### Feb 1999 Switched Capacitor Voltage Regulator Provides Current Gain

```DESIGN IDEAS
Switched Capacitor Voltage Regulator
Provides Current Gain
by Jeff Witt
A switched capacitor voltage
inverter is normally used to generate
a negative supply voltage from a positive input supply. The negative supply
current is equal in magnitude to the
current drawn from the input. This
design idea describes two circuits that
use an inverter to double the current
between the input and output,
increasing efficiency and eliminating
heat dissipation problems.
V
VIN
VIN
CAP+
GND
CAP–
CAP–
VOUT
VOUT
–V
I
Figure 1. Rewiring a switched capacitor inverter for step-down regulation results in
a current gain of 2.
charging C1 into the output. The current delivered to the output is
continuous and equal to twice the
average input current. Because the
output current is continuous, the
output voltage ripple is low. Note that
C1 and COUT do not need to be
matched, as their voltages are equalized on each cycle.
Figure 3 shows the actual circuit.
Instead of halving the input voltage,
the LT1054 modulates the input current (through switch 1 of Figure 2) to
regulate the output voltage. This cir-
1
1
3
3
VOUT
C1
VOUT
2
2
COUT
4
COUT
CURRENT FLOW
Figure 2. The LT1054’s internal switches alternately charge and discharge C1, delivering
a continuous current to the output.
28
cuit can deliver 200mA at 5V from an
input of 11.2V to 13V. Typical efficiency is 74%, compared to 42% for a
linear regulator. More importantly,
dissipation is decreased from 1.4W
for the linear regulator to 0.35W, easily managed by the LT1054’s 8-pin
surface mount package. For a 3.3V/
200mA output, the circuit is 49%
efficient, compared to a linear
regulator’s 27%, with power dissipation reduced from 1.8W to 0.7W. A
6.2Ω resistor in series with C1 shares
the dissipated power with the LT1054;
no heat sink is needed.
Three Diodes
Improve the Inverter
VIN
C1
V/2
GND
2I
VIN
4
I
CAP+
More Efficient than a Linear
If the roles of the ground and output
pins are swapped (Figure 1), an
inverter will divide the input voltage
by two. This circuit can be used in
place of a linear regulator when the
input voltage is more than twice the
desired output, for example, regulation of 12V to 5V or 3.3V.
The circuit’s operation is illustrated
in Figure 2. An internal oscillator
alternately closes and opens four
switches. In the first half cycle,
switches 1 and 2 are closed and current flows from the input to the output,
charging C1. In the second half cycle,
switches 3 and 4 are closed, dis-
V
I
The same advantages can be realized
while generating a negative output.
However, a switched capacitor inverter
does not have the right compliment of
switches. By adding three diodes (see
Figure 4), the inverter can charge two
capacitors in series and then discharge them in parallel to an output
capacitor. The absolute value of the
output voltage will equal half of the
input voltage, minus some loss due to
the switches and diodes.
Figure 5 shows a practical circuit,
which converts 12V to –4V. The
LT1054’s servo loop keeps the output
regulated to –4V over an input range
of 11V to 15V and a load current up to
Linear Technology Magazine • February 1999
DESIGN IDEAS
VIN
11V–15V
VIN
12V
8
+
10µF
+
C1*
10µF
2
GND
CAP+
8
6.8µF
V+
3
VOUT
5V/200mA
6
VREF
LT1054CS8
1
CAP–
4
FB/SHDN
R1
39.2k
R3*
200k
VOUT
5
+
2
C1
33µF
V+
CAP+
VREF
U1 LT1054CS8
10µF
D2
D1
330pF
C2
33µF
4
Figure 3. This switched capacitor regulator doubles the current
between the input and the output, increasing efficiency and
eliminating the need for a heat sink.
1
3
86.6k
C3
33µF
CAP–
VOUT
5
C1, C2, C3: AVX TAJB336M010R
C4: AVX TAJB685M025R
D1, D2, D3: MOTOROLA MBR0520LT1
Q1: IR IRLML2402
*FOR 3.3V/200mA, SET R4 = 147k, PUT 6.2Ω IN SERIES
WITH C1 AND PRELOAD WITH R4 = 2.2k
100mA. (Unfortunately, there is too
much voltage loss to regulate to –5V
from a 12V source.) Note that many
that can pull the output above ground
(op amp circuits in particular); Q1
prevents such a load from pulling
U1’s VOUT pin above its ground pin.
20.0k
FB/SHDN
D3
GND
R4*
33k
6
VOUT
–4V/100mA
Q1
Figure 5. This circuit converts 12V to –4V. Only 63mA of input current
is required for 100mA of output current.
Because most of U1’s operating
current flows out of its ground pin,
the input current to this circuit is a
bit more than one-half of the output
current. While delivering 100mA, the
input from 12V was measured at
64mA, resulting in 53% efficiency.
One alternative, a switched capacitor
inverter followed by a linear regulator, would be 33% efficient at best and
power dissipation would be 0.8W. This
circuit dissipates only 0.35W, allowing this all–surface mount circuit to
run cool.
VIN
VIN
1
1
3
3
2
2
4
4
VOUT
VOUT
CURRENT FLOW
Figure 4. Adding three diodes to a switched capacitor inverter doubles the current between the input and the output.
LT1777, continued from page 27
switch node voltage and current waveforms for the LT1777 are more
controlled and rise and fall more slowly
than those of the LT1676 regulator.
By slowing down the sharp edges
during turn-on and turn-off for the
power switch, conducted and radiated EMI are reduced.
The circuit in Figure 1 shows three
inductors: L1A, L1B and LSENSE. L1A
Linear Technology Magazine • February 1999
and L1B are two windings on a single
core to generate ±5V. C2 has been
added to minimize coupling mismatches between the two windings
(L1A and L1B); this forces the winding potentials to be equal and improves
cross-regulation. This creates the dual
SEPIC (single-ended primary inductance converter) topology. LSENSE is a
user-selectable sense inductor to pro-
gram the dI/dt ramp rate (see the