19-2203; Rev 1; 5/09 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown Features The MAX1062 low-power, 14-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) features a successive approximation ADC, automatic power-down, fast 1.1µs wake-up, and a highspeed SPI™/QSPI™/MICROWIRE™-compatible interface. The MAX1062 operates with a single +5V analog supply and features a separate digital supply, allowing direct interfacing with 2.7V to 5.25V digital logic. o 14-Bit Resolution, 1LSB DNL At the maximum sampling rate of 200ksps, the MAX1062 consumes typically 2.75mA. Power consumption is typically 13.75mW (AVDD = DVDD = 5V) at a 200ksps (max) sampling rate. AutoShutdown™ reduces supply current to 140µA at 10ksps and to less than 10µA at reduced sampling rates. o SPI/QSPI/MICROWIRE-Compatible Serial Interface Excellent dynamic performance and low power, combined with ease of use and small package size (10-pin µMAX®) make the MAX1062 ideal for battery-powered and data-acquisition applications or for other circuits with demanding power consumption and space requirements. o +5V Single-Supply Operation o Adjustable Logic Level (2.7V to 5.25V) o Input Voltage Range: 0 to VREF o Internal Track/Hold, 4MHz Input Bandwidth o Small 10-Pin µMAX Package o Low Power 2.75mA at 200ksps 140µA at 10ksps 0.1µA in Power-Down Mode Ordering Information Applications Motor Control Industrial Process Control Industrial I/O Modules Data-Acquisition Systems Thermocouple Measurements Accelerometer Measurements Portable- and Battery-Powered Equipment PART TEMP. RANGE PINPACKAGE INL (LSB) MAX1062ACUB 0°C to 70°C 10 µMAX ±1 ±2 MAX1062BCUB 0°C to 70°C 10 µMAX MAX1062CCUB 0°C to 70°C 10 µMAX ±3 MAX1062AEUB -40°C to 85°C 10 µMAX ±1 MAX1062BEUB -40°C to 85°C 10 µMAX ±2 MAX1062CEUB -40°C to 85°C 10 µMAX ±3 Pin Configuration Functional Diagram appears at end of data sheet. TOP VIEW REF 1 AVDD SPI and QSPI are trademarks of Motorola, Inc. MICROWIRE is a trademark of National Semiconductor, Corp. 10 AIN 2 MAX1062 9 AGND AGND 3 8 DVDD CS 4 7 DGND SCLK 5 6 DOUT AutoShutdown is a trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. µMAX is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. µMAX ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com 1 MAX1062 General Description MAX1062 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS AVDD to AGND ........................................................-0.3V to +6V DVDD to DGND........................................................-0.3V to +6V DGND to AGND....................................................-0.3V to +0.3V AIN, REF to AGND ...................................-0.3V to (AVDD + 0.3V) SCLK, CS to DGND ..................................................-0.3V to +6V DOUT to DGND .......................................-0.3V to (DVDD + 0.3V) Maximum Current Into Any Pin ...........................................50mA Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 10-Pin µMAX (derate 5.6mW/°C above +70°C) ..........444mW Operating Temperature Ranges MAX1062_CUB .................................................0°C to +70°C MAX1062_EUB ..............................................-40°C to +85°C Maximum Junction Temperature .....................................+150°C Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +150°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (AVDD = DVDD = +4.75V to +5.25V, fSCLK = 4.8MHz (50% duty cycle), 24 clocks/conversion (200ksps), VREF = +4.096V, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS DC ACCURACY (NOTE 1) Resolution 14 Bits MAX1062A ±1 ±2 Relative Accuracy (Note 2) INL MAX1062B Differential Nonlinearity DNL No missing codes over temperature ±3 MAX1062C Transition Noise LSB ±0.5 RMS noise ±1 ±0.32 Offset Error Gain Error (Note 3) LSB LSBRMS 0.2 1 mV ±0.002 ±0.01 %FSR Offset Drift 0.4 ppm/oC Gain Drift (Note 3) 0.2 ppm/oC dB DYNAMIC SPECIFICATIONS (1kHz sine wave, 4.096Vp-p) (Note 1) Signal-to-Noise Plus Distortion SINAD 81 84 Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNR 82 84 Total Harmonic Distortion THD Spurious-Free Dynamic Range SFDR -99 87 dB -86 dB 101 dB Full-Power Bandwidth -3dB point 4 MHz Full-Linear Bandwidth SINAD > 81dB 20 kHz CONVERSION RATE Conversion Time (Note 4) tCONV 5 240 µs Serial Clock Frequency fSCLK 0.1 4.8 MHz Aperture Delay 15 Aperture Jitter <50 Sample Rate Track/Hold Acquisition Time 2 fS tACQ fSCLK / 24 ns ps 200 1.1 _______________________________________________________________________________________ ksps µs 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown (AVDD = DVDD = +4.75V to +5.25V, fSCLK = 4.8MHz (50% duty cycle), 24 clocks/conversion (200ksps), VREF = +4.096V, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS ANALOG INPUT (AIN) Input Range VAIN Input Capacitance CAIN 0 VREF 40 V pF EXTERNAL REFERENCE Input Voltage Range Input Current VREF IREF 3.8 AVDD VREF = 4.096V, fSCLK = 4.8MHz 100 VREF = 4.096V, SCLK idle 0.01 CS = DVDD, SCLK idle 0.01 V µA DIGITAL INPUTS (SCLK, CS) Input High Voltage VIH DVDD = +2.7V to +5.25V Input Low Voltage VIL DVDD = +2.7V to +5.25V IIN VIN = 0 to DVDD Input Leakage Current Input Hysteresis Input Capacitance 0.7 x DVDD V ±0.1 0.3 x DVDD V ±1 µA VHYST 0.2 V CIN 15 pF DIGITAL OUTPUT (DOUT) Output High Voltage VOH Output Low Voltage VOL Three-State Output Leakage Current Three-State Output Capacitance ISOURCE = 0.5mA, DVDD = +2.7V to +5.25V DVDD 0.25V V ISINK = 10mA, DVDD = +4.75V to +5.25V 0.7 ISINK = 1.6mA, DVDD = +2.7V to +5.25V 0.4 IL CS = DVDD ±0.1 COUT CS = DVDD 15 ±10 V µA pF POWER SUPPLIES Analog Supply AVDD Digital Supply DVDD Analog Supply Current IAVDD 4.75 2.7 CS = DGND 200ksps 2.75 100ksps 1.4 10ksps 0.14 1ksps 0.014 200ksps Digital Supply Current IDVDD CS = DGND, DOUT = all zeros 0.6 100ksps 0.3 10ksps 0.03 1ksps 0.003 5.25 V 5.25 V 3.25 mA 1.0 mA _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX1062 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) MAX1062 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) (AVDD = DVDD = +4.75V to +5.25V, fSCLK = 4.8MHz (50% duty cycle), 24 clocks/conversion (200ksps), VREF = +4.096V, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER Shutdown Supply Current Power-Supply Rejection Ratio (Note 5) SYMBOL IAVDD + IDVDD PSRR CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS CS = DVDD, SCLK = idle 0.1 10 µA AVDD = DVDD = +4.75V to +5.25V, full-scale input 68 dB MAX1062 TIMING CHARACTERISTICS (Figures 1, 2, 3, and 6) (AVDD = DVDD = +4.75V to +5.25V, fSCLK = 4.8MHz (50% duty cycle), 24 clocks/conversion (200ksps), VREF = +4.096V, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX 1.1 UNITS Acquisition Time tACQ µs SCLK to DOUT Valid tDO CDOUT = 50pF 50 ns CS Fall to DOUT Enable tDV CDOUT = 50pF 80 ns CS Rise to DOUT Disable tTR CDOUT = 50pF 80 ns CS Pulse Width tCSW 50 CS Fall to SCLK Rise Setup tCSS 100 CS Rise to SCLK Rise Hold tCSH SCLK High Pulse Width tCH 65 ns SCLK Low Pulse Width tCL 65 ns SCLK Period tCP 208 ns ns ns 0 ns (AVDD = +4.75V to +5.25V, DVDD = +2.7V to +5.25V, fSCLK = 4.8MHz (50% duty cycle), 24 clocks/conversion (200ksps), VREF = +4.096V, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX Acquisition Time tACQ SCLK to DOUT Valid tDO CDOUT = 50pF 100 ns CS Fall to DOUT Enable tDV CDOUT = 50pF 100 ns tTR CDOUT = 50pF CS Rise to DOUT Disable 1.1 UNITS µs 80 ns CS Pulse Width tCSW 50 ns CS Fall to SCLK Rise Setup tCSS 100 ns CS Rise to SCLK Rise Hold tCSH SCLK High Pulse Width tCH 0 ns 65 ns SCLK Low Pulse Width tCL 65 ns SCLK Period tCP 208 ns Note 1: AVDD = DVDD = +5V. Note 2: Relative accuracy is the deviation of the analog value at any code from its theoretical value after the full-scale range has been calibrated. Note 3: Offset and reference errors nulled. Note 4: Conversion time is defined as the number of clock cycles multiplied by the clock period; clock has 50% duty cycle. Note 5: Defined as the change in positive full scale caused by a ±5% variation in the nominal supply voltage. 4 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown INL vs. OUTPUT CODE DNL vs. OUTPUT CODE 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2 DNL (LSB) 0.4 0 -0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.4 -0.6 -0.6 -0.8 -0.8 -1.0 -1.0 0 3276 6553 9830 13107 MAX1062 toc03 0.8 -20 -40 MAGNITUDE (dB) 0.6 MAX1062 FFT 0 MAX1062 toc02 0.8 INL (LSB) 1.0 MAX1062 toc01 1.0 -60 -80 -100 -120 16384 0 3276 6553 OUTPUT CODE 9830 13107 -140 16384 0 OUTPUT CODE 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 FREQUENCY (kHz) SFDR VS. FREQUENCY 100 90 -30 70 -40 40 THD (dB) 80 50 50 -50 -60 40 -70 30 30 -80 20 20 -90 10 -100 fSAMPLE = 200kHz fSAMPLE = 200kHz 0 0 0.1 1 10 -110 0.1 100 1 10 100 0.1 1 FREQUENCY (kHz) FREQUENCY (kHz) SUPPLY CURRENT SUPPLY CURRENT VS. CONVERSION RATE VS. SUPPLY VOLTAGE 0.1 0.01 0.001 SUPPLY CURRENT VS. TEMPERATURE 3.0 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 3.0 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 1 100 3.5 MAX1062 toc08 3.5 MAX1062 toc07 10 10 FREQUENCY (kHz) 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 MAX1062 toc09 10 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) -20 70 60 fSAMPLE = 200kHz -10 60 SFDR (dB) SINAD (dB) 80 0 MAX1062 toc05 MAX1062 toc04 90 THD VS. FREQUENCY 110 MAX1062 toc06 SINAD VS. FREQUENCY 100 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 0 0 AVDD = DVDD= +5V 0.0001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 CONVERSION RATE (kHz) 1000 4.75 4.85 4.95 5.05 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 5.15 5.25 -40 -15 10 35 60 85 TEMPERATURE (°C) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX1062 Typical Operating Characteristics (AVDD = DVDD = +5V, fSCLK = 4.8MHz, CLOAD = 50pF, VREF = +4.096V, TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.) Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (AVDD = DVDD = +5V, fSCLK = 4.8MHz, CLOAD = 50pF, VREF = +4.096V, TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.) SHUTDOWN SUPPLY CURRENT VS. SUPPLY VOLTAGE SHUTDOWN SUPPLY CURRENT VS. TEMPERATURE 18 16 AVDD = DVDD = +5V 400 350 14 300 12 ISHDN (nA) ISHDN (nA) MAX1062 toc11 450 MAX1062 toc10 20 10 8 250 200 6 150 4 100 2 50 0 4.75 4.85 4.95 5.05 5.15 0 5.25 -40 -15 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 10 35 60 85 TEMPERATURE (°C) OFFSET ERROR VS. ANALOG SUPPLY VOLTAGE 600 800 600 OFFSET ERROR (µV) 400 200 0 -200 -400 MAX1062 toc13 800 OFFSET ERROR (µV) OFFSET ERROR VS. TEMPERATURE 1000 MAX1062 toc12 1000 -600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -800 -800 -1000 -1000 4.75 4.85 4.95 5.05 5.15 5.25 -40 -15 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 10 35 60 85 TEMPERATURE (°C) GAIN ERROR GAIN ERROR VS. TEMPERATURE VS. ANALOG SUPPLY VOLTAGE 0.015 0.015 0.010 GAIN ERROR (%) 0.010 0.005 0 -0.005 0.005 0 -0.005 -0.010 -0.010 -0.015 -0.015 -0.020 -0.020 4.75 4.85 4.95 5.05 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 6 MAX1062 toc15 0.020 MAX1062 toc14 0.020 GAIN ERROR (%) MAX1062 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown 5.15 5.25 -40 -15 10 35 TEMPERATURE (°C) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 60 85 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown PIN NAME FUNCTION 1 REF 2 AVDD Analog +5V Supply Voltage. Bypass to AGND (pin 3) with a 0.1µF capacitor. 3, 9 AGND Analog Ground. Connect pins 3 and 9 together. Place star ground at pin 3. 4 CS Active Low Chip Select Input. Forcing CS high places the MAX1062 in shutdown with a typical current of 0.1µA. A high-to-low transition on CS activates normal operating mode and initiates a conversion. 5 SCLK Serial Clock Input. SCLK drives the conversion process and clocks out data at data rates up to 4.8MHz. 6 DOUT Serial Data Output. Data changes state on SCLK’s falling edge. DOUT is high impedance when CS is high. 7 DGND Digital Ground 8 DVDD Digital Supply Voltage. Bypass to DGND with a 0.1µF capacitor. 10 AIN External Reference Voltage Input. Sets the analog voltage range. Bypass to AGND with a 4.7µF capacitor. Analog Input Detailed Description The MAX1062 includes an input track-and-hold (T/H) and successive-approximation register (SAR) circuitry to convert an analog input signal to a digital 14-bit output. Figure 4 shows the MAX1062 in its simplest configuration. The serial interface requires only three digital lines (SCLK, CS, and DOUT) and provides an easy interface to microprocessors (µPs). The MAX1062 has two power modes: normal and shutdown. Driving CS high places the MAX1062 in shutdown, reducing the supply current to 0.1µA (typ), while pulling CS low places the MAX1062 in normal operating mode. Falling edges on CS initiate conversions that are driven by SCLK. The conversion result is available at DOUT in unipolar serial format. The serial data stream consists of eight zeros followed by the data bits (MSB first). Figure 3 shows the interface-timing diagram. Analog Input Figure 5 illustrates the input sampling architecture of the ADC. The voltage applied at REF sets the full-scale input voltage. Track-and-Hold (T/H) In track mode, the analog signal is acquired on the internal hold capacitor. In hold mode, the T/H switches open and the capacitive DAC samples the analog input. During the acquisition, the analog input (AIN) charges capacitor CDAC. The acquisition interval ends on the falling edge of the sixth clock cycle (Figure 6). At this instant, the T/H switches open. The retained charge on CDAC represents a sample of the input. In hold mode, the capacitive digital-to-analog converter (DAC) adjusts during the remainder of the conversion cycle to restore node ZERO to zero within the limits of 14-bit resolution. At the end of the conversion, force CS high and then low to reset the input side of the CDAC switches back to AIN, and charge CDAC to the input signal again. The time required for the T/H to acquire an input signal is a function of how quickly its input capacitance is charged. If the input signal’s source impedance is high, the acquisition time lengthens and more time must be allowed between conversions. The acquisition time (tACQ) is the maximum time the device takes to acquire the signal. Use the following formula to calculate acquisition time: tACQ = 11(RS + RIN) x 35pF where R IN = 800Ω, R S = the input signal’s source impedance, and t ACQ is never less than 1.1µs. A source impedance less than 1kΩ does not significantly affect the ADC’s performance. To improve the input signal bandwidth under AC conditions, drive AIN with a wideband buffer (>4MHz) that can drive the ADC’s input capacitance and settle quickly. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MAX1062 Pin Description MAX1062 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown VDD VDD 1mA DOUT 1mA DOUT 1mA DOUT CLOAD = 50pF CLOAD = 50pF DGND 1mA DGND a) VOL TO VOH DOUT CLOAD = 50pF CLOAD = 50pF DGND b) HIGH-Z TO VOL AND VOH TO VOL Figure 1. Load Circuits for DOUT Enable Time and SCLK to DOUT Delay Time DGND a) VOH TO HIGH-Z b) VOL TO HIGH-Z Figure 2. Load Circuits for DOUT Disable Time CS tCSW tCSS tCL tCH tCSH SCLK tCP tDV tDO tTR DOUT Figure 3. Detailed Serial Interface Timing Input Bandwidth The ADC’s input tracking circuitry has a 4MHz smallsignal bandwidth, so it is possible to digitize highspeed transient events and measure periodic signals with bandwidths exceeding the ADC’s sampling rate by using undersampling techniques. To avoid aliasing of unwanted high-frequency signals into the frequency band of interest, use antialias filtering. Analog Input Protection Internal protection diodes, which clamp the analog input to AVDD and/or AGND, allow the input to swing from AGND - 0.3V to AVDD + 0.3V, without damaging the device. If the analog input exceeds 300mV beyond the supplies, limit the input current to 10mA. AIN VREF AIN CS REF SCLK DOUT 4.7µF AVDD +5V MAX1062 0.1µF +5V DVDD AGND DGND 0.1µF GND Figure 4. Typical Operating Circuit 8 _______________________________________________________________________________________ CS SCLK DOUT 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown Initialization after Power-Up and Starting a Conversion MAX1062 Digital Interface REF The digital interface consists of two inputs, SCLK and CS, and one output, DOUT. A logic high on CS places the MAX1062 in shutdown (autoshutdown) and places DOUT in a high-impedance state. A logic low on CS places the MAX1062 in the fully powered mode. To start a conversion, pull CS low. A falling edge on CS initiates an acquisition. SCLK drives the A/D conversion and shifts out the conversion results (MSB first) at DOUT. TRACK AIN CAPACITIVE DAC ZERO CSWITCH 3pF CDAC 32pF HOLD RIN 800Ω GND TRACK HOLD AUTOZERO RAIL Timing and Control Conversion-start and data-read operations are controlled by the CS and SCLK digital inputs (Figures 6 and 7). Ensure that the duty cycle on SCLK is between 40% and 60% at 4.8MHz (the maximum clock frequency). For lower clock frequencies, ensure that the minimum high and low times are at least 65ns. Conversions with SCLK rates less than 100kHz may result in reduced accuracy due to leakage. Figure 5. Equivalent Input Circuit SCLK begins shifting out the data (MSB first) after the falling edge of the 8th SCLK pulse. Twenty-four falling clock edges are needed to shift out the eight leading zeros, 14 data bits, and 2 sub-bits (S1 and S0). Extra clock pulses occurring after the conversion result has been clocked out, and prior to the rising edge of CS, produce trailing zeros at DOUT and have no effect on the converter operation. Force CS high after reading the conversion’s LSB to reset the internal registers and place the MAX1062 in shutdown. For maximum throughput, force CS low again to initiate the next conversion immediately after the specified minimum time (tCSW). Note: Forcing CS high in the middle of a conversion immediately aborts the conversion and places the MAX1062 in shutdown. Note: Coupling between SCLK and the analog inputs (AIN and REF) may result in an offset. Variations in frequency, duty cycle, or other aspects of the clock signal’s shape result in changing offset. A CS falling edge initiates an acquisition sequence. The analog input is stored in the capacitive DAC, DOUT changes from high impedance to logic low, and the ADC begins to convert after the sixth clock cycle. SCLK drives the conversion process and shifts out the conversion result on DOUT. CS SCLK DOUT tDN 1 4 tCSS tCL 6 8 tACQ 12 16 24 20 tCSH tCH D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 S1 S0 tDO tTR Figure 6. External Timing Diagram _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX1062 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown COMPLETE CONVERSION SEQUENCE CS DOUT CONVERSION 0 POWERED UP CONVERSION 1 POWERED DOWN POWERED UP Figure 7. Shutdown Sequence Output Coding and Transfer Function The data output from the MAX1062 is binary and Figure 8 depicts the nominal transfer function. Code transitions occur halfway between successive-integer LSB values (VREF = 4.096V and 1LSB = 250µV or 4.096V/16384). OUTPUT CODE FULL-SCALE TRANSITION 11 . . . 111 11 . . . 110 11 . . . 101 Applications Information External Reference The MAX1062 requires an external reference with a voltage range between 3.8V and AVDD. Connect the external reference directly to REF. Bypass REF to AGND (pin 3) with a 4.7µF capacitor. When not using a low ESR bypass capacitor, use a 0.1µF ceramic capacitor in parallel with the 4.7µF capacitor. Noise on the reference degrades conversion accuracy. The input impedance at REF is 40kΩ for DC currents. During a conversion the external reference at REF must deliver 100µA of DC load current and have an output impedance of 10Ω or less. For optimal performance, buffer the reference through an op amp and bypass the REF input. Consider the MAX1062’s equivalent input noise (80µV RMS) when choosing a reference. Input Buffer Most applications require an input buffer amplifier to achieve 14-bit accuracy. If the input signal is multiplexed, switch the input channel immediately after acquisition, rather than near the end of or after a conversion (Figure 9). This allows the maximum time for the input buffer amplifier to respond to a large step change in the input signal. The input amplifier must have a slew rate of at least 2V/µs to complete the required output voltage change before the beginning of the acquisition time. 10 FS = VREF V 1LSB = REF 16384 00 . . . 011 00 . . . 010 00 . . . 001 00 . . . 000 0 1 2 3 INPUT VOLTAGE (LSB) FS FS - 3/2LSB Figure 8. Unipolar Transfer Function, Full Scale (FS) = VREF, Zero Scale (ZS) = GND At the beginning of the acquisition, the internal sampling capacitor array connects to AIN (the amplifier output), causing some output disturbance. Ensure that the sampled voltage has settled before the end of the acquisition time. Digital Noise Digital noise can couple to AIN and REF. The conversion clock (SCLK) and other digital signals active during input acquisition contribute noise to the conversion result. Noise signals synchronous with the sampling interval result in an effective input offset. Asynchronous signals produce random noise on the input, whose ______________________________________________________________________________________ 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown IN2 A0 MAX1062 IN1 A1 4-TO-1 MUX MAX1062 IN3 AIN OUT IN4 CS CLK ACQUISITION CONVERSION CS A0 A1 CHANGE MUX INPUT HERE Figure 9. Change Multiplexer Input Near Beginning of Conversion to Allow Time for Slewing and Settling high-frequency components may be aliased into the frequency band of interest. Minimize noise by presenting a low impedance (at the frequencies contained in the noise signal) at the inputs. This requires bypassing AIN to AGND, or buffering the input with an amplifier that has a small-signal bandwidth of several MHz, or preferably both. AIN has about 4MHz of bandwidth. Distortion Avoid degrading dynamic performance by choosing an amplifier with distortion much less than the MAX1062’s total harmonic distortion (THD = -99dB at 1kHz) at frequencies of interest. If the chosen amplifier has insufficient common-mode rejection, which results in degraded THD performance, use the inverting configuration (positive input grounded) to eliminate errors from this source. Low temperature-coefficient, gain-setting resistors reduce linearity errors caused by resistance changes due to self-heating. To reduce linearity errors due to finite amplifier gain, use amplifier circuits with sufficient loop gain at the frequencies of interest. DC Accuracy To improve DC accuracy, choose a buffer with an offset much less than the MAX1062’s offset (1mV (max) for +5V supply), or whose offset can be trimmed while maintaining stability over the required temperature range. Serial Interfaces The MAX1062’s interface is fully compatible with SPI, QSPI, and MICROWIRE standard serial interfaces. If a serial interface is available, establish the CPU’s serial interface as master, so that the CPU generates the serial clock for the MAX1062. Select a clock frequency between 100kHz and 4.8MHz: 1) Use a general-purpose I/O line on the CPU to pull CS low. 2) Activate SCLK for a minimum of 24 clock cycles. The serial data stream of eight leading zeros followed by the MSB of the conversion result begins at the falling edge of CS. DOUT transitions on SCLK’s falling edge and the output is available in MSB-first ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX1062 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown SPI and MICROWIRE Interfaces format. Observe the SCLK to DOUT valid timing characteristic. Clock data into the µP on SCLK’s rising edge. 3) Pull CS high at or after the 24th falling clock edge. If CS remains low, trailing zeros are clocked out after the 2 sub-bits, S1 and S0. 4) With CS high, wait at least 50ns (tCSW) before starting a new conversion by pulling CS low. A conversion can be aborted by pulling CS high before the conversion ends. Wait at least 50ns before starting a new conversion. Data can be output in three 8-bit sequences or continuously. The bytes contain the results of the conversion padded with eight leading zeros before the MSB. If the serial clock has not been idled after the sub-bits (S1 and S0) and CS has been kept low, DOUT sends trailing zeros. I/O SCK MISO When using the SPI (Figure 10a) or MICROWIRE (Figure 10b) interfaces, set CPOL = 0 and CPHA = 0. Conversion begins with a falling edge on CS (Figure 10c). Three consecutive 8-bit readings are necessary to obtain the entire 14-bit result from the ADC. DOUT data transitions on the serial clock’s falling edge. The first 8-bit data stream contains all leading zeros. The second 8-bit data stream contains the MSB through D6. The third 8-bit data stream contains D5 through D0 followed by S1 and S0. QSPI Interface Using the high-speed QSPI interface with CPOL = 0 and CPHA = 0, the MAX1062 supports a maximum fSCLK of 4.8MHz. Figure 11a shows the MAX1062 connected to a QSPI master and Figure 11b shows the associated interface timing. CS I/O CS SCLK SK SCLK DOUT SI DOUT MICROWIRE VDD SPI MAX1062 MAX1067 MAX1068 SS Figure 10a. SPI Connections Figure 10b. MICROWIRE Connections 1ST BYTE READ 1 SCLK 2ND BYTE READ 4 6 12 8 16 CS DOUT* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 MSB *WHEN CS IS HIGH, DOUT = HIGH-Z 3RD BYTE READ 20 24 HIGH-Z D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 S1 S0 LSB Figure 10c. SPI/MICROWIRE Interface Timing Sequence (CPOL = CPHA =0) 12 ______________________________________________________________________________________ D6 D5 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown QSPI MAX1062 CS CS SCK SCLK MISO DOUT VDD MAX1062 SS Figure 11a. QSPI Connections 1 SCLK CS 4 6 8 END OF ACQUISITION DOUT* 12 D13 D12 D11 D10 16 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 MSB *WHEN CS IS HIGH, DOUT = HIGH-Z 24 20 D1 D0 S1 S0 HIGH-Z LSB Figure 11b. QSPI Interface Timing Sequence (CPOL = CPHA = 0) PIC16 with SSP Module and PIC17 Interface VDD VDD SCLK SCK DOUT SDI CS I/O PIC16/17 MAX1062 GND Figure 12a. SPI Interface Connection for a PIC16/PIC17 The MAX1062 is compatible with a PIC16/PIC17 microcontroller (µC) using the synchronous serial-port (SSP) module. To establish SPI communication, connect the controller as shown in Figure 12a. Configure the PIC16/PIC17 as system master, by initializing its synchronous serial-port control register (SSPCON) and synchronous serial-port status register (SSPSTAT) to the bit patterns shown in Tables 1 and 2. In SPI mode, the PIC16/PIC17 µC allows 8 bits of data to be synchronously transmitted and received simulta- Table 1. Detailed SSPCON Register Contents CONTROL BIT MAX1062 SETTINGS SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL-PORT CONTROL REGISTER (SSPCON) WCOL BIT7 X Write Collision Detection Bit SSPOV BIT6 X Receive Overflow Detect Bit SSPEN BIT5 1 Synchronous Serial-Port Enable Bit: 0: Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins. 1: Enables serial port and configures SCK, SDO, and SCI pins as serial port pins. Clock Polarity Select Bit. CKP = 0 for SPI master mode selection. CKP BIT4 0 SSPM3 BIT3 0 SSPM2 BIT2 0 SSPM1 BIT1 0 SSPM0 BIT0 1 Synchronous Serial-Port Mode Select Bit. Sets SPI master mode and selects fCLK = fOSC / 16. X = Don’t care ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MAX1062 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown Table 2. Detailed SSPSTAT Register Contents CONTROL BIT MAX1062 SETTINGS SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL-PORT CONTROL REGISTER (SSPSTAT) SMP BIT7 0 SPI Data Input Sample Phase. Input data is sampled at the middle of the data output time. CKE BIT6 1 SPI Clock Edge Select Bit. Data will be transmitted on the rising edge of the serial clock. D/A BIT5 X Data Address Bit P BIT4 X Stop Bit S BIT3 X Start Bit R/W BIT2 X Read/Write Bit Information UA BIT1 X Update Address BF BIT0 X Buffer Full Status Bit X = Don’t care 1ST BYTE READ 2ND BYTE READ 12 SCLK 16 CS DOUT* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 MSB *WHEN CS IS HIGH, DOUT = HIGH-Z 3RD BYTE READ 20 24 HIGH-Z D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 S1 S0 LSB Figure 12b. SPI Interface Timing with PIC16/PIC17 in Master Mode (CKE = 1, CKP = 0, SMP = 0, SSPM3 - SSPM0 =0001) neously. Three consecutive 8-bit readings (Figure 12b) are necessary to obtain the entire 14-bit result from the ADC. DOUT data transitions on the serial clock’s falling edge and is clocked into the µC on SCLK’s rising edge. The first 8-bit data stream contains all zeros. The second 8-bit data stream contains the MSB through D6. The third 8-bit data stream contains bits D5 through D0 followed by S1 and S0. Definitions line drawn between the end points of the transfer function, once offset and gain errors have been nullified. The static linearity parameters for the MAX1062 are measured using the endpoint method. Differential Nonlinearity Differential nonlinearity (DNL) is the difference between an actual step width and the ideal value of 1LSB. A DNL error specification of 1LSB guarantees no missing codes and a monotonic transfer function. Integral Nonlinearity Aperture Definitions Integral nonlinearity (INL) is the deviation of the values on an actual transfer function from a straight line. This straight line can be either a best-fit straight line fit or a Aperture jitter (tAJ) is the sample-to-sample variation in the time between samples. Aperture delay (tAD) is the 14 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown MAX1062 Fig13 12 EFFECTIVE BITS 10 scale range of the ADC, calculate the effective number of bits as follows: ENOB = (SINAD – 1.76) / 6.02 Figure 13 shows the effective number of bits as a function of the MAX1062’s input frequency. Total Harmonic Distortion 8 Total harmonic distortion (THD) is the ratio of the RMS sum of the first five harmonics of the input signal to the fundamental itself. This is expressed as: 6 4 2 ⎡ 2 2 2 2 ⎢ V2 + V3 + V4 + V5 THD = 20 × log⎢ V1 ⎢⎣ fSAMPLE = 200kHz 0 0.1 1 10 100 INPUT FREQUENCY (kHz) Figure 13. Effective Bits vs. Input Frequency ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥⎦ where V1 is the fundamental amplitude and V2 through V5 are the 2nd- through 5th-order harmonics. Spurious-Free Dynamic Range time between the falling edge of the sampling clock and the instant when the actual sample is taken. Signal-to-Noise Ratio For a waveform perfectly reconstructed from digital samples, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the ratio of the full-scale analog input (RMS value) to the RMS quantization error (residual error). The ideal, theoretical minimum analog-to-digital noise is caused by quantization noise error only and results directly from the ADCs resolution (N bits): SNR = (6.02 x N + 1.76)dB In reality, there are other noise sources besides quantization noise: thermal noise, reference noise, clock jitter, etc. SNR is computed by taking the ratio of the RMS signal to the RMS noise, which includes all spectral components minus the fundamental, the first five harmonics, and the DC offset. Spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is the ratio of the RMS amplitude of the fundamental (maximum signal component) to the RMS value of the next largest frequency component. Supplies, Layout, Grounding and Bypassing Use PC boards with separate analog and digital ground planes. Do not use wire-wrap boards. Connect the two ground planes together at the MAX1062 (pin 3). Isolate the digital supply from the analog with a lowvalue resistor (10Ω) or ferrite bead when the analog and digital supplies come from the same source (Figure 14). AIN AIN CS REF SCLK DOUT Signal-to-Noise Plus Distortion Signal-to-noise plus distortion (SINAD) is the ratio of the fundamental input frequency’s RMS amplitude to the RMS equivalent of all the other ADC output signals. ⎡ ⎤ SignalRMS ⎥ SINAD(dB) = 20 × log ⎢ ⎢ (Noise + Distortion) ⎥ RMS ⎦ ⎣ Effective Number of Bits Effective number of bits (ENOB) indicate the global accuracy of an ADC at a specific input frequency and sampling rate. An ideal ADC error consists of quantization noise only. With an input range equal to the full- VREF CS SCLK DOUT 4.7µF AVDD +5V MAX1062 10Ω 0.1µF DVDD 0.1µF AGND DGND GND Figure 14. Powering AVDD and DVDD from a Single Supply ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 MAX1062 14 MAX1062 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown Functional Diagram Constraints on sequencing the power supplies and inputs are as follows: • Apply AGND before DGND. • Apply AIN and REF after AVDD and AGND are present. • DVDD is independent of the supply sequencing. Ensure that digital return currents do not pass through the analog ground and that return-current paths are low impedance. A 5mA current flowing through a PC board ground trace impedance of only 0.05Ω creates an error voltage of about 250µV, 1LSB error with a 4V full-scale system. The board layout should ensure that digital and analog signal lines are kept separate. Do not run analog and digital (especially the SCLK and DOUT) lines parallel to one another. If one must cross another, do so at right angles. The ADCs high-speed comparator is sensitive to highfrequency noise on the AVDD power supply. Bypass an excessively noisy supply to the analog ground plane with a 0.1µF capacitor in parallel with a 1µF to 10µF low-ESR capacitor. Keep capacitor leads short for best supply-noise rejection. 16 AVDD DVDD REF AIN AGND SCLK TRACK AND HOLD OUTPUT BUFFER 14-BIT SAR ADC CONTROL CS MAX1062 DGND ______________________________________________________________________________________ DOUT 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown TRANSISTOR COUNT: 12,100 PROCESS: BiCMOS For the latest package outline information and land patterns, go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages. Note that a "+", "#", or "-" in the package code indicates RoHS status only. Package drawings may show a different suffix character, but the drawing pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status. PACKAGE TYPE PACKAGE CODE DOCUMENT NO. 10 µMAX U10-2 21-0061 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 17 MAX1062 Package Information Chip Information MAX1062 14-Bit, +5V, 200ksps ADC with 10µA Shutdown Revision History REVISION NUMBER REVISION DATE 0 10/01 Initial release 1 5/09 Updated some specifications DESCRIPTION PAGES CHANGED — 1, 3 Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 18 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2009 Maxim Integrated Products Maxim is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.