19-3589; Rev 1; 8/05 KIT ATION EVALU E L B AVAILA 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier The MAX9715 high-efficiency, stereo, Class D audio power amplifier provides up to 2.8W per channel into a 4Ω speaker with a 5V supply. Maxim’s second-generation Class D technology features robust output protection, high efficiency, and high power-supply rejection (PSRR) while eliminating the need for output filters. Selectable gain settings, +10.5dB or +9.0dB, adjust the amplifier gain to suit the audio input level and speaker load. The MAX9715 features high PSRR (71dB at 1kHz), allowing for operation from noisy supplies without additional regulation. Comprehensive click-and-pop suppression eliminates audible clicks and pops at startup and shutdown. The MAX9715 operates from a single 5V supply and consumes only 12mA of supply current. Integrated shutdown control reduces supply current to less than 100nA. The MAX9715 is fully specified over the extended -40°C to +85°C temperature range and is available in thermally enhanced 16-pin thin QFN-EP and 16-pin TSSOP packages. Features ♦ 5V Single-Supply Operation ♦ Patented Spread-Spectrum Modulator Reduces EMI ♦ 2.8W, Class D, Stereo Speaker Amplifier (4Ω) ♦ Filterless Class D Requires No LC Output Filter ♦ High PSRR (71dB at 1kHz) ♦ 86% Efficiency (RL = 8Ω, POUT = 1W) ♦ Low-Power Shutdown Mode ♦ Integrated Click-and-Pop Suppression ♦ Low Total Harmonic Distortion: 0.06% at 1kHz ♦ Short-Circuit and Thermal Protection ♦ Internal Gain, +9.0dB or +10.5dB ♦ Available in Space-Saving Packages 16-Pin Thin QFN-EP (5mm x 5mm x 0.8mm) 16-Pin TSSOP Applications High-End Notebook Audio Ordering Information PART LCD Projectors Portable Audio TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE MAX9715ETE+ -40°C to +85°C 16 TQFN-EP* MAX9715EUE+ -40°C to +85°C 16 TSSOP +Denotes lead-free package. *EP = Exposed paddle. Multimedia Docking Stations Typical Operating Circuit/Functional Diagram appears at end of data sheet. Pin Configurations OUTR+ OUTR- PVDD 4.5V TO 5.5V SUPPLY OUTR+ TOP VIEW PGND Block Diagram 12 11 10 9 BIAS 13 8 SHDN 7 GND INR 15 6 GAIN INL 16 5 N.C. INR OUTRGAIN VDD 14 MAX9715 CLASS D AMPLIFIER OUTL+ INL 2 3 4 OUTL+ OUTL- PVDD MAX9715 1 PGND OUTL- TQFN Pin Configurations continued at end of data sheet. ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim/Dallas Direct! at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com. 1 MAX9715 General Description MAX9715 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS VDD, PVDD, to GND ...............................................................+6V GND to PGND .......................................................-0.3V to +0.3V Any Other Pin to PGND ............................. -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Duration of OUT__ Short Circuit to PGND or PVDD ....Continuous Duration of OUT_+ Short Circuit between OUT_- ......Continuous Continuous Current Into/Out of (PVDD, OUT__, PGND)........1.7A Continuous Input Current (All Other Pins) ....................... ±20mA Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 16-Pin TQFN-EP (derate 20.8mW/°C above +70°C)..1666mW 16-Pin TSSOP (derate 9.4mW/°C above +70°C) ......754.7mW Operating Temperature Range ...........................-40°C to +85°C Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +150°C Junction Temperature ......................................................+150°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VDD = PVDD = 5.0V, GND = PGND = 0V, VSHDN = VDD, CBIAS = 1µF, speaker impedance = 8Ω in series with 68µH connected between OUT_+ and OUT_-, GAIN = +10.5dB, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Notes 1, 2) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS GENERAL Supply Voltage Range VDD Inferred from PSRR test 5.5 V Quiescent Current IDD No load 12.8 16 mA VSHDN = 0V 0.1 2 µA 10 13.5 Shutdown Supply Current ISHDN 4.5 Input Resistance RIN Turn-On Time tON 6.5 25 ms kΩ BIAS Voltage VBIAS 1.8 V CLASS D SPEAKER AMPLIFIERS Output Offset Voltage Maximum Speaker Amplifier Gain (Note 3) VOS AV TA = +25°C 12.6 TA = TMIN to TMAX 70 GAIN = 0 10.5 GAIN = 1 9.0 PVDD or VDD = 4.5V to 5.5V Power-Supply Rejection Ratio PSRR VIN_ = 0V THD+N = 1% Output Power POUT THD+N = 10% Total Harmonic Distortion Plus Noise Signal-to-Noise Ratio Maximum Capacitive Load Switching Frequency 2 THD+N SNR f = 1kHz 52.4 71 f = 20kHz, 100mVP-P 60 RL = 8Ω 1.4 RL = 4Ω 2.3 RL = 8Ω 1.7 RL = 4Ω 2.8 RL = 8Ω, POUT = 1.2W 0.06 RL = 4Ω, POUT = 2W 0.07 POUT = 1W, BW = 22Hz to 22kHz 89 POUT = 1W, A-weighted 93 dB dB W % dB 200 Average frequency in spread-spectrum operation 1.00 mV 75 f = 1kHz, 100mVP-P CL_MAX fSW 45 1.22 _______________________________________________________________________________________ pF 1.40 MHz 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier (VDD = PVDD = 5.0V, GND = PGND = 0V, VSHDN = VDD, CBIAS = 1µF, speaker impedance = 8Ω in series with 68µH connected between OUT_+ and OUT_-, GAIN = +10.5dB, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Notes 1, 2) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN Spread-Spectrum Modulation Crosstalk Channel-to-channel, f = 10kHz, POUT = 1W, left to right or right to left Click-and-Pop Level Peak voltage, A-weighted, 32 samples per second (Note 4) KCP MAX UNITS ±120 kHz 72 dB Into shutdown -64 Out of shutdown -46 dBV RL = 8Ω in series with 68µH, POUT = 1W per channel, f = 1kHz η Efficiency TYP 86 % DIGITAL INPUTS (GAIN and SHDN) Input High Voltage VIH Input Low Voltage VIL Input Leakage Current 2.0 V 0.8 ILEAK SHDN ±1 GAIN ±1.5 V µA Note 1: All devices are 100% production tested at TA = +25°C. All temperature limits are guaranteed by design. Note 2: Speaker amplifier gain is defined as AV = (VOUT_+ - VOUT_-) / VIN. Note 3: Click-and-pop level testing performed with an 8Ω resistive load in series with 68µH inductive load connected across the Class D BTL outputs. Mode transitions are controlled by the SHDN pin. Inputs AC-coupled to GND. Note 4: Testing performed with a resistive load in series with an inductor to simulate an actual speaker load. For RL = 4Ω, L = 33µH. For RL = 8Ω, L = 68µH. Typical Operating Characteristics (VDD = 5.0V, CVDD = 3 x 0.1µF, CBIAS = 1µF, CINL = CINR = 1µF, AV = +10.5dB, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) (See the Typical Operating Circuit/Functional Diagram) POUT = 0.35W VDD = 5V RL = 8Ω POUT = 0.5W 100 MAX9715toc03 1 MAX9715toc02 VDD = 5V RL = 4Ω MAX9715toc01 1 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION PLUS NOISE vs. OUTPUT POWER TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION PLUS NOISE vs. FREQUENCY TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION PLUS NOISE vs. FREQUENCY 10 fIN = 1kHz AND 20Hz THD+N (%) THD+N (%) POUT = 2W THD+N (%) 0.1 0.1 POUT = 1.25W 1 0.1 0.01 0.01 fIN = 10kHz 0.01 VDD = 5V RL = 4Ω 0.001 0.001 0.001 10 100 1k FREQUENCY (Hz) 10k 100k 10 100 1k FREQUENCY (Hz) 10k 100k 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 OUTPUT POWER (W) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX9715 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VDD = 5.0V, CVDD = 3 x 0.1µF, CBIAS = 1µF, CINL = CINR = 1µF, AV = +10.5dB, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) (See the Typical Operating Circuit/Functional Diagram) TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION PLUS NOISE vs. OUTPUT POWER EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT POWER 10 1 0.1 fIN = 10kHz 80 60 50 40 VDD = 5V fIN = 1kHz POUT = POUTL + POUTR OUTPUTS IN-PHASE 20 VDD = 5V RL = 8Ω 10 0 0 0 OUTPUT POWER (W) 4 2 3 OUTPUT POWER (W) EFFICIENCY vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE OUTPUT POWER vs. LOAD RESISTANCE 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 RL = 8Ω 90 80 1 VDD = 5V fIN = 1kHz LLOAD = 33µH 3.5 OUTPUT POWER (W) 3.0 70 RL = 4Ω 60 50 40 30 fIN = 1kHz POUT = POUTL + POUTR OUTPUTS IN-PHASE THD+N = 1% 20 10 5 4.0 MAX9715 toc06 100 2.5 6 MAX9715toc07 0.001 2.5 THD+N = 10% 2.0 1.5 1.0 THD+N = 1% 0.5 0 0 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.3 5.5 1 10 100 1k SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) LOAD RESISTANCE (Ω) OUTPUT POWER vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE OUTPUT POWER vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE 2.5 MAX9715toc08 5.0 4.5 4.0 THD+N = 10% 2.0 OUTPUT POWER (W) THD+N = 10% 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 THD+N = 1% 1.5 1.0 MAX9715toc09 EFFICIENCY (%) RL = 4Ω 70 30 0.01 1.5 THD+N = 1% 1.0 0.5 fIN = 1kHz RL = 4Ω 0.5 fIN = 1kHz RL = 8Ω 0 0 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.3 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 4 RL = 8Ω 90 EFFICIENCY (%) fIN = 20Hz MAX9715toc05 fIN = 1kHz THD+N (%) 100 MAX9715toc04 100 OUTPUT POWER (W) MAX9715 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier 5.5 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.3 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5.5 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier CROSSTALK vs. FREQUENCY -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -40 -60 RIGHT TO LEFT -80 -60 LEFT TO RIGHT -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 -120 -100 -90 -130 -100 -120 0.1 1 10 100 -140 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 5 10 15 FREQUENCY (kHz) FREQUENCY (kHz) OUTPUT SPECTRUM vs. FREQUENCY (A-WEIGHTED) WIDEBAND SPECTRUM SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE -20 AMPLITUDE (dBV) -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 -120 -40 -60 -80 VDD = 5V INPUTS AC GROUNDED RL = 8Ω -100 -130 5 10 FREQUENCY (kHz) 15 20 NO LOAD INPUTS AC GROUNDED 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 -120 -140 20 20 MAX9715toc15 -60 0 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) RL = 8Ω VDD = 5V fIN = 1kHz -50 MAX9715 toc14 -40 0 0 FREQUENCY (Hz) MAX9715toc13 0.01 AMPLITUDE (dBV) RL = 8Ω VDD = 5V fIN = 1kHz -50 AMPLITUDE (dBV) CROSSTALK (dB) -30 POUT = 1W RL = 8Ω A = +10.5dB fIN = 10kHz -20 -40 MAX9715 toc11 RL = 8Ω -20 PSRR (dB) 0 MAX9715toc10 0 -10 OUTPUT SPECTRUM vs. FREQUENCY MAX9715toc12 POWER-SUPPLY REJECTION RATIO vs. FREQUENCY 0 1 10 100 FREQUENCY (MHz) 1000 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.3 5.5 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX9715 Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VDD = 5.0V, CVDD = 3 x 0.1µF, CBIAS = 1µF, CINL = CINR = 1µF, AV = +10.5dB, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) (See the Typical Operating Circuit/Functional Diagram) Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VDD = 5.0V, CVDD = 3 x 0.1µF, CBIAS = 1µF, CINL = CINR = 1µF, AV = +10.5dB, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) (See the Typical Operating Circuit/Functional Diagram) SHUTDOWN CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE POWER-ON/OFF WAVEFORM MAX9715 toc17 MAX9715 toc16 0.40 0.35 SHUTDOWN CURRENT (µA) MAX9715 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier SHDN 5V/div 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 IOUT 200mA/div 0.10 0.05 0 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.3 10ms/div 5.5 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) Pin Description PIN 6 NAME FUNCTION TQFN TSSOP 1, 12 4, 13 PGND Power Ground 2 5 OUTL+ Left-Channel Positive Speaker Output 3 6 OUTL- Left-Channel Negative Speaker Output 4, 9 7, 10 PVDD Positive Speaker Power-Supply Input. Power-supply input for speaker amplifier output stages. Connect to VDD and bypass with 0.1µF to PGND. 5 — N.C. No connection. Not internally connected. 6 8 GAIN Gain Select. Sets the internal amplifier gain. See the Gain Selection section. 7 1, 14 GND Ground 8 9 SHDN Shutdown Control. Drive SHDN low to shut down the MAX9715. 10 11 OUTR- Right-Channel Negative Speaker Output 11 12 OUTR+ 13 15 BIAS Bias Voltage Output. VBIAS = 1.8V, bypass BIAS to GND with a 1µF ceramic capacitor. 14 16 VDD Positive Power-Supply Input. Bypass to GND with a 0.1µF ceramic capacitor. 15 2 INR Right-Channel Input 16 3 INL Left-Channel Input EP — EP Exposed Paddle. Connect EP to an electrically isolated copper pad or GND. Right-Channel Positive Speaker Output _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier MAX9715 fig01 45 AMPLITUDE (dBµV/m) MAX9715 50 40 35 30 25 20 15 30 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 FREQUENCY (MHz) Figure 1. MAX9715 Radiated Emissions with 75mm of Speaker Cable Detailed Description The MAX9715 2.8W, Class D speaker amplifier with gain control offers Class AB performance with Class D efficiency while occupying minimal board space. A unique modulation scheme and spread-spectrum switching allow filterless operation to create a compact, flexible, low-noise, efficient audio power amplifier. The MAX9715 features high 71dB at 1kHz PSRR, low 0.06% THD+N, industry-leading click-and-pop performance and a low-power shutdown mode. The MAX9715 features an undervoltage lockout that prevents operation from an insufficient power supply and click-and-pop suppression that eliminates audible transients at startup and shutdown. The speaker amplifier includes thermal-overload and short-circuit protection. The MAX9715 features unique, spread-spectrum operation that reduces the amplitude of spectral components at high frequencies, reducing EMI emissions that might otherwise be radiated by the speaker and cables. The switching frequency varies randomly by ±120kHz around the center frequency (1.22MHz). The modulation scheme is consistent with Maxim’s Class D amplifiers but the period of the triangle waveform changes from cycle to cycle. Audio reproduction is not affected by the spread-spectrum switching scheme. Instead of a large amount of spectral energy present at multiples of the switching frequency that energy is now spread over a range of frequencies. The spreading is increased with frequency so that above a few megahertz, the wideband spectrum looks like white noise for EMI purposes (Figure 1). VIN = 0V OUT- OUT+ VOUT+ - VOUT- = 0V Figure 2. MAX9715 Output without Input Signal Applied Filterless Modulation/Common-Mode Idle The spread-spectrum modulation scheme eliminates the LC filter required by traditional Class D amplifiers, improving efficiency, reducing component count, conserving board space and system cost. Conventional Class D amplifiers output a 50% duty cycle square wave when no signal is present. With no filter, the output square wave appears across the load, resulting in finite load current, which increases power consumption. When no signal is present at the input, the MAX9715 outputs switch as shown in Figure 2. The two outputs cancel each other because the MAX9715 drives the speaker differently, minimizing power consumption as there is no net idlemode voltage across the speaker. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 Efficiency Efficiency of a Class D amplifier is attributed to the region of operation of the output-stage transistors. In a Class D amplifier, the output transistors act as current-steering switches and consume negligible additional power. Any power loss associated with the Class D output stage is mostly due to the I2R loss of the MOSFET on-resistance, switching losses, and quiescent current overhead. EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT POWER 90 70 60 50 CLASS AB 40 30 20 VDD = 5V RL = 8Ω fIN = 1kHz 10 0 0 Gain Selection V − VOUT − 20 × log OUT + VIN MAX9715 80 The theoretical best efficiency of a linear amplifier is 78%, however, that efficiency is only exhibited at peak output powers. Under normal operating levels (typical music or voice reproduction levels), efficiency falls below 30%. Under the same conditions, the MAX9715 still exhibits >80% efficiencies (Figure 3). Drive GAIN high to set the gain of the speaker amplifiers to +9dB, drive GAIN low to set the gain of the speaker amplifiers to +10.5dB (see Table 1). The gain of the MAX9715 is calculated by the following equation: MAX9715 fig03 100 EFFICIENCY (%) MAX9715 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 OUTPUT POWER (W) Figure 3. MAX9715 Class D Efficiency vs. Typical Class AB Efficiency Table 1. MAX9715 Maximum Gain Settings Table 2 shows the speaker amplifier input voltage needed to attain maximum output power from a given gain setting and load. Shutdown The MAX9715 features a 0.1µA low-power shutdown mode that reduces quiescent current consumption and extends battery life. Driving SHDN low disables the output amplifiers, bias circuitry, and drives BIAS to GND. Connect SHDN to logic 1 for normal operation. GAIN SPEAKER MODE GAIN (dB) 0 +10.5 1 +9.0 Table 2. MAX9715 Input Voltage and Gain Settings for Maximum Output Power GAIN (dB) INPUT (VRMS) RL (Ω) POUT (W) 10.5 0.90 4 2.3 Click-and-Pop Suppression 9.0 1.08 4 2.3 The MAX9715 speaker amplifiers feature Maxim’s comprehensive, industry-leading click-and-pop suppression that eliminates any audible transients at startup. The outputs are high-impedance while in shutdown. During startup or power-up, the modulator bias voltage is set to the correct level while the input amplifiers are muted. The input amplifiers are muted for 25ms allowing the input capacitors to charge to the bias voltage (VBIAS). The amplifiers are then unmuted, ensuring click-free startup. 10.5 1.00 8 1.4 9.0 1.19 8 1.4 Applications Information Filterless Operation Traditional Class D amplifiers require an output filter to recover the audio signal from the amplifier’s PWM output. The filters add cost, increase the solution size of the 8 amplifier, and can decrease efficiency. The traditional PWM scheme uses large differential output swings (2 x VDD(P-P)), which causes large ripple currents. Any parasitic resistance in the filter components results in a loss of power, lowering the efficiency. The MAX9715 does not require an output filter. The device relies on the inherent inductance of the speaker coil and the natural filtering of both the speaker and the human ear to recover the audio component of the square-wave output. The elimination of the output filter results in a smaller, less costly, more efficient solution. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier Component Selection Input Filter The input capacitor (CIN), in conjunction with the amplifier input resistance (R IN ), forms a highpass filter that removes the DC bias from an incoming signal (see the Typical Application Circuit). The AC-coupling capacitor allows the amplifier to bias the signal to an optimum DC level. Assuming zero source impedance, the -3dB point of the highpass filter is given by: f−3dB = 1 2π × RIN × CIN RIN is the amplifier’s internal input resistance value given in the Electrical Characteristics table. Choose CIN so f -3dB is well below the lowest frequency of interest. Setting f-3dB too high affects the amplifier’s low-frequency response. Use capacitors with low-voltage coefficient dielectrics, such as tantalum or aluminum electrolytic. Capacitors with high-voltage coefficients, such as ceramics, may result in increased distortion at low frequencies. The inability of small diaphragm speakers to reproduce low frequencies can be exploited to improve click-andpop performance. Set the cutoff frequency of the MAX9715’s input highpass filter to match the speaker’s frequency response. Doing so will allow for smaller CIN values and reduce click-and-pop. Output Filter The MAX9715 speaker amplifiers do not require output filters. However, output filtering can be used if a design is failing radiated emissions due to board layout, cable length, or the circuit is near EMI-sensitive devices. Use a ferrite bead filter or a common-mode choke when radiated frequencies above 10MHz are of concern. Use an LC filter when radiated frequencies below 10MHz are of concern, or when long cables (>75mm) connect the amplifier to the speaker. Figure 4 shows possible output filter connections. OUTL+ OUTL+ OUTL+ OUTL- OUTL- OUTL- MAX9715 MAX9715 MAX9715 OUTR+ OUTR+ OUTR+ OUTR- OUTR- OUTR- (a) TYPICAL APPLICATION <75mm OF SPEAKER CABLE. (b) COMMON-MODE CHOKE FOR APPLICATIONS USING CABLE LENGTHS GREATER THAN 150mm. (c) LC FILTER WHEN USING LONG CABLE LENGTHS OR IN APPLICATIONS THAT ARE SENSITIVE TO EMI. Figure 4. Optional Speaker Amplifier Output Filter—Guidelines for FCC Compliance _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX9715 Voice coil movement due to the square-wave frequency is very small because the switching frequency of the MAX9715 is well beyond the bandwidth of most speakers. Although this movement is small, a speaker not designed to handle the additional power may be damaged. Use a speaker with a series inductance > 30µH for optimum efficiency. Typical 8Ω speakers exhibit series inductances in the 30µH to 100µH range. The highest efficiency is achieved with speaker inductances > 60µH. MAX9715 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier Supply Bypassing, Layout, and Grounding Proper layout and grounding are essential for optimum performance. Use large traces for the power-supply inputs and amplifier outputs to minimize losses due to parasitic trace resistance. Large traces also aid in moving heat away from the package. Proper grounding improves audio performance, minimizes crosstalk between channels, and prevents any switching noise from coupling into the audio signal. Route ground return paths that carry switching transients to power ground (PGND). Keep highcurrent return paths that connect to PGND short and route them away from analog ground (GND) and any traces or components in the audio input signal path. Use a star connection to connect GND and PGND together at one point on the PC board. Bypass each PVDD with a 0.1µF capacitor to PGND. Bypass VDD to GND with a 0.1µF capacitor. Place a bulk capacitor between VDD and PGND. Place the bypass capacitors as close to the MAX9715 as possible. Use large, low-resistance output traces. Current drawn from the output increases as load impedance decreases. High-output-trace resistance decreases the power delivered to the load. For example, when compared to a 0Ω trace, a 100mΩ trace reduces the power delivered to a 4Ω load from 2.1W to 2.0W. Large output, supply, and GND traces decrease the thermal impedance of the circuit and allow more heat to be radiated from the MAX9715 to the air. The MAX9715 thin QFN-EP package features an exposed thermal pad on its underside. This pad lowers the package’s thermal impedance by providing a direct- 10 heat conduction path from the die to the PC board. Connect the exposed thermal pad to an electrically isolated pad of copper. A bigger pad area provides better thermal performance. Connect EP to GND if PC board layout rules do not allow for isolated pads of copper. If EP is connected to GND, ensure that high-current return paths do not flow through EP. Biamp Configuration The Typical Application Circuit shows the MAX9715 configured as a mid-/high-frequency amplifier and the MAX9713 is configured as a mono bass amplifier. Capacitors C1 and C2 set the highpass cutoff frequency according to the following equation: f = 1 2π × RIN × C1 where RIN is the input resistance of the MAX9715 and C1 = C2. The 10µF capacitors on the output of the MAX9715 ensure a two-pole roll-off with the 5Ω load shown. The stereo signal is summed to a mono signal and then sent to a two-pole lowpass filter. The filtered signal is then amplified by the MAX9713. The passband gain of the lowpass filter, for coherent left and right signals is (-2 x R3) / R1, where R1 = R2. The cutoff frequency of the lowpass filter is set by the following equation: f = 1 × 2π 1 C 3 × C4 × R 3 × R4 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier 5V 22µF C1 15nF LEFT IN 8Ω 22µF MAX9715 C2 15nF RIGHT IN 8Ω R3 7.5kΩ C5 1µF C4 2.2nF R1 15kΩ R4 15kΩ C6 1µF R2 15kΩ 12V 1µF C3 22nF 2.5V MAX4480 1µF MAX9713 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX9715 Typical Application Circuit 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier MAX9715 Typical Operating Circuit/Functional Diagram 4.5V TO 5.5V SHUTDOWN CONTROL * 0.1µF 0.1µF 0.1µF PVDD VDD 1µF GAIN-SELECT LOGIC GAIN GAIN SELECT 1µF RIGHT AUDIO VDD RIN INL VBIAS OUTL- OSCILLATOR VDD CLASS D MODULATOR AND H-BRIDGE VBIAS BIAS OUTL+ CLASS D MODULATOR AND H-BRIDGE RIN INR SHDN SHDN CONTROL MAX9715 LEFT AUDIO PVDD OUTR+ OUTR- BIAS GENERATOR GND PGND PGND 1µF *BULK PC BOARD DECOUPLING, TYPICALLY GREATER THAN 10µF. Chip Information Pin Configurations (continued) TRANSISTOR COUNT: 11,721 TOP VIEW PROCESS: BiCMOS GND 1 16 VDD INR 2 15 BIAS INL 3 PGND 4 14 GND MAX9715 13 PGND OUTL+ 5 12 OUTR+ OUTL- 6 11 OUTR- PVDD 7 10 PVDD GAIN 8 9 SHDN TSSOP 12 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier QFN THIN.EPS D2 D MARKING b C L 0.10 M C A B D2/2 D/2 k L XXXXX E/2 E2/2 C L (NE-1) X e E DETAIL A PIN # 1 I.D. E2 PIN # 1 I.D. 0.35x45° e/2 e (ND-1) X e DETAIL B e L1 L C L C L L L e e 0.10 C A C 0.08 C A1 A3 PACKAGE OUTLINE, 16, 20, 28, 32, 40L THIN QFN, 5x5x0.8mm 21-0140 -DRAWING NOT TO SCALE- COMMON DIMENSIONS PKG. 16L 5x5 20L 5x5 A1 A3 32L 5x5 40L 5x5 b D E e k L L1 N ND NE JEDEC 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.70 0.75 0.80 0 0.02 0.05 0 0.02 0.05 0.20 REF. 0.20 REF. 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.25 0.30 0.35 4.90 5.00 5.10 4.90 5.00 5.10 4.90 5.00 5.10 4.90 5.00 5.10 0.80 BSC. 0.65 BSC. 0.25 - 0.25 - 0 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.05 0 0.20 REF. 0.20 REF. 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.20 0.25 0.30 4.90 5.00 5.10 4.90 5.00 5.10 4.90 5.00 5.10 4.90 5.00 5.10 0.50 BSC. 0.50 BSC. - 0.25 0.25 - 0 0.02 0.05 0.20 REF. 0.15 0.20 0.25 4.90 5.00 5.10 4.90 5.00 5.10 0.40 BSC. 0.25 0.35 0.45 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.45 0.55 0.65 0.45 0.55 0.65 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.40 0.50 0.60 - 0.30 0.40 0.50 16 4 4 20 5 5 WHHB WHHC 1 2 EXPOSED PAD VARIATIONS 28L 5x5 SYMBOL MIN. NOM. MAX. MIN. NOM. MAX. MIN. NOM. MAX. MIN. NOM. MAX. MIN. NOM. MAX. A H 28 7 7 WHHD-1 32 8 8 40 10 10 WHHD-2 ----- NOTES: 1. DIMENSIONING & TOLERANCING CONFORM TO ASME Y14.5M-1994. 2. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS. ANGLES ARE IN DEGREES. 3. N IS THE TOTAL NUMBER OF TERMINALS. 4. THE TERMINAL #1 IDENTIFIER AND TERMINAL NUMBERING CONVENTION SHALL CONFORM TO JESD 95-1 SPP-012. DETAILS OF TERMINAL #1 IDENTIFIER ARE OPTIONAL, BUT MUST BE LOCATED WITHIN THE ZONE INDICATED. THE TERMINAL #1 IDENTIFIER MAY BE EITHER A MOLD OR MARKED FEATURE. 5. DIMENSION b APPLIES TO METALLIZED TERMINAL AND IS MEASURED BETWEEN 0.25 mm AND 0.30 mm FROM TERMINAL TIP. D2 L E2 PKG. CODES MIN. NOM. MAX. T1655-1 T1655-2 T1655N-1 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.00 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.20 3.20 3.20 T2055-2 T2055-3 T2055-4 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.00 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.20 3.20 3.20 T2055-5 T2855-1 T2855-2 T2855-3 T2855-4 T2855-5 T2855-6 T2855-7 T2855-8 T2855N-1 T3255-2 T3255-3 T3255-4 T3255N-1 3.15 3.15 2.60 3.15 2.60 2.60 3.15 2.60 3.15 3.15 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.25 3.25 2.70 3.25 2.70 2.70 3.25 2.70 3.25 3.25 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.15 3.15 2.60 3.15 2.60 2.60 3.15 2.60 3.15 3.15 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.25 3.25 2.70 3.25 2.70 2.70 3.25 2.70 3.25 3.25 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.35 3.35 2.80 3.35 2.80 2.80 3.35 2.80 3.35 3.35 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.20 T4055-1 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.35 3.35 2.80 3.35 2.80 2.80 3.35 2.80 3.35 3.35 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.20 MIN. NOM. MAX. ±0.15 ** ** ** ** ** ** 0.40 DOWN BONDS ALLOWED NO YES NO NO YES NO YES ** NO NO YES YES NO ** ** 0.40 ** ** ** ** ** NO YES YES NO NO YES NO NO ** YES ** ** ** ** ** SEE COMMON DIMENSIONS TABLE 6. ND AND NE REFER TO THE NUMBER OF TERMINALS ON EACH D AND E SIDE RESPECTIVELY. 7. DEPOPULATION IS POSSIBLE IN A SYMMETRICAL FASHION. 8. COPLANARITY APPLIES TO THE EXPOSED HEAT SINK SLUG AS WELL AS THE TERMINALS. 9. DRAWING CONFORMS TO JEDEC MO220, EXCEPT EXPOSED PAD DIMENSION FOR T2855-1, T2855-3, AND T2855-6. 10. WARPAGE SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.10 mm. 11. MARKING IS FOR PACKAGE ORIENTATION REFERENCE ONLY. 12. NUMBER OF LEADS SHOWN ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY. 13. LEAD CENTERLINES TO BE AT TRUE POSITION AS DEFINED BY BASIC DIMENSION "e", ±0.05. -DRAWING NOT TO SCALE- PACKAGE OUTLINE, 16, 20, 28, 32, 40L THIN QFN, 5x5x0.8mm 21-0140 H 2 2 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MAX9715 Package Information (The package drawing(s) in this data sheet may not reflect the most current specifications. For the latest package outline information, go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages.) Package Information (continued) (The package drawing(s) in this data sheet may not reflect the most current specifications. For the latest package outline information, go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages.) TSSOP4.40mm.EPS MAX9715 2.8W, Low-EMI, Stereo, Filterless Class D Audio Amplifier PACKAGE OUTLINE, TSSOP 4.40mm BODY 21-0066 G 1 1 Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 14 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2005 Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.