the JTAG circuitry can be disabled by
connecting this pin to VC C .
TCK
Test clock
input
The clock input to the BST circuitry. Some
operations occur at the rising edge, while
others occur at the falling edge.
If the JTAG interface is not required on the
board, the JTAG circuitry can be disabled by
connecting this pin to GND.
1
The TDO output is powered by the VCCIO power supply. If VCCIO
is tied to 3.3-V, both the I/O pins and the JTAG TDO port drive
at 3.3-V levels.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Single Device JTAG Configuration
During JTAG configuration, you can use the USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster,
ByteBlaster II, or ByteBlasterMV download cable to download data to the
device. Configuring Cyclone II devices through a cable is similar to
programming devices in system. Figure 13–22 shows JTAG configuration
of a single Cyclone II device using a download cable.
Figure 13–22. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Download Cable
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
1 kΩ
10 kΩ
Cyclone II Device 1 kΩ
10 kΩ
nCE (4)
GND
N.C. (5)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
TCK
TDO
nCEO
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL0
MSEL1
DATA0
DCLK
USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
MasterBlaster, or ByteBlasterMV
10-Pin Male Header
(Top View)
TMS
TDI
Pin 1
VCC (1)
GND
VIO (3)
1 kΩ
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 13–22:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster (VIO pin),
ByteBlaster II, or ByteBlasterMV cable.
Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL[1..0] pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If only JTAG
configuration is used, connect the nCONFIG pin to VCC, and the MSEL[1..0] pins to ground. In addition, pull DCLK
and DATA0 to either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the device’s
VCCIO. Refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable Data Sheet for this value. In the ByteBlasterMV,
this pin is a no connect. In the USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II, this pin is connected to nCE when it is used for AS
programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
nCE must be connected to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
The nCEO pin can be left unconnected or used as a user I/O pin when it does not feed other device’s nCE pin.
To configure a single device in a JTAG chain, the programming software
places all other devices in BYPASS mode. In BYPASS mode, Cyclone II
devices pass programming data from the TDI pin to the TDO pin through
a single bypass register without being affected internally. This scheme
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February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
JTAG Configuration
enables the programming software to program or verify the target device.
Configuration data driven into the target device appears on the TDO pin
one clock cycle later.
The Quartus II software verifies successful JTAG configuration upon
completion. At the end of configuration, the software checks the
CONF_DONE pin through the JTAG port. When the Quartus II software
generates a JAM file for a multiple device chain, it contains instructions
so that all the devices in the chain are initialized at the same time. If
CONF_DONE is not high, the Quartus II software indicates that
configuration has failed. If the CONF_DONE pin transitions high, the
software indicates that configuration was successful. After the
configuration bitstream is transmitted serially via the JTAG TDI port, the
TCK port is clocked an additional 299 cycles to perform Cyclone II device
initialization.
The Enable user-supplied start-up clock (CLKUSR) option has no affect
on the device initialization since this option is disabled in the SOF when
configuring the FPGA in JTAG using the Quartus II programmer and
download cable. Therefore, if you turn on the CLKUSR option, you do not
need to provide a clock on CLKUSR when you are configuring the FPGA
with the Quartus II programmer and a download cable.
Cyclone II devices have dedicated JTAG pins that always function as
JTAG pins. You can perform JTAG testing on Cyclone II devices before,
after, and during configuration. Cyclone II devices support the BYPASS,
IDCODE and SAMPLE instructions during configuration without
interruption. All other JTAG instructions may only be issued by first
interrupting configuration and reprogramming I/O pins using the
CONFIG_IO instruction.
The CONFIG_IO instruction allows I/O buffers to be configured via the
JTAG port. The CONFIG_IO instruction interrupts configuration. This
instruction allows you to perform board-level testing before configuring
the Cyclone II device or waiting for a configuration device to complete
configuration. If you interrupt configuration, the Cyclone II device must
be reconfigured via JTAG (PULSE_CONFIG instruction) or by pulsing
nCONFIG low after JTAG testing is complete.
f
For more information, see the MorphIO: An I/O Reconfiguration Solution
for Altera White Paper.
The chip-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) and chip-wide output enable (DEV_OE)
pins on Cyclone II devices do not affect JTAG boundary-scan or
programming operations. Toggling these pins does not affect JTAG
operations (other than the usual boundary-scan operation).
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
When designing a Cyclone II board for JTAG configuration, use the
guidelines in Table 13–10 for the placement of the dedicated
configuration pins.
Table 13–10. Dedicated Configuration Pin Connections During JTAG
Configuration
Signal
Description
nCE
On all Cyclone II devices in the chain, nCE should be driven
low by connecting it to ground, pulling it low via a resistor, or
driving it by some control circuitry. For devices that are also in
multiple device AS, or PS configuration chains, the nCE pins
should be connected to GND during JTAG configuration or
JTAG configured in the same order as the configuration chain.
nCEO
On all Cyclone II devices in the chain, nCEO can be used as a
user I/O or connected to the nCE of the next device. If nCEO is
connected to the nCE of the next device, the nCEO pin must
be pulled high to VC C I O by an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor
to help the internal weak pull-up resistor. If the nCEO pin is not
connected to the nCE pin of the next device, you can use it as
a user I/O pin after configuration.
MSEL
These pins must not be left floating. These pins support
whichever non-JTAG configuration is used in production. If
only JTAG configuration is used, you should tie these pins to
ground.
nCONFIG
Driven high by connecting to VC C , pulling up via a resistor, or
driven high by some control circuitry.
nSTATUS
Pull to VCC via a 10-kΩ resistor. When configuring multiple
devices in the same JTAG chain, each nSTATUS pin should
be pulled up to VCC individually. nSTATUS pulling low in the
middle of JTAG configuration indicates that an error has
occurred.
CONF_DONE
Pull to VCC via a 10-kΩ resistor. When configuring multiple
devices in the same JTAG chain, each CONF_DONE pin
should be pulled up to VCC individually. CONF_DONE going
high at the end of JTAG configuration indicates successful
configuration.
DCLK
Should not be left floating. Drive low or high, whichever is more
convenient on your board.
Figure 13–23 shows JTAG configuration of a Cyclone II device with a
microprocessor.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
JTAG Configuration
Figure 13–23. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Microprocessor
Cyclone II FPGA
Memory
nCE (3)
ADDR
DATA
(4)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Microprocessor
nCEO
MSEL1
nCONFIG MSEL0
DATA0
DCLK
TDI
TCK
TDO
TMS
nSTATUS
(2)
(2)
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
10 kΩ
CONF_DONE
Notes to Figure 13–23:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to a supply that provides an acceptable
input signal for all devices in the chain.
Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL[1..0] pins to support a non-JTAG
configuration scheme. If only JTAG configuration is used, connect the nCONFIG
pin to VCC, and the MSEL[1..0] pins to ground. In addition, pull DCLK and
DATA0 to either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
nCE must be connected to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
If using an EPCS4 or EPCS1 device, set MSEL[1..0] to 00. See Table 13–4 for more
details.
JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices
When programming a JTAG device chain, one JTAG-compatible header
is connected to several devices. The number of devices in the JTAG chain
is limited only by the drive capability of the download cable. When four
or more devices are connected in a JTAG chain, Altera recommends
buffering the TCK, TDI, and TMS pins with an on-board buffer.
JTAG-chain device programming is ideal when the system contains
multiple devices, or when testing your system using JTAG BST circuitry.
Figure 13–24 shows multiple device JTAG configuration.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Figure 13–24. JTAG Configuration of Multiple Devices Using a Download Cable
VCC (1)
USB-Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
MasterBlaster,
or ByteBlasterMV
10-Pin Male Header
10 kΩ
1 kΩ
VCC
10 kΩ
VCC
1 kΩ
VIO
(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
nSTATUS
DATA0
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL1 CONF_DONE
MSEL0
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone II FPGA
VCC
Pin 1
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
nSTATUS
DATA0
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL1 CONF_DONE
MSEL0
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone II FPGA
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone II FPGA
nSTATUS
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
DATA0
DCLK
nCONFIG
MSEL1 CONF_DONE
MSEL0
nCEO
nCE (4)
TDI
TMS
TDO
TCK
1 kΩ
Notes to Figure 13–24:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the USB-Blaster, MasterBlaster (VIO pin),
ByteBlaster II or ByteBlasterMV cable.
Connect the nCONFIG and MSEL[1..0] pins to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If only JTAG
configuration is used, connect the nCONFIG pin to VCC, and the MSEL[1..0] pins to ground. In addition, pull DCLK
and DATA0 to either high or low, whichever is convenient on your board.
Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the device’s
VCCIO. Refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable Data Sheet for this value. In the ByteBlasterMV
cable, this pin is a no connect. In the USB-Blaster and ByteBlaster II cable, this pin is connected to nCE when it is
used for AS programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
nCE must be connected to ground or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
Connect the nCE pin to GND or pull it low during JTAG configuration. In
multiple device AS and PS configuration chains, connect the first device's
nCE pin to GND and connect its nCEO pin to the nCE pin of the next
device in the chain or you can use it as a user I/O pin after configuration.
After the first device completes configuration in a multiple device
configuration chain, its nCEO pin drives low to activate the second
device’s nCE pin, which prompts the second device to begin
configuration. Therefore, if these devices are also in a JTAG chain, you
should make sure the nCE pins are connected to GND during JTAG
configuration or that the devices are JTAG configured in the same order
as the configuration chain. As long as the devices are JTAG configured in
the same order as the multiple device configuration chain, the nCEO pin
of the previous device drives the nCE pin of the next device low when it
has successfully been JTAG configured.
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February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
JTAG Configuration
1
The Quartus II software sets the Cyclone II device nCEO pin as
an output pin driving to ground by default. If the nCEO pin
inputs to the next device’s nCE pin, make sure that the nCEO pin
is not used as a user I/O pin after configuration.
Other Altera devices that have JTAG support can be placed in the same
JTAG chain for device programming and configuration.
f
For more information on configuring multiple Altera devices in the same
configuration chain, see the Configuring Mixed Altera FPGA Chains
chapter in the Configuration Handbook.
Jam STAPL
Jam STAPL, JEDEC standard JESD-71, is a standard file format for insystem programmability (ISP). Jam STAPL supports programming or
configuration of programmable devices and testing of electronic systems
using the IEEE 1149.1 JTAG interface. Jam STAPL is a freely licensed open
standard. The Jam player provides an interface for manipulating the IEEE
Std. 1149.1 JTAG TAP state machine.
f
For more information on JTAG and Jam STAPL in embedded
environments, see AN 122: Using Jam STAPL for ISP & ICR via an
Embedded Processor. To download the Jam player, go to the Altera web
site (www.altera.com).
Configuring Cyclone II FPGAs with JRunner
JRunner is a software driver that allows you to configure Cyclone II
devices through the ByteBlaster II or ByteBlasterMV cables in JTAG
mode. The programming input file supported is in .rbf format. JRunner
also requires a Chain Description File (.cdf) generated by the Quartus II
software. JRunner is targeted for embedded JTAG configuration. The
source code has been developed for the Windows NT operating system
(OS). You can customize the code to make it run on your embedded
platform.
1
f
The RBF file used by the JRunner software driver can not be a
compressed RBF file because JRunner uses JTAG-based
configuration. During JTAG-based configuration, the real-time
decompression feature is not available.
For more information on the JRunner software driver, see JRunner
Software Driver: An Embedded Solution for PLD JTAG Configuration and the
source files on the Altera web site.
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February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Combining JTAG & Active Serial Configuration Schemes
You can combine the AS configuration scheme with JTAG-based
configuration. Set the MSEL[1..0] pins to 00 (AS mode) or 10 (Fast AS
mode)in this setup, which uses two 10-pin download cable headers on the
board. The first header programs the serial configuration device in the
system via the AS programming interface, and the second header
configures the Cyclone II directly via the JTAG interface.
If you try configuring the device using both schemes simultaneously,
JTAG configuration takes precedence and AS configuration is
terminated.
When a blank serial configuration device is attached to Cyclone II device,
turn on the Halt on-chip configuration controller option under the Tools
menu by clicking Options. The Options dialog box appears. In the
Category list, select Programmer before starting the JTAG configuration
with the Quartus II programmer. This option stops the AS
reconfiguration loop from a blank serial configuration device before
starting the JTAG configuration. This includes using the Serial Flash
Loader IP because JTAG is used for configuring the Cyclone II device.
Users do not need to recompile their Quartus II designs after turning on
this Option.
Programming Serial Configuration Devices In-System Using the
JTAG Interface
Cyclone II devices in a single device chain or in a multiple device chain
support in-system programming of a serial configuration device using
the JTAG interface via the serial flash loader design. The board’s
intelligent host or download cable can use the four JTAG pins on the
Cyclone II device to program the serial configuration device in system,
even if the host or download cable cannot access the configuration
device’s configuration pins (DCLK, DATA, ASDI, and nCS pins).
The serial flash loader design is a JTAG-based in-system programming
solution for Altera serial configuration devices. The serial flash loader is
a bridge design for the FPGA that uses its JTAG interface to access the
EPCS JIC (JTAG Indirect Configuration Device Programming) file and
then uses the AS interface to program the EPCS device. Both the JTAG
interface and AS interface are bridged together inside the serial flash
loader design.
In a multiple device chain, you only need to configure the master
Cyclone II device which is controlling the serial configuration device. The
slave devices in the multiple device chain which are configured by the
serial configuration device do not need to be configured when using this
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February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
JTAG Configuration
feature. To use this feature successfully, set the MSEL[1..0] pins of the
master Cyclone II device to select the AS configuration scheme or fast AS
configuration scheme (see Table 13–1).
1
The Quartus II software version 4.1 and higher supports serial
configuration device ISP through an FPGA JTAG interface using
a JIC file.
The serial configuration device in-system programming through the
Cyclone II JTAG interface has three stages, which are described in the
following sections.
Loading the Serial Flash Loader Design
The serial flash loader design is a design inside the Cyclone II device that
bridges the JTAG interface and AS interface inside the Cyclone II device
using glue logic.
The intelligent host uses the JTAG interface to configure the master
Cyclone II device with a serial flash loader design. The serial flash loader
design allows the master Cyclone II device to control the access of four
serial configuration device pins, also known as the Active Serial Memory
Interface (ASMI) pins, through the JTAG interface. The ASMI pins are the
serial clock input (DCLK), serial data output (DATA), AS data input (ASDI),
and an active-low chip select (nCS) pins.
If you configure a master Cyclone II device with a serial flash loader
design, the master Cyclone II device can enter user mode even though the
slave devices in the multiple device chain are not being configured. The
master Cyclone II device can enter user mode with a serial flash loader
design even though the CONF_DONE signal is externally held low by the
other slave devices in chain. Figure 13–25 shows the JTAG configuration
of a single Cyclone II device with a serial flash loader design.
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Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Figure 13–25. JTAG Configuration of a Single Device Using a Download Cable
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
1 kΩ
VCC (1)
VCC (1)
10 kΩ VCC (1)
10 kΩ
Cyclone II Device
10 kΩ
nCE (4)
GND N.C.
Serial Configuration Device
ASDI
nCS
DCLK
DATA
(2)
(2)
nCE0
nSTATUS
CONF_DONE
nCONFIG
MSEL0
MSEL1
ASDO
nCSO
DCLK
DATA0
1 kΩ
TCK
TDO
TMS
TDI
USB Blaster, ByteBlaster II,
MasterBlaster, or
ByteBlasterMV 10-Pin Male
Header (Top View)
Pin 1
VCC
GND
VIO (3)
Serial
Flash
Loader
1 kΩ
GND
GND
Notes to Figure 13–25:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The pull-up resistor should be connected to the same supply voltage as the USB Blaster, MasterBlaster (VIO pin),
ByteBlaster II, or ByteBlasterMV cable.
The nCONFIG, MSEL[1..0] pins should be connected to support a non-JTAG configuration scheme. If only JTAG
configuration is used, connect nCONFIG to VCC, and MSEL[1..0] to ground. Pull DCLK either high or low,
whichever is convenient on your board.
Pin 6 of the header is a VIO reference voltage for the MasterBlaster output driver. VIO should match the device’s
VCCIO. Refer to the MasterBlaster Serial/USB Communications Cable Data Sheet for this value. In the ByteBlasterMV
cable, this pin is a no connect. In the USB Blaster and ByteBlaster II cables, this pin is connected to nCE when it is
used for active serial programming, otherwise it is a no connect.
nCE must be connected to GND or driven low for successful JTAG configuration.
ISP of Serial Configuration Device
In the second stage, the serial flash loader design in the master Cyclone II
device allows you to write the configuration data for the device chain into
the serial configuration device by using the Cyclone II JTAG interface.
The JTAG interface sends the programming data for the serial
configuration device to the Cyclone II device first. The Cyclone II device
then uses the ASMI pins to transmit the data to the serial configuration
device.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
13–63
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Device Configuration Pins
Reconfiguration
After all the configuration data is written into the serial configuration
device successfully, the Cyclone II device does not reconfigure by itself.
The intelligent host issues the PULSE_NCONFIG JTAG instruction to
initialize the reconfiguration process. During reconfiguration, the master
Cyclone II device is reset and the serial flash loader design no longer
exists in the Cyclone II device and the serial configuration device
configures all the devices in the chain with your user design.
Device
Configuration
Pins
This section describes the connections and functionality of all the
configuration related pins on the Cyclone II device. Table 13–11 describes
the dedicated configuration pins, which are required to be connected
properly on your board for successful configuration. Some of these pins
may not be required for your configuration schemes.
Table 13–11. Dedicated Configuration Pins on the Cyclone II Device (Part 1 of 5)
Pin Name
User
Mode
MSEL[1..0] N/A
Configuration
Scheme
All
Pin Type
Input
Description
This pin is a two-bit configuration input that sets the
Cyclone II device configuration scheme. See
Table 13–1 for the appropriate settings.
You must connect these pins to VC C I O or ground.
The MSEL[1..0] pins have 9-kΩ internal
pull-down resistors that are always active.
nCONFIG
N/A
All
Input
This pin is a configuration control input. If this pin is
pulled low during user mode, the FPGA loses its
configuration data, enters a reset state, and tri-states
all I/O pins. Transitioning this pin high initiates a
reconfiguration.
If your configuration scheme uses an enhanced
configuration device or EPC2 device, you can
connect the nCONFIG pin directly to VC C or to the
configuration device's nINIT_CONF pin.
The input buffer on this pin supports hysteresis using
Schmitt trigger circuitry.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Table 13–11. Dedicated Configuration Pins on the Cyclone II Device (Part 2 of 5)
Pin Name
nSTATUS
User
Mode
N/A
Configuration
Scheme
All
Pin Type
Bidirectional
open-drain
Description
The Cyclone II device drives nSTATUS low
immediately after power-up and releases it after the
POR time.
This pin provides a status output and input for the
Cyclone II device. If the Cyclone II device detects an
error during configuration, it drives the nSTATUS pin
low to stop configuration. If an external source (for
example, another Cyclone II device) drives the
nSTATUS pin low during configuration or
initialization, the target device enters an error state.
Driving nSTATUS low after configuration and
initialization does not affect the configured device. If
your design uses a configuration device, driving
nSTATUS low causes the configuration device to
attempt to configure the FPGA, but since the FPGA
ignores transitions on nSTATUS in user mode, the
FPGA does not reconfigure. To initiate a
reconfiguration, pull the nCONFIG pin low.
The enhanced configuration devices’ and EPC2
devices’ OE and nCS pins are connected to the
Cyclone II device’s nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins,
respectively, and have optional internal
programmable pull-up resistors. If you use these
internal pull-up resistors on the enhanced
configuration device, do not use external 10-kΩ pullup resistors on these pins. When using EPC2
devices, you should only use external 10-kΩ pull-up
resistors.
The input buffer on this pin supports hysteresis using
Schmitt trigger circuitry.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
13–65
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Device Configuration Pins
Table 13–11. Dedicated Configuration Pins on the Cyclone II Device (Part 3 of 5)
Pin Name
CONF_DONE
User
Mode
N/A
Configuration
Scheme
All
Pin Type
Bidirectional
open-drain
Description
This pin is a status output and input.
The target Cyclone II device drives the CONF_DONE
pin low before and during configuration. Once the
Cyclone II device receives all the configuration data
without error and the initialization cycle starts, it
releases CONF_DONE. Driving CONF_DONE low
during user mode does not affect the configured
device. Do not drive CONF_DONE low before the
device enters user mode.
After the Cyclone II device receives all the data, the
CONF_DONE pin transitions high, and the device
initializes and enters user mode. The CONF_DONE
pin must have an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor in
order for the device to initialize.
Driving CONF_DONE low after configuration and
initialization does not affect the configured device.
The enhanced configuration devices’ and EPC2
devices’ OE and nCS pins are connected to the
Cyclone II device’s nSTATUS and CONF_DONE pins,
respectively, and have optional internal
programmable pull-up resistors. If internal pull-up
resistors on the enhanced configuration device are
used, external 10-kΩ pull-up resistors should not be
used on these pins. When using EPC2 devices, you
should only use external 10-kΩ pull-up resistors.
The input buffer on this pin supports hysteresis using
Schmitt trigger circuitry.
nCE
N/A
All
Input
This pin is an active-low chip enable. The nCE pin
activates the device with a low signal to allow
configuration. The nCE pin must be held low during
configuration, initialization, and user mode. In single
device configuration, it should be tied low. In multiple
device configuration, nCE of the first device is tied low
while its nCEO pin is connected to nCE of the next
device in the chain.
The nCE pin must also be held low for successful
JTAG programming of the FPGA.
The input buffer on this pin supports hysteresis using
Schmitt trigger circuitry.
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February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Table 13–11. Dedicated Configuration Pins on the Cyclone II Device (Part 4 of 5)
Pin Name
nCEO
User
Mode
N/A if
option
is on.
I/O if
option
is off.
Configuration
Scheme
All
Pin Type
Output
Description
This pin is an output that drives low when device
configuration is complete. In single device
configuration, you can leave this pin floating or use it
as a user I/O pin after configuration. In multiple
device configuration, this pin inputs the next device's
nCE pin. The nCEO of the last device in the chain can
be left floating or used as a user I/O pin after
configuration.
If you use the nCEO pin to feed next device’s nCE pin,
use an external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor to pull the
nCEO pin high to the VC C I O voltage of its I/O bank to
help the internal weak pull-up resistor.
Use the Quartus II software to make this pin a user
I/O pin.
ASDO
nCSO
N/A in AS
AS
mode
I/O in
PS and
JTAG
mode
Output
N/A in AS
AS
mode
I/O in
PS and
JTAG
mode
Output
Altera Corporation
February 2007
This pin sends a control signal from the Cyclone II
device to the serial configuration device in AS mode
and is used to read out configuration data.
In AS mode, ASDO has an internal pull-up that is
always active.
This pin sends an output control signal from the
Cyclone II device to the serial configuration device in
AS mode that enables the configuration device.
In AS mode, nCSO has an internal pull-up resistor
that is always active.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Device Configuration Pins
Table 13–11. Dedicated Configuration Pins on the Cyclone II Device (Part 5 of 5)
Pin Name
DCLK
User
Mode
N/A
Configuration
Scheme
PS,
AS
Pin Type
Input (PS)
Output (AS)
Description
In PS configuration, DCLK is the clock input used to
clock data from an external source into the target
device. Data is latched into the Cyclone II device on
the rising edge of DCLK.
In AS mode, DCLK is an output from the Cyclone II
device that provides timing for the configuration
interface. In AS mode, DCLK has an internal pull-up
that is always active.
After configuration, this pin is tri-stated. If you are
using a configuration device, it drives DCLK low after
configuration is complete. If your design uses a
control host, drive DCLK either high or low. Toggling
this pin after configuration does not affect the
configured device.
The input buffer on this pin supports hysteresis using
Schmitt trigger circuitry.
DATA0
N/A
All
Input
This is the data input pin. In serial configuration
modes, bit-wide configuration data is presented to the
target device on the DATA0 pin.
In AS mode, DATA0 has an internal pull-up resistor
that is always active.
After configuration, EPC1 and EPC1441 devices
tri-state this pin, while enhanced configuration and
EPC2 devices drive this pin high.
The input buffer on this pin supports hysteresis using
Schmitt trigger circuitry.
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
Table 13–12 describes the optional configuration pins. If these optional
configuration pins are not enabled in the Quartus II software, they are
available as general-purpose user I/O pins. Therefore during
configuration, these pins function as user I/O pins and are tri-stated with
weak pull-up resistors.
Table 13–12. Optional Configuration Pins
Pin Name
User Mode
Pin Type
Description
CLKUSR
N/A if option is
on. I/O if option
is off.
Input
This is an optional user-supplied clock input that
synchronizes the initialization of one or more devices. This
pin is enabled by turning on the Enable user-supplied
start-up clock (CLKUSR) option in the Quartus II software
INIT_DONE
N/A if option is
on. I/O if option
is off.
Output opendrain
This is a status pin that can be used to indicate when the
device has initialized and is in user mode. When nCONFIG
is low and during the beginning of configuration, the
INIT_DONE pin is tri-stated and pulled high due to an
external 10-kΩ pull-up resistor. Once the option bit to
enable INIT_DONE is programmed into the device (during
the first frame of configuration data), the INIT_DONE pin
goes low. When initialization is complete, the INIT_DONE
pin is released and pulled high and the FPGA enters user
mode. Thus, the monitoring circuitry must be able to detect
a low-to-high transition. This pin is enabled by turning on
the Enable INIT_DONE output option in the Quartus II
software.
DEV_OE
N/A if option is
on. I/O if option
is off.
Input
Optional pin that allows the user to override all tri-states on
the device. When this pin is driven low, all I/O pins are tristated. When this pin is driven high, all I/O pins behave as
programmed. This pin is enabled by turning on the Enable
device-wide output enable (DEV_OE) option in the
Quartus II software.
DEV_CLRn
N/A if option is
on. I/O if option
is off.
Input
Optional pin that allows you to override all clears on all
device registers. When this pin is driven low, all registers
are cleared. When this pin is driven high, all registers
behave as programmed. This pin is enabled by turning on
the Enable device-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) option in the
Quartus II software.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
13–69
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Conclusion
Table 13–13 describes the dedicated JTAG pins. JTAG pins must be kept
stable before and during configuration to prevent accidental loading of
JTAG instructions. The TCK pin has a weak internal pull-down resistor
and the TDI and TMS JTAG input pins have weak internal pull-up
resistors.
Table 13–13. Dedicated JTAG Pins
Pin Name
TDI
User Mode
N/A
Pin Type
Input
Description
Serial input pin for instructions as well as test and programming
data. Data is shifted in on the rising edge of TCK.
If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the JTAG
circuitry can be disabled by connecting this pin to VC C .
The input buffer on this pin supports hysteresis using Schmitt
trigger circuitry.
TDO
N/A
Output
Serial data output pin for instructions as well as test and
programming data. Data is shifted out on the falling edge of
TCK. The pin is tri-stated if data is not being shifted out of the
device.
If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the JTAG
circuitry can be disabled by leaving this pin unconnected.
TMS
N/A
Input
Input pin that provides the control signal to determine the
transitions of the TAP controller state machine. Transitions
within the state machine occur on the rising edge of TCK.
Therefore, TMS must be set up before the rising edge of TCK.
TMS is evaluated on the rising edge of TCK.
If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the JTAG
circuitry can be disabled by connecting this pin to VCC.
The input buffer on this pin supports hysteresis using Schmitt
trigger circuitry.
TCK
N/A
Input
The clock input to the BST circuitry. Some operations occur at
the rising edge, while others occur at the falling edge.
If the JTAG interface is not required on the board, the JTAG
circuitry can be disabled by connecting this pin to GND.
The input buffer on this pin supports hysteresis using Schmitt
trigger circuitry.
Conclusion
Cyclone II devices can be configured in AS, PS or JTAG configuration
schemes to fit your system's need. The AS configuration scheme
supported by Cyclone II devices can now operate at a higher DCLK
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Configuring Cyclone II Devices
frequency (up to 40 MHz), which reduces your configuration time. In
addition, Cyclone II devices can receive a compressed configuration
bitstream and decompress this data on-the-fly in the AS or PS
configuration scheme, which further reduces storage requirements and
configuration time.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
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Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
Document
Revision History
Table 13–14 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 13–14. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2007
v3.1
Changes Made
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
July 2005 v2.0
●
●
●
November 2004
v1.1
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
June 2004 v1.0
Added document revision history.
Added Note (1) to Table 13–1.
Added Note (1) to Table 13–4.
Updated Figure 13–3.
Updated Figures 13–6 and 13–7.
Updated Note (2) to Figure 13–13.
Updated “Single Device PS Configuration
Using a Configuration Device” section.
Updated Note (2) to Figure 13–14.
Updated Note (2) to Figure 13–15.
Updated Note (2) to Figure 13–16.
Updated Note (2) to Figure 13–17.
Updated Note (4) to Figure 13–21.
Updated Note (2) to Figure 13–25.
Summary of Changes
●
●
●
●
Changed unit ‘kw’ to ‘kΩ’ in Figures 13–6
and 13–7.
Added note about serial configuration
devices supporting 20 MHz and 40 MHz
DCLK.
Added infomation about the need for a
resistor on nCONFIG if reconfiguration is
required.
Added information about MSEL[1..0]
internal pull-down resistor value.
Updated “Configuration Stage” section.
Updated “PS Configuration Using a
Download Cable” section.
Updated Figures 13–8, 13–12, and
13–18.
—
Updated “Configuration Stage” section in
“Single Device AS Configuration” section.
Updated “Initialization Stage” section in
“Single Device AS Configuration” section.
Updated Figure 13–8.
Updated “Initialization Stage” section in
“Single Device PS Configuration Using a
MAX II Device as an External Host”
section.
Updated Table 13–7.
Updated “Single Device PS Configuration
Using a Configuration Device” section.
Updated “Initialization Stage” section in
“Single Device PS Configuration Using a
Configuration Device” section.
Updated Figure 13–18.
Updated “Single Device JTAG
Configuration” section.
—
Added document to the Cyclone II Device
Handbook.
13–72
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
—
Altera Corporation
February 2007
14. IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG)
Boundary-Scan Testing for
Cyclone II Devices
CII51014-2.1
Introduction
As printed circuit boards (PCBs) become more complex, the need for
thorough testing becomes increasingly important. Advances in surfacemount packaging and PCB manufacturing have resulted in smaller
boards, making traditional test methods (e.g., external test probes and
“bed-of-nails” test fixtures) harder to implement. As a result, cost savings
from PCB space reductions are sometimes offset by cost increases in
traditional testing methods.
In the 1980s, the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) developed a specification
for boundary-scan testing that was later standardized as the
IEEE Std. 1149.1 specification. This boundary-scan test (BST) architecture
offers the capability to efficiently test components on PCBs with tight lead
spacing.
This BST architecture tests pin connections without using physical test
probes and captures functional data while a device is operating normally.
Boundary-scan cells in a device force signals onto pins or capture data
from pin or logic array signals. Forced test data is serially shifted into the
boundary-scan cells. Captured data is serially shifted out and externally
compared with expected results. Figure 14–1 shows the concept of
boundary-scan testing.
Figure 14–1. IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Testing
Boundary-Scan Cell
Serial
Data In
IC
Core
Logic
JTAG Device 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Serial
Data Out
Pin Signal
Core
Logic
Tested
Connection
JTAG Device 2
14–1
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Architecture
This chapter discusses how to use the IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST circuitry in
Cyclone™ II devices, including:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST architecture
IEEE Std. 1149.1 boundary-scan register
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST operation control
I/O voltage support in JTAG chain
Using IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST circuitry
Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST circuitry
Guidelines for IEEE Std. 1149.1 boundary-scan testing
Boundary-Scan Description Language (BSDL) support
In addition to BST, you can use the IEEE Std. 1149.1 controller for
Cyclone II device in-circuit reconfiguration (ICR). However, this chapter
only discusses the BST feature of the IEEE Std. 1149.1 circuitry.
f
IEEE Std. 1149.1
BST Architecture
For information on configuring Cyclone II devices via the
IEEE Std. 1149.1 circuitry, see the Configuring Cyclone II Devices chapter in
Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
A Cyclone II device operating in IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST mode uses four
required pins, TDI, TDO, TMS and TCK. The optional TRST pin is not
available in Cyclone II devices. TDI and TMS pins have weak internal
pull-up resistors while TCK has weak internal pull-down resistors. All
user I/O pins are tri-stated during JTAG configuration. Table 14–1
summarizes the functions of each of these pins.
Table 14–1. IEEE Std. 1149.1 Pin Descriptions
Pin
Description
Function
TDI
Test data input
Serial input pin for instructions as well as test and programming data.
Signal applied to TDI is expected to change state at the falling edge
of TCK. Data is shifted in on the rising edge of TCK.
TDO
Test data output
Serial data output pin for instructions as well as test and programming
data. Data is shifted out on the falling edge of TCK. The pin is tri-stated
if data is not being shifted out of the device.
TMS
Test mode select
Input pin that provides the control signal to determine the transitions of
the TAP controller state machine. Transitions within the state machine
occur at the rising edge of TCK. Therefore, TMS must be set up before
the rising edge of TCK. TMS is evaluated on the rising edge of TCK.
During non-JTAG operation, TMS is recommended to be driven high.
TCK
Test clock input
14–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
The clock input to the BST circuitry. Some operations occur at the
rising edge, while others occur at the falling edge. The clock input
waveform should have a 50% duty cycle.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
The IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST circuitry requires the following registers:
■
■
■
The instruction register determines the action to be performed and
the data register to be accessed.
The bypass register is a 1-bit-long data register that provides a
minimum-length serial path between TDI and TDO.
The boundary-scan register is a shift register composed of all the
boundary-scan cells of the device.
Figure 14–2 shows a functional model of the IEEE Std. 1149.1 circuitry.
Figure 14–2. IEEE Std. 1149.1 Circuitry
Instruction Register (1)
TDI
TDO
UPDATEIR
CLOCKIR
SHIFTIR
TMS
Instruction Decode
TAP
Controller
TCLK
UPDATEDR
CLOCKDR
SHIFTDR
Data Registers
Bypass Register
Boundary-Scan Register (1)
Device ID Register
ICR Registers
Note to Figure 14–2:
(1)
For register lengths, see the device data sheet in the Configuration & Testing chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II
Device Handbook.
IEEE Std. 1149.1 boundary-scan testing is controlled by a test access port
(TAP) controller. For more information on the TAP controller, see “IEEE
Std. 1149.1 BST Operation Control” on page 14–6. The TMS and TCK pins
Altera Corporation
February 2007
14–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
IEEE Std. 1149.1 Boundary-Scan Register
operate the TAP controller, and the TDI and TDO pins provide the serial
path for the data registers. The TDI pin also provides data to the
instruction register, which then generates control logic for the data
registers.
IEEE Std. 1149.1
Boundary-Scan
Register
f
The boundary-scan register is a large serial shift register that uses the TDI
pin as an input and the TDO pin as an output. The boundary-scan register
consists of 3-bit peripheral elements that are associated with Cyclone II
I/O pins. You can use the boundary-scan register to test external pin
connections or to capture internal data.
See the Configuration & Testing chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II
Device Handbook for the Cyclone II device boundary-scan register
lengths.
Figure 14–3 shows how test data is serially shifted around the periphery
of the IEEE Std. 1149.1 device.
Figure 14–3. Boundary-Scan Register
Each peripheral
element is either an
I/O pin, dedicated
input pin, or
dedicated
configuration pin.
Internal Logic
TAP Controller
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
Boundary-Scan Cells of a Cyclone II Device I/O Pin
The Cyclone II device 3-bit boundary-scan cell (BSC) consists of a set of
capture registers and a set of update registers. The capture registers can
connect to internal device data via the OUTJ and OEJ signals, and connect
14–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
to external device data via the PIN_IN signal, while the update registers
connect to external data through the PIN_OUT and PIN_OE signals. The
global control signals for the IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST registers (for example,
shift, clock, and update) are generated internally by the TAP controller.
The MODE signal is generated by a decode of the instruction register. The
data signal path for the boundary-scan register runs from the serial data
in (SDI) signal to the serial data out (SDO) signal. The scan register begins
at the TDI pin and ends at the TDO pin of the device.
Figure 14–4 shows the Cyclone II device’s user I/O boundary-scan cell.
Figure 14–4. Cyclone II Device's User I/O BSC with IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry
Capture
Registers
Update
Registers
SDO
INJ
PIN_IN
0
0
1
D
Q
INPUT
From or
To Device
I/O Cell
Circuitry
and/or
Logic
Array
D
1
Q
INPUT
OEJ
0
1
D
Q
D
OE
OE
0
Q
0
VCC
PIN_OE
1
1
OUTJ
0
0
1
D
Q
D
OUTPUT
OUTPUT
CLOCK
UPDATE
PIN_OUT
Pin
1
Q
Output
Buffer
SDI
SHIFT
Altera Corporation
February 2007
HIGHZ
MODE
Global
Signals
14–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Operation Control
Table 14–2 describes the capture and update register capabilities of all
types of boundary-scan cells within Cyclone II devices.
Table 14–2. Cyclone II Device Boundary Scan Cell Descriptions
Captures
Output
Capture
Register
Pin Type
Note (1)
Drives
OE
Input
Capture Capture
Register Register
Output
Update
Register
OE
Update
Register
Input
Update
Register
Comments
OUTJ
OEJ
PIN_IN
PIN_OUT
PIN_OE
INJ
Dedicated clock
input
0
1
PIN_IN
N.C. (2)
N.C. (2)
N.C. (2)
Dedicated input
(3)
0
1
PIN_IN
N.C. (2)
N.C. (2)
N.C. (2)
PIN_IN drives to
control logic
Dedicated
bidirectional
(open drain) (4)
0
OEJ
PIN_IN
N.C. (2)
N.C. (2)
N.C. (2)
PIN_IN drives to
configuration
control
Dedicated
bidirectional (5)
OUTJ
OEJ
PIN_IN
N.C. (2)
N.C. (2)
N.C. (2)
OUTJ drives to
output buffer
User I/O pins
PIN_IN drives to
clock network or
logic array
Notes to Table 14–2:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
TDI, TDO, TMS, TCK, all VCC and GND pin types do not have BSCs.
N.C.: no connect.
This includes nCONFIG, MSEL0, MSEL1, DATA0, and nCE pins and DCLK (when not used in Active Serial mode).
This includes CONF_DONE and nSTATUS pins.
This includes DCLK (when not used in Active Serial mode).
IEEE Std. 1149.1
BST Operation
Control
f
Cyclone II devices implement the following IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST
instructions: SAMPLE/PRELOAD, EXTEST, BYPASS, IDCODE, USERCODE,
CLAMP, and HIGHZ. The BST instruction length is 10 bits. These
instructions are described later in this chapter.
For summaries of the BST instructions and their instruction codes, see
the Configuration & Testing chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device
Handbook.
The IEEE Std. 1149.1 test access port (TAP) controller, a 16-state state
machine clocked on the rising edge of TCK, uses the TMS pin to control
IEEE Std. 1149.1 operation in the device. Figure 14–5 shows the TAP
controller state machine.
14–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
Figure 14–5. IEEE Std. 1149.1 TAP Controller State Machine
TMS = 1
TEST_LOGIC/
RESET
TMS = 0
SELECT_DR_SCAN
SELECT_IR_SCAN
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
TMS = 0
TMS = 1
RUN_TEST/
IDLE
TMS = 0
TMS = 0
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
CAPTURE_IR
CAPTURE_DR
TMS = 0
TMS = 0
SHIFT_DR
SHIFT_IR
TMS = 0
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
EXIT1_DR
EXIT1_IR
TMS = 0
TMS = 0
PAUSE_DR
PAUSE_IR
TMS = 0
TMS = 1
TMS = 0
TMS = 1
TMS = 0
TMS = 0
EXIT2_DR
TMS = 1
EXIT2_IR
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
TMS = 1
UPDATE_DR
TMS = 0
Altera Corporation
February 2007
TMS = 0
UPDATE_IR
TMS = 0
14–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Operation Control
When the TAP controller is in the TEST_LOGIC/RESET state, the BST
circuitry is disabled, the device is in normal operation, and the instruction
register is initialized with IDCODE as the initial instruction. At device
power-up, the TAP controller starts in this TEST_LOGIC/RESET state. In
addition, forcing the TAP controller to the TEST_LOGIC/RESET state is
done by holding TMS high for five TCK clock cycles. Once in the
TEST_LOGIC/RESET state, the TAP controller remains in this state as
long as TMS is held high (while TCK is clocked). Figure 14–6 shows the
timing requirements for the IEEE Std. 1149.1 signals.
Figure 14–6. IEEE Std. 1149.1 Timing Waveforms
TMS
TDI
tJCP
tJCH
tJCL
tJPSU
tJPH
TCK
tJPZX
tJPXZ
tJPCO
TDO
tJSSU
Signal
to be
Captured
tJSZX
tJSH
tJSCO
tJSXZ
Signal
to be
Driven
To start IEEE Std. 1149.1 operation, select an instruction mode by
advancing the TAP controller to the shift instruction register (SHIFT_IR)
state and shift in the appropriate instruction code on the TDI pin. The
waveform diagram in Figure 14–7 represents the entry of the instruction
code into the instruction register. It shows the values of TCK, TMS, TDI,
TDO, and the states of the TAP controller. From the RESET state, TMS is
clocked with the pattern 01100 to advance the TAP controller to
SHIFT_IR.
14–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
Figure 14–7. Selecting the Instruction Mode
TCK
TMS
TDI
TDO
SHIFT_IR
TAP_STATE
RUN_TEST/IDLE SELECT_IR_SCAN
TEST_LOGIC/RESET
SELECT_DR_SCAN
CAPTURE_IR
EXIT1_IR
The TDO pin is tri-stated in all states except in the SHIFT_IR and
SHIFT_DR states. The TDO pin is activated at the first falling edge of TCK
after entering either of the shift states and is tri-stated at the first falling
edge of TCK after leaving either of the shift states.
When the SHIFT_IR state is activated, TDO is no longer tri-stated, and the
initial state of the instruction register is shifted out on the falling edge of
TCK. TDO continues to shift out the contents of the instruction register as
long as the SHIFT_IR state is active. The TAP controller remains in the
SHIFT_IR state as long as TMS remains low.
During the SHIFT_IR state, an instruction code is entered by shifting
data on the TDI pin on the rising edge of TCK. The last bit of the
instruction code must be clocked at the same time that the next state,
EXIT1_IR, is activated. Set TMS high to activate the EXIT1_IR state.
Once in the EXIT1_IR state, TDO becomes tri-stated again. TDO is always
tri-stated except in the SHIFT_IR and SHIFT_DR states. After an
instruction code is entered correctly, the TAP controller advances to
serially shift test data in one of seven modes (SAMPLE/PRELOAD,
EXTEST, BYPASS, IDCODE, USERCODE, CLAMP, or HIGHZ) that are
described below.
SAMPLE/PRELOAD Instruction Mode
The SAMPLE/PRELOAD instruction mode allows you to take a snapshot of
device data without interrupting normal device operation. You can also
use this instruction to preload the test data into the update registers prior
to loading the EXTEST instruction. Figure 14–8 shows the capture, shift,
and update phases of the SAMPLE/PRELOAD mode.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
14–9
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Operation Control
Figure 14–8. IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST SAMPLE/PRELOAD Mode
Capture Phase
In the capture phase, the
signals at the pin, OEJ and
OUTJ, are loaded into the
capture registers. The CLOCK
signals are supplied by the
TAP controller’s CLOCKDR
output. The data retained in
these registers consists of
signals from normal device
operation.
SDO
0
0
1
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
OEJ
INJ
1
0
0
1
1
OUTJ
0
0
1
Capture
Registers
Shift & Update Phases
SDI
In the shift phase, the
previously captured signals at
the pin, OEJ and OUTJ, are
shifted out of the boundaryscan register via the TDO pin
using CLOCK. As data is
shifted out, the patterns for
the next test can be shifted in
via the TDI pin.
In the update phase, data is
transferred from the capture
to the UPDATE registers using
the UPDATE clock. The data
stored in the UPDATE
registers can be used for the
EXTEST instruction.
SHIFT
1
Update
Registers
MODE
UPDATE
CLOCK
SDO
0
0
1
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
OEJ
1
INJ
0
0
1
1
OUTJ
0
0
1
Capture
Registers
SDI
SHIFT
1
Update
Registers
UPDATE
MODE
CLOCK
14–10
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
During the capture phase, multiplexers preceding the capture registers
select the active device data signals. This data is then clocked into the
capture registers. The multiplexers at the outputs of the update registers
also select active device data to prevent functional interruptions to the
device. During the shift phase, the boundary-scan shift register is formed
by clocking data through capture registers around the device periphery,
then out of the TDO pin. The device can simultaneously shift new test data
into TDI and replace the contents of the capture registers. During the
update phase, data in the capture registers is transferred to the update
registers. This data can then be used in the EXTEST instruction mode. See
“EXTEST Instruction Mode” on page 14–11 for more information.
Figure 14–9 shows the SAMPLE/PRELOAD waveforms. The
SAMPLE/PRELOAD instruction code is shifted in through the TDI pin. The
TAP controller advances to the CAPTURE_DR state, then to the SHIFT_DR
state, where it remains if TMS is held low. The data that was present in the
capture registers after the capture phase is shifted out of the TDO pin. New
test data shifted into the TDI pin appears at the TDO pin after being
clocked through the entire boundary-scan register. Figure 14–9 shows
that the instruction code at TDI does not appear at the TDO pin until after
the capture register data is shifted out. If TMS is held high on two
consecutive TCK clock cycles, the TAP controller advances to the
UPDATE_DR state for the update phase.
Figure 14–9. SAMPLE/PRELOAD Shift Data Register Waveforms
TCK
TMS
TDI
TDO
SHIFT_IR
SHIFT_DR
TAP_STATE
EXIT1_IR
Instruction Code
SELECT_DR
UPDATE_IR
CAPTURE_DR
Data stored in
boundary-scan
register is shifted
out of TDO.
After boundary-scan
register data has been
shifted out, data
entered into TDI will
shift out of TDO.
EXIT1_DR
UPDATE_DR
EXTEST Instruction Mode
The EXTEST instruction mode is used to check external pin connections
between devices. Unlike the SAMPLE/PRELOAD mode, EXTEST allows
test data to be forced onto the pin signals. By forcing known logic high
and low levels on output pins, opens and shorts can be detected at pins
of any device in the scan chain.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
14–11
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Operation Control
Figure 14–10 shows the capture, shift, and update phases of the EXTEST
mode.
Figure 14–10. IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST EXTEST Mode
Capture Phase
SDO
In the capture phase, the
signals at the pin, OEJ and
OUTJ, are loaded into the
capture registers. The CLOCK
signals are supplied by the
TAP controller’s CLOCKDR
output. Previously retained
data in the update registers
drive the PIN_IN, INJ, and
allows the I/O pin to tri-state
or drive a signal out.
0
0
1
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
OEJ
INJ
1
0
0
1
1
OUTJ
0
0
A “1” in the OEJ update
register tri-states the output
buffer.
1
Capture
Registers
SHIFT
SDI
1
Update
Registers
UPDATE
MODE
CLOCK
Shift & Update Phases
In the shift phase, the
previously captured signals at
the pin, OEJ and OUTJ, are
shifted out of the boundaryscan register via the TDO pin
using CLOCK. As data is
shifted out, the patterns for
the next test can be shifted in
via the TDI pin.
SDO
0
0
1
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
D
Q
OEJ
1
INJ
0
0
1
1
OUTJ
In the update phase, data is
transferred from the capture
registers to the update
registers using the UPDATE
clock. The update registers
then drive the PIN_IN, INJ,
and allow the I/O pin to tristate or drive a signal out.
14–12
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
0
0
1
Capture
Registers
SDI
SHIFT
1
Update
Registers
UPDATE
MODE
CLOCK
Altera Corporation
February 2007
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
EXTEST selects data differently than SAMPLE/PRELOAD. EXTEST chooses
data from the update registers as the source of the output and output
enable signals. Once the EXTEST instruction code is entered, the
multiplexers select the update register data. Thus, data stored in these
registers from a previous EXTEST or SAMPLE/PRELOAD test cycle can be
forced onto the pin signals. In the capture phase, the results of this test
data are stored in the capture registers, then shifted out of TDO during the
shift phase. New test data can then be stored in the update registers
during the update phase.
The EXTEST waveform diagram in Figure 14–11 resembles the
SAMPLE/PRELOAD waveform diagram, except for the instruction code.
The data shifted out of TDO consists of the data that was present in the
capture registers after the capture phase. New test data shifted into the
TDI pin appears at the TDO pin after being clocked through the entire
boundary-scan register.
Figure 14–11. EXTEST Shift Data Register Waveforms
TCK
TMS
TDI
TDO
SHIFT_IR
SHIFT_DR
TAP_STATE
EXIT1_IR
Instruction Code
SELECT_DR
UPDATE_IR
CAPTURE_DR
Data stored in
boundary-scan
register is shifted
out of TDO.
After boundary-scan
register data has been
shifted out, data
entered into TDI will
shift out of TDO.
EXIT1_DR
UPDATE_DR
BYPASS Instruction Mode
The BYPASS mode is activated when an instruction code of all 1’s is
loaded in the instruction register. The waveforms in Figure 14–12 show
how scan data passes through a device once the TAP controller is in the
SHIFT_DR state. In this state, data signals are clocked into the bypass
register from TDI on the rising edge of TCK and out of TDO on the falling
edge of the same clock pulse.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
14–13
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Operation Control
Figure 14–12. BYPASS Shift Data Register Waveforms
TCK
TMS
Bit 1
TDI
TDO
Bit 2
Bit 3
Bit 1
Bit 2
SHIFT_IR
TAP_STATE
Bit 4
SHIFT_DR
EXIT1_IR
Instruction Code
SELECT_DR_SCAN
UPDATE_IR
CAPTURE_DR
Data shifted into TDI on
the rising edge of TCK is
shifted out of TDO on the
falling edge of the same
TCK pulse.
EXIT1_DR
UPDATE_DR
IDCODE Instruction Mode
The IDCODE instruction mode is used to identify the devices in an
IEEE Std. 1149.1 chain. When IDCODE is selected, the device
identification register is loaded with the 32-bit vendor-defined
identification code. The device ID register is connected between the TDI
and TDO ports, and the device IDCODE is shifted out. The IDCODE for
Cyclone II devices are listed in the Configuration & Testing chapter in
Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
USERCODE Instruction Mode
The USERCODE instruction mode is used to examine the user electronic
signature (UES) within the devices along an IEEE Std. 1149.1 chain. When
this instruction is selected, the device identification register is connected
between the TDI and TDO ports. The user-defined UES is shifted into the
device ID register in parallel from the 32-bit USERCODE register. The UES
is then shifted out through the device ID register. The UES value is not
user defined until after the device has been configured. Before
configuration, the UES value is set to the default value.
CLAMP Instruction Mode
The CLAMP instruction mode is used to allow the boundary-scan register
to determine the state of the signals driven from the pins. In CLAMP
instruction mode, the bypass register is selected as the serial path
between the TDI and TDO ports.
14–14
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
If you are testing the device after configuring it, the programmable weak
pull-up resister or the bus hold feature overrides the CLAMP value (the
value stored in the update register of the boundary-scan cell) at the pin.
HIGHZ Instruction Mode
The HIGHZ instruction mode is used to set all of the user I/O pins to an
inactive drive state. These pins are tri-stated until a new JTAG instruction
is executed. When this instruction is loaded into the instruction register,
the bypass register is connected between the TDI and TDO ports.
If you are testing the device after configuring it, the programmable weak
pull-up resistor or the bus hold feature overrides the HIGHZ value at the
pin.
I/O Voltage Support in JTAG Chain
A JTAG chain can contain several different devices. However, you should
be cautious if the chain contains devices that have different VCCIO levels.
The output voltage level of the TDO pin must meet the specifications of
the TDI pin it drives. For Cyclone II devices, the TDO pin is powered by
the VCCIO power supply. Since the VCCIO supply is 3.3 V, the TDO pin
drives out 3.3 V.
Devices can interface with each other although they might have different
VCCIO levels. For example, a device with a 3.3-V TDO pin can drive to a
device with a 5.0-V TDI pin because 3.3 V meets the minimum TTL-level
VIH for the 5.0-V TDI pin. JTAG pins on Cyclone II devices can support
2.5- or 3.3-V input levels.
f
For more information on MultiVolt I/O support, see the Cyclone II
Architecture chapter in Volume 1 of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
You can also interface the TDI and TDO lines of the devices that have
different VCCIO levels by inserting a level shifter between the devices. If
possible, the JTAG chain should be built such that a device with a higher
VCCIO level drives to a device with an equal or lower VCCIO level. This
way, a level shifter may be required only to shift the TDO level to a level
acceptable to the JTAG tester. Figure 14–13 shows the JTAG chain of
mixed voltages and how a level shifter is inserted in the chain.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
14–15
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Using IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry
Figure 14–13. JTAG Chain of Mixed Voltages
Must be
3.3 V
tolerant
TDI
3.3 V
VCCIO
2.5 V
VCCIO
Tester
TDO
Using IEEE Std.
1149.1 BST
Circuitry
Level
Shifter
1.5 V
VCCIO
1.8 V
VCCIO
Shift TDO to
level accepted by
tester if necessary
Must be
1.8 V
tolerant
Must be
2.5 V
tolerant
Cyclone II devices have dedicated JTAG pins, and the IEEE Std. 1149.1
BST circuitry is enabled upon device power-up. You can perform BST on
Cyclone II FPGAs not only before and after configuration, but also during
configuration. Cyclone II FPGAs support the BYPASS, IDCODE, and
SAMPLE instructions during configuration without interrupting
configuration. To send all other JTAG instructions, you must interrupt
configuration using the CONFIG_IO instruction.
The CONFIG_IO instruction allows you to configure I/O buffers via the
JTAG port, and when issued, interrupts configuration. This instruction
allows you to perform board-level testing prior to configuring the
Cyclone II FPGA or waiting for a configuration device to complete
configuration. Once configuration has been interrupted and JTAG BST is
complete, the part must be reconfigured via JTAG (PULSE_CONFIG
instruction) or by pulsing nCONFIG low.
When you perform JTAG boundary-scan testing before configuration, the
nCONFIG pin must be held low.
The device-wide reset (DEV_CLRn) and device-wide output enable
(DEV_OE) pins on Cyclone II devices do not affect JTAG boundary-scan or
configuration operations. Toggling these pins does not disrupt BST
operation any more than usual.
14–16
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
When designing a board for JTAG configuration of Cyclone II devices, the
connections for the dedicated configuration pins need to be considered.
f
BST for
Configured
Devices
Altera Corporation
February 2007
For more information on using the IEEE Std.1149.1 circuitry for device
configuration, see the Configuring Cyclone II Devices chapter in Volume 1
of the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
For a configured device, the input buffers are turned off by default for
I/O pins that are set as output only in the design file. Nevertheless,
executing the SAMPLE instruction will turn on the input buffers for the
output pins. You can set the Quartus II software to always enable the
input buffers on a configured device so it behaves the same as an
unconfigured device for boundary-scan testing, allowing sample
function on output pins in the design. This aspect can cause slight
increase in standby current because the unused input buffer is always on.
In the Quartus II software, do the following:
1.
Choose Settings (Assignment menu).
2.
Click Assembler.
3.
Turn on Always Enable Input Buffers.
4.
If you use the default setting with input disabled, you need to
convert the default BSDL file to the design-specific BSDL file using
the BSDLCustomizer script. For more information regarding BSDL
file, refer to “Boundary-Scan Description Language (BSDL)
Support”.
14–17
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry
Disabling IEEE
Std. 1149.1 BST
Circuitry
The IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST circuitry for Cyclone II devices is enabled upon
device power-up. Because this circuitry may be used for BST or in-circuit
reconfiguration, this circuitry must be enabled only at specific times as
mentioned in “Using IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST Circuitry” on page 14–16.
If the IEEE Std. 1149.1 circuitry will not be utilized at any time, the
circuitry should be permanently disabled. Table 14–3 shows the pin
connections necessary for disabling the IEEE Std. 1149.1 circuitry in
Cyclone II devices to ensure that the circuitry is not inadvertently enabled
when it is not needed.
Table 14–3. Disabling IEEE Std. 1149.1 Circuitry
JTAG Pins (1)
Connection for Disabling
TMS
VC C
TCK
GND
TDI
VC C
TDO
Leave open
Note to Table 14–3:
(1)
Guidelines for
IEEE Std. 1149.1
Boundary-Scan
Testing
There is no software option to disable JTAG in Cyclone II devices. The JTAG pins
are dedicated.
Use the following guidelines when performing boundary-scan testing
with IEEE Std. 1149.1 devices:
■
If the 10-bit checkerboard pattern “1010101010” does not shift out of
the instruction register via the TDO pin during the first clock cycle of
the SHIFT_IR state, the TAP controller has not reached the proper
state. To solve this problem, try one of the following procedures:
●
●
Verify that the TAP controller has reached the SHIFT_IR state
correctly. To advance the TAP controller to the SHIFT_IR state,
return to the RESET state and send the code 01100 to the TMS
pin.
Check the connections to the VCC, GND, JTAG, and dedicated
configuration pins on the device.
14–18
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
IEEE 1149.1 (JTAG) Boundary-Scan Testing for Cyclone II Devices
■
■
■
■
Perform a SAMPLE/PRELOAD test cycle prior to the first EXTEST test
cycle to ensure that known data is present at the device pins when
the EXTEST mode is entered. If the OEJ update register contains a 0,
the data in the OUTJ update register is driven out. The state must be
known and correct to avoid contention with other devices in the
system.
Do not perform EXTEST testing during ICR. This instruction is
supported before or after ICR, but not during ICR. Use the
CONFIG_IO instruction to interrupt configuration, then perform
testing, or wait for configuration to complete.
If performing testing before configuration, hold the nCONFIG pin
low.
After configuration, any pins in a differential pin pair cannot be
tested. Therefore, performing BST after configuration requires
editing BSC group definitions that correspond to these differential
pin pairs. The BSC group should be redefined as an internal cell. See
the BSDL file for more information on editing.
For more information on boundary scan testing, contact Altera
Applications.
Boundary-Scan
Description
Language
(BSDL) Support
The Boundary-Scan Description Language (BSDL), a subset of VHDL,
provides a syntax that allows you to describe the features of an
IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST-capable device that can be tested. Test software
development systems then use the BSDL files for test generation,
analysis, and failure diagnostics. For more information, or to receive
BSDL files for IEEE Std. 1149.1-compliant Cyclone II devices, visit the
Altera web site at www.altera.com.
Conclusion
The IEEE Std. 1149.1 BST circuitry available in Cyclone II devices
provides a cost-effective and efficient way to test systems that contain
devices with tight lead spacing. Circuit boards with Altera and other
IEEE Std. 1149.1-compliant devices can use the EXTEST,
SAMPLE/PRELOAD, BYPASS, IDCODE, USERCODE, CLAMP, and HIGHZ
modes to create serial patterns that internally test the pin connections
between devices and check device operation.
References
Bleeker, H., P. van den Eijnden, and F. de Jong. Boundary-Scan Test: A
Practical Approach. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 1993.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. IEEE Standard Test
Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture (IEEE Std 1149.1-2001). New
York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 2001.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
14–19
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
Maunder, C. M., and R. E. Tulloss. The Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan
Architecture. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1990.
Document
Revision History
Table 14–4 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 14–4. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
Changes Made
February 2007
v2.1
●
July 2005 v2.0
Moved the “JTAG Timing Specifications” section to the DC
Characteristics & Timing Specifications chapter.
June 2004 v1.0
Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
●
Added document revision history.
Added new section “BST for Configured Devices”.
14–20
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Summary of Changes
●
Added infomation about
‘Always Enable Input
Buffer’ option.
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Section VII. PCB Layout
Guidelines
This section provides information for board layout designers to
successfully layout their boards for Cyclone® II devices. The chapters in
this section contain the required PCB layout guidelines and package
specifications.
This section includes the following chapters:
■
Revision History
Altera Corporation
Chapter 15, Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
Refer to each chapter for its own specific revision history. For information
on when each chapter was updated, refer to the Chapter Revision Dates
section, which appears in the complete handbook.
Section VII–1
Preliminary
Revision History
Section VII–2
Preliminary
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
15. Package Information for
Cyclone II Devices
CII51015-2.3
Introduction
This chapter provides package information for Altera® Cyclone® II
devices, including:
■
■
■
Device and package cross reference
Thermal resistance values
Package outlines
Table 15–1 shows Cyclone II device package options.
Table 15–1. Cyclone II Device Package Options
Device
EP2C5
EP2C8
Pins
Plastic Thin Quad Flat Pack (TQFP) – Wirebond
144
Plastic Quad Flat Pack (PQFP) – Wirebond
208
Low profile FineLine BGA® – Wirebond
256
TQFP – Wirebond
144
PQFP – Wirebond
208
Low profile FineLine BGA – Wirebond
256
EP2C15
Low profile FineLine BGA, Option 2 – Wirebond
256
FineLine BGA, Option 3– Wirebond
484
EP2C20
PQFP – Wirebond
240
Low profile FineLine BGA, Option 2 – Wirebond
256
FineLine BGA, Option 3– Wirebond
484
FineLine BGA, Option 3 – Wirebond
484
Ultra FineLine BGA – Wirebond
484
FineLine BGA, Option 3 – Wirebond
672
FineLine BGA, Option 3 – Wirebond
484
EP2C35
EP2C50
EP2C70
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package
Ultra FineLine BGA – Wirebond
484
FineLine BGA, Option 3 – Wirebond
672
FineLine BGA, Option 3 – Wirebond
672
FineLine BGA – Wirebond
896
15–1
Thermal Resistance
Thermal
Resistance
Thermal resistance values for Cyclone II devices are provided for a board
meeting JEDEC specifications and for a typical board. The values
provided are as follows:
■
■
■
■
■
■
θJA (° C/W) Still Air—Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance with
no airflow when a heat sink is not being used.
θJA (° C/W) 100 ft./minute—Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
with 100 ft./minute airflow when a heat sink is not being used.
θJA (° C/W) 200 ft./minute—Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
with 200 ft./minute airflow when a heat sink is not being used.
θJA (° C/W) 400 ft./minute—Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance
with 400 ft./minute airflow when a heat sink is not being used.
θJC (° C/W)—Junction-to-case thermal resistance for device.
θJB (° C/W)—Junction-to-board thermal resistance for specific board
being used.
Table 15–2 provides θ JA (junction-to-ambient thermal resistance) values
and θ JC (junction-to-case thermal resistance) values for Cyclone II devices
on a board meeting JEDEC specifications for thermal resistance
calculation. The JEDEC board specifications require two signal and two
power/ground planes and are available at www.jedec.org.
Table 15–2. Thermal Resistance of Cyclone II Devices for Board Meeting JEDEC Specifications (Part 1 of 2)
Device
EP2C5
EP2C8
Pin
Count
Package
θJ A (° C/W)
Still Air
31
θJ A (° C/W) θJ A (° C/W) θJ A (° C/W)
100 ft./min. 200 ft./min. 400 ft./min.
29.3
27.9
25.5
θJ C
(° C/W)
144
TQFP
10
208
PQFP
30.4
29.2
27.3
22.3
5.5
256
FineLine BGA
30.2
26.1
23.6
21.7
8.7
144
TQFP
29.8
28.3
26.9
24.9
9.9
208
PQFP
30.2
28.8
26.9
21.7
5.4
256
FineLine BGA
27
23
20.5
18.5
7.1
EP2C15
256
FineLine BGA
24.2
20
17.8
16
5.5
484
FineLine BGA
21
17
14.8
13.1
4.2
EP2C20
240
PQFP
26.6
24
21.4
17.4
4.2
256
FineLine BGA
24.2
20
17.8
16
5.5
484
FineLine BGA
21
17
14.8
13.1
4.2
484
FineLine BGA
19.4
15.4
13.3
11.7
3.3
484
Ultra FineLine BGA
20.6
16.6
14.5
12.8
5
672
FineLine BGA
18.6
14.6
12.6
11.1
3.1
EP2C35
15–2
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
Table 15–2. Thermal Resistance of Cyclone II Devices for Board Meeting JEDEC Specifications (Part 2 of 2)
Device
EP2C50
EP2C70
Pin
Count
θJ A (° C/W)
Still Air
Package
θJ A (° C/W) θJ A (° C/W) θJ A (° C/W)
100 ft./min. 200 ft./min. 400 ft./min.
θJ C
(° C/W)
484
FineLine BGA
18.4
14.4
12.4
10.9
2.8
484
Ultra FineLine BGA
19.6
15.6
13.6
11.9
4.4
672
FineLine BGA
17.7
13.7
11.8
10.2
2.6
672
FineLine BGA
16.9
13
11.1
9.7
2.2
896
FineLine BGA
16.3
11.9
10.5
9.1
2.1
Table 15–3 provides board dimension information for each package.
Table 15–3. PCB Dimensions Notes (1), (2)
Signal
Layers
Power/Ground
Layers
Package
Dimension
(mm)
Board
Dimension
(mm)
F896
10
10
31
91
F672
8
8
27
87
F672
7
7
27
87
F484
7
7
23
83
F484
6
6
23
83
U484
7
7
19
79
U484
6
6
19
79
F256
6
6
17
77
2.5 mm
Thick
Notes to Table 15–3:
(1)
(2)
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Power layer Cu thickness 35 um, Cu 90%
Signal layer Cu thickness 17 um, Cu 15%
15–3
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Package Outlines
Table 15–4 provides θ JA (junction-to-ambient thermal resistance) values,
θJ C (junction-to-case thermal resistance) values, θ JB (junction-to-board
thermal resistance) values for Cyclone II devices on a typical board.
Table 15–4. Thermal Resistance of Cyclone II Devices for Typical Board
Device
Pin
Count
EP2C5
256
EP2C8
θJ A
θJ C
θJ A (° C/W) θJ A (° C/W) θ J A (° C/W)
(° C/W)
100 ft./min. 200 ft./min. 400 ft./min. (° C/W)
Still Air
Package
θJ B
(° C/W)
FineLine BGA
30.2
25.8
22.9
20.6
8.7
14.8
256
FineLine BGA
27.9
23.2
20.5
18.4
7.1
12.3
EP2C15 256
FineLine BGA
24.7
20.1
17.5
15.3
5.5
9.1
484
FineLine BGA
20.5
16.2
13.9
12.2
4.2
7.2
EP2C20 256
FineLine BGA
24.7
20.1
17.5
15.3
5.5
9.1
484
FineLine BGA
20.5
16.2
13.9
12.2
4.2
7.2
EP2C35 484
FineLine BGA
18.8
14.5
12.3
10.6
3.3
5.7
20
15.5
13.2
11.3
5
5.3
17.4
13.3
11.3
9.8
3.1
5.5
484
Ultra FineLine BGA
672
FineLine BGA
EP2C50 484
FineLine BGA
17.7
13.5
11.4
9.8
2.8
4.5
484
FineLine BGA
18.1
13.8
11.7
10.1
2.8
4.6
484
Ultra FineLine BGA
19
14.6
12.3
10.6
4.4
4.4
484
Ultra FineLine BGA
19.4
15
12.7
10.9
4.4
4.6
672
FineLine BGA
16.5
12.4
10.5
9
2.6
4.6
EP2C70 672
FineLine BGA
15.7
11.7
9.8
8.3
2.2
3.8
672
FineLine BGA
15.9
11.9
9.9
8.4
2.2
3.9
896
FineLine BGA
14.6
10.7
8.9
7.6
2.1
3.7
Package
Outlines
The package outlines on the following pages are listed in order of
ascending pin count.
144-Pin Plastic Thin Quad Flat Pack (TQFP) – Wirebond
■
■
■
All dimensions and tolerances conform to ASME Y14.5M – 1994.
Controlling dimension is in millimeters.
Pin 1 may be indicated by an ID dot, or a special feature, in its
proximity on package surface.
15–4
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
Tables 15–5 and 15–6 show the package information and package outline
figure references, respectively, for the 144-pin TQFP package.
Table 15–5. 144-Pin TQFP Package Information
Description
Specification
Ordering code reference
T
Package acronym
TQFP
Lead frame material
Copper
Lead finish (plating)
Regular: 85Sn:15Pb (Typ.)
Pb-free: Matte Sn
JEDEC Outline Reference
MS-026 Variation: BFB
Maximum lead coplanarity
0.003 inches (0.08mm)
Weight
1.3 g
Moisture sensitivity level
Printed on moisture barrier bag
Table 15–6. 144-Pin TQFP Package Outline Dimensions
Millimeter
Symbol
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
–
–
1.60
A1
0.05
–
0.15
A2
1.35
1.40
1.45
D
22.00 BSC
D1
20.00 BSC
E
22.00 BSC
E1
L
20.00 BSC
0.45
L1
0.75
1.00 REF
S
0.20
–
b
0.17
0.22
0.27
c
0.09
–
0.20
e
θ
Altera Corporation
February 2007
0.60
–
0.50 BSC
0°
3.5°
7°
15–5
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Package Outlines
Figure 15–1 shows a 144-pin TQFP package outline.
Figure 15–1. 144-Pin TQFP Package Outline
D
D1
Pin 144
Pin 1
Pin 1 ID
E1
E
Pin 36
A2
See Detail A
A
A1
DETAIL A
e
C
Gage
Plane
b
S
0.25mm
L
L1
15–6
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
208-Pin Plastic Quad Flat Pack (PQFP) – Wirebond
■
■
■
All dimensions and tolerances conform to ASME Y14.5M - 1994.
Controlling dimension is in millimeters.
Pin 1 may be indicated by an ID dot in its proximity on package
surface.
Tables 15–7 and 15–8 show the package information and package outline
figure references, respectively, for the 208-pin PQFP package.
Table 15–7. 208-Pin PQFP Package Information
Description
Specification
Ordering code reference
Q
Package acronym
PQFP
Lead material
Copper
Lead finish (plating)
Regular: 85Sn:15Pb (Typ.)
Pb-free: Matte Sn
JEDEC Outline Reference
MS-029 Variation: FA-1
Maximum lead coplanarity
0.003 inches (0.08 mm)
Weight
5.7 g
Moisture sensitivity level
Printed on moisture barrier bag
Table 15–8. 208-Pin PQFP Package Outline Dimensions (Part 1 of 2)
Millimeter
Symbol
A
Min.
Nom.
Max.
–
–
4.10
A1
0.25
–
0.50
A2
3.20
3.40
3.60
D
30.60 BSC
D1
28.00 BSC
E
30.60 BSC
E1
28.00 BSC
L
0.50
L1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
0.60
0.75
1.30 REF
S
0.20
–
–
b
0.17
–
0.27
c
0.09
–
0.20
15–7
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Package Outlines
Table 15–8. 208-Pin PQFP Package Outline Dimensions (Part 2 of 2)
Millimeter
Symbol
Min.
Nom.
e
Max.
0.50 BSC
q
0°
3.5°
8°
Figure 15–2 shows a 208-pin PQFP package outline.
Figure 15–2. 208-pin PQFP Package Outline
D
D1
Pin 208
Pin 1
Pin 1 ID
E
E1
Pin 52
A
A2
A1
See Detail A
Detail A
e
C
Gage
Plane
b
S
0.25mm
L
L1
15–8
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
240-Pin Plastic Quad Flat Pack (PQFP)
■
■
■
All dimensions and tolerances conform to ASME Y14.5M – 1994.
Controlling dimension is in millimeters.
Pin 1 may be indicated by an ID dot, or a special feature, in its
proximity on package surface.
Tables 15–9 and 15–10 show the package information and package outline
figure references, respectively, for the 240-pin PQFP package.
Table 15–9. 240-Pin PQFP Package Information
Description
Specification
Ordering Code Reference
Q
Package Acronym
PQFP
Leadframe Material
Copper
Lead Finish (Plating)
Regular: 85Sn:15Pb (Typ.)
Pb-free: Matte Sn
JEDEC Outline Reference
MS-029 Variation: GA
Maximum Lead Coplanarity
0.003 inches (0.08mm)
Weight
7.0 g
Moisture Sensitivity Level
Printed on moisture barrier bag
Table 15–10. 240-Pin PQFP Package Outline Dimensions (Part 1 of 2)
Millimeter
Symbol
A
Min.
Nom.
Max.
–
–
4.10
A1
0.25
–
0.50
A2
3.20
3.40
3.60
D
34.60 BSC
D1
32.00 BSC
E
34.60 BSC
E1
32.00 BSC
L
0.45
L1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
0.60
0.75
1.30 REF
S
0.20
–
–
b
0.17
–
0.27
c
0.09
–
0.20
15–9
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Package Outlines
Table 15–10. 240-Pin PQFP Package Outline Dimensions (Part 2 of 2)
Millimeter
Symbol
Min.
Nom.
e
Max.
0.50 BSC
θ
0°
3.5°
8°
Figure 15–3 shows a 240-pin PQFP package outline.
Figure 15–3. 240-pin PQFP Package Outline
D
D1
Pin 240
Pin 1
Pin 1 ID
E1
E
Pin 60
A2
See Detail A
A
A1
DETAIL A
e
C
Gage
Plane
b
S
0.25mm
L
L1
15–10
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
256-Pin FineLine Ball-Grid Array, Option 2 – Wirebond
■
■
■
All dimensions and tolerances conform to ASME Y14.5M - 1994.
Controlling dimension is in millimeters.
Pin A1 may be indicated by an ID dot, or a special feature, in its
proximity on the package surface.
1
This POD is applicable to the F256 package of the Cyclone II
product only.
Tables 15–11 and 15–12 show the package information and package
outline figure references, respectively, for the 256-pin FineLine BGA
package.
Table 15–11. 256-Pin FineLine BGA Package Information
Description
Specification
Ordering code reference
F
Package acronym
FineLine BGA
Substrate material
BT
Solder ball composition
Regular: 63Sn:37Pb (Typ.)
Pb-free: Sn:3Ag:0.5Cu (Typ.)
JEDEC Outline Reference
MO-192
Maximum lead coplanarity
0.008 inches (0.20 mm)
Weight
1.9 g
Moisture sensitivity level
Printed on moisture barrier bag
Variation: AAF-1
Table 15–12. 256-Pin FineLine BGA Package Outline Dimensions
Millimeter
Symbol
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
–
–
1.55
A1
0.25
–
–
A2
A3
1.05 REF
–
D
E
b
e
Altera Corporation
February 2007
–
0.80
17.00 BSC
17.00 BSC
0.40
0.50
0.55
1.00 BSC
15–11
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Package Outlines
Figure 15–4 shows a 256-pin FineLine BGA package outline.
Figure 15–4. 256-Pin FineLine BGA Package Outline
TOP VIEW
BOTTOM VIEW
D
Pin A1
Corner
Pin A1 ID
e
E
b
e
A
A2
A3
A1
15–12
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
484-Pin FineLine BGA, Option 3 – Wirebond
■
■
■
All dimensions and tolerances conform to ASME Y14.5M – 1994.
Controlling dimension is in millimeters.
Pin A1 may be indicated by an ID dot, or a special feature, in its
proximity on package surface.
Tables 15–13 and 15–14 show the package information and package
outline figure references, respectively, for the 484-pin FineLine BGA
package.
Table 15–13. 484-Pin FineLine BGA Package Information
Description
Specification
Ordering code reference
F
Package acronym
FineLine BGA
Substrate material
BT
Solder ball composition
Regular: 63Sn:37Pb (Typ.)
Pb-free: Sn:3Ag:0.5Cu (Typ.)
JEDEC Outline Reference
MS-034
Maximum lead coplanarity
0.008 inches (0.20 mm)
Weight
5.7 g
Moisture sensitivity level
Printed on moisture barrier bag
Variation: AAJ-1
Table 15–14. 484-Pin FineLine BGA Package Outline Dimensions
Millimeter
Symbol
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
–
–
2.60
A1
0.30
–
–
A2
–
–
2.20
A3
–
–
1.80
D
23.00 BSC
E
b
e
Altera Corporation
February 2007
23.00 BSC
0.50
0.60
0.70
1.00 BSC
15–13
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Package Outlines
Figure 15–5 shows a 484-pin FineLine BGA package outline.
Figure 15–5. 484-Pin FineLine BGA Package Outline
TOP VIEW
BOTTOM VIEW
D
Pin A1
Corner
22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1
A
C
E
G
e
Pin A1 ID
J
E
L
N
R
U
W
AA
b
B
D
F
H
K
M
P
T
V
Y
AB
e
A
A2
A3
A1
15–14
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
484-Pin Ultra FineLine BGA – Wirebond
■
■
■
All dimensions and tolerances conform to ASME Y14.5M – 1994.
Controlling dimension is in millimeters.
Pin A1 may be indicated by an ID dot, or a special feature, in its
proximity on package surface.
Tables 15–15 and 15–16 show the package information and package
outline figure references, respectively, for the 484-pin Ultra FineLine
BGA package.
Table 15–15. 484-Pin Ultra FineLine BGA Package Information
Description
Specification
Ordering Code Reference
U
Package Acronym
UBGA
Substrate Material
BT
Solder Ball Composition
Regular: 63Sn:37Pb (Typ.)
Pb-free: Sn:3Ag:0.5Cu (Typ.)
JEDEC Outline Reference
MO-216 Variation: BAP-2
Maximum Lead Coplanarity
0.005 inches (0.12mm)
Weight
1.8 g
Moisture Sensitivity Level
Printed on moisture barrier bag
Table 15–16. 484-Pin Ultra FineLine BGA Package Outline Dimensions
Millimeter
Symbol
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
–
–
2.20
A1
0.20
–
–
A2
0.65
–
–
A3
0.80 TYP
D
19.00 BSC
E
b
e
Altera Corporation
February 2007
19.00 BSC
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.80 BSC
15–15
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Package Outlines
Figure 15–6 shows a 484-pin Ultra FineLine BGA package outline.
Figure 15–6. 484-Pin Ultra FineLine BGA Package Outline
TOP VIEW
BOTTOM VIEW
Pin A1
Corner
D
Pin A1 ID
e
E
b
e
A
A2
A3
A1
15–16
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
672-Pin FineLine BGA Package, Option 3 – Wirebond
■
■
■
All dimensions and tolerances conform to ASME Y14.5M - 1994.
Controlling dimension is in millimeters.
Pin A1 may be indicated by an ID dot, or a special feature, in its
proximity on the package surface.
Tables 15–17 and 15–18 show the package information and package
outline figure references, respectively, for the 672-pin FineLine BGA
package.
Table 15–17. 672-Pin FineLine BGA Package Information
Description
Specification
Ordering code reference
F
Package acronym
FineLine BGA
Substrate material
BT
Solder ball composition
Regular: 63Sn:37Pb (Typ.)
Pb-free: Sn:3Ag:0.5Cu (Typ.)
JEDEC Outline Reference
MS-034
Maximum lead coplanarity
0.008 inches (0.20 mm)
Variation: AAL-1
Weight
7.7 g
Moisture sensitivity level
Printed on moisture barrier bag
Table 15–18. 672-Pin FineLine BGA Package Outline Dimensions
Dimensions (mm)
Symbol
Nom.
Max.
A
–
–
2.60
A1
0.30
–
–
A2
–
–
2.20
A3
–
–
1.80
D
27.00 BSC
E
27.00 BSC
b
e
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Min.
0.50
0.60
0.70
1.00 BSC
15–17
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Package Outlines
Figure 15–7 shows a 672-pin FineLine BGA package outline.
Figure 15–7. 672-Pin FineLine BGA Package Outline
TOP VIEW
BOTTOM VIEW
D
26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1
Pin A1
Corner
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
e
Pin A1 ID
J
K
L
M
E
N
P
R
T
U
V
W
Y
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
b
e
A
A2
A3
A1
15–18
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
896-Pin FineLine BGA Package – Wirebond
■
■
■
All dimensions and tolerances conform to ASME Y14.5M - 1994.
Controlling dimension is in millimeters.
Pin A1’s location may be indicated by an ID dot in its proximity on
the package surface.
Tables 15–19 and 15–20 show the package information and package
outline figure references, respectively, for the 896-pin FineLine BGA.
Table 15–19. 896-Pin FineLine BGA Package Information
Description
Specification
Ordering code reference
F
Package acronym
FineLine BGA
Substrate material
BT
Solder ball composition
Regular: 63Sn: 37Pb (typical)
Pb-free: Sn: 3.0Ag: 0.5Cu (typical)
JEDEC outline reference
MS-034 variation AAN-1
Maximum lead coplanarity
0.008 inches (0.20 mm)
Weight
11.5 g
Moisture sensitivity level
Printed on moisture barrier bag
Table 15–20. 896-Pin FineLine BGA Package Outline Dimensions
Dimensions (mm)
Symbol
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
–
–
2.60
A1
0.30
–
–
A2
–
–
2.20
A3
–
–
1.80
D
31.00 BSC
E
b
e
Altera Corporation
February 2007
31.00 BSC
0.50
0.60
0.70
1.00 BSC
15–19
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Package Outlines
Figure 15–8 shows a 896-pin FineLine BGA package outline.
Figure 15–8. 896-Pin FineLine BGA Package Outline
TOP VIEW
BOTTOM VIEW
D
Pin A1
Corner
30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
e
Pin A1 ID
K
L
M
N
P
E
R
T
U
V
W
Y
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
AG
AH
AJ
AK
b
e
A
A2
A3
A1
15–20
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007
Package Information for Cyclone II Devices
Document
Revision History
Table 15–21 shows the revision history for this document.
Table 15–21. Document Revision History
Date &
Document
Version
February 2007
v2.3
Changes Made
Summary of Changes
Added document revision history.
November 2005 Updated information throughout.
v2.1
July 2005 v2.0
Updated packaging information.
November 2004 Added document to the Cyclone II Device Handbook.
v1.0
Altera Corporation
February 2007
15–21
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Document Revision History
15–22
Cyclone II Device Handbook, Volume 1
Altera Corporation
February 2007