MCP19035 High-Speed Synchronous Buck Controller Features: General Description • Input Voltage Range: from 4.5V to 30V • Targeted for Low-Voltage Power Trains with Output Current up to 20A • High-Speed Voltage Mode, Analog Pulse-Width Modulation Control • Power Good Output • Internal Oscillator, Reference Voltage and Overcurrent Limit Threshold for Stand-Alone Applications. • Multiple Switching Frequency Options (FSW): - 300 kHz - 600 kHz • Integrated Synchronous MOSFET Drivers • Multiple Dead-Time Options • Internal Blocking Device for Bootstrap Circuit • Integrated Current Sense Capability for Short Circuit Protection • Internal Overtemperature Protection • Under Voltage Lockout (UVLO) • Integrated Linear Voltage Regulator • 10-LD 3 X 3 mm DFN Package The MCP19035 is an application-optimized, highspeed synchronous buck controller that operates from input voltage sources up to 30V. This controller implements a voltage-mode control architecture with a fixed switching frequency of 300 kHz or 600 kHz. The high-switching frequency facilitates the use of smaller passive components, including the inductor and input/output capacitors, allowing a compact, highperformance power supply solution. The MCP19035 implements an adaptive anti-cross conduction scheme to prevent shoot-through in the external power MOSFETs. Furthermore, the MCP19035 offers multiple dead-time options, enabling an additional degree of optimization, allowing a higher efficiency power supply design. Applications: • • • • • Point of Loads Set-Top Boxes DSL Cable Modems FPGA’s/DSP’s Power Supply PC’s Graphic/Audio Cards The MCP19035 controller is intended to be used for applications providing up to 20A of output currents across a wide input voltage range, up to 30V. The SHDN input is used to turn the device on and off. While turned off, the current consumption is minimized. The MCP19035 offers a Power Good feature (PWRGD), enabling fault detection and simplifying sequencing. Package Types MCP19035 3x3 DFN* SHDN 1 10 HDRV FB 2 COMP 3 9 PHASE EP 11 8 BOOT VIN 4 7 LDRV PWRGD 5 6 +VCC * Includes Exposed Thermal Pad (EP); see Table 3-1. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 1 MCP19035 Typical Application + VIN CIN ON MCP19035 SHDN OFF BOOT Q1 CBOOT HDRV VIN L PHASE PWRGD C2 COMP LDRV FB +VCC Q2 COUT GND C3 +VOUT CVCC R4 R1 C1 R3 R2 DS22326B-page 2 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 1.0 † Notice: Stresses above those listed under “Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not intended. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Absolute Maximum Ratings † VIN - VGND ........................................................ -0.3V to +32V VBOOT................................................................ -0.3V to +37V VHDRV, HDRV Pin................. +VPHASE -0.3V to VBOOT+0.3V VLDRV, LDRV Pin.....................+ (VGND-0.3V) to (VCC+0.3V) Max. Voltage on Any Pin ...........+ (VGND-0.3V) to (VCC+0.3V) Storage Temperature ....................................-65°C to +150°C Maximum Junction Temperature ................................. +150°C ESD protection on all pins (HBM) .................................... 2 kV ESD protection on all pins (MM) .....................................200V DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise noted, VIN = 12V, FSW = 300 kHz, CIN = 1.0 µF, TA = +25°C (for typical values), TA = -40°C to +125°C (for minimum and maximum). Parameters Symbol Min Typ Max Units Conditions Inputs Input Voltage Range VIN 4.5 — 30 V UVLO (VIN Rising) UVLOON 4 4.2 4.4 V UVLO (VIN Falling) UVLOOFF 3.4 3.6 3.8 V UVLO Hysteresis UVLOHYST — 600 — mV I(VIN) — 6 8 mA IIN_SHDN — 25 50 µA SHDN = GND. Internal Voltage Regulator is also disabled VCC 4.875 5 5.125 V 6V VIN < 30V Output Current IVCC-OUT 50 — Short-Circuit Output Current IVCC-OUT_SC — — Load Regulation — 0.1 Line Regulation — Dropout Voltage — PSRR FSW Input Quiescent Current Shutdown Current Linear Regulator Output Voltage Power Supply Rejection Ratio mA 6.5V VIN < 30V, Note 2 100 mA VIN = 6V, RLOAD < 0.1 — % 0.05 — % Note 1 0.75 1.3 V IVCC_OUT = 50 mA — 70 — dB f 1000 Hz, IVCC_OUT = 50 mA CIN = 0 µF, CVCC-OUT = 4.7 µF, Note 1 255 300 345 kHz 510 600 690 kHz 2 options, see Section 4.4, Internal Oscillator VRAMP 0.9 1 1.1 VPP Note 1 VREF 585 600 615 mV Note 1 Internal Oscillator Switching Frequency Ramp Signal Amplitude Reference Voltage Reference Voltage Generator Note 1: 2: 3: Ensured by design. Not production tested. Limited by the maximum power dissipation of the case. Possibility to be adjusted for high volumes. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 3 MCP19035 DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (CONTINUED) Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise noted, VIN = 12V, FSW = 300 kHz, CIN = 1.0 µF, TA = +25°C (for typical values), TA = -40°C to +125°C (for minimum and maximum). Parameters Symbol Min Typ Max Units Conditions Gain Bandwidth Product GBP 6.5 10 — MHz Note 1 Open Loop Gain AOL 70 80 — dB Note 1 Error Amplifier Input Offset Voltage VOS -5 0.1 5 mV Note 1 Input Bias Current (FB Pin) IBIAS — — 5 nA Note 1 Error Amplifier Sink Current ISINK — 5 — mA Note 1 Error Amplifier Source Current ISOURCE — 5 — mA Note 1 Maximum Duty Cycle DCMAX 85 — — % Note 1 Minimum ON time tON(MIN) 50 — 100 ns 6V VIN < 30V, Note 1 tSS — 8 — ms Logic Low-to-High Threshold SHDNHI 0.85 — — V 4.5V VIN < 30V, VCC goes from 0V to 5V Logic High-to-Low Threshold SHDNLO — — 0.4 V 4.5V VIN < 30V, VCC goes from 5V to 0V Power Good Threshold High PGTH-H — 93 96 % of VREF Power Good Threshold Low PGTH-LOW 88 90 — % of VREF Power Good Threshold Hysteresis PGTH-HYS — 3 — % of VREF Power Good Delay tPG-DELAY — 150 — us VFB = (PGTH-HI + 100 mV) to (PGTH-LOW – 100 mV) Power Good Active Time-Out Period tPG-TIME-OUT — 120 — ms VFB = (PGTH-HI – 100 mV) to (PGTH-HI + 100 mV) RHI-SOURCE — 2 3.5 VBOOT – VPHASE = 4.5V, IHDRV = 100 mA, Note 1 RHI-SINK — 2 3.5 VBOOT – VPHASE = 4.5V, IHDRV = 100 mA, Note 1 RLO-SOURCE — 2 3.5 VCC = 5V, Note 1 RLO-SINK — 1 2.5 VCC = 5V, Note 1 PWM Section Soft Start Soft Start Time Shutdown Power Good MOSFET Drivers High-Side Driver Pull-up Resistance High-Side Driver PullDown Resistance Low-Side Driver Pull-Up Resistance Low-Side Driver PullDown Resistance HDRV Rise Time tRH — 15 35 ns CLOAD = 1.0 nF, Note 1 HDRV Fall Time tFH — 15 35 ns CLOAD = 1.0 nF, Note 1 LDRV Rise Time tRL — 10 25 ns CLOAD = 1.0 nF, Note 1 Note 1: 2: 3: Ensured by design. Not production tested. Limited by the maximum power dissipation of the case. Possibility to be adjusted for high volumes. DS22326B-page 4 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (CONTINUED) Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise noted, VIN = 12V, FSW = 300 kHz, CIN = 1.0 µF, TA = +25°C (for typical values), TA = -40°C to +125°C (for minimum and maximum). Parameters Symbol Min Typ Max Units Conditions LDRV Fall Time tFL — 10 25 ns CLOAD = 1.0 nF, Note 1 Dead Time tDT 20 — — ns — 12 — Two Dead-Time options, see Section 5.2.2, Dead Time Selection, Note 1 Short Circuit Protection High-Side Over Current Threshold Voltage OCTH-HI 430 480 530 mV Note 1, VCBOOT = 5V Low-Side Over Current Threshold Voltage OCTH-LO 130 180 230 mV Note 1, Note 3 Minimum Pulse Width During Short Circuit tSS-MIN — 800 — ns Note 1 Off-Time Between Restart Attempts (HickUp Time) tSS-HT 30 60 — ms Note 1 Thermal Shutdown TSHD — 150 — °C Note 1 Thermal Shutdown Hysteresis TSHD_HYS — 15 — °C Note 1 Thermal Shutdown Note 1: 2: 3: Ensured by design. Not production tested. Limited by the maximum power dissipation of the case. Possibility to be adjusted for high volumes. TEMPERATURE SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: Unless otherwise indicated, VIN = 6.0V to 30V, FSW = 300 kHz Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units TA -40 — +125 °C TJ-MAX — — +150 °C Operating Temperature Range TA -40 — +125 °C Storage Temperature Range TA -65 — +150 °C JA — 53.3 — °C/W Conditions Temperature Ranges Specified Temperature Range Maximum Junction Temperature Thermal Package Resistances Thermal Resistance, 10L-3x3 DFN 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. Typical 4-Layer board with interconnecting vias DS22326B-page 5 MCP19035 NOTES: DS22326B-page 6 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 2.0 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore outside the warranted range. Note: 5.05 7.0 ILOAD = 20 mA LDO O Output Voltage (V) Input Quiescent Current (mA) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = +25°C, VIN = 12V, VOUT = 1.8V, fSW = 300 kHz, CVCC = 4.7 uF. fSW = 300 kHz 6.0 fSW = 600 kHz 5.0 4.0 5.01 4.99 4.97 4.95 0 5 FIGURE 2-1: Input Voltage. 10 15 20 25 Input Voltage (V) 30 35 Input Quiescent Current vs. 0 FIGURE 2-4: Input Voltage. 10 20 Input Voltage (V) 30 40 +VCC-OUT Regulation vs. 5.05 LDO Output Voltage (V) 10.0 Input Quiiescent Current (mA) 5.03 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 5.03 5.01 4.99 4.97 4.95 -50 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-2: Temperature. 150 Input Quiescent Current vs. 0 FIGURE 2-5: Load Current. 20 40 Load Current (mA) 60 +VCC-OUT Regulation vs. LDO Drropout Voltage (V) Relative O Oscillator Frequency Variation (%) V 1.5 4.0 2.0 fSW = 300 kHz 0.0 -2.0 fSW = 600 kHz -4.0 -6.0 -8.0 -10.0 ILOAD = 50 mA 1.25 1 0.75 05 0.5 0.25 0 -50 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-3: Relative Oscillator Frequency Variation vs. Temperature. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. 150 -50 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) 150 FIGURE 2-6: LDO Regulator Dropout Voltage vs. Temperature. DS22326B-page 7 MCP19035 Note: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = +25°C, VIN = 12V, VOUT = 1.8V, fSW = 300 kHz, CVCC = 4.7 uF. 12.0 Softt Start Time (ms) LDO PSRR (dB) L -10.0 -30.0 -50.0 -70.0 IOUT = 1 A 11.0 10.0 fSW = 600 kHz 9.0 8.0 fSW = 300 kHz 7.0 6.0 5.0 -90.0 10 FIGURE 2-7: Frequency. 1000 Frequency (Hz) 100000 +VCC-OUT LDO PSRR vs. -50 FIGURE 2-10: Temperature. High-Side Overcurrent Th hreshold (mV) Relativ ve Reference Voltage Variation (%) 150 Soft Start Time vs. 600 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 VCBOOT = 5V 500 400 300 -0.2 -50 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) -50 150 FIGURE 2-8: Relative Reference Voltage Variation vs. Temperature. 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) 150 FIGURE 2-11: High-Side Overcurrent Threshold vs. Temperature. 0 Low--Side Overcurrent Threshold (mV) 5 Under Volatge Lockout hresholds (V) Th 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) VIN Rising 4 VIN Falling 3 -100 -200 2 -50 FIGURE 2-9: Temperature. DS22326B-page 8 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) UVLO Thresholds vs. 150 -50 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) 150 FIGURE 2-12: Low-Side Overcurrent Threshold vs. Temperature. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 Note: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = +25°C, VIN = 12V, VOUT = 1.8V, fSW = 300 kHz, CVCC = 4.7 uF. 50 Low-Side e Driver NMOS RDSon Relattive Variation (%) High-Sid de Driver PMOS RDSon Relattive Variation (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 20 -30 -40 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -50 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) -50 150 FIGURE 2-13: HDRV P-Ch RDSon Relative Variation vs. Temperature. -50 150 Power G Good Active Timeout (ms) High-Side e Driver NMOS RDSon Relattive Variation (%) 150 FIGURE 2-16: LDRV N-Ch RDSon Relative Variation vs. Temperature 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 140 130 120 110 100 -50 -50 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) -50 150 FIGURE 2-14: HDRV N-Ch RDSon Relative Variation vs. Temperature. FIGURE 2-17: vs. Temperature. 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) 150 PG Active Time Out Period 100 50 40 Powe Good Thresholds (% of R Reference Voltage) Low-Side e Driver PMOS RDSon Releattive Variation (%) 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 PWRGD = High 90 PWRGD = Low -40 -50 80 -50 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) 150 FIGURE 2-15: LDRV P-Ch RDSon Relative Variation vs. Temperature. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. -50 FIGURE 2-18: Temperature. 0 50 100 Junction Temperature (°C) 150 PG Thresholds Voltage vs. DS22326B-page 9 MCP19035 NOTES: DS22326B-page 10 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 3.0 PIN DESCRIPTION Description of the pins are listed in Table 3-1. TABLE 3-1: 3.1 PIN DESCRIPTION TABLE MCP19035 3 x 3 DFN Symbol 1 SHDN 2 FB 3 COMP Description Device shutdown input pin Feedback voltage input pin Internal error amplifier output pin 4 VIN Input voltage pin 5 PWRGD Power good pin 6 +VCC +5.0V output voltage pin 7 LDRV Lower gate drive output pin 8 BOOT Floating bootstrap supply pin 9 PHASE Switching node pin 10 HDRV Upper gate drive output pin 11 EP Exposed Thermal Pad, must be connected to GND Shutdown Input Pin (SHDN) This pin enables or disables the MCP19035 device. When logic “High” is applied to this pin, the device is enabled. A logic “Low” will disable the device. When the device is disabled, both the LDRV and HDRV pins are held low. The internal LDO regulator is also disabled when the SHDN pin is pulled low. Do not let this pin float. If not used, connect to VIN using a 100 k resistor. 3.5 Power Good Pin (PWRGD) The power good pin is an open drain output. This pin is pulled low when the output is 90% less than the typical value. Connect this pin to +VCC pin through a pull-up resistor. The recommended value for the pull-up resistor is 100 kΩ. 3.6 LDO Output Voltage Pin (+VCC) This is the internal error amplifier’s negative input, and is used to sense the output voltage. The positive input to the amplifier is connected to the internal reference voltage. This pin is the output of the internal voltage regulator (LDO). The internal circuitry of the controller is powered from this pin (+5.0V). External low noise loads can be powered from this pin, but the sum of the external load current and the internal circuitry current should not exceed 50 mA. A 4.7 μF ceramic capacitor must be connected between this pin and GND. 3.3 3.7 3.2 Feedback Voltage Input Pin (FB) Internal Error Amplifier Pin (COMP) This is the output of the internal error amplifier. The compensation network is connected between this pin and the FB pin. This pin is the drive output for the low-side N-Channel MOSFET (synchronous rectifier). The LDRV drive is capable of sourcing 1A and sinking 1.5A. 3.8 3.4 Input Voltage Pin (VIN) This pin is the input power for the controller. A bypass capacitor must be connected between this pin and the GND pin. The input of an internal voltage regulator (LDO) is connected to this pin to generate the +5V VCC used for internal circuitry bias. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. Lower Gate Pin (LDRV) Bootstrap Supply Pin (BOOT) The BOOT pin is the floating bootstrap power supply pin for the high-side MOSFET gate driver. A capacitor connected between this pin and the PHASE pin provides the necessary charge to turn on the external high-side MOSFET. DS22326B-page 11 MCP19035 3.9 Switching Node Pin (PHASE) This pin provides a return path for the high-side gate driver. It also provides a path for the charging of the BOOT capacitor, used while turning on the high-side MOSFET. This pin also senses the switching transition to eliminate cross conduction (shoot-through). 3.10 Upper Gate Drive Pin (HDRV) This pin is the high-side N-channel MOSFET (control transistor) gate drive output. The HDRV drive is capable of sourcing and sinking 1A. 3.11 Exposed Thermal Pad (EP) Analog ground and power ground are both connected to this pin. DS22326B-page 12 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 4.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION 4.1 Device Overview • Dead-Time optimization options of the MCP19035 assist in improving the power conversion efficiency, when used with high-speed, low Figure of Merit MOSFETs. • Overcurrent protection circuits in both high and low-side switches, and a short circuit hiccuprecovery mode increase design flexibility and minimize power dissipation in the event of prolonged output faults. • The dedicated SHDN pin allows the converter to be placed in a low quiescent current state. • Internal fixed converter switching frequency and soft-start reduce the external component count, simplifying design and layout, as well as reducing footprint and size. • The 3 mm × 3 mm DFN package size also minimizes the overall converter footprint. The MCP19035 family of devices are highperformance controllers providing all the necessary functions to construct a high-performance DC/DC converter, while keeping costs and design effort to a minimum: • Support for pre-biased outputs eliminates concerns about damaging sensitive loads during startup. • Strong gate drivers for the high-side and rectifier N-Channel MOSFETs decrease switching losses, yielding increases in efficiency. • Adaptive gate drive timing prevents shoot-through and minimizes body diode conduction in the synchronous rectifier MOSFET, which also increases the efficiency. UVLO Circuit Over-Temperature Detection Circuit OT VIN Over-Current Detection Circuit VCC VIN Voltage Regulator BOOT VCC HD SD SHDN SD VCC - VCC FB Control Logic Oscillator Shut-Down Circuit Comp OT Dead Time Generator Cross Conduction Protection PHASE VCC PWM + - HDRV LD LDRV EA + COMP Soft Start Circuit VREF Reference Voltage Generator FB SD PWRGD Power-Good Circuit GND FIGURE 4-1: Internal Block Diagram. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 13 MCP19035 4.2 PWM Circuitry The MCP19035 controller implements a fixed frequency, voltage-mode control scheme. The internal PWM generator is comprised of an oscillator, error amplifier, high-speed comparator and a latch. The error amplifier generates the control voltage by amplifying the difference between voltage reference (600 mV, internally generated) and the voltage of the FB pin (feedback voltage). This control voltage is compared by the high-speed comparator to an artificially generated ramp signal; the result is a PWM signal. An SR latch (Set-Reset flip-flop) is used to prevent the PWM circuitry from turning on the external switch until the beginning of the next clock cycle. An external Compensation Network (Type-II or Type-III) must be used to stabilize the control system. 4.3 Internal Reference Voltage VREF An integrated, precision voltage reference is provided by the MCP19035. An external resistor divider is used to program the converter’s output voltage. The nominal value of this internal reference voltage is 600 mV. 4.4 Internal Oscillator The MCP19035 device provides two switching frequency options: 300 kHz and 600 kHz. 4.5 Under Voltage Lockout Circuit (UVLO) An integrated Under Voltage Lockout Circuit (UVLO) prevents the converter from starting until the input voltage is high enough for normal operation. The converter will typically start at 4.2V and operate down to 3.6V. Hysteresis is added to prevent starting and stopping during startup, as a result of loading the input voltage source. 4.6 A 100 kΩ pull-up resistor is recommended between the SHDN pin and VIN pin. Note that the SHDN input is a high-impedance pin. Noise generated by the circuits located near this pin may inadvertently shut down the controller. To improve the noise immunity of this input pin, we recommend placing a small capacitor between GND and SHDN, or decrease the value of the pull-up resistor. The Shutdown input pin should not be left floating. 4.7 Power Good Output (PWRGD) This open drain output provides an indication that the output voltage is 92% (typical) of its regulated value. This output is also low for other existing conditions that signal the possibility that the output of the power supply is out of regulation. The conditions are: • Feedback pin (FB) voltage differs more than ±8% from its nominal value (600 mV) • Soft-start period is active • Undervoltage condition detected • Overcurrent condition detected, on either the High Side or Low Side • Die temperature is above the thermal shutdown threshold (+150°C) The active high power good signal has a fixed time delay of approximately 120 ms (tPG-TIMEOUT). There is typically a 150 μs delay (tPG-DELAY) on the power good signal high-to-low transition. PGTH-HI VFB PGTH-LOW tPG-TIMEOUT tPG-DELAY Shutdown Input The Shutdown input pin (SHDN) is used to enable and disable the controller. When the SHDN pin is pulled low, the MCP19035 is placed in Shutdown mode. During Shutdown, most of the internal circuits (including the LDO) are disabled, to minimize current consumption. DS22326B-page 14 PGV-LOW PG FIGURE 4-2: Power Good Signal. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 4.8 Internal Voltage Regulator (LDO) The MCP19035 controller offers an internal 5V Low Dropout Voltage Regulator. This regulator provides the bias voltage for all internal circuits. A ceramic capacitor (4.7 μF minimum) must be connected between the output of this LDO (VCC pin) and ground (GND pin) for stable operation. An external low noise load may be powered from this regulator, but the total current consumed from the LDO output (internal circuitry of MCP19035 + external load) should not exceed 50 mA. The internal circuitry of the MCP19035 consume approximately 5 mA. The total amount of current available to power the external load can be estimated from Equation 4-1: 4.9 Internal MOSFET Drivers Internal MOSFET drivers are capable of driving external, “Logic Level” (+5V) MOSFETs. The Low-Side Driver (LDRV) is referenced to the GND pin and is capable of sourcing 1A and sinking 1.5A. The High-Side Driver (HDRV) is floating and capable of sourcing and sinking 1A. This driver is powered from an external bootstrap capacitor. The drivers have non-overlapping timing that is governed by an adaptive delay circuit to minimize body diode conduction in the synchronous rectifier. For the optimized Dead Time version of the MCP19035, the adaptive delay circuit is disabled and the Dead Time has a fixed value. EQUATION 4-1: IExternal Load = 50 mA - fSW x (QG(High Side) + QG(Low Side)) - 5 mA 4.10 Where: Overcurrent protection is accomplished by monitoring the voltage across the external MOSFETs when they are ON (conducting). IExternal Load = Current Available for powering the External Load fSW = Switching Frequency (300 kHz or 600 kHz) QG(High Side) = Total Gate Charge of the High-Side MOSFET at 4.5V VGS QG(Low Side) = Total Gate Charge of the Low-Side MOSFET at 4.5V VGS This LDO dissipates power within the MCP19035. To avoid tripping the Overtemperature Protection Circuit, the designer must ensure that the maximum die temperature is below +125°C under worst case conditions (i.e. high input voltage). For further information regarding the maximum dissipated power for LDOs, see Microchip’s AN761 and AN792 application notes. The LDO is protected against overload and short-circuit conditions. Consistent performance of the internal MOS drivers is ensured by monitoring the LDO output voltage; if the voltage is lower than 3.3V typical, the chip will enter in Shut-Down mode to prevent damage to the external MOSFETs. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. Overcurrent Protection For the high-side overcurrent protection, when the sensed voltage drop across the high-side MOSFET is greater than the high-side overcurrent threshold voltage, the high-side MOSFET is immediately turned off and the high-side overcurrent counter is incremented by one. On the next cycle, if the high-side overcurrent threshold voltage is not exceeded, the high-side overcurrent counter is decreased by one count. If the high-side overcurrent counter reaches a count of 7, a fault condition exists and the MCP19035 turns off both external MOSFETs. After a 60 ms delay, the MCP19035 will attempt to restart. If during the next cycle, a high-side overcurrent threshold voltage is measured across the high-side MOSFET, a fault is again declared and both external MOSFETs are turned off for another 60 ms. However, if after the attempted restart a high-side overcurrent threshold voltage is not measured across the high-side MOSFET, the high-side overcurrent counter is decreased by one and the MCP19035 continues to operate until the high-side overcurrent counter reaches a count of 7. The low-side overcurrent protection behaves much the same way as the high-side overcurrent protection. The difference is that the low-side MOSFET is not immediately turned off when a low-side overcurrent threshold voltage is measured. It remains on until the next cycle begins. DS22326B-page 15 MCP19035 For the low-side overcurrent protection, when the sensed voltage drop across the low-side MOSFET is greater than the low-side overcurrent threshold voltage specified, a low-side overcurrent counter is incremented by one count. On the next cycle, if the lowside over current threshold voltage is not exceeded, the low-side overcurrent counter is decreased by one. If the low-side overcurrent counter reaches a count of 7, a fault condition exists and the MCP19035 turns off both external MOSFETs. After a 60 ms delay, the MCP19035 device will attempt to restart. If during the next cycle, a low-side overcurrent threshold voltage is measured across the low-side MOSFET, a fault is again declared and both external MOSFETs are turned off for another 60 ms. However, if after the attempted restart a low-side overcurrent threshold voltage is not measured across the low-side MOSFET, the low-side overcurrent counter is decreased by one and the MCP19035 continues to operate until the low-side overcurrent counter reaches a count of 7. The voltage threshold for high-side overcurrent protection circuit is fixed, 480 mV typical. The high-side voltage threshold will also depend on the value of the voltage across the bootstrap circuit capacitor, and will decrease when this voltage decreases. This will ensure that the high-side protection will avoid a failure of the MOSFET when the bootstrap voltage is low and the switching losses are high. This threshold will provide a cycle-by-cycle protection in case of short circuit, but it should not be used to provide a precise current limit for the converter. An estimation of the current that flows in the high-side MOSFET during short circuit can be found using Equation 4-2. Note that, due to the leading edge blanking time, this current also depends on the inductor's ripple current. To avoid false triggering of the high-side overcurrent protection circuit during transients, it is highly recommended to choose a MOSFET that will provide a threshold at least four times higher than the maximum output current of the converter. EQUATION 4-2: PEAK CURRENT FOR HIGH-SIDE MOSFET V OC HS I HS MOS = ----------------R DSON Where: IHS MOS = Current that passes through the High-Side MOSFET VOC HS = Threshold Voltage for High-Side Overcurrent Protection Circuit (480 mV) RDSON = ON Resistance of the High-Side MOSFET The voltage threshold for the low-side overcurrent protection circuit is fixed, 180 mV typical. Different values for this threshold (from 100 mV to 300 mV) are available on request. An estimation of the current that flows on the low-side MOSFET during short circuit is realized using Equation 4-3. Note that, due to the leading edge blanking time, this current also depends on the inductor's ripple current. To avoid false triggering of the low-side over current protection circuit during transients, it is highly recommended to choose a MOSFET that will provide a threshold at least two times higher than the maximum output current of the converter. EQUATION 4-3: V OC LS I LS MOS = ----------------R DSON Where: ILS MOS = Current that passes through the Low-Side MOSFET VOC LS = Threshold Voltage for Low-Side Overcurrent Protection Circuit (180 mV) RDSON = ON Resistance of the Low-Side MOSFET To avoid a false trigger of the overcurrent circuit, a leading edge blanking circuit is present on both the high and low-side measurements. Due to this blanking time, the accuracy of the overcurrent circuit may be impacted if the converter operates at higher duty cycles (more than 85%), or if the inductor's current ripple is very high (i.e. the inductor is saturated by the excessive current). DS22326B-page 16 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 4.11 Soft Start To control the output voltage during start-up, the MCP19035 uses a soft-start circuit that allows the output voltage of the system to monotonically increase. The soft start circuitry allows the output voltage to rise up to the desired regulation limit, typically within 8 ms. The soft start circuit is enabled each time the MCP19035 starts. This includes initial start-up, start-up from toggling the SHDN pin, start-up after thermal shutdown, or start-up after an overcurrent condition. SHDN VOUT Soft Start Time (TSS = 8 ms) FIGURE 4-3: 4.12 Soft Start-up Diagram. Pre-Bias Load Start-up A special start-up sequence will prevent any current to be sourced from the output in case of a pre-biased load. This is accomplished by monitoring the FB pin and internal reference voltages. If the positive input to the Error Amplifier (internal reference voltage) is greater than the feedback voltage (voltage present at FB pin), the controller will drive the low-side MOSFET (synchronous rectifier) with a reduced duty cycle. This sequence ensures a smooth output voltage transition without sinking any current from the pre-biased external load. Note: Do not use a low impedance source to back-drive the output voltage during the pre-bias state. There is no protection mechanism for positive current flow in the synchronous rectifier MOSFET. The converter can reverse the energy flow (becoming a Boost converter) if the input voltage is accidentally disconnected. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 17 MCP19035 NOTES: DS22326B-page 18 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 5.0 APPLICATION INFORMATION 5.1 Typical Applications The MCP19035 synchronous buck controller operates over an input voltage range up to a maximum of 30V. The output current capability depends only on the external MOSFET’s selection and can also be very high, typically up to 20A. Typical applications include POL modules for powering DSPs, FPGAs and ASICs, and, in general, any stepdown voltage conversion (from maximum 30V input voltage) for medium-to-high output current loads. 5.2 Design Procedure To simplify this design process, an Excel®-based design tool is available to support typical applications. This tool is available on the MCP19035 product web site. Refer to AN1452 – “Using the MCP19035 Synchronous Buck Converter Design Tool” for further details. 5.2.1 SWITCHING FREQUENCY AND THE MAXIMUM CONVERSION RATIO The MCP19035 controller provides two options for the switching frequency: 300 kHz and 600 kHz. In general, choosing a higher switching frequency allows the use of smaller size components (i.e. inductor and filtering capacitors), but increases the switching losses. The 300 kHz switching frequency is recommended for applications requiring output currents up to 20A. For applications requiring output currents up to 10A, the recommended switching frequency is 600 kHz. Due to the minimum “On Time” for the high-side MOSFET driver (70 ns typical), the maximum conversion ratio must be limited to 20:1. 5.2.2 DEAD TIME SELECTION Dead Time will affect the maximum obtainable efficiency of the converter. Selecting the Dead Time depends on the external MOSFETs’ parameters. Lower Figure of Merit (FOM) transistors will permit the use of shorter Dead Times. This may increase the converter efficiency by up to 2%. Low Figure of Merit transistors allow the user to select a low value for Dead Time (typical 12 ns) without causing a shoot-through phenomenon. For low-FOM transistors, the MCP19035 version with fixed 12 ns Dead Time is recommended. For typical medium Figure of Merit transistors, the MCP19035 version with the adaptive Dead-Time generator is recommended. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. 5.2.3 INDUCTOR SELECTION The output inductor is responsible for smoothing the square wave created by the switching action and for controlling the output current ripple (∆IOUT). There is a trade off between efficiency and load transient response time when the value of the inductor is chosen. The smaller the inductance, the quicker the converter can respond to transients in the load current. However, a smaller inductor requires a higher switching frequency to maintain the same level of output current ripple. Remember that increasing the switching frequency will also increase the switching losses in the MOSFETs. A good compromise for the inductor current ripple is 30% of the output current. The value of the inductor is calculated in Equation 5-1: EQUATION 5-1: INDUCTOR VALUE V OUT 1 1 ----------------------L = V –V ---------- ----------------------------------------- IN MAX OUT V 0.3 I f OUTMAX INMAX SW The peak current in the inductor is determined in Equation 5-2: EQUATION 5-2: INDUCTOR PEAK CURRENT 0.3 I I L PEAK = I OUT MAX + -----------------------------------------OUT MAX 2 EQUATION 5-3: IL INDUCTOR RMS CURRENT = RMS 2 I Ripple I OUT + -------------------3 2 Additional care must be taken when selecting an inductor: • Choose an inductor that has a saturation current larger than the calculated peak current. The tolerance of the inductor must also be considered (typically 20%). • To minimize the conduction losses, choose an inductor with the lowest possible DC resistance. The maximum DC resistance specified in the data sheet will ensure the worst-case component specification. • There are many magnetic materials available for inductor core: ferrite, iron powder and composite materials. The ferrite offers the lowest core losses, but the saturation characteristic is “hard” (i.e. the inductance drops rapidly after the current reaches the saturation level). The losses of iron powder or composite material cores are higher than ferrite, but the saturation characteristic is “soft”, making it more suitable for voltage mode control converter, including the MCP19035. DS22326B-page 19 MCP19035 5.2.4 INPUT CAPACITOR SELECTION 5.2.5 The input capacitor is responsible for providing a low impedance voltage source for the step-down converter. This capacitor must be able to sustain high ripple current, a consequence of the discontinuous input current of the buck converter. A low equivalent series resistance capacitor (ESR), preferably ceramic, is recommended. For wide temperature range applications, a multi-layer X7R dielectric is recommended, while for applications with limited temperature range, a multi-layer X5R dielectric is acceptable. A higher ESR will produce a higher voltage ripple and higher power losses. The capacitor voltage rating must be higher than the maximum operating input voltage of the converter. The minimum Equation 5-4: capacitance is determined The output capacitor is responsible for smoothing the output voltage. It also plays an important role in the stability of the control system. The voltage ripple across the output capacitor is the sum of ripple voltages due to the Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) and the voltage sag due to the load current that must be supplied by the capacitor as the inductor is discharged. A low ESR capacitor, preferably ceramic, is recommended. For wide temperature range applications, a multi-layer X7R dielectric is recommended, while for applications with limited temperature range, a multi-layer X5R dielectric is acceptable. The output voltage ripple is estimated in Equation 5-6: in EQUATION 5-6: EQUATION 5-4: C IN_MIN OUTPUT CAPACITOR SELECTION MINIMUM CAPACITANCE FOR INPUT CAPACITOR I OUT D 1 – D = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------f SW V Ripple – D I OUT ESR Where: CIN_MIN = Minimum Capacitance of the Input Capacitor (in Farad) IOUT = Output Current (A) OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE 1 VRipple = I Ripple ESR + -------------------------------------- 8 C OUT f SW Where: IRipple = Inductor Current Ripple (A) VRipple = Output Voltage Ripple (V) COUT = Output Capacitor (F) ESR = Equivalent Series Resistance of the Output Capacitor (Ohm) D = Duty Cycle (for worst case this is 0.5) fSW = Switching Frequency (Hz) VRipple = Input Voltage Ripple (usually between 0.1V and 0.5V) ESR = Equivalent Series Resistance of the Capacitor (in Ohm) The maximum ripple current in the input capacitor occurs when the duty cycle is 50%. This must be considered worst case for calculating the input capacitor. Minimum capacitance value is calculated according to the demand of the load transient response. During a transient load current, the excessive energy stored by the inductor must be absorbed by the output capacitor until the control loop sets the proper duty cycle. Equation 5-7 calculates the minimum value for the output capacitor value: EQUATION 5-7: OUTPUT CAPACITOR MINIMUM VALUE 2 The RMS current in the input capacitor is estimated with Equation 5-5: C OUT 2 L I OH – I OL = ----------------------------------2 2 Vf – V OUT Where: EQUATION 5-5: IRMS C IN RMS CURRENT IN THE INPUT CAPACITOR I Ripple VOUT I OUT = IOUT + ---------------- D – -------------------------------- 12 VIN The input capacitor must be rated to sustain this RMS current without considerable losses. DS22326B-page 20 IOH = Final Value of the Output Current IOL = Initial Value of the Output Current VOUT = Initial Output Voltage Vf = Final Output Voltage For applications that require low output voltage overshoot during a step load, the value of the output capacitor can become very large. In this case, it is recommended to mix ceramic capacitors with aluminum or polymer electrolytic capacitors to reach the recommended value. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 5.2.6 MOSFETS SELECTION Choosing the right MOSFET is a critical part of the design for a switching regulator. Their performance will directly impact the efficiency and reliability of the regulator. The MCP19035 synchronous buck controller offers an integrated, logic-level MOSFET driver, and is capable of supplying 5V to drive the MOSFET gates. As a result, logic-level MOSFETs must be used. Suitable MOSFETs should meet the requirement of voltage and current rating. A key parameter for evaluating the MOS transistor performance is the Figure of Merit. For a given MOSFET, this is defined as the product between the Total Gate Charge (QG) and RDS(ON) (see Equation 58). EQUATION 5-8: FIGURE OF MERIT FOM = Q G Tot RDS ON A lower FOM value means a higher-performance MOS transistor. For the high-side MOSFET, power losses consist of both switching and conduction losses. Conduction losses are high when the duty cycle of the converter is high. The conduction loss of the high-side MOSFET can be estimated by multiplying the RDS(ON) with the RMS value of the current that passes through the transistor (see Equation 5-9). EQUATION 5-9: I RMS RMS VALUE FOR HIGH-SIDE CURRENT High-Side = 2 2 I Ripple D I OUT + ---------------- 12 Where: D = Duty Cycle IRipple = Current Ripple in the Inductor (typically 30% of the maximum output current) (A) The conduction losses for high-side MOS transistor are estimated in Equation 5-10: P COND High-Side CONDUCTION LOSSES FOR HIGH-SIDE MOSFET = I RMS 2 High-Side EQUATION 5-11: P SW High-Side SWITCHING LOSSES FOR HIGH-SIDE MOSFET VIN IOUT = --------------------------- t s HL + t s LH fSW 2 Where: VIN = Input Voltage (V) IOUT = Output Current (A) fSW = Switching Frequency (Hz) ts(HL) = MOSFET Switching Time (High-to-Low transition) (s) ts(LH) = MOSFET Switching Time (Low-to-High transition) (s) The ts(HL) and ts(LH) times can be estimated using the following equations: EQUATION 5-12: Q G Total t s HL = --------------------I DRV Sink Q G Total t s LH = ---------------------I DRV Source Where: QG(Total) = High-side MOSFET Total Gate Charge IDRVSink = Sink Peak Current for High-Side Driver (typical 1A) IDRVSource = Source Peak Current for High-Side Driver (typical 1A) The total power losses for the high-side MOSFET can be calculated with Equation 5-13: IOUT = Output Current (A) EQUATION 5-10: The switching losses are more difficult to calculate, since they depend on many parameters. Equation 5-11 shows an estimation of these losses: R DS on HS max EQUATION 5-13: P Loss High-Side TOTAL POWER LOSSES FOR HIGH-SIDE MOSFET = P COND High-Side + P SW High-Side For applications that operate with low duty cycle (lower than 30%) or high input voltage, the power losses for the high-side transistor are mainly switching losses. For these applications, it is recommended to choose a MOSFET that offers a low Total Gate Charge. For applications that operate with duty cycles higher than 50%, the power losses for the high-side transistor are mainly conduction losses. For these applications, choose a MOSFET that has a low RDS(on). 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 21 MCP19035 The low-side MOSFET (synchronous rectifier) is “softcommutated” by the energy stored in the inductor , thus reducing the switching losses. For the low-side transistor, the power losses mainly consist of conduction losses, body diode conduction losses and body diode reverse recovery losses. The body diode recovery time losses will be calculated using Equation 5-17: Similarly to the high-side, the RMS current that pass through the low-side MOSFET is calculated using Equation 5-14: PRR = ---------------------------------------2 EQUATION 5-17: BODY DIODE REVERSE RECOVERY LOSSES Q RR V IN f SW Where: QRR = Reverse Recovery Charge of the Body Diode (C) EQUATION 5-14: I RMS Low-Side RMS CURRENT FOR LOW-SIDE MOSFET 2 2 I Ripple 1 – D I OUT + ---------------- 12 = Where: D = Duty Cycle IRipple = Current Ripple in the Inductor (typically 30% of the maximum output current) (A) The conduction losses for low-side MOS transistor are estimated in Equation 5-15: P COND Low-Side CONDUCTION LOSSES FOR LOW-SIDE TRANSISTOR = IRMS R DS on LS max 2 Low-Side The body diode conduction loss is calculated in Equation 5-16: EQUATION 5-16: PLOSS BD EQUATION 5-18: PLoss IOUT = Output Current (A) EQUATION 5-15: The total power loss for the low-side MOSFET can now be estimated by summing the power losses in Equation 5-18: BODY DIODE CONDUCTION LOSSES Low-Side + PLOSS BD + PRR The body diode conduction and reverse recovery losses can be greatly minimized by reducing the Dead Times necessary to prevent the shoot-through. This can be achieved by choosing transistors that have a very low Figure of Merit (FOM) MOSFET for both sides. 5.2.7 BOOTSTRAP CAPACITOR SELECTION The selection of the bootstrap capacitor is based upon the total gate charge of the high-side power MOSFET and the allowable droop in gate drive voltage while the high-side power MOSFET is conducting (see Equation 5-19). EQUATION 5-19: BOOTSTRAP CAPACITOR QG Total C BOOT = ----------------------- V DROOP Where: VF = Forward Voltage of the Body Diode (V) = P COND The conduction losses are the dominant part of the total losses for the low-side transistor; choose a MOSFET with a low RDS(on). = I OUT V F t BD f SW tBD = Total Conduction Time for Body Diode (s) Low-Side TOTAL POWER LOSS FOR LOW-SIDE MOSFET (SR) Where: QG(Total) = High-side MOSFET Total Gate Charge (C) ∆VDROOP = Allowable Gate Drive Voltage Droop (V) It is recommended that the voltage droop does not exceed 50 mV. A low ESR, ceramic capacitor, rated at least 16 VDC, is recommended. DS22326B-page 22 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 5.2.8 FEEDBACK LOOP COMPENSATION Since the MCP19035 implements a Voltage-Mode PWM control, a Type-III compensation network is recommended. Correct placing of poles and zeros require analysis of the Bode plots for the buck converter power train. The frequencies for pole and zero are determined using Equation 5-20: EQUATION 5-20: POLE AND ZERO FREQUENCIES 1 fLC = ------------------------------------2 L C OUT 1 f = ----------------------------------------------ESR 2 ESR C OUT Magnitude (dB) AMOD 0 dB -40 dB/decade EQUATION 5-21: PWM MODULATOR GAIN V IN A MOD = 20 log --------------------- = 20 log V IN V RAMP -20 db/decade fLC fESR Frequency (log scale) The Type-III compensation network is represented in Figure 5-2: Phase (deg) C3 0° C2 R4 C1 R3 - -90° COMP EA VIN R1 + R2 -180° VREF Frequency (log scale) FIGURE 5-1: Bode Plots for Buck Converter Power Train (Representation Using Asymptotes). The power train of a buck converter that uses voltage mode control is a second order system. At the LC resonance frequency, a double pole occurs; this pole will “push” the gain down with a slope of -40db/decade. This double pole also introduces a phase lag of -180°. The compensation network must counteract the effects of this double pole in order to achieve the stability of the system. Where: 1 1 s + ------------------- s + -------------------------------------- R 1 R 3 C 1 R1 + R3 R 4 C 2 G s = --------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------R1 R 3 C1 C2 + C3 1 s s + --------------------------------- s + -------------------- R 3 C 1 R 4 C 2 C 3 FIGURE 5-2: Network. Type-III Compensation The Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) of the output capacitor introduces a zero that “pushes” the gain and phase up again. This zero helps the stability of the system if it occurs before the phase reaches the critical point of -180°. However, due to the performance criteria (output voltage ripple, efficiency), the application requires the use of low ESR capacitors. For capacitors that have very low ESR (ceramic capacitors), this zero occurs at high frequency, where the phase reaches the critical point. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 23 MCP19035 The Type-III compensation network provides two zeros and three poles (including origin pole), pushing the cross-over frequency as high as possible, and boosts the phase margin of the system to greater than 45°. A higher bandwidth yields a faster load transient response. The faster transient response results in a smaller output voltage overshoot. Magnitude (dB) AOL APOLE AZERO 0 dB Frequency (log scale) The procedure for placing the poles and zeros to achieve the optimum phase margin are presented below: 1. Phase (deg) 2. 90° 0° 3. EQUATION 5-25: -90° fZ1 fZ2 fP1 fP2 Frequency (log scale) FIGURE 5-3: Bode Plots for Type III Compensation Network (Representation Using Asymptotes). Assuming C3 « C2 and R3 « R1, the pole and zero frequencies can be calculated using Equation 5-22: EQUATION 5-22: POLE AND ZERO FREQUENCIES OF THE COMPENSATION NETWORK 1 1 fZ1 = -------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------2 R 1 + R3 C 1 2 R 1 C1 1 f Z2 = -------------------------------2 R4 C2 1 1 f P1 = --------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------C C R 2 2 3 4 C3 2 R4 -------------------- C 2 + C 3 fP2 Determine the frequency of the double pole (LC pole) and ESR zero using Equation 5-20. Choose resistor R1 (usually between 10 kΩ and 100 kΩ). This value is a compromise between high values for additional capacitors (higher cost) and possible noise induced problems. Resistor R2 is calculated using Equation 5-25: 0.6 R1 VREF R1 R2 = --------------------------------- = --------------------------V OUT – V REF V OUT – 0.6 4. Choose the crossover frequency of the compensated system. This frequency is recommended to be between 1/10th and 1/5th of the switching frequency (fSW). A higher crossover frequency will improve the transient response, but will decrease the phase margin. For most of the applications, the crossover frequency is set around 1/10th of switching frequency. This is a reasonable compromise between simplifying the design of the compensation loop and achieving a fast transient response. Since the frequency of the ESR zero is much higher than LC resonant frequency, the gain of the power train can be typically approximated at the crossover frequency, using Equation 5-26: EQUATION 5-26: 1 = -------------------------------2 R3 C 1 EQUATION 5-23: ZERO GAIN R4 AZERO = 20 log -----R1 EQUATION 5-24: FEEDBACK RESISTOR DIVIDER A PT CO POWER TRAIN GAIN AT CROSSOVER FREQUENCY f CO = AMOD – 40 log -------- f LC The compensated error amplifier must have a gain equal to APTco at crossover frequency (fCO). Typically, this crossover frequency occurs between FZ2 and FP1 (see Figure 5-3). POLE GAIN R4 R 1 + R3 A POLE = 20 log -----------------------------------R1 R 3 DS22326B-page 24 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 5. The first zero of the compensation network must be placed at the fLC frequency. The capacitor C1 is calculated using Equation 5-27: EQUATION 5-27: CAPACITOR C1 L COUT C 1 = ---------------------------R1 6. The value of the resistor R4 is estimated using Equation 5-28: EQUATION 5-28: The compensation circuit can be simulated with any available simulator. The values of the components can be adjusted to meet the initial design parameters (crossover frequency and phase margin). It is also necessary to ensure that the gain of the compensation circuit does not exceed the gain of the error amplifier. Due to the interactions between poles and zeros, it is highly recommended to use the design tool provided by Microchip Technology Inc. to design and analyze the compensation network. RESISTOR R4 f CO 1 R4 = -------- -------- R 1 f LC VIN Where: fCO = cross-over frequency for the compensated system (usually 1/10th of fSW) 7. The second zero of the compensation network must be placed at half of the fLC frequency. The value of the capacitor C2 is calculated in Equation 5-29: EQUATION 5-29: CAPACITOR C2 L COUT C 2 = 2 ---------------------------R4 8. The first pole of the compensation network must be placed at fSW. The value of C3 is calculated in Equation 5-30: EQUATION 5-30: CAPACITOR C3 1 C 3 = -----------------------------------------2 R 4 f SW 9. The second pole of the compensation network must be placed at half of the fSW .The value for resistor R3 is calculated in Equation 5-31: EQUATION 5-31: RESISTOR R3 1 R 3 = -------------------------------- C 1 f SW 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 25 MCP19035 5.3 Operation with Low Input Voltages If the application requires an input voltage below 5.5V, it is recommended to use the alternative schematic depicted in Figure 5-4. +VIN CIN RIN ON MCP19035 SHDN OFF BOOT Q1 CBOOT HDRV VIN L PHASE PWRGD C2 COMP LDRV FB +VCC +VOUT COUT CVCC GND C3 Q2 R4 R1 C1 R3 R2 FIGURE 5-4: Typical Application for Low VIN. This connection avoids the voltage drop on the internal voltage regulator, ensuring the correct driving of the MOSFETs at low input voltage. Additional care must be exercised when this alternative schematic is used to minimize the input voltage ripple/noise. The internal circuitry of the MCP19035 may be affected by the ripple/noise present on the VCC pin. The RIN resistor together with CVCC capacitor form a low-pass filter for the bias voltage (VCC voltage). The recommended value range for this resistor is between 2.2 and 10. DS22326B-page 26 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 6.0 DESIGN EXAMPLE This example illustrates the step-by-step design procedure for a 12V to 1.8V synchronous buck converter using the MCP19035 controller. To minimize the design effort, Microchip provides a design tool that is used to calculate the component values. See AN1452 - “Using the MCP19035 Synchronous Buck Converter Design Tool” for further details (DS01452). The electrical parameters are detailed in Table 6-1. TABLE 6-1: DESIGN EXAMPLE ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATION Parameter Test Conditions Min Nominal Max Unit 8 12 14 V 0 IOUT 15A — 1.8 — V Line Regulation 8.0V VIN 14V — — 0.5 % Load Regulation Input Voltage (VIN) Output Voltage (VOUT) 0A IOUT 15A — — 0.5 % Output ripple (VOUT_RIPPLE) IOUT = 15A — — 30 mV Input ripple (VIN_RIPPLE) IOUT = 15A — — 0.3 V Output overshoot Step from 3.75A to 11.25A — — 100 mV Output undershoot Step from 11.25A to 3.75A — — 100 mV 0 — 15 A 90 — — % Output current (IOUT) VIN = 12V, IOUT = 10A Efficiency 6.0.1 INDUCTOR SELECTION The inductor must be sized for a typical ripple current that is around 30% of maximum output current. The inductor value calculated with Equation 5-1 is 1.16 µH. To compensate against component tolerance, choose the next higher standard value 1.5 µH (typically 20% for high current inductors). The peak current in the inductor can be calculated with Equation 5-2, its value being 17.25A. The inductor must sustain, without saturating, this peak current. To maintain low-conduction losses, the DC resistance of the inductor must be as low as possible. Table 6-2 shows some suitable inductors for this application. TABLE 6-2: SUITABLE INDUCTORS FROM VARIOUS VENDORS Vendor Part Number Inductance (µH) DCR (m) ISAT (A) Coilcraft® XAL1010-152MEB 1.5 1.76 36.6 Wurth Elektronik® 7443320150 1.5 2.1 27 TDK - EPC® Bourns® B82559A0142A013 1.4 1.5 22 SRP1270-1R5M 1.5 2.1 48 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 27 MCP19035 6.0.2 INPUT CAPACITOR SELECTION The converter operates with a maximum duty cycle of 22.5%. A ceramic capacitor (X7R dielectric) with a 10 m ESR (typical) will be used. The minimum capacitance for input capacitor, calculated in Equation 5-4, is 32.7 µF. Use two standard 22 µF capacitors (X7R) rated at 25VDC in parallel. 6.0.3 OUTPUT CAPACITOR SELECTION Based on a step load from 25% to 75% of the maximum output current, the minimum value for the output capacitor can be determined with Equation 5-7. The minimum value is 456 µF. Choose the next higher standard value (500 µF). The ESR of the output capacitor will strongly affect the output voltage ripple. Use five 100 µF standard ceramic capacitors (X7R or X5R dielectric) rated at 6.3VDC in parallel. The estimated final value of the ESR is lower than 5 m. The output voltage ripple is now estimated with Equation 5-6. 6.0.4 MOSFETS SELECTION Before the MOSFET selection, the total losses of the converter should be estimated. For this application, the input power can be estimated using Equation 6-1: EQUATION 6-1: INPUT POWER U OUT IOUTmax PIN = -----------------------------------------Eff The total power losses are estimated in Equation 6-2: EQUATION 6-2: TOTAL CONVERTER LOSSES P LOSS = P IN – POUT To achieve the efficiency goal (90%), the total power losses must be lower than 2W at 10A output current. Table 6-3 shows how these losses are distributed over the converter components. The power losses distribution varies with the design parameters. As a rule of thumb, for designs that have higher conversion ratio (low duty cycles), the losses for the high-side MOSFET are mainly switching losses. For the low side, most of the losses will be the conduction losses. TABLE 6-3: ESTIMATION OF THE POWER LOSSES DISTRIBUTION Component Losses (%) High-Side MOSFET 36 Low-Side MOSFET 40 Inductor 10 Input Capacitor 2 Output Capacitor 1 PWM Controller 10 Traces DC Resistance 1 An important part of the total power losses (over 75%) are dissipated by the MOSFETs. For the high-side MOSFET, the total amount of losses (conduction and switching losses) should not exceed 0.72W. This design has a higher conversion ratio (greater than 7:1), thus most of the losses of the highside MOSFET will be switching losses. As a rule of thumb, the switching losses will be considered to be 70% of the total losses. The conduction losses for the high-side MOSFET are estimated in Equation 5-10. High-side MOSFET conduction losses are high at low input voltages. The maximum RDS(on) for the high-side MOSFET is: EQUATION 6-3: MAXIMUM HIGH-SIDE RDS(ON) PLOSS High – Side R DS on = ----------------------------------------- 0.3 I RMS High – Side2 For this design, where IRMS High-Side = 3.9A at 12V input voltage and 10A output current, the high-side MOSFET should have a RDS(On) lower than 14 mΩ. For the high-side MOSFET, most of the losses are switching losses (70%). The maximum total gate charge for the high-side MOSFET is: EQUATION 6-4: MAXIMUM TOTAL GATE CHARGE FOR THE HIGH-SIDE MOSFET P LOSS High – Side Q G Total = ------------------------------------------------------- 0.7 V IN Max I OUT f SW The maximum Total Gate Charge (QG(Total)) at 4.5V VGS should be lower than 12 nC (calculated for 10A output current). DS22326B-page 28 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 For the low-side MOSFET, losses are mainly conduction losses. As a rule of thumb, the conduction losses are considered to be 85% of the total losses. For this design, the maximum power losses (estimated at 12V input voltage and 10A output current) for low-side should be lower than 0.9W. Estimate the maximum RDS(On) for the low-side MOSFET using Equation 6-5: EQUATION 6-5: MAXIMUM RD(ON) OF LOW-SIDE MOSFET P LOSS Low – Side RDS on = ---------------------------------------- 0.85 IRMS Low – Side2 In this design, IRMS Low-Side = 9.3A at 12V input voltage, 10A output current and the maximum RDS(On) for low-side MOSFET = 7.8 m. For this design, Microchip's MCP87050 and MCP87022 high-performance MOSFETs can be used. Calculate the total losses introduced by these transistors using the provided equations. For the high-side MOSFET (MCP87050), the total loss is 0.66W. The low-side MOSFET (MCP87022) will dissipate a 0.3W loss. The peak current for the low-side MOSFET is: EQUATION 6-7: MAXIMUM PEAK CURRENT FOR A LOW-SIDE MOSFET I MAX LS 0.18 = -----------------------R DS on LS For this design, the maximum peak current that flows into the low-side MOSFET is 81A. 6.0.8 FEEDBACK LOOP COMPENSATION For this design, the crossover frequency is 30 kHz, while the resonant frequency of LC tank is 5.88 kHz. With these parameters, and following the design procedure described in Section 5.2, Design Procedure, the value for compensation network components can be calculated. TABLE 6-4: COMPENSATION NETWORK COMPONENTS Component Value Standard Value R1 20 k 20 k BOOTSTRAP CAPACITOR SELECTION R2 10 k 10 k R3 0.774 k 0.75 k From Equation 5-19, the value of the Bootstrap Capacitor should be higher than 276 nF. Choose the standard value 330 nF ceramic capacitor (X7R) rated at 16 VDC. R4 8.6 k 8.2 k C1 1.37 nF 1.2 nF C2 6.36 nF 6.8 nF C3 61 pF 68 pF 6.0.5 6.0.6 DEAD TIME (DT) SELECTION The MOSFET used in this design has a low Figure of Merit parameter. The overall efficiency of the converter can be improved by choosing the MCP19035 with optimized Dead Time. The components used for the compensation network must be of good quality and tolerance. The recommended dielectric for capacitors is C0G and the tolerance 5%. The recommended tolerance for resistors is 1%. 6.0.7 6.0.9 OVERCURRENT PROTECTION THRESHOLDS The MCP19035 controller provides two fixed threshold for high and low-side overcurrent protection circuits. These thresholds are 480 mV (typical) for high-side and 180 mV (typical) for the low-side. The peak current for the high-side is: EQUATION 6-6: I MAX MAXIMUM PEAK CURRENT FOR A HIGH-SIDE MOSFET HS 0.48 = ------------------------RDS on HS For this design, the maximum peak current that flows into the high-side MOSFET is 87A. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. LAYOUT RECOMMENDATIONS Good printed circuit board layout techniques are important to any switching circuitry, and switching power supplies are no different. Here are the guidelines for the PCB layout: • The exposed pad of MCP19035 DFN case is the only connection to the internal device ground. Connect this pad directly to the board ground plane. • Place at least four vias in the exposed pad land to help remove heat from the device. • Use separate grounds for power and signal paths. Keep high current paths away from sensitive components and nodes (ex. feedback and compensation network components). • Four layer PCBs are highly recommended to obtain optimum results regarding noise/EMI. Use an internal layer as ground plane. DS22326B-page 29 MCP19035 • For double layer boards, a single ground plane (usually the bottom) is recommended. • Use short, wide traces for the MOSFET’s gate drive connection (LDRV and HDRV signals). • Place the main MOSFET (control/high-side MOSFET) as close as possible to the input capacitors. • Minimize the connections between MOSFETs, the inductor and the MCP19035 case (PHASE node). Place this node over a ground plane to minimize the radiated noise. • Place the compensation network components near the MCP19035 case and connect these components to a low noise ground (signal ground). • Locate the VIN decoupling capacitor close to the MCP19035 case. • Locate the Bootstrap Circuit capacitor close to the MCP19035 case. • Minimize the area of high frequency current loops. Figure 6-1 helps the PCB designer to identify the main high frequency current paths for the Synchronous Buck Converter. CIN Q1 MCP19035 IIN HDRV IHDRV L1 PHASE Q2 IRR LDRV ISR COUT RL ILDRV GND Where: IIN = Input Converter current ISR = Current through the Synchronous Rectifier (SR) MOSFET IHDRV and ILDRV = MOSFET drivers’ currents IRR = Current produced by the Reverse Recovery of the SR MOSFET body diode FIGURE 6-1: High Frequency Current Paths. All these currents contain high-frequency components and can produce EMI. Minimizing the area of these loops will reduce the radiated noise. The Reverse Recovery of the SR MOSFET Body Diode current is an important source of noise and EMI. This current, although very short (less than 10 ns), can easily reach a few hundred amps, especially when using low ESR capacitors for input bypass and very fast MOSFETs for switching transistors. If this current passes through a path that has a high inductance, it will produce an intense voltage ringing. DS22326B-page 30 For noise sensitive applications (for example, RF applications) the excessive voltage ringing in the PHASE node produced by Reverse Recovery of SR MOSFET Body Diode can be reduced by placing a lowvalue resistor in series with the bootstrap capacitor. This resistor will slow down the high-side MOSFET during low-to-high transition, reducing the slew rate of the SW node signal. The recommended value for this resistor is between 2.2Ω and 10Ω, and should be determined by lab measurements. The penalty of including this resistor is an efficiency reduction. It should, however, be no more than 0.5%. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 Figures 6-2 and 6-3 show the difference between PHASE node voltage with and without this resistor. FIGURE 6-2: SW (PHASE) Node With Boot Capacitor Series Resistor. FIGURE 6-3: SW (PHASE) Node Without Boot Capacitor Series Resistor. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 31 SCHEMATIC AND BILL OF MATERIALS MCP19035 VIN J1 12 DS22326B-page 32 6.0.10 C10 C11 22PF 22PF PGND R5 1M PGND Q1 U1 MCP87050 C2 8.2k C3 68pF 6.8nF 4 VIN 5 PWRGD C12 1PF 11 R4 R6 HDRV 10 9 PHASE BOOT 8 LDRV C4 0.33PF 7 C13 4.7PF PGND PGND PGND 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. 20k R3 C1 750 1.2nF SGND FIGURE 6-4: Schematic Diagram. Q2 MCP87022 6 R1 R2 10k 1.5PH MCP19035 100k PGND VCC L1 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 100PF 100PF 100PF 100PF 100PF VOUT J2 1 2 SHDN 2 FB 3 COMP GND 1 SGND PGND MCP19035 TABLE 6-5: Qty Reference BILL OF MATERIALS Value Manufacturer Manufacturer Part Number Description 1 C1 1.2 nF KEMET® Electronic Corp. C0603C122J1GACTU Cap. Ceramic 1200 PF 100V 5% NP0 0603 1 C2 6.8 nF KEMET Electronic Corp. C0603C682J5GACTU Cap. Ceramic 6800 PF 50V 5% NP0 0603 1 C3 68 pF KEMET Electronic Corp. C0603C680J1GACTU Cap. Ceramic 68 PF 100V 5% NP0 0603 1 C4 0.33 µF MURATA Electronics® 5 C5, C6, 100 µF C7, C8, C9 TDK® Corporation C3225X5R0J107M 2 C10, C11 MURATA Electronics GRM32ER71E226KE15L Cap. Ceramic 22 µF 25V 10% X7R 1210 1 C12 1 µF TDK Corporation CGA4J3X7R1V105K Cap. Ceramic 1 µF 35V 10% X7R 0805 1 C13 4.7 µF TDK Corporation C2012X5R1E475K Cap. Ceramic 4.7 µF 25V X5R 0805 2 J1, J2 On-Shore Technology Inc. ED120/2DS Terminal Block 5.08 mm Vert. 2 POS 1 L1 Wurth Electronik Group 7443320150 Inductor Power 1.5 µH 19.5A SMD 1 Q1 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP87050T-U/MF High-Speed N-Channel Power MOSFET, 5x6 mm PDFN 1 Q2 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP87022T-U/MF High-Speed N-Channel Power MOSFET, 5x6 mm PDFN 1 R1 20 kΩ Panasonic® - ECG ERJ-3EKF2002V Res. 20k Ohm 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD 1 R2 10 kΩ Panasonic - ECG ERJ-3GEYJ103V Res. 10k Ohm 1/10W 5% 0603 SMD 1 R3 750Ω Vishay®/Dale Intertechnology CRCW0603750RFKEA Res. 750 OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD 1 R4 8.2 kΩ Panasonic - ECG ERJ-3EKF8201V Res. 8.2k Ohm 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD 1 R5 1 MΩ Panasonic - ECG ERJ-3EKF1004V Res. 1M Ohm 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD 1 R6 100 kΩ Panasonic - ECG 1 U1 22 µF 1.5 µH Microchip Technology Inc. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. GRM188R71C334KA01D Cap. Ceramic 0.33 µF16V 10% X7R 0603 Cap. Ceramic 100 µF 6.3V 20% X5R 1210 ERJ-3EKF1003V Res. 100k Ohm 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD MCP19035-AAABE/MF High Speed Synchronous Buck Controller DS22326B-page 33 MCP19035 NOTES: DS22326B-page 34 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 7.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 7.1 Package Marking Information 10-Lead DFN (3x3x0.9 mm) Example: Part Number Legend: XX...X Y YY WW NNN e3 * Note: Code MCP19035-AAAAE/MF BAFG MCP19035T-AAAAE/MF BAFG MCP19035-AAABE/MF BAFP MCP19035T-AAABE/MF BAFP MCP19035-BAAAE/MF BAFH MCP19035T-BAAAE/MF BAFH MCP19035-BAABE/MF BAFQ MCP19035T-BAABE/MF BAFQ BAFG 1209 256 Customer-specific information Year code (last digit of calendar year) Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year) Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’) Alphanumeric traceability code Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn) This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 ) can be found on the outer packaging for this package. In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available characters for customer-specific information. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 35 MCP19035 Note: For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at http://www.microchip.com/packaging DS22326B-page 36 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 Note: For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at http://www.microchip.com/packaging 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 37 MCP19035 Note: For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at http://www.microchip.com/packaging DS22326B-page 38 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 APPENDIX A: REVISION HISTORY Revision B (March 2013) The following is the list of modifications: 1. Added the 600 kHz option Switching Frequency parameter and related information throughout the document. 2. Updated the DC Electrical Characteristics table to reflect the 600 kHz option for the Switching Frequency parameter. 3. Updated Figure 2-1, Figure 2-3, and Figure 2-10. 4. Updated Section 4.4 “Internal Oscillator”. 5. Updated the Switching Frequency value in Equation 4-1. 6. Updated Section 4.11 “Soft Start”. 7. Updated Figure 4-3. 8. Added a note to Section 4.12 “Pre-Bias Load Start-up”. 9. Updated Section 5.2.1 “Switching Frequency and the Maximum Conversion Ratio”. 10. Updated Section 7.1 “Package Marking Information” with the 600 kHz Switching Frequency option markings. 11. Updated the Product Identification System page with the 600 kHz Switching Frequency option marking information. Revision A (November 2012) • Original Release of this Document. 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22326B-page 39 MCP19035 NOTES: DS22326B-page 40 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO. -X X X X X /XX Device Switching Reference LDRV OC Dead Temperature Package Frequency Voltage Range Threshold Time Device: MCP19035: MCP19035T: High-Speed Synchronous Buck Controller High-Speed Synchronous Buck Controller (Tape and Reel) Switching Frequency: A =300 kHz B =600 kHz Reference Voltage: A =600 mV LDRV OC Threshold: A =200 mV Dead Time: A =20 ns B =12 ns Temperature Range: E = -40C to +125C Package: MF = Examples: a) b) c) d) (Extended) e) Plastic Dual Flat, No Lead Package - 3x3x0.9 mm, 10-Lead f) g) h) 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP19035-AAAAE/MF: 300 kHz Switching Freq., 600 mV VREF, 200 mV LDRV OC Threshold, 20 ns Dead Time, Extended Temperature, 10LD 3x3 DFN Package MCP19035T-AAAAE/MF: Tape and Reel, 300 kHz Switching Freq., 600 mV VREF, 200 mV LDRV OC Threshold, 20 ns Dead Time, Extended Temperature, 10LD 3x3 DFN Package MCP19035-AAABE/MF: 300 kHz Switching Freq., 600 mV VREF, 200 mV LDRV OC Threshold, 12 ns Dead Time, Extended Temperature, 10LD 3x3 DFN Package MCP19035T-AAABE/MF: Tape and Reel, 300 kHz Switching Freq., 600 mV VREF, 200 mV LDRV OC Threshold, 12 ns Dead Time, Extended Temperature, 10LD 3x3 DFN Package MCP19035-BAAAE/MF: 600 kHz Switching Freq., 600 mV VREF, 200 mV LDRV OC Threshold, 20 ns Dead Time, Extended Temperature, 10LD 3x3 DFN Package MCP19035T-BAAAE/MF: Tape and Reel, 600 kHz Switching Freq., 600 mV VREF, 200 mV LDRV OC Threshold, 20 ns Dead Time, Extended Temperature, 10LD 3x3 DFN Package MCP19035-BAABE/MF: 600 kHz Switching Freq., 600 mV VREF, 200 mV LDRV OC Threshold, 12 ns Dead Time, Extended Temperature, 10LD 3x3 DFN Package MCP19035T-BAABE/MF: Tape and Reel, 600 kHz Switching Freq., 600 mV VREF, 200 mV LDRV OC Threshold, 12 ns Dead Time, Extended Temperature, 10LD 3x3 DFN Package DS22326B-page 41 MCP19035 NOTES: DS22326B-page 42 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC, FlashFlex, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PIC32 logo, rfPIC, SST, SST Logo, SuperFlash and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor, MTP, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Silicon Storage Technology is a registered trademark of Microchip Technology Inc. in other countries. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, BodyCom, chipKIT, chipKIT logo, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPF, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit, PICtail, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, SQI, Serial Quad I/O, Total Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock, ZENA and Z-Scale are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. GestIC and ULPP are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Germany II GmbH & Co. & KG, a subsidiary of Microchip Technology Inc., in other countries. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2012-2013, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. ISBN: 978-1-62077-089-4 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFIED BY DNV == ISO/TS 16949 == 2012-2013 Microchip Technology Inc. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2009 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. 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