MICROCHIP PIC16HV610-I/ML

PIC16F610/16HV610
PIC16F616/16HV616
Data Sheet
14-Pin, Flash-Based 8-Bit
CMOS Microcontrollers
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
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•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
•
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts
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Information contained in this publication regarding device
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Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC,
KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART,
rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries.
FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor,
MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control
Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard,
dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN,
ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial
Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified
logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Octopus, Omniscient Code
Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit,
PICtail, PIC32 logo, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total
Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA
are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2009, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the
U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures
are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and
analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design
and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
DS41288F-page 2
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
14-Pin Flash-Based, 8-Bit CMOS Microcontrollers
High-Performance RISC CPU:
Peripheral Features:
• Only 35 Instructions to Learn:
- All single-cycle instructions except branches
• Operating Speed:
- DC – 20 MHz oscillator/clock input
- DC – 200 ns instruction cycle
• Interrupt Capability
• 8-Level Deep Hardware Stack
• Direct, Indirect and Relative Addressing modes
• Shunt Voltage Regulator (PIC16HV610/616 only):
- 5 volt regulation
- 4 mA to 50 mA shunt range
• 11 I/O Pins and 1 Input Only
- High current source/sink for direct LED drive
- Interrupt-on-Change pins
- Individually programmable weak pull-ups
• Analog Comparator module with:
- Two analog comparators
- Programmable on-chip voltage reference
(CVREF) module (% of VDD)
- Fixed Voltage Reference
- Comparator inputs and outputs externally
accessible
- SR Latch
- Built-In Hysteresis (user selectable)
• Timer0: 8-Bit Timer/Counter with 8-Bit
Programmable Prescaler
• Enhanced Timer1:
- 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler
- External Timer1 Gate (count enable)
- Option to use OSC1 and OSC2 in LP mode
as Timer1 oscillator if INTOSC mode
selected
- Timer1 oscillator
• In-Circuit Serial ProgrammingTM (ICSPTM) via Two
Pins
Special Microcontroller Features:
• Precision Internal Oscillator:
- Factory calibrated to ±1%, typical
- User selectable frequency: 4 MHz or 8 MHz
• Power-Saving Sleep mode
• Voltage Range:
- PIC16F610/616: 2.0V to 5.5V
- PIC16HV610/616: 2.0V to user defined
maximum (see note)
• Industrial and Extended Temperature Range
• Power-on Reset (POR)
• Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up
Timer (OST)
• Brown-out Reset (BOR)
• Watchdog Timer (WDT) with Independent
Oscillator for Reliable Operation
• Multiplexed Master Clear with Pull-up/Input Pin
• Programmable Code Protection
• High Endurance Flash:
- 100,000 write Flash endurance
- Flash retention: > 40 years
Low-Power Features:
• Standby Current:
- 50 nA @ 2.0V, typical
• Operating Current:
- 20 μA @ 32 kHz, 2.0V, typical
- 220 μA @ 4 MHz, 2.0V, typical
• Watchdog Timer Current:
- 1 μA @ 2.0V, typical
Note:
PIC16F616/16HV616 only:
• A/D Converter:
- 10-bit resolution
- 8 external input channels
- 2 internal reference channels
• Timer2: 8-Bit Timer/Counter with 8-Bit Period
Register, Prescaler and Postscaler
• Enhanced Capture, Compare, PWM module:
- 16-bit Capture, max. resolution 12.5 ns
- 16-bit Compare, max. resolution 200 ns
- 10-bit PWM with 1, 2 or 4 output channels,
programmable “dead time”, max. frequency
20 kHz
Voltage across internal shunt regulator
cannot exceed 5V.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 3
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
Program Memory
Data Memory
Flash
(words)
SRAM (bytes)
PIC16F610
1024
PIC16HV610
1024
PIC16F616
PIC16HV616
Device
I/O
10-bit A/D
(ch)
Comparators
Timers
8/16-bit
64
11
—
2
1/1
2.0-5.5V
64
11
—
2
1/1
2.0-user defined
2048
128
11
8
2
2/1
2.0-5.5V
2048
128
11
8
2
2/1
2.0-user defined
Voltage Range
VDD
1
RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN
2
RA4/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT
3
RA3/MCLR/VPP
4
5
RC4/C2OUT
6
RC3/C12IN3-
7
14
VSS
13
RA0/C1IN+/ICSPDAT
12
RA1/C12IN0-/ICSPCLK
11
RA2/T0CKI/INT/C1OUT
10
RC0/C2IN+
9
RC1/C12IN1-
8
RC2/C12IN2-
PIC16F610/16HV610 14-PIN SUMMARY
TABLE 1:
I/O
RC5
PIC16F610/16HV610
PIC16F610/16HV610 14-Pin Diagram (PDIP, SOIC, TSSOP)
Pin
Comparators
Timer
Interrupts
Pull-ups
Basic
RA0
13
C1IN+
—
IOC
Y
ICSPDAT
RA1
12
C12IN0-
—
IOC
Y
ICSPCLK
RA2
11
C1OUT
T0CKI
INT/IOC
Y
—
—
IOC
Y(2)
MCLR/VPP
RA3(1)
4
—
RA4
3
—
T1G
IOC
Y
OSC2/CLKOUT
RA5
2
—
T1CKI
IOC
Y
OSC1/CLKIN
RC0
10
C2IN+
—
—
—
—
RC1
9
C12IN1-
—
—
—
—
RC2
8
C12IN2-
—
—
—
—
RC3
7
C12IN3-
—
—
—
—
RC4
6
C2OUT
—
—
—
—
RC5
5
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
—
—
—
—
VDD
—
14
—
—
—
—
VSS
Note 1:
2:
Input only.
Only when pin is configured for external MCLR.
DS41288F-page 4
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
VDD
1
RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN
2
RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT
3
RA3/MCLR/VPP
4
RC5/CCP1/P1A
5
RC4/C2OUT/P1B
RC3/AN7/C12IN3-/P1C
6
7
PIC16F616/16HV616
PIC16F616/16HV616 14-Pin Diagram (PDIP, SOIC, TSSOP)
14
VSS
13
RA0/AN0/C1IN+/ICSPDAT
12
RA1/AN1/C12IN0-/VREF/ICSPCLK
11
RA2/AN2/T0CKI/INT/C1OUT
10
RC0/AN4/C2IN+
9
RC1/AN5/C12IN1-
8
RC2/AN6/C12IN2-/P1D
PIC16F616/16HV616 14-PIN SUMMARY
TABLE 2:
I/O
Pin
Analog
Comparators
Timer
CCP
Interrupts
Pull-ups
Basic
RA0
13
AN0
C1IN+
—
—
IOC
Y
ICSPDAT
RA1
12
AN1/VREF
C12IN0-
—
—
IOC
Y
ICSPCLK
RA2
11
AN2
C1OUT
T0CKI
—
INT/IOC
Y
—
IOC
Y(2)
MCLR/VPP
RA3(1)
4
—
—
RA4
3
AN3
—
T1G
—
IOC
Y
OSC2/CLKOUT
RA5
2
—
—
T1CKI
—
IOC
Y
OSC1/CLKIN
—
—
RC0
10
AN4
C2IN+
—
—
—
—
—
RC1
9
AN5
C12IN1-
—
—
—
—
—
RC2
8
AN6
C12IN2-
—
P1D
—
—
—
RC3
7
AN7
C12IN3-
—
P1C
—
—
—
RC4
6
—
C2OUT
—
P1B
—
—
—
RC5
5
—
—
—
CCP1/P1A
—
—
—
—
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
VDD
—
14
—
—
—
—
—
—
VSS
Note 1:
2:
Input only.
Only when pin is configured for external MCLR.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 5
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
VDD
NC
NC
VSS
15
14
13
11
RA1/C12IN0-/ICSPCLK
10
RA2/T0CKI/INT/C1OUT
8
9
7
4
RA0/C1IN+/ICSPDAT
RC1/C12IN1-
RC5
6
3
12
RC2/C12IN2-
RA3/MCLR/VPP
PIC16F610/
PIC16HV610
5
2
RC3/C12IN3-
RA4/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT
RC4/C2OUT
1
RC0/C2IN1+
PIC16F610/16HV610 16-PIN SUMMARY
TABLE 3:
I/O
RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN
16
PIC16F610/16HV610 16-Pin Diagram (QFN)
Pin
Comparators
Timers
Interrupts
Pull-ups
Basic
12
C1IN+
—
IOC
Y
ICSPDAT
RA1
11
C12IN0-
—
IOC
Y
ICSPCLK
RA2
10
C1OUT
T0CKI
INT/IOC
Y
—
—
IOC
Y(2)
MCLR/VPP
RA0
RA3
(1)
3
—
RA4
2
—
T1G
IOC
Y
OSC2/CLKOUT
RA5
1
—
T1CKI
IOC
Y
OSC1/CLKIN
RC0
9
C2IN+
—
—
—
—
RC1
8
C12IN1-
—
—
—
—
RC2
7
C12IN2-
—
—
—
—
RC3
6
C12IN3-
—
—
—
—
RC4
5
C2OUT
—
—
—
—
RC5
4
—
—
—
—
—
—
16
—
—
—
—
VDD
—
13
—
—
—
—
VSS
Note 1:
2:
Input only.
Only when pin is configured for external MCLR.
DS41288F-page 6
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
VDD
NC
NC
VSS
15
14
13
RA2/AN2/T0CKI/INT/C1OUT
9
8
4
10
RC1/AN5/C12IN1-
RC5/CCP/P1A
RA1/AN1/C12IN0-/VREF/ICSPCLK
7
3
11
RC2/AN6/C12IN2-/P1D
RA3/MCLR/VPP
PIC16F616/
PIC16HV616
6
2
RA0/AN0/C1IN+/ICSPDAT
RC3/AN7/C12IN3-/P1C
RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT
12
5
1
RC4/C2OUT/P1B
RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN
16
PIC16F616/16HV616 16-Pin Diagram (QFN)
RC0/AN4/C2IN1+
PIC16F616/16HV616 16-PIN SUMMARY
TABLE 4:
I/O
Pin
Analog
Comparators
Timers
CCP
Interrupts
Pull-ups
Basic
RA0
12
AN0
C1IN+
—
—
IOC
Y
ICSPDAT
RA1
11
AN1/VREF
C12IN0-
—
—
IOC
Y
ICSPCLK
RA2
10
AN2
C1OUT
T0CKI
—
INT/IOC
Y
—
IOC
Y(2)
MCLR/VPP
RA3
(1)
3
—
—
—
—
RA4
2
AN3
—
T1G
—
IOC
Y
OSC2/CLKOUT
RA5
1
—
—
T1CKI
—
IOC
Y
OSC1/CLKIN
RC0
9
AN4
C2IN+
—
—
—
—
—
RC1
8
AN5
C12IN1-
—
—
—
—
—
RC2
7
AN6
C12IN2-
—
P1D
—
—
—
RC3
6
AN7
C12IN3-
—
P1C
—
—
—
RC4
5
—
C2OUT
—
P1B
—
—
—
RC5
4
—
—
—
CCP1/P1A
—
—
—
—
16
—
—
—
—
—
—
VDD
—
13
—
—
—
—
—
—
VSS
Note 1:
2:
Input only.
Only when pin is configured for external MCLR.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 7
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
Table of Contents
1.0 Device Overview .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9
2.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................ 13
3.0 Oscillator Module ....................................................................................................................................................................... 27
4.0 I/O Ports .................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
5.0 Timer0 Module .......................................................................................................................................................................... 45
6.0 Timer1 Module with Gate Control .............................................................................................................................................. 49
7.0 Timer2 Module (PIC16F616/16HV616 only) ............................................................................................................................. 55
8.0 Comparator Module ................................................................................................................................................................... 57
9.0 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Module (PIC16F616/16HV616 only) .................................................................................. 73
10.0 Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (With Auto-Shutdown and Dead Band) Module (PIC16F616/16HV616 Only) .................. 85
11.0 Voltage Regulator .................................................................................................................................................................... 107
12.0 Special Features of the CPU ................................................................................................................................................... 109
13.0 Instruction Set Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 129
14.0 Development Support............................................................................................................................................................... 139
15.0 Electrical Specifications............................................................................................................................................................ 143
16.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables ....................................................................................................................... 173
17.0 Packaging Information.............................................................................................................................................................. 197
Appendix A:Data Sheet Revision History........................................................................................................................................... 205
Appendix B: Migrating from other PIC® Devices................................................................................................................................ 206
Index ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 207
The Microchip Web Site ..................................................................................................................................................................... 211
Customer Change Notification Service .............................................................................................................................................. 211
Customer Support .............................................................................................................................................................................. 211
Reader Response .............................................................................................................................................................................. 212
Product Identification System............................................................................................................................................................. 213
Worldwide Sales and Service ............................................................................................................................................................ 214
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DS41288F-page 8
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
1.0
DEVICE OVERVIEW
The PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 is covered by this
data sheet. It is available in 14-pin PDIP, SOIC, TSSOP
and 16-pin QFN packages.
Block Diagrams and pinout descriptions of the devices
are as follows:
• PIC16F610/16HV610 (Figure 1-1, Table 1-1)
• PIC16F616/16HV616 (Figure 1-2, Table 1-2)
FIGURE 1-1:
PIC16F610/16HV610 BLOCK DIAGRAM
INT
Configuration
13
Flash
1K X 14
Program
Memory
Program
Bus
PORTA
RA0
RA1
RA2
RA3
RA4
RA5
RAM
64 Bytes
File
Registers
8-Level Stack
(13-Bit)
14
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
RAM Addr
9
Addr MUX
Instruction Reg
7
Direct Addr
8
Indirect
Addr
PORTC
FSR Reg
STATUS Reg
8
3
Power-up
Timer
OSC1/CLKIN
Instruction
Decode and
Control
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Timing
Generation
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset
OSC2/CLKOUT
Power-on
Reset
RC0
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RC5
MUX
ALU
8
W Reg
Internal
Oscillator
Block
Shunt Regulator
(PIC16HV610 only)
MCLR VDD
VSS
T1G
T1CKI
Timer0
Timer1
T0CKI
Comparator Voltage Reference
2 Analog Comparators
Fixed Voltage Reference
C1IN+
C12IN0C12IN1C12IN2C12IN3C1OUT
C2IN+
C2OUT
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 9
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 1-2:
PIC16F616/16HV616 BLOCK DIAGRAM
INT
Configuration
13
Flash
2K X 14
Program
Memory
Program
Bus
PORTA
RA0
RA1
RA2
RA3
RA4
RA5
RAM
128 Bytes
File
Registers
8-Level Stack
(13-Bit)
14
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
RAM Addr
9
Addr MUX
Instruction Reg
7
Direct Addr
Indirect
Addr
8
PORTC
RC0
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RC5
FSR Reg
STATUS Reg
8
3
Power-up
Timer
Instruction
Decode and
Control
Timing
Generation
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
MUX
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Power-on
Reset
ALU
8
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset
W Reg
Internal
Oscillator
Block
Shunt Regulator
(PIC16HV616 only)
MCLR VDD
T1G
VSS
T1CKI
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
T0CKI
Comparator Voltage Reference
Analog-To-Digital Converter
2 Analog Comparators
ECCP
Fixed Voltage Reference
CCP1/P1A
P1B
P1C
P1D
C1IN+
C12IN0C12IN1C12IN2C12IN3C1OUT
C2IN+
C2OUT
AN0
AN1
AN2
AN3
AN4
AN5
AN6
AN7
VREF
DS41288F-page 10
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 1-1:
PIC16F610/16HV610 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Name
RA0/C1IN+/ICSPDAT
RA1/C12IN0-/ICSPCLK
RA2/T0CKI/INT/C1OUT
RA3/MCLR/VPP
RA4/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT
RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN
RC0/C2IN+
RC1/C12IN1RC2/C12IN2RC3/C12IN3RC4/C2OUT
Function
Input
Type
Output
Type
Description
RA0
TTL
CMOS
C1IN+
AN
—
PORTA I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change
ICSPDAT
ST
CMOS
Serial Programming Data I/O
PORTA I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change
Comparator C1 non-inverting input
RA1
TTL
CMOS
C12IN0-
AN
—
Comparators C1 and C2 inverting input
ICSPCLK
ST
—
Serial Programming Clock
RA2
ST
CMOS
T0CKI
ST
—
Timer0 clock input
INT
ST
—
External Interrupt
C1OUT
—
CMOS
RA3
TTL
—
PORTA input with interrupt-on-change
MCLR
ST
—
Master Clear w/internal pull-up
VPP
HV
—
RA4
TTL
CMOS
T1G
ST
—
OSC2
—
XTAL
PORTA I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change
Comparator C1 output
Programming voltage
PORTA I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change
Timer1 gate (count enable)
Crystal/Resonator
CLKOUT
—
CMOS
FOSC/4 output
RA5
TTL
CMOS
PORTA I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change
T1CKI
ST
—
OSC1
XTAL
—
Crystal/Resonator
CLKIN
ST
—
External clock input/RC oscillator connection
RC0
TTL
CMOS
C2IN+
AN
—
RC1
TTL
CMOS
C12IN1-
AN
—
RC2
TTL
CMOS
C12IN2-
AN
—
RC3
TTL
CMOS
C12IN3-
AN
—
RC4
TTL
CMOS
Timer1 clock input
PORTC I/O
Comparator C2 non-inverting input
PORTC I/O
Comparators C1 and C2 inverting input
PORTC I/O
Comparators C1 and C2 inverting input
PORTC I/O
Comparators C1 and C2 inverting input
PORTC I/O
C2OUT
—
CMOS
Comparator C2 output
RC5
RC5
TTL
CMOS
PORTC I/O
VDD
VDD
Power
—
Positive supply
VSS
VSS
Power
—
Ground reference
Legend:
AN = Analog input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
TTL
= TTL compatible input
HV
= High Voltage
XTAL = Crystal
DS41288F-page 11
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 1-2:
PIC16F616/16HV616 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Name
RA0/AN0/C1IN+/ICSPDAT
RA1/AN1/C12IN0-/VREF/ICSPCLK
RA2/AN2/T0CKI/INT/C1OUT
RA3/MCLR/VPP
RA4/AN3/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT
RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN
RC0/AN4/C2IN+
RC1/AN5/C12IN1-
RC2/AN6/C12IN2-/P1D
RC3/AN7/C12IN3-/P1C
RC4/C2OUT/P1B
Function
Input
Type
Output
Type
RA0
TTL
CMOS
AN0
AN
—
Description
PORTA I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change
A/D Channel 0 input
C1IN+
AN
—
ICSPDAT
ST
CMOS
RA1
TTL
CMOS
AN1
AN
—
C12IN0-
AN
—
Comparators C1 and C2 inverting input
VREF
AN
—
External Voltage Reference for A/D
ICSPCLK
ST
—
RA2
ST
CMOS
Comparator C1 non-inverting input
Serial Programming Data I/O
PORTA I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change
A/D Channel 1 input
Serial Programming Clock
PORTA I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change
AN2
AN
—
T0CKI
ST
—
Timer0 clock input
INT
ST
—
External Interrupt
C1OUT
—
CMOS
RA3
TTL
—
PORTA input with interrupt-on-change
MCLR
ST
—
Master Clear w/internal pull-up
VPP
HV
—
RA4
TTL
CMOS
AN3
AN
—
T1G
ST
—
OSC2
—
XTAL
A/D Channel 2 input
Comparator C1 output
Programming voltage
PORTA I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change
A/D Channel 3 input
Timer1 gate (count enable)
Crystal/Resonator
CLKOUT
—
CMOS
FOSC/4 output
RA5
TTL
CMOS
PORTA I/O with prog. pull-up and interrupt-on-change
T1CKI
ST
—
OSC1
XTAL
—
Crystal/Resonator
CLKIN
ST
—
External clock input/RC oscillator connection
RC0
TTL
CMOS
AN4
AN
—
C2IN+
AN
—
RC1
TTL
CMOS
AN5
AN
—
C12IN1-
AN
—
RC2
TTL
CMOS
Timer1 clock input
PORTC I/O
A/D Channel 4 input
Comparator C2 non-inverting input
PORTC I/O
A/D Channel 5 input
Comparators C1 and C2 inverting input
PORTC I/O
AN6
AN
—
A/D Channel 6 input
C12IN2-
AN
—
Comparators C1 and C2 inverting input
P1D
—
CMOS
PWM output
RC3
TTL
CMOS
PORTC I/O
AN7
AN
—
A/D Channel 7 input
C12IN3-
AN
—
Comparators C1 and C2 inverting input
P1C
—
CMOS
PWM output
RC4
TTL
CMOS
PORTC I/O
Comparator C2 output
C2OUT
—
CMOS
P1B
—
CMOS
PWM output
RC5
TTL
CMOS
PORTC I/O
CCP1
ST
CMOS
Capture input/Compare output
P1A
—
CMOS
PWM output
VDD
VDD
Power
—
Positive supply
VSS
VSS
Power
—
Ground reference
RC5/CCP1/P1A
Legend:
AN = Analog input or output
ST = Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels
DS41288F-page 12
CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
TTL
= TTL compatible input
HV
= High Voltage
XTAL = Crystal
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
2.0
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
2.1
Program Memory Organization
The PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 has a 13-bit
program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14
program memory space. Only the first 1K x 14
(0000h-3FF) for the PIC16F610/16HV610 and the first
2K x 14 (0000h-07FFh) for the PIC16F616/16HV616 is
physically implemented. Accessing a location above
these boundaries will cause a wraparound within the
first 1K x 14 space (PIC16F610/16HV610) and 2K x 14
space (PIC16F616/16HV616). The Reset vector is at
0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h (see
Figure 2-1).
FIGURE 2-1:
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK FOR THE
PIC16F610/16HV610
FIGURE 2-2:
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK FOR THE
PIC16F616/16HV616
PC<12:0>
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
13
Stack Level 1
Stack Level 2
Stack Level 8
Reset Vector
0000h
Interrupt Vector
0004h
0005h
PC<12:0>
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
On-chip Program
13
Memory
07FFh
Stack Level 1
0800h
Stack Level 2
1FFFh
Stack Level 8
Reset Vector
0000h
Interrupt Vector
0004h
0005h
On-chip Program
Memory
03FFh
0400h
1FFFh
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 13
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
2.2
Data Memory Organization
The data memory (see Figure 2-4) is partitioned into
two banks, which contain the General Purpose
Registers (GPR) and the Special Function Registers
(SFR). The Special Function Registers are located in
the
first
32
locations
of
each
bank.
PIC16F610/16HV610 Register locations 40h-7Fh in
Bank 0 are General Purpose Registers, implemented
as static RAM. PIC16F616/16HV616 Register
locations 20h-7Fh in Bank 0 and A0h-BFh in Bank 1
are General Purpose Registers, implemented as static
RAM. Register locations F0h-FFh in Bank 1 point to
addresses 70h-7Fh in Bank 0. All other RAM is
unimplemented and returns ‘0’ when read. The RP0 bit
of the STATUS register is the bank select bit.
RP0
0
→
Bank 0 is selected
1
→
Bank 1 is selected
Note:
2.2.1
GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER
FILE
The register file is organized as 64 x 8 in the
PIC16F610/16HV610
and
128 x 8
in
the
PIC16F616/16HV616. Each register is accessed,
either directly or indirectly, through the File Select Register (FSR) (see Section 2.4 “Indirect Addressing,
INDF and FSR Registers”).
2.2.2
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
The Special Function Registers are registers used by
the CPU and peripheral functions for controlling the
desired operation of the device (see Table 2-1). These
registers are static RAM.
The special registers can be classified into two sets:
core and peripheral. The Special Function Registers
associated with the “core” are described in this section.
Those related to the operation of the peripheral features
are described in the section of that peripheral feature.
The IRP and RP1 bits of the STATUS
register are reserved and should always be
maintained as ‘0’s.
DS41288F-page 14
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 2-3:
DATA MEMORY MAP OF
THE PIC16F610/16HV610
File
Address
FIGURE 2-4:
File
Address
DATA MEMORY MAP OF
THE PIC16F616/16HV616
File
Address
File
Address
Indirect Addr.(1)
00h
Indirect Addr.(1)
80h
Indirect Addr.(1)
00h
Indirect Addr.(1)
80h
TMR0
01h
OPTION_REG
81h
TMR0
01h
OPTION_REG
81h
PCL
02h
PCL
82h
PCL
02h
PCL
82h
STATUS
03h
STATUS
83h
STATUS
03h
STATUS
83h
FSR
04h
FSR
84h
FSR
04h
FSR
84h
PORTA
05h
TRISA
85h
PORTA
05h
TRISA
85h
86h
06h
PORTC
TRISC
07h
86h
06h
PORTC
87h
TRISC
07h
08h
88h
08h
09h
89h
09h
87h
88h
89h
PCLATH
0Ah
PCLATH
8Ah
PCLATH
0Ah
PCLATH
8Ah
INTCON
0Bh
INTCON
8Bh
INTCON
0Bh
INTCON
8Bh
PIR1
0Ch
PIE1
8Ch
PIR1
0Ch
PIE1
8Ch
8Dh
0Dh
TMR1L
0Eh
TMR1H
0Fh
T1CON
10h
11h
PCON
8Dh
0Dh
PCON
8Eh
TMR1L
0Eh
8Fh
TMR1H
0Fh
OSCTUNE
90h
T1CON
10h
OSCTUNE
90h
ANSEL
91h
TMR2
11h
ANSEL
91h
12h
92h
T2CON
12h
PR2
92h
13h
93h
CCPR1L
13h
14h
94h
CCPR1H
14h
8Eh
8Fh
93h
94h
15h
WPUA
95h
CCP1CON
15h
WPUA
95h
16h
IOCA
96h
PWM1CON
16h
IOCA
96h
17h
97h
ECCPAS
17h
18h
98h
97h
98h
18h
VRCON
19h
SRCON0
99h
VRCON
19h
SRCON0
99h
CM1CON0
1Ah
SRCON1
9Ah
CM1CON0
1Ah
SRCON1
9Ah
CM2CON0
1Bh
9Bh
CM2CON0
1Bh
9Bh
CM2CON1
1Ch
9Ch
CM2CON1
1Ch
9Ch
1Dh
9Dh
1Eh
9Eh
ADRESH
1Eh
ADRESL
9Eh
1Fh
9Fh
A0h
ADCON0
1Fh
ADCON1
General
Purpose
Registers
32 Bytes
9Fh
A0h
20h
9Dh
1Dh
20h
General
Purpose
Registers
3Fh
40h
BFh
C0h
96 Bytes
General
Purpose
Registers
64 Bytes
6Fh
Accesses 70h-7Fh
70h
Accesses 70h-7Fh
Bank 0
1:
Not a physical register.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Accesses 70h-7Fh
Bank 0
F0h
FFh
7Fh
Bank 1
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
Note
F0h
FFh
7Fh
Bank 1
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
Note
1:
Not a physical register.
DS41288F-page 15
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 2-1:
Addr
Name
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS SUMMARY BANK 0
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Page
Bank 0
00h
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx
24, 116
01h
TMR0
Timer0 Module’s Register
xxxx xxxx
45, 116
02h
PCL
Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte
0000 0000
24, 116
03h
STATUS
0001 1xxx
18, 116
04h
FSR
05h
PORTA
IRP(1)
RP1(1)
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer
—
xxxx xxxx
24, 116
33, 116
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
--x0 x000
—
—
—
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
--xx 00xx
42, 116
—
06h
—
07h
PORTC
08h
—
Unimplemented
—
09h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
---0 0000
24, 116
0Ah
Unimplemented
—
PCLATH
—
0Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 0000
20, 116
0Ch
PIR1
—
ADIF(2)
CCP1IF(2)
C2IF
C1IF
—
TMR2IF(2)
TMR1IF
-000 0-00
22, 116
—
—
Write Buffer for upper 5 bits of Program Counter
0Dh
—
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
10h
T1CON
11h
TMR2(2)
12h
T2CON(2)
13h
CCPR1L(2)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte
14h
CCPR1H(2)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte
15h
CCP1CON(2)
16h
PWM1CON(2)
17h
ECCPAS(2)
18h
—
19h
VRCON
1Ah
1Bh
1Ch
Unimplemented
T1GINV
TMR1GE
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
Timer2 Module Register
—
TOUTPS3
P1M1
P1M0
PRSEN
PDC6
ECCPASE ECCPAS2
TOUTPS2
DC1B1
TOUTPS1
DC1B0
TOUTPS0
CCP1M3
TMR2ON
CCP1M2
T2CKPS1
CCP1M1
—
—
xxxx xxxx
49, 116
xxxx xxxx
49, 116
0000 0000
52, 116
0000 0000
55, 116
T2CKPS0 -000 0000
56, 116
xxxx xxxx
86, 116
CCP1M0
PDC5
PDC4
PDC3
PDC2
PDC1
PDC0
ECCPAS1
ECCPAS0
PSSAC1
PSSAC0
PSSBD1
PSSBD0
86, 116
85, 116
0000 0000
85, 116
0000 0000 102, 116
—
—
C1VREN
C2VREN
VRR
FVREN
VR3
VR2
VR1
VR0
0000 0000
72, 116
CM1CON0
C1ON
C1OUT
C1OE
C1POL
—
C1R
C1CH1
C1CH0
0000 -000
62, 116
CM2CON0
C2ON
C2OUT
C2OE
C2POL
—
C2R
C2CH1
C2CH0
0000 -000
63, 116
CM2CON1
MC1OUT
MC2OUT
—
T1ACS
C1HYS
C2HYS
T1GSS
C2SYNC
00-0 0010
65, 116
1Dh
—
1Eh
ADRESH(2,3)
1Fh
ADCON0(2)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
Unimplemented
xxxx xxxx
0000 0000
Unimplemented
Most Significant 8 bits of the left shifted A/D result or 2 bits of right shifted result
ADFM
VCFG
CHS3
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
ADON
—
—
xxxx xxxx
80, 116
0000 0000
78, 116
– = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition, shaded = unimplemented
IRP and RP1 bits are reserved, always maintain these bits clear.
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
Read-only register.
DS41288F-page 16
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 2-2:
Addr
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS SUMMARY BANK 1
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Page
Bank 1
80h
INDF
81h
OPTION_REG
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
82h
PCL
83h
STATUS
FSR
85h
TRISA
86h
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
IRP(1)
RP1(1)
RP0
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111 19, 116
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
0001 1xxx 18, 116
0000 0000 24, 116
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer
—
TRISC
—
xxxx xxxx 24, 116
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
--11 1111 33, 116
—
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
--11 1111 42, 116
Unimplemented
—
xxxx xxxx 24, 116
PSA
Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte
84h
87h
RAPU
—
—
88h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
89h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
8Ah
PCLATH
—
8Bh
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 0000 20, 116
8Ch
PIE1
—
ADIE(3)
CCP1IE(3)
C2IE
C1IE
—
TMR2IE(3)
TMR1IE
-000 0-00 21, 116
—
—
—
—
—
POR
BOR
---- --qq 23, 116
—
—
—
TUN4
TUN3
TUN2
TUN1
TUN0
---0 0000 31, 117
ANS7
ANS6
ANS5
ANS4
ANS3(3)
ANS2(3)
ANS1
ANS0
1111 1111 34, 117
8Dh
8Eh
—
PCON
8Fh
90h
—
OSCTUNE
91h
ANSEL
92h
PR2(3)
—
—
Write Buffer for upper 5 bits of Program Counter
Unimplemented
—
---0 0000 24, 116
—
Unimplemented
—
Timer2 Module Period Register
—
—
1111 1111 55, 117
93h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
94h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
95h
WPUA
96h
IOCA
—
—
WPUA5
WPUA4
—
WPUA2
WPUA1
WPUA0
--11 -111 35, 117
—
—
IOCA5
IOCA4
IOCA3
IOCA2
IOCA1
IOCA0
--00 0000 35, 117
97h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
98h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
99h
SRCON0
9Ah
SRCON1
SR1
SR0
C1SEN
C2REN
PULSS
PULSR
—
SRCS1
SRCS0
—
—
—
—
—
SRCLKEN 0000 00-0 69, 117
—
00-- ---- 69, 117
9Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
9Eh
ADRESL(3,4)
9Fh
ADCON1(3)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
Least Significant 2 bits of the left shifted result or 8 bits of the right shifted result
—
ADCS2
ADCS1
ADCS0
—
—
xxxx xxxx 80, 117
—
—
-000 ---- 79, 117
– = Unimplemented locations read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown, q = value depends on condition, shaded = unimplemented
IRP and RP1 bits are reserved, always maintain these bits clear.
RA3 pull-up is enabled when MCLRE is ‘1’ in the Configuration Word register.
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
Read-only Register.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 17
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
2.2.2.1
STATUS Register
The STATUS register, shown in Register 2-1, contains:
• the arithmetic status of the ALU
• the Reset status
• the bank select bits for data memory (RAM)
The STATUS register can be the destination for any
instruction, like any other register. If the STATUS
register is the destination for an instruction that affects
the Z, DC or C bits, then the write to these three bits is
disabled. These bits are set or cleared according to the
device logic. Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are not
writable. Therefore, the result of an instruction with the
STATUS register as destination may be different than
intended.
It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF,
SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the
STATUS register, because these instructions do not
affect any Status bits. For other instructions not affecting any Status bits, see the Section 13.0 “Instruction
Set Summary”.
Note 1: Bits IRP and RP1 of the STATUS register
are
not
used
by
the
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
and
should be maintained as clear. Use of
these bits is not recommended, since this
may affect upward compatibility with
future products.
2: The C and DC bits operate as a Borrow
and Digit Borrow out bit, respectively, in
subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF
instructions for examples.
For example, CLRF STATUS, will clear the upper three
bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the STATUS register
as ‘000u u1uu’ (where u = unchanged).
REGISTER 2-1:
STATUS: STATUS REGISTER
Reserved
Reserved
R/W-0
R-1
R-1
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
IRP: This bit is reserved and should be maintained as ‘0’
bit 6
RP1: This bit is reserved and should be maintained as ‘0’
bit 5
RP0: Register Bank Select bit (used for direct addressing)
1 = Bank 1 (80h – FFh)
0 = Bank 0 (00h – 7Fh)
bit 4
TO: Time-out bit
1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time-out occurred
bit 3
PD: Power-down bit
1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 2
Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero
bit 1
DC: Digit Carry/Borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions), For Borrow, the polarity is reversed.
1 = A carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result
bit 0
C: Carry/Borrow bit(1) (ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW, SUBWF instructions)
1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
Note 1:
For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the two’s complement of the second operand.
For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high-order or low-order bit of the source register.
DS41288F-page 18
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
2.2.2.2
OPTION Register
Note:
The OPTION register is a readable and writable register, which contains various control bits to configure:
•
•
•
•
Timer0/WDT prescaler
External RA2/INT interrupt
Timer0
Weak pull-ups on PORTA
REGISTER 2-2:
To achieve a 1:1 prescaler assignment for
Timer0, assign the prescaler to the WDT
by setting PSA bit to ‘1’ of the OPTION
register. See Section 5.1.3 “Software
Programmable Prescaler”.
OPTION_REG: OPTION REGISTER
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
RAPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
RAPU: PORTA Pull-up Enable bit
1 = PORTA pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTA pull-ups are enabled by individual PORT latch values
bit 6
INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RA2/INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RA2/INT pin
bit 5
T0CS: Timer0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on RA2/T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (FOSC/4)
bit 4
T0SE: Timer0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on RA2/T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on RA2/T0CKI pin
bit 3
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
bit 2-0
PS<2:0>: Prescaler Rate Select bits
BIT VALUE
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
TIMER0 RATE WDT RATE
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
1:1
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
DS41288F-page 19
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
2.2.2.3
INTCON Register
Note:
The INTCON register is a readable and writable
register, which contains the various enable and flag bits
for TMR0 register overflow, PORTA change and
external RA2/INT pin interrupts.
REGISTER 2-3:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE of the INTCON register.
User software should ensure the
appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear
prior to enabling an interrupt.
INTCON: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all unmasked interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
bit 6
PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all unmasked peripheral interrupts
0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts
bit 5
T0IE: Timer0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Timer0 interrupt
0 = Disables the Timer0 interrupt
bit 4
INTE: RA2/INT External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RA2/INT external interrupt
0 = Disables the RA2/INT external interrupt
bit 3
RAIE: PORTA Change Interrupt Enable bit(1)
1 = Enables the PORTA change interrupt
0 = Disables the PORTA change interrupt
bit 2
T0IF: Timer0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit(2)
1 = Timer0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = Timer0 register did not overflow
bit 1
INTF: RA2/INT External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The RA2/INT external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = The RA2/INT external interrupt did not occur
bit 0
RAIF: PORTA Change Interrupt Flag bit
1 = When at least one of the PORTA <5:0> pins changed state (must be cleared in software)
0 = None of the PORTA <5:0> pins have changed state
Note 1:
2:
IOCA register must also be enabled.
T0IF bit is set when TMR0 rolls over. TMR0 is unchanged on Reset and should be initialized before
clearing T0IF bit.
DS41288F-page 20
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
2.2.2.4
PIE1 Register
The PIE1 register contains the peripheral interrupt
enable bits, as shown in Register 2-4.
REGISTER 2-4:
Note:
Bit PEIE of the INTCON register must be
set to enable any peripheral interrupt.
PIE1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 1
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
ADIE(1)
CCP1IE(1)
C2IE
C1IE
—
TMR2IE(1)
TMR1IE
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6
ADIE: A/D Converter (ADC) Interrupt Enable bit(1)
1 = Enables the ADC interrupt
0 = Disables the ADC interrupt
bit 5
CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit(1)
1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt
bit 4
C2IE: Comparator C2 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Comparator C2 interrupt
0 = Disables the Comparator C2 interrupt
bit 3
C1IE: Comparator C1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Comparator C1 interrupt
0 = Disables the Comparator C1 interrupt
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
TMR2IE: Timer2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit(1)
1 = Enables the Timer2 to PR2 match interrupt
0 = Disables the Timer2 to PR2 match interrupt
bit 0
TMR1IE: Timer1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Timer1 overflow interrupt
0 = Disables the Timer1 overflow interrupt
Note 1:
x = Bit is unknown
PIC16F616/16HV616 only. PIC16F610/16HV610 unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 21
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
2.2.2.5
PIR1 Register
The PIR1 register contains the peripheral interrupt flag
bits, as shown in Register 2-5.
REGISTER 2-5:
Note:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE of the INTCON register. User
software should ensure the appropriate
interrupt flag bits are clear prior to enabling
an interrupt.
PIR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST REGISTER 1
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
ADIF(1)
CCP1IF(1)
C2IF
C1IF
—
TMR2IF(1)
TMR1IF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6
ADIF: A/D Interrupt Flag bit(1)
1 = A/D conversion complete
0 = A/D conversion has not completed or has not been started
bit 5
CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit(1)
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused in this mode
bit 4
C2IF: Comparator C2 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Comparator C2 output has changed (must be cleared in software)
0 = Comparator C2 output has not changed
bit 3
C1IF: Comparator C1 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Comparator C1 output has changed (must be cleared in software)
0 = Comparator C1 output has not changed
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
TMR2IF: Timer2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit(1)
1 = Timer2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = Timer2 to PR2 match has not occurred
bit 0
TMR1IF: Timer1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Timer1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = Timer1 has not overflowed
Note 1:
PIC16F616/16HV616 only. PIC16F610/16HV610 unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
DS41288F-page 22
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
2.2.2.6
PCON Register
The Power Control (PCON) register (see Table 12-2)
contains flag bits to differentiate between a:
•
•
•
•
Power-on Reset (POR)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Watchdog Timer Reset (WDT)
External MCLR Reset
The PCON register also controls the software enable of
the BOR.
The PCON register bits are shown in Register 2-6.
REGISTER 2-6:
PCON: POWER CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0(1)
—
—
—
—
—
—
POR
BOR
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
POR: Power-on Reset Status bit
1 = No Power-on Reset occurred
0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs)
bit 0
BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit
1 = No Brown-out Reset occurred
0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs)
Note 1:
Reads as ‘0’ if Brown-out Reset is disabled.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 23
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
2.3
PCL and PCLATH
2.3.2
The Program Counter (PC) is 13 bits wide. The low byte
comes from the PCL register, which is a readable and
writable register. The high byte (PC<12:8>) is not directly
readable or writable and comes from PCLATH. On any
Reset, the PC is cleared. Figure 2-5 shows the two
situations for the loading of the PC. The upper example
in Figure 2-5 shows how the PC is loaded on a write to
PCL (PCLATH<4:0> → PCH). The lower example in
Figure 2-5 shows how the PC is loaded during a CALL or
GOTO instruction (PCLATH<4:3> → PCH).
FIGURE 2-5:
LOADING OF PC IN
DIFFERENT SITUATIONS
PCH
PCL
12
8
7
0
PC
The PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 Family has an
8-level x 13-bit wide hardware stack (see Figure 2-1).
The stack space is not part of either program or data
space and the Stack Pointer is not readable or writable.
The PC is PUSHed onto the stack when a CALL
instruction is executed or an interrupt causes a branch.
The stack is POPed in the event of a RETURN, RETLW
or a RETFIE instruction execution. PCLATH is not
affected by a PUSH or POP operation.
The stack operates as a circular buffer. This means that
after the stack has been PUSHed eight times, the ninth
push overwrites the value that was stored from the first
push. The tenth push overwrites the second push (and
so on).
Note 1: There are no Status bits to indicate stack
overflow or stack underflow conditions.
2: There are no instructions/mnemonics
called PUSH or POP. These are actions
that occur from the execution of the
CALL, RETURN, RETLW and RETFIE
instructions or the vectoring to an
interrupt address.
8
PCLATH<4:0>
5
Instruction with
PCL as
Destination
ALU Result
PCLATH
PCH
12
11 10
PCL
8
0
7
PC
GOTO, CALL
2
PCLATH<4:3>
11
OPCODE <10:0>
PCLATH
2.3.1
STACK
MODIFYING PCL
Executing any instruction with the PCL register as the
destination simultaneously causes the Program
Counter PC<12:8> bits (PCH) to be replaced by the
contents of the PCLATH register. This allows the entire
contents of the program counter to be changed by
writing the desired upper 5 bits to the PCLATH register.
When the lower 8 bits are written to the PCL register,
all 13 bits of the program counter will change to the
values contained in the PCLATH register and those
being written to the PCL register.
A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset
to the program counter (ADDWF PCL). Care should be
exercised when jumping into a look-up table or
program branch table (computed GOTO) by modifying
the PCL register. Assuming that PCLATH is set to the
table start address, if the table length is greater than
255 instructions or if the lower 8 bits of the memory
address rolls over from 0xFF to 0x00 in the middle of
the table, then PCLATH must be incremented for each
address rollover that occurs between the table
beginning and the target location within the table.
2.4
Indirect Addressing, INDF and
FSR Registers
The INDF register is not a physical register. Addressing
the INDF register will cause indirect addressing.
Indirect addressing is possible by using the INDF
register. Any instruction using the INDF register
actually accesses data pointed to by the File Select
Register (FSR). Reading INDF itself indirectly will
produce 00h. Writing to the INDF register indirectly
results in a no operation (although Status bits may be
affected). An effective 9-bit address is obtained by
concatenating the 8-bit FSR and the IRP bit of the
STATUS register, as shown in Figure 2-7.
A simple program to clear RAM location 40h-4Fh using
indirect addressing is shown in Example 2-1.
EXAMPLE 2-1:
MOVLW
MOVWF
NEXT
CLRF
INCF
BTFSS
GOTO
CONTINUE
INDIRECT ADDRESSING
0x40
FSR
INDF
FSR, F
FSR,4
NEXT
;initialize pointer
;to RAM
;clear INDF register
;inc pointer
;all done?
;no clear next
;yes continue
For more information refer to Application Note AN556,
“Implementing a Table Read” (DS00556).
DS41288F-page 24
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 2-6:
DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING PIC16F610/16HV610
Direct Addressing
(1)
RP1
RP0
6
Bank Select
From Opcode
Indirect Addressing
IRP(1)
0
7
File Select Register
Bank Select
Location Select
00
01
10
0
Location Select
11
00h
180h
NOT USED(2)
Data
Memory
1FFh
7Fh
Bank 0
Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3
For memory map detail, see Figure 2-3.
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
Note 1:
2:
The RP1 and IRP bits are reserved; always maintain these bits clear.
Accesses in Bank 2 and Bank 3 are mirrored back into Bank 0 and Bank 1, respectively.
FIGURE 2-7:
DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING PIC16F616/16HV616
Direct Addressing
RP1(1)
RP0
Bank Select
6
From Opcode
Indirect Addressing
IRP(1)
0
7
File Select Register
Bank Select
Location Select
00
01
10
0
Location Select
11
00h
180h
NOT USED(2)
Data
Memory
7Fh
1FFh
Bank 0
Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3
For memory map detail, see Figure 2-4.
Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
Note 1:
2:
The RP1 and IRP bits are reserved; always maintain these bits clear.
Accesses in Bank 2 and Bank 3 are mirrored back into Bank 0 and Bank 1, respectively.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 25
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
NOTES:
DS41288F-page 26
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
3.0
OSCILLATOR MODULE
The Oscillator module can be configured in one of eight
clock modes.
3.1
Overview
1.
2.
3.
The Oscillator module has a wide variety of clock
sources and selection features that allow it to be used
in a wide range of applications while maximizing performance and minimizing power consumption. Figure 3-1
illustrates a block diagram of the Oscillator module.
Clock sources can be configured from external
oscillators, quartz crystal resonators, ceramic resonators
and Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuits. In addition, the
system clock source can be configured with a choice of
two selectable speeds: internal or external system clock
source.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
EC – External clock with I/O on OSC2/CLKOUT.
LP – 32 kHz Low-Power Crystal mode.
XT – Medium Gain Crystal or Ceramic Resonator
Oscillator mode.
HS – High Gain Crystal or Ceramic Resonator
mode.
RC – External Resistor-Capacitor (RC) with
FOSC/4 output on OSC2/CLKOUT.
RCIO – External Resistor-Capacitor (RC) with
I/O on OSC2/CLKOUT.
INTOSC – Internal oscillator with FOSC/4 output
on OSC2 and I/O on OSC1/CLKIN.
INTOSCIO – Internal oscillator with I/O on
OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT.
Clock Source modes are configured by the FOSC<2:0>
bits in the Configuration Word register (CONFIG). The
Internal Oscillator module provides a selectable
system clock mode of either 4 MHz (Postscaler) or
8 MHz (INTOSC).
FIGURE 3-1:
PIC® MCU CLOCK SOURCE BLOCK DIAGRAM
FOSC<2:0>
IOSCFS
(Configuration Word Register)
External Oscillator
OSC2
Sleep
INTOSC
Internal Oscillator
MUX
LP, XT, HS, RC, RCIO, EC
OSC1
System Clock
(CPU and Peripherals)
INTOSC
8 MHz
Postscaler
4 MHz
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 27
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
3.2
3.3.2
Clock Source Modes
Clock Source modes can be classified as external or
internal.
• External Clock modes rely on external circuitry for
the clock source. Examples are: Oscillator modules (EC mode), quartz crystal resonators or
ceramic resonators (LP, XT and HS modes) and
Resistor-Capacitor (RC) mode circuits.
• Internal clock sources are contained internally
within the Oscillator module. The Oscillator
module has two selectable clock frequencies:
4 MHz and 8 MHz
The system clock can be selected between external or
internal clock sources via the FOSC<2:0> bits of the
Configuration Word register.
3.3
OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER
(OST)
If the Oscillator module is configured for LP, XT or HS
modes, the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) counts
1024 oscillations from OSC1. This occurs following a
Power-on Reset (POR) and when the Power-up Timer
(PWRT) has expired (if configured), or a wake-up from
Sleep. During this time, the program counter does not
increment and program execution is suspended. The
OST ensures that the oscillator circuit, using a quartz
crystal resonator or ceramic resonator, has started and
is providing a stable system clock to the Oscillator
module. When switching between clock sources, a
delay is required to allow the new clock to stabilize.
These oscillator delays are shown in Table 3-1.
External Clock Modes
3.3.1
EC MODE
The External Clock (EC) mode allows an externally
generated logic level as the system clock source. When
operating in this mode, an external clock source is
connected to the OSC1 input and the OSC2 is available
for general purpose I/O. Figure 3-2 shows the pin
connections for EC mode.
The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) is disabled when
EC mode is selected. Therefore, there is no delay in
operation after a Power-on Reset (POR) or wake-up
from Sleep. Because the PIC® MCU design is fully
static, stopping the external clock input will have the
effect of halting the device while leaving all data intact.
Upon restarting the external clock, the device will
resume operation as if no time had elapsed.
FIGURE 3-2:
EXTERNAL CLOCK (EC)
MODE OPERATION
OSC1/CLKIN
Clock from
Ext. System
PIC® MCU
I/O
Note 1:
OSC2/CLKOUT(1)
Alternate pin functions are listed in the
Section 1.0 “Device Overview”.
TABLE 3-1:
OSCILLATOR DELAY EXAMPLES
Switch From
Switch To
Frequency
Oscillator Delay
Sleep/POR
INTOSC
4 MHz to 8 MHz
Oscillator Warm-Up Delay (TWARM)
Sleep/POR
EC, RC
DC – 20 MHz
2 Instruction Cycles
Sleep/POR
LP, XT, HS
32 kHz to 20 MHz
1024 Clock Cycles (OST)
DS41288F-page 28
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
3.3.3
LP, XT, HS MODES
The LP, XT and HS modes support the use of quartz
crystal resonators or ceramic resonators connected to
OSC1 and OSC2 (Figure 3-3). The mode selects a low,
medium or high gain setting of the internal inverteramplifier to support various resonator types and speed.
LP Oscillator mode selects the lowest gain setting of
the internal inverter-amplifier. LP mode current
consumption is the least of the three modes. This mode
is designed to drive only 32.768 kHz tuning-fork type
crystals (watch crystals).
Note 1: Quartz crystal characteristics vary according
to type, package and manufacturer. The
user should consult the manufacturer data
sheets for specifications and recommended
application.
2: Always verify oscillator performance over
the VDD and temperature range that is
expected for the application.
3: For oscillator design assistance, reference
the following Microchip Applications Notes:
• AN826, “Crystal Oscillator Basics and
Crystal Selection for rfPIC® and PIC®
Devices” (DS00826)
• AN849, “Basic PIC® Oscillator Design”
(DS00849)
• AN943, “Practical PIC® Oscillator
Analysis and Design” (DS00943)
• AN949, “Making Your Oscillator Work”
(DS00949)
XT Oscillator mode selects the intermediate gain
setting of the internal inverter-amplifier. XT mode
current consumption is the medium of the three modes.
This mode is best suited to drive resonators with a
medium drive level specification.
HS Oscillator mode selects the highest gain setting of
the internal inverter-amplifier. HS mode current
consumption is the highest of the three modes. This
mode is best suited for resonators that require a high
drive setting.
Figure 3-3 and Figure 3-4 show typical circuits for
quartz crystal and ceramic resonators, respectively.
FIGURE 3-3:
FIGURE 3-4:
QUARTZ CRYSTAL
OPERATION (LP, XT OR
HS MODE)
PIC® MCU
PIC® MCU
OSC1/CLKIN
C1
OSC1/CLKIN
C1
To Internal
Logic
RP(3)
RF(2)
Sleep
To Internal
Logic
Quartz
Crystal
C2
CERAMIC RESONATOR
OPERATION
(XT OR HS MODE)
RS(1)
RF(2)
Sleep
OSC2/CLKOUT
Note 1:
A series resistor (RS) may be required for
quartz crystals with low drive level.
2:
The value of RF varies with the Oscillator mode
selected (typically between 2 MΩ to 10 MΩ).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
C2 Ceramic
RS(1)
Resonator
Note 1:
OSC2/CLKOUT
A series resistor (RS) may be required for
ceramic resonators with low drive level.
2: The value of RF varies with the Oscillator mode
selected (typically between 2 MΩ to 10 MΩ).
3: An additional parallel feedback resistor (RP)
may be required for proper ceramic resonator
operation.
DS41288F-page 29
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
3.3.4
EXTERNAL RC MODES
3.4
The external Resistor-Capacitor (RC) modes support
the use of an external RC circuit. This allows the
designer maximum flexibility in frequency choice while
keeping costs to a minimum when clock accuracy is not
required. There are two modes: RC and RCIO.
In RC mode, the RC circuit connects to OSC1. OSC2/
CLKOUT outputs the RC oscillator frequency divided
by 4. This signal may be used to provide a clock for
external circuitry, synchronization, calibration, test or
other application requirements. Figure 3-5 shows the
external RC mode connections.
FIGURE 3-5:
EXTERNAL RC MODES
VDD
PIC® MCU
REXT
OSC1/CLKIN
Internal
Clock
CEXT
VSS
FOSC/4 or
I/O(2)
OSC2/CLKOUT(1)
Internal Clock Modes
The Oscillator module provides a selectable system
clock source of either 4 MHz or 8 MHz. The selectable
frequency is configured through the IOSCFS bit of the
Configuration Word.
The frequency of the internal oscillator can be can be
user-adjusted via software using the OSCTUNE
register.
3.4.1
INTOSC AND INTOSCIO MODES
The INTOSC and INTOSCIO modes configure the
internal oscillators as the system clock source when
the device is programmed using the oscillator selection
or the FOSC<2:0> bits in the Configuration Word
register (CONFIG). See Section 12.0 “Special
Features of the CPU” for more information.
In INTOSC mode, OSC1/CLKIN is available for general
purpose I/O. OSC2/CLKOUT outputs the selected
internal oscillator frequency divided by 4. The CLKOUT
signal may be used to provide a clock for external
circuitry, synchronization, calibration, test or other
application requirements.
In INTOSCIO mode, OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT
are available for general purpose I/O.
Recommended values: 10 kΩ ≤ REXT ≤ 100 kΩ, <3V
3 kΩ ≤ REXT ≤ 100 kΩ, 3-5V
CEXT > 20 pF, 2-5V
Note 1:
2:
Alternate pin functions are listed in
Section 1.0 “Device Overview”.
Output depends upon RC or RCIO Clock
mode.
In RCIO mode, the RC circuit is connected to OSC1.
OSC2 becomes an additional general purpose I/O pin.
The RC oscillator frequency is a function of the supply
voltage, the resistor (REXT) and capacitor (CEXT) values
and the operating temperature. Other factors affecting
the oscillator frequency are:
• threshold voltage variation
• component tolerances
• packaging variations in capacitance
The user also needs to take into account variation due
to tolerance of external RC components used.
DS41288F-page 30
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
3.4.1.1
OSCTUNE Register
The default value of the OSCTUNE register is ‘0’. The
value is a 5-bit two’s complement number.
The oscillator is factory calibrated but can be adjusted
in software by writing to the OSCTUNE register
(Register 3-1).
REGISTER 3-1:
When the OSCTUNE register is modified, the frequency
will begin shifting to the new frequency. Code execution
continues during this shift. There is no indication that the
shift has occurred.
OSCTUNE: OSCILLATOR TUNING REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
—
TUN4
TUN3
TUN2
TUN1
TUN0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4-0
TUN<4:0>: Frequency Tuning bits
01111 = Maximum frequency
01110 =
•
•
•
00001 =
00000 = Oscillator module is running at the manufacturer calibrated frequency.
11111 =
•
•
•
10000 = Minimum frequency
TABLE 3-2:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CLOCK SOURCES
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets(1)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
CONFIG(2)
IOSCFS
CP
MCLRE
PWRTE
WDTE
FOSC2
FOSC1
FOSC0
—
—
OSCTUNE
—
—
—
TUN4
TUN3
TUN2
TUN1
TUN0
---0 0000
---u uuuu
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by oscillators.
Other (non Power-up) Resets include MCLR Reset and Watchdog Timer Reset during normal operation.
See Configuration Word register (Register 12-1) for operation of all register bits.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 31
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
NOTES:
DS41288F-page 32
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
4.0
I/O PORTS
port pins are read, this value is modified and then
written to the PORT data latch. RA3 reads ‘0’ when
MCLRE = 1.
There are as many as eleven general purpose I/O pins
and an input pin available. Depending on which
peripherals are enabled, some or all of the pins may not
be available as general purpose I/O. In general, when a
peripheral is enabled, the associated pin may not be
used as a general purpose I/O pin.
4.1
The TRISA register controls the direction of the
PORTA pins, even when they are being used as
analog inputs. The user must ensure the bits in the
TRISA register are maintained set when using them as
analog inputs. I/O pins configured as analog input
always read ‘0’.
PORTA and the TRISA Registers
Note:
PORTA is a 6-bit wide, bidirectional port. The
corresponding data direction register is TRISA
(Register 4-2). Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the
corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.e., disable the
output driver). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the
corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.e., enables output
driver and puts the contents of the output latch on the
selected pin). The exception is RA3, which is input only
and its TRIS bit will always read as ‘1’. Example 4-1
shows how to initialize PORTA.
EXAMPLE 4-1:
Reading the PORTA register (Register 4-1) reads the
status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the
PORT latch. All write operations are read-modify-write
operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the
REGISTER 4-1:
The ANSEL register must be initialized to
configure an analog channel as a digital
input. Pins configured as analog inputs will
read ‘0’ and cannot generate an interrupt.
BCF
CLRF
BSF
CLRF
MOVLW
MOVWF
STATUS,RP0
PORTA
STATUS,RP0
ANSEL
0Ch
TRISA
BCF
STATUS,RP0
INITIALIZING PORTA
;Bank 0
;Init PORTA
;Bank 1
;digital I/O
;Set RA<3:2> as inputs
;and set RA<5:4,1:0>
;as outputs
;Bank 0
PORTA: PORTA REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-x
R/W-0
R-x
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-0
RA<5:0>: PORTA I/O Pin bit
1 = PORTA pin is > VIH
0 = PORTA pin is < VIL
REGISTER 4-2:
x = Bit is unknown
TRISA: PORTA TRI-STATE REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
R-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-0
TRISA<5:0>: PORTA Tri-State Control bit
1 = PORTA pin configured as an input (tri-stated)
0 = PORTA pin configured as an output
Note 1:
2:
x = Bit is unknown
TRISA<3> always reads ‘1’.
TRISA<5:4> always reads ‘1’ in XT, HS and LP Oscillator modes.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 33
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
4.2
4.2.3
Additional Pin Functions
INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE
Every PORTA pin on the PIC16F610/616/16HV610/
616 has an interrupt-on-change option and a weak pullup option. The next three sections describe these
functions.
Each PORTA pin is individually configurable as an
interrupt-on-change pin. Control bits IOCAx enable or
disable the interrupt function for each pin. Refer to
Register 4-5. The interrupt-on-change is disabled on a
Power-on Reset.
4.2.1
For enabled interrupt-on-change pins, the values are
compared with the old value latched on the last read of
PORTA. The ‘mismatch’ outputs of the last read are
OR’d together to set the PORTA Change Interrupt Flag
bit (RAIF) in the INTCON register (Register 2-3).
ANSEL REGISTER
The ANSEL register is used to configure the Input
mode of an I/O pin to analog. Setting the appropriate
ANSEL bit high will cause all digital reads on the pin to
be read as ‘0’ and allow analog functions on the pin to
operate correctly.
The state of the ANSEL bits has no affect on digital
output functions. A pin with TRIS clear and ANSEL set
will still operate as a digital output, but the Input mode
will be analog. This can cause unexpected behavior
when executing read-modify-write instructions on the
affected port.
4.2.2
WEAK PULL-UPS
Each of the PORTA pins, except RA3, has an
individually configurable internal weak pull-up. Control
bits WPUAx enable or disable each pull-up. Refer to
Register 4-4. Each weak pull-up is automatically turned
off when the port pin is configured as an output. The
pull-ups are disabled on a Power-on Reset by the
RAPU bit of the OPTION register). A weak pull-up is
automatically enabled for RA3 when configured as
MCLR and disabled when RA3 is an input. There is no
software control of the MCLR pull-up.
REGISTER 4-3:
R/W-1
a)
Any read or write of PORTA. This will end the
mismatch condition, then,
Clear the flag bit RAIF.
b)
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RAIF.
Reading PORTA will end the mismatch condition and
allow flag bit RAIF to be cleared. The latch holding the
last read value is not affected by a MCLR nor BOR
Reset. After these resets, the RAIF flag will continue to
be set if a mismatch is present.
Note:
If a change on the I/O pin should occur
when any PORTA operation is being
executed, then the RAIF interrupt flag may
not get set.
ANSEL: ANALOG SELECT REGISTER
R/W-1
ANS7
This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. The
user, in the Interrupt Service Routine, clears the
interrupt by:
ANS6
R/W-1
ANS5
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
ANS4
ANS3(2)
ANS2(2)
ANS1
ANS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
x = Bit is unknown
ANS<7:0>: Analog Select bits
Analog select between analog or digital function on pins AN<7:0>, respectively.
1 = Analog input. Pin is assigned as analog input(1).
0 = Digital I/O. Pin is assigned to port or special function.
Note 1:
2:
Setting a pin to an analog input automatically disables the digital input circuitry, weak pull-ups, and
interrupt-on-change if available. The corresponding TRIS bit must be set to Input mode in order to allow
external control of the voltage on the pin.
PIC16F616/HV616.
DS41288F-page 34
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 4-4:
WPUA: WEAK PULL-UP PORTA REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
U-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
—
—
WPUA5
WPUA4
—
WPUA2
WPUA1
WPUA0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-4
WPUA<5:4>: Weak Pull-up Control bits
1 = Pull-up enabled
0 = Pull-up disabled
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2-0
WPUA<2:0>: Weak Pull-up Control bits
1 = Pull-up enabled
0 = Pull-up disabled
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
x = Bit is unknown
Global RAPU must be enabled for individual pull-ups to be enabled.
The weak pull-up device is automatically disabled if the pin is in Output mode (TRISA = 0).
The RA3 pull-up is enabled when configured as MCLR and disabled as an input in the Configuration
Word.
WPUA<5:4> always reads ‘1’ in XT, HS and LP Oscillator modes.
REGISTER 4-5:
IOCA: INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE PORTA REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
IOCA5
IOCA4
IOCA3
IOCA2
IOCA1
IOCA0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-0
IOCA<5:0>: Interrupt-on-change PORTA Control bit
1 = Interrupt-on-change enabled
0 = Interrupt-on-change disabled
Note 1:
2:
x = Bit is unknown
Global Interrupt Enable (GIE) must be enabled for individual interrupts to be recognized.
IOCA<5:4> always reads ‘1’ in XT, HS and LP Oscillator modes.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 35
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
4.2.4
PIN DESCRIPTIONS AND
DIAGRAMS
Each PORTA pin is multiplexed with other functions.
The pins and their combined functions are briefly
described here. For specific information about
individual functions such as the Comparator or the
ADC, refer to the appropriate section in this data sheet.
RA0/AN0(1)/C1IN+/ICSPDAT
4.2.4.1
Figure 4-1 shows the diagram for this pin. The RA0 pin
is configurable to function as one of the following:
•
•
•
•
RA1/AN1(1)/C12IN0-/VREF(1)/
ICSPCLK
4.2.4.2
Figure 4-1 shows the diagram for this pin. The RA1 pin
is configurable to function as one of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
a general purpose I/O
an analog input for the ADC(1)
an analog inverting input to the comparator
a voltage reference input for the ADC(1)
In-Circuit Serial Programming clock
Note 1: PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
a general purpose I/O
an analog input for the ADC(1)
an analog non-inverting input to the comparator
In-Circuit Serial Programming data
FIGURE 4-1:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA<1:0>
Analog(1)
Input Mode
VDD
Data Bus
D
WR
WPUA
Q
Weak
CK Q
RAPU
VDD
RD
WPUA
D
WR
PORTA
Q
I/O Pin
CK Q
VSS
D
WR
TRISA
Q
CK Q
RD
TRISA
Analog(1)
Input Mode
RD
PORTA
D
WR
IOCA
Q
Q
CK Q
D
EN
RD
IOCA
Q
Interrupt-onChange
S(2)
R
From other
RA<5:1> pins (RA0)
RA<5:2, 0> pins (RA1)
RD PORTA
To Comparator
To A/D Converter(3)
1:
Comparator mode and ANSEL determines Analog Input mode.
2:
Set has priority over Reset.
3:
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
DS41288F-page 36
D
EN
Write ‘0’ to RAIF
Note
Q
Q1
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
RA2/AN2(1)/T0CKI/INT/C1OUT
4.2.4.3
Figure 4-2 shows the diagram for this pin. The RA2 pin
is configurable to function as one of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
a general purpose I/O
an analog input for the ADC(1)
the clock input for TMR0
an external edge triggered interrupt
a digital output from Comparator C1
Note 1:
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
FIGURE 4-2:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA2
Analog(1)
Input Mode
VDD
Data Bus
D
WR
WPUA
Q
Weak
CK Q
C1OE
Enable
RAPU
VDD
RD
WPUA
C1OE
D
WR
PORTA
Q
0
I/O Pin
CK Q
D
WR
TRISA
1
VSS
Q
CK Q
RD
TRISA
Analog(1)
Input Mode
RD
PORTA
D
WR
IOAC
Q
Q
CK Q
D
EN
RD
IOAC
Q
Interrupt-onChange
Q
S(2)
R
Q1
D
EN
From other
RA<5:3, 1:0> pins
Write ‘0’ to RAIF
RD PORTA
To Timer0
To INT
To A/D Converter(3)
Note
1:
Comparator mode and ANSEL determines Analog Input mode.
2:
Set has priority over Reset.
3:
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 37
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
4.2.4.4
RA3/MCLR/VPP
Figure 4-3 shows the diagram for this pin. The RA3 pin
is configurable to function as one of the following:
• a general purpose input
• as Master Clear Reset with weak pull-up
• High Voltage Programming voltage input
FIGURE 4-3:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA3
VDD
MCLRE
Weak
Data Bus
MCLRE
Reset
RD
TRISA
Input
Pin
VSS
MCLRE
RD
PORTA
D
WR
IOCA
CK
Q
Q
D
Q
Q1
EN
RD
IOCA
Q
Interrupt-onChange
S(1)
R
VSS
Q
D
EN
From other
RA<5:4, 2:0> pins
RD PORTA
Write ‘0’ to RAIF
Note 1:
DS41288F-page 38
Set has priority over Reset
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
4.2.4.5
RA4/AN3(1)/T1G/OSC2/CLKOUT
• a Timer1 gate (count enable)
• a crystal/resonator connection
• a clock output
Figure 4-4 shows the diagram for this pin. The RA4 pin
is configurable to function as one of the following:
Note 1: PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
• a general purpose I/O
• an analog input for the ADC(1)
FIGURE 4-4:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA4
Analog(3)
Input Mode
Data Bus
D
WR
WPUA
CLK(1)
Modes
Q
VDD
CK Q
Weak
RAPU
RD
WPUA
Oscillator
Circuit
OSC1
VDD
CLKOUT
Enable
D
WR
PORTA
Q
FOSC/4
CK Q
1
0
I/O Pin
CLKOUT
Enable
D
WR
TRISA
Q
CK Q
VSS
INTOSC/
RC/EC(2)
CLKOUT
Enable
RD
TRISA
Analog
Input Mode
RD
PORTA
D
WR
IOCA
Q
CK Q
Q
D
EN
RD
IOCA
Q
Interrupt-onChange
Q
S(4)
R
Q1
D
EN
From other
RA<5, 3:0> pins
Write ‘0’ to RAIF
RD PORTA
To T1G
To A/D Converter(5)
Note 1: CLK modes are XT, HS, LP, TMR1 LP and CLKOUT Enable.
2: With CLKOUT option.
3: Analog Input mode comes from ANSEL.
4: Set has priority over Reset.
5: PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 39
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
4.2.4.6
RA5/T1CKI/OSC1/CLKIN
•
•
•
•
Figure 4-5 shows the diagram for this pin. The RA5 pin
is configurable to function as one of the following:
FIGURE 4-5:
a general purpose I/O
a Timer1 clock input
a crystal/resonator connection
a clock input
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA5
INTOSC
Mode
TMR1LPEN(1)
Data Bus
D
WR
WPUA
CK
VDD
Q
Weak
Q
RAPU
RD
WPUA
Oscillator
Circuit
OSC2
D
WR
PORTA
CK
VDD
Q
Q
I/O Pin
D
WR
TRISA
CK
Q
Q
VSS
INTOSC
Mode
RD
TRISA
RD
PORTA
D
WR
IOCA
CK
Q
Q
D
Q
EN
Q1
RD
IOCA
Q
Q
Interrupt-onChange
S(2)
R
D
EN
From other
RA<4:0> pins
RD PORTA
Write ‘0’ to RAIF
To Timer1
Note 1:
2:
Timer1 LP Oscillator enabled.
Set has priority over Reset.
DS41288F-page 40
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 4-1:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
ANS1
ANS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
C1CH1
C1CH0
0000 -000
0000 -000
C2CH0
0000 -000
0000 -000
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
ANSEL
ANS7
ANS6
ANS5
ANS4
ANS3(1)
ANS2(1)
CM1CON0
C1ON
C1OUT
C1OE
C1POL
—
C1R
CM2CON0
C2ON
C2OUT
C2OE
C2POL
—
C2R
C2CH1
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 0000
0000 0000
—
—
IOCA5
IOCA4
IOCA3
IOCA2
IOCA1
IOCA0
--00 0000
--00 0000
RAPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
INTCON
IOCA
OPTION_REG
Bit 1
PORTA
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
--x0 x000
--u0 u000
TRISA
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
--11 1111
--11 1111
WPUA
—
—
WPUA5
WPUA4
—
WPUA2
WPUA1
WPUA0
--11 -111
--11 -111
Legend:
Note 1:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA.
For PIC16F616/HV616 only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 41
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
4.3
PORTC and the TRISC Registers
PORTC is a general purpose I/O port consisting of 6
bidirectional pins. The pins can be configured for either
digital I/O or analog input to A/D Converter (ADC) or
Comparator. For specific information about individual
functions such as the Enhanced CCP or the ADC, refer
to the appropriate section in this data sheet.
Note:
The ANSEL register must be initialized to
configure an analog channel as a digital
input. Pins configured as analog inputs will
read ‘0’ and cannot generate an interrupt.
REGISTER 4-6:
EXAMPLE 4-2:
BCF
CLRF
BSF
CLRF
MOVLW
MOVWF
STATUS,RP0
PORTC
STATUS,RP0
ANSEL
0Ch
TRISC
BCF
STATUS,RP0
INITIALIZING PORTC
;Bank 0
;Init PORTC
;Bank 1
;digital I/O
;Set RC<3:2> as inputs
;and set RC<5:4,1:0>
;as outputs
;Bank 0
PORTC: PORTC REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-x
R/W-x
—
—
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-0
RC<5:0>: PORTC I/O Pin bit
1 = PORTC pin is > VIH
0 = PORTC pin is < VIL
REGISTER 4-7:
x = Bit is unknown
TRISC: PORTC TRI-STATE REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
—
—
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-0
TRISC<5:0>: PORTC Tri-State Control bit
1 = PORTC pin configured as an input (tri-stated)
0 = PORTC pin configured as an output
DS41288F-page 42
x = Bit is unknown
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
RC0/AN4(1)/C2IN+
4.3.1
RC2/AN6(1)/C12IN2-/P1D(1)
4.3.3
The RC0 is configurable to function as one of the
following:
The RC2 is configurable to function as one of the
following:
• a general purpose I/O
• an analog input for the ADC(1)
• an analog non-inverting input to Comparator C2
•
•
•
•
RC1/AN5(1)/C12IN1-
4.3.2
The RC1 is configurable to function as one of the
following:
• a general purpose I/O
• an analog input for the ADC(1)
• an analog inverting input to the comparator
Note 1: PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
FIGURE 4-6:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RC0
AND RC1
a general purpose I/O
an analog input for the ADC(1)
an analog input to Comparators C1 and C2
a digital output from the Enhanced CCP(1)
RC3/AN7(1)/C12IN3-/P1C(1)
4.3.4
The RC3 is configurable to function as one of the
following:
• a general purpose I/O
• an analog input for the ADC(1)
• an analog inverting input to Comparators C1 and
C2
• a digital output from the Enhanced CCP(1)
Note 1: PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
Data Bus
FIGURE 4-7:
D
WR
PORTC
CK
Q
Data Bus
CCPOUT(2)
Enable
Q
D
I/O Pin
D
WR
TRISC
CK
Q
WR
PORTC
Q
Q
CCPOUT
RD
PORTC
To Comparators
To A/D Converter
CK
I/O Pin
Q
Q
VSS
Analog Input
Mode(1)
RD
TRISC
RD
PORTC
Analog Input mode comes from ANSEL or
Comparator mode.
To A/D Converter
Note
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
1
0
D
WR
TRISC
1:
CK
VDD
Q
VSS
Analog Input
Mode(1)
RD
TRISC
Note
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RC2
AND RC3
VDD
1:
Analog Input mode comes from ANSEL.
2:
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
DS41288F-page 43
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
RC4/C2OUT/P1B(1)
4.3.5
RC5/CCP1(1)/P1A(1)
4.3.6
The RC4 is configurable to function as one of the
following:
The RC5 is configurable to function as one of the
following:
• a general purpose I/O
• a digital output from Comparator C2
• a digital output from the Enhanced CCP(1)
• a general purpose I/O
• a digital input/output for the Enhanced CCP(1)
Note 1: PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
Note 1: PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
FIGURE 4-9:
2: Enabling both C2OUT and P1B will cause
a conflict on RC4 and create unpredictable
results. Therefore, if C2OUT is enabled,
the ECCP can not be used in Half-Bridge
or Full-Bridge mode and vice-versa.
FIGURE 4-8:
Data bus
D
WR
PORTC
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RC4
C2OE
CCP1M<3:0>
VDD
CCP1M<3:0>
CCPOUT/P1B
1
Data Bus
WR
PORTC
D
Q
CCP1OUT(1)/ 1
P1A
0
I/O Pin
Q
CK
Q
VSS
I/O Pin
Q
RD
PORTC
CK Q
WR
TRISC
CK
VDD
RD
TRISC
0
D
WR
TRISC
CCP1OUT(1)
Enable
Q
D
C2OE
C2OUT
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RC5
PIN
VSS
To Enhanced CCP
Note
Q
1:
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
CK Q
RD
TRISC
RD
PORTC
Note
1:
Port/Peripheral Select signals selects between
PORT data and peripheral output.
TABLE 4-2:
Name
ANSEL
(1)
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTC
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
ANS7
ANS6
ANS5
ANS4
ANS3(1)
ANS2(1)
ANS1
ANS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
CCP1CON
P1M1
P1M0
DC1B1
DC1B0
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
0000 0000
0000 0000
CM1CON0
C1ON
C1OUT
C1OE
C1POL
—
C1R
C1CH1
C1CH0
0000 -000
0000 -000
CM2CON0
C2ON
C2OUT
C2OE
C2POL
—
C2R
C2CH1
C2CH0
0000 -000
0000 -000
PORTC
—
—
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
--xx 00xx
--uu 00uu
TRISC
—
—
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
--11 1111
--11 1111
Legend:
Note 1:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTC.
PIC16F616/HV616 only.
DS41288F-page 44
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
5.0
TIMER0 MODULE
5.1
Timer0 Operation
The Timer0 module is an 8-bit timer/counter with the
following features:
When used as a timer, the Timer0 module can be used
as either an 8-bit timer or an 8-bit counter.
•
•
•
•
•
5.1.1
8-bit timer/counter register (TMR0)
8-bit prescaler (shared with Watchdog Timer)
Programmable internal or external clock source
Programmable external clock edge selection
Interrupt on overflow
8-BIT TIMER MODE
When used as a timer, the Timer0 module will
increment every instruction cycle (without prescaler).
Timer mode is selected by clearing the T0CS bit of the
OPTION register to ‘0’.
Figure 5-1 is a block diagram of the Timer0 module.
When TMR0 is written, the increment is inhibited for
two instruction cycles immediately following the write.
Note:
5.1.2
The value written to the TMR0 register can
be adjusted, in order to account for the two
instruction cycle delay when TMR0 is
written.
8-BIT COUNTER MODE
When used as a counter, the Timer0 module will
increment on every rising or falling edge of the T0CKI
pin. The incrementing edge is determined by the T0SE
bit of the OPTION register. Counter mode is selected by
setting the T0CS bit of the OPTION register to ‘1’.
FIGURE 5-1:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT PRESCALER
FOSC/4
Data Bus
0
8
1
Sync
2 Tcy
1
T0CKI
pin
T0SE
TMR0
0
0
T0CS
Set Flag bit T0IF
on Overflow
8-bit
Prescaler
PSA
1
PSA
8
3
PS<2:0>
Watchdog
Timer
WDTE
1
WDT
Time-out
0
PSA
Note 1:
2:
T0SE, T0CS, PSA, PS<2:0> are bits in the OPTION register.
WDTE bit is in the Configuration Word register.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 45
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
5.1.3
SOFTWARE PROGRAMMABLE
PRESCALER
A single software programmable prescaler is available
for use with either Timer0 or the Watchdog Timer
(WDT), but not both simultaneously. The prescaler
assignment is controlled by the PSA bit of the OPTION
register. To assign the prescaler to Timer0, the PSA bit
must be cleared to a ‘0’.
There are 8 prescaler options for the Timer0 module
ranging from 1:2 to 1:256. The prescale values are
selectable via the PS<2:0> bits of the OPTION register.
In order to have a 1:1 prescaler value for the Timer0
module, the prescaler must be assigned to the WDT
module.
The prescaler is not readable or writable. When
assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions writing to
the TMR0 register will clear the prescaler.
When the prescaler is assigned to WDT, a CLRWDT
instruction will clear the prescaler along with the WDT.
5.1.3.1
Switching Prescaler Between
Timer0 and WDT Modules
As a result of having the prescaler assigned to either
Timer0 or the WDT, it is possible to generate an
unintended device Reset when switching prescaler
values. When changing the prescaler assignment from
Timer0 to the WDT module, the instruction sequence
shown in Example 5-1 must be executed.
EXAMPLE 5-1:
BANKSEL
CLRWDT
CLRF
TMR0
CHANGING PRESCALER
(TIMER0 → WDT)
;
;Clear WDT
TMR0
;Clear TMR0 and
;prescaler
BANKSEL OPTION_REG
;
BSF
OPTION_REG,PSA ;Select WDT
CLRWDT
;
;
MOVLW b’11111000’
;Mask prescaler
ANDWF OPTION_REG,W
;bits
IORLW b’00000101’
;Set WDT prescaler
MOVWF OPTION_REG
;to 1:32
DS41288F-page 46
When changing the prescaler assignment from the
WDT to the Timer0 module, the following instruction
sequence must be executed (see Example 5-2).
EXAMPLE 5-2:
CHANGING PRESCALER
(WDT → TIMER0)
CLRWDT
;Clear WDT and
;prescaler
BANKSEL OPTION_REG
;
MOVLW
b’11110000’ ;Mask TMR0 select and
ANDWF
OPTION_REG,W ;prescaler bits
IORLW
b’00000011’ ;Set prescale to 1:16
MOVWF
OPTION_REG
;
5.1.4
TIMER0 INTERRUPT
Timer0 will generate an interrupt when the TMR0
register overflows from FFh to 00h. The T0IF interrupt
flag bit of the INTCON register is set every time the
TMR0 register overflows, regardless of whether or not
the Timer0 interrupt is enabled. The T0IF bit must be
cleared in software. The Timer0 interrupt enable is the
T0IE bit of the INTCON register.
Note:
5.1.5
The Timer0 interrupt cannot wake the
processor from Sleep since the timer is
frozen during Sleep.
USING TIMER0 WITH AN
EXTERNAL CLOCK
When Timer0 is in Counter mode, the synchronization
of the T0CKI input and the Timer0 register is
accomplished by sampling the prescaler output on the
Q2 and Q4 cycles of the internal phase clocks.
Therefore, the high and low periods of the external
clock source must meet the timing requirements as
shown in Section 15.0 “Electrical Specifications”.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 5-1:
OPTION_REG: OPTION REGISTER
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
RAPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
RAPU: PORTA Pull-up Enable bit
1 = PORTA pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTA pull-ups are enabled by individual PORT latch values
bit 6
INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of INT pin
bit 5
T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (FOSC/4)
bit 4
T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on T0CKI pin
bit 3
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
bit 2-0
PS<2:0>: Prescaler Rate Select bits
BIT VALUE
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
TABLE 5-1:
Name
TMR0
INTCON
OPTION_REG
TRISA
TMR0 RATE
WDT RATE
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
1:1
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
x = Bit is unknown
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 0000 0000 0000
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111 1111 1111
Timer0 Modules Register
GIE
PEIE
RAPU INTEDG
—
—
Value on
all other
Resets
Bit 4
Bit 5
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
TRISA5 TRISA4 TRISA3 TRISA2 TRISA1 TRISA0 --11 1111 --11 1111
Legend: – = Unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used by the
Timer0 module.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 47
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
NOTES:
DS41288F-page 48
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
6.0
TIMER1 MODULE WITH GATE
CONTROL
6.1
The Timer1 module is a 16-bit incrementing counter
which is accessed through the TMR1H:TMR1L register
pair. Writes to TMR1H or TMR1L directly update the
counter.
The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter with the
following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
16-bit timer/counter register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L)
Programmable internal or external clock source
3-bit prescaler
Optional LP oscillator
Synchronous or asynchronous operation
Timer1 gate (count enable) via comparator or
T1G pin
Interrupt on overflow
Wake-up on overflow (external clock,
Asynchronous mode only)
Time base for the Capture/Compare function
Special Event Trigger (with ECCP)
Comparator output synchronization to Timer1
clock
When used with an internal clock source, the module is
a timer. When used with an external clock source, the
module can be used as either a timer or counter.
6.2
Clock Source Selection
The TMR1CS bit of the T1CON register is used to select
the clock source. When TMR1CS = 0, the clock source
is FOSC/4. When TMR1CS = 1, the clock source is
supplied externally.
Clock Source
Figure 6-1 is a block diagram of the Timer1 module.
FIGURE 6-1:
Timer1 Operation
TMR1CS
T1ACS
FOSC/4
0
0
FOSC
0
1
T1CKI pin
1
x
TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
TMR1GE
T1GINV
TMR1ON
Set flag bit
TMR1IF on
Overflow
TMR1
TMR1H
To C2 Comparator Module
Timer1 Clock
(2)
TMR1L
Synchronized
clock input
0
EN
1
Oscillator
(1)
T1SYNC
OSC1/T1CKI
1
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
Synchronize(3)
det
0
OSC2/T1G
2
T1CKPS<1:0>
TMR1CS
1
INTOSC
Without CLKOUT
T1OSCEN
FOSC
FOSC/4
Internal
Clock
1
0
C2OUT
0
T1GSS
T1ACS
Note 1:
2:
3:
ST Buffer is low power type when using LP osc, or high speed type when using T1CKI.
Timer1 register increments on rising edge.
Synchronize does not operate while in Sleep.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 49
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
6.2.1
INTERNAL CLOCK SOURCE
When the internal clock source is selected the
TMR1H:TMR1L register pair will increment on multiples
of TCY as determined by the Timer1 prescaler.
6.2.2
EXTERNAL CLOCK SOURCE
When the external clock source is selected, the Timer1
module may work as a timer or a counter.
When counting, Timer1 is incremented on the rising
edge of the external clock input T1CKI. In addition, the
Counter mode clock can be synchronized to the
microcontroller system clock or run asynchronously.
6.5
If control bit T1SYNC of the T1CON register is set, the
external clock input is not synchronized. The timer
continues to increment asynchronous to the internal
phase clocks. The timer will continue to run during
Sleep and can generate an interrupt on overflow,
which will wake-up the processor. However, special
precautions in software are needed to read/write the
timer (see Section 6.5.1 “Reading and Writing
Timer1 in Asynchronous Counter Mode”).
Note:
When switching from synchronous to
asynchronous operation, it is possible to
skip an increment. When switching from
asynchronous to synchronous operation,
it is possible to produce an additional
increment.
Note:
In asynchronous counter mode or when
using the internal oscillator and T1ACS=1,
Timer1 can not be used as a time base for
the capture or compare modes of the
ECCP module (for PIC16F616/HV616
only).
If an external clock oscillator is needed (and the
microcontroller is using the INTOSC without CLKOUT),
Timer1 can use the LP oscillator as a clock source.
Note:
6.3
In Counter mode, a falling edge must be
registered by the counter prior to the first
incrementing rising edge.
Timer1 Prescaler
Timer1 has four prescaler options allowing 1, 2, 4 or 8
divisions of the clock input. The T1CKPS bits of the
T1CON register control the prescale counter. The
prescale counter is not directly readable or writable;
however, the prescaler counter is cleared upon a write to
TMR1H or TMR1L.
6.4
Timer1 Oscillator
Timer1 Operation in
Asynchronous Counter Mode
6.5.1
READING AND WRITING TIMER1 IN
ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER
MODE
A low-power 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator is built-in
between pins OSC1 (input) and OSC2 (output). The
oscillator is enabled by setting the T1OSCEN control
bit of the T1CON register. The oscillator will continue to
run during Sleep.
Reading TMR1H or TMR1L while the timer is running
from an external asynchronous clock will ensure a valid
read (taken care of in hardware). However, the user
should keep in mind that reading the 16-bit timer in two
8-bit values itself, poses certain problems, since the
timer may overflow between the reads.
The Timer1 oscillator is shared with the system LP
oscillator. Thus, Timer1 can use this mode only when
the primary system clock is derived from the internal
oscillator or when the oscillator is in the LP Oscillator
mode. The user must provide a software time delay to
ensure proper oscillator start-up.
For writes, it is recommended that the user simply stop
the timer and write the desired values. A write
contention may occur by writing to the timer registers,
while the register is incrementing. This may produce an
unpredictable value in the TMR1H:TMR1L register
pair.
TRISA5 and TRISA4 bits are set when the Timer1
oscillator is enabled. RA5 and RA4 bits read as ‘0’ and
TRISA5 and TRISA4 bits read as ‘1’.
6.6
Note:
The oscillator requires a start-up and
stabilization time before use. Thus,
T1OSCEN should be set and a suitable
delay observed prior to enabling Timer1.
DS41288F-page 50
Timer1 Gate
Timer1 gate source is software configurable to be the
T1G pin or the output of Comparator C2. This allows the
device to directly time external events using T1G or
analog events using Comparator C2. See the
CM2CON1 register (Register 8-3) for selecting the
Timer1 gate source. This feature can simplify the
software for a Delta-Sigma A/D converter and many
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
other applications. For more information on Delta-Sigma
A/D converters, see the Microchip web site
(www.microchip.com).
Note:
TMR1GE bit of the T1CON register must
be set to use either T1G or C2OUT as the
Timer1 gate source. See the CM2CON1
register (Register 8-3) for more information on selecting the Timer1 gate source.
Timer1 gate can be inverted using the T1GINV bit of
the T1CON register, whether it originates from the T1G
pin or Comparator C2 output. This configures Timer1 to
measure either the active-high or active-low time
between events.
6.7
Timer1 Interrupt
The Timer1 register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments
to FFFFh and rolls over to 0000h. When Timer1 rolls
over, the Timer1 interrupt flag bit of the PIR1 register is
set. To enable the interrupt on rollover, you must set
these bits:
•
•
•
•
•
•
In Capture mode, the value in the TMR1H:TMR1L
register pair is copied into the CCPR1H:CCPR1L
register pair on a configured event.
In Compare mode, an event is triggered when the value
CCPR1H:CCPR1L register pair matches the value in
the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair. This event can be a
Special Event Trigger.
For more information, see Section 10.0 “Enhanced
Capture/Compare/PWM (With Auto-Shutdown and
Dead Band) Module (PIC16F616/16HV616 Only)”.
6.10
ECCP Special Event Trigger
(PIC16F616/16HV616 Only)
When the ECCP is configured to trigger a special
event, the trigger will clear the TMR1H:TMR1L register
pair. This special event does not cause a Timer1 interrupt. The ECCP module may still be configured to generate a ECCP interrupt.
In this mode of operation, the CCPR1H:CCPR1L register
pair effectively becomes the period register for Timer1.
TMR1IE bit of the PIE1 register
PEIE bit of the INTCON register
GIE bit of the INTCON register
T1SYNC bit of the T1CON register
TMR1CS bit of the T1CON register
T1OSCEN bit of the T1CON register (can be set)
Timer1 should be synchronized to the FOSC to utilize the
Special Event Trigger. Asynchronous operation of
Timer1 can cause a Special Event Trigger to be missed.
The interrupt is cleared by clearing the TMR1IF bit in
the Interrupt Service Routine.
For more information, see Section 10.2.4 “Special
Event Trigger”.
Note:
6.8
The TMR1H:TTMR1L register pair and the
TMR1IF bit should be cleared before
enabling interrupts.
Timer1 Operation During Sleep
Timer1 can only operate during Sleep when setup in
Asynchronous Counter mode. In this mode, an external
crystal or clock source can be used to increment the
counter. To set up the timer to wake the device:
• TMR1ON bit of the T1CON register must be set
• TMR1IE bit of the PIE1 register must be set
• PEIE bit of the INTCON register must be set
In the event that a write to TMR1H or TMR1L coincides
with a Special Event Trigger from the ECCP, the write
will take precedence.
6.11
Comparator Synchronization
The same clock used to increment Timer1 can also be
used to synchronize the comparator output. This
feature is enabled in the Comparator module.
When using the comparator for Timer1 gate, the
comparator output should be synchronized to Timer1.
This ensures Timer1 does not miss an increment if the
comparator changes.
For
more
information,
see
Section 8.8.2
“Synchronizing Comparator C2 Output to Timer1”.
The device will wake-up on an overflow and execute
the next instruction. If the GIE bit of the INTCON
register is set, the device will call the Interrupt Service
Routine (0004h).
6.9
ECCP Capture/Compare Time
Base (PIC16F616/16HV616 Only)
The ECCP module uses the TMR1H:TMR1L register
pair as the time base when operating in Capture or
Compare mode.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 51
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 6-2:
TIMER1 INCREMENTING EDGE
T1CKI = 1
when TMR1
Enabled
T1CKI = 0
when TMR1
Enabled
Note 1:
Arrows indicate counter increments.
2:
6.12
In Counter mode, a falling edge must be registered by the counter prior to the first incrementing rising edge of the clock.
Timer1 Control Register
The Timer1 Control register (T1CON), shown in
Register 6-1, is used to control Timer1 and select the
various features of the Timer1 module.
REGISTER 6-1:
R/W-0
(1)
T1GINV
T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
TMR1GE(2)
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
T1GINV: Timer1 Gate Invert bit(1)
1 = Timer1 gate is active-high (Timer1 counts when gate is high)
0 = Timer1 gate is active-low (Timer1 counts when gate is low)
bit 6
TMR1GE: Timer1 Gate Enable bit(2)
If TMR1ON = 0:
This bit is ignored
If TMR1ON = 1:
1 = Timer1 counting is controlled by the Timer1 Gate function
0 = Timer1 is always counting
bit 5-4
T1CKPS<1:0>: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 Prescale Value
10 = 1:4 Prescale Value
01 = 1:2 Prescale Value
00 = 1:1 Prescale Value
bit 3
T1OSCEN: LP Oscillator Enable Control bit
If INTOSC without CLKOUT oscillator is active:
1 = LP oscillator is enabled for Timer1 clock
0 = LP oscillator is off
Else:
This bit is ignored
DS41288F-page 52
x = Bit is unknown
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 6-1:
T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER (CONTINUED)
bit 2
T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit
TMR1CS = 1:
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input
TMR1CS = 0:
This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock
bit 1
TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit
1 = External clock from T1CKI pin (on the rising edge)
0 = Internal clock
If TMR1ACS = 0:
FOSC/4
If TMR1ACS = 1:
FOSC
bit 0
TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit
1 = Enables Timer1
0 = Stops Timer1
Note 1:
2:
T1GINV bit inverts the Timer1 gate logic, regardless of source.
TMR1GE bit must be set to use either T1G pin or C2OUT, as selected by the T1GSS bit of the CM2CON1
register, as a Timer1 gate source.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 53
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 6-1:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
0000 -000
CM2CON0
C2ON
C2OUT
C2OE
C2POL
—
C2R
C2CH1
C2CH0
0000 -000
CM2CON1
MC1OUT
MC2OUT
—
T1ACS
C1HYS
C2HYS
T1GSS
C2SYNC
00-0 0010
00-0 0010
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 0000
0000 0000
PIE1
—
ADIE(1)
CCP1IE(1)
C2IE
C1IE
—
TMR2IE(1)
TMR1IE
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
PIR1
—
ADIF(1)
CCP1IF(1)
C2IF
C1IF
—
TMR2IF(1)
TMR1IF
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
INTCON
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
T1CON
Legend:
Note 1:
T1GINV
TMR1GE
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module.
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
DS41288F-page 54
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
7.0
TIMER2 MODULE
(PIC16F616/16HV616 ONLY)
The TMR2 and PR2 registers are both fully readable
and writable. On any Reset, the TMR2 register is set to
00h and the PR2 register is set to FFh.
The Timer2 module is an 8-bit timer with the following
features:
•
•
•
•
•
8-bit timer register (TMR2)
8-bit period register (PR2)
Interrupt on TMR2 match with PR2
Software programmable prescaler (1:1, 1:4, 1:16)
Software programmable postscaler (1:1 to 1:16)
The Timer2 prescaler is controlled by the T2CKPS bits
in the T2CON register. The Timer2 postscaler is
controlled by the TOUTPS bits in the T2CON register.
The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared
when:
See Figure 7-1 for a block diagram of Timer2.
7.1
Timer2 is turned on by setting the TMR2ON bit in the
T2CON register to a ‘1’. Timer2 is turned off by setting
the TMR2ON bit to a ‘0’.
Timer2 Operation
The clock input to the Timer2 module is the system
instruction clock (FOSC/4). The clock is fed into the
Timer2 prescaler, which has prescale options of 1:1,
1:4 or 1:16. The output of the prescaler is then used to
increment the TMR2 register.
• A write to TMR2 occurs.
• A write to T2CON occurs.
• Any device Reset occurs (Power-on Reset, MCLR
Reset, Watchdog Timer Reset, or Brown-out
Reset).
Note:
TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is
written.
The values of TMR2 and PR2 are constantly compared
to determine when they match. TMR2 will increment
from 00h until it matches the value in PR2. When a
match occurs, two things happen:
• TMR2 is reset to 00h on the next increment cycle.
• The Timer2 postscaler is incremented
The match output of the Timer2/PR2 comparator is
then fed into the Timer2 postscaler. The postscaler has
postscale options of 1:1 to 1:16 inclusive. The output of
the Timer2 postscaler is used to set the TMR2IF
interrupt flag bit in the PIR1 register.
FIGURE 7-1:
TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
TMR2
Output
FOSC/4
Prescaler
1:1, 1:4, 1:16
2
TMR2
Sets Flag
bit TMR2IF
Reset
Comparator
EQ
Postscaler
1:1 to 1:16
T2CKPS<1:0>
PR2
4
TOUTPS<3:0>
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 55
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 7-1:
T2CON: TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
TOUTPS3
TOUTPS2
TOUTPS1
TOUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1
T2CKPS0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6-3
TOUTPS<3:0>: Timer2 Output Postscaler Select bits
0000 = 1:1 Postscaler
0001 = 1:2 Postscaler
0010 = 1:3 Postscaler
0011 = 1:4 Postscaler
0100 = 1:5 Postscaler
0101 = 1:6 Postscaler
0110 = 1:7 Postscaler
0111 = 1:8 Postscaler
1000 = 1:9 Postscaler
1001 = 1:10 Postscaler
1010 = 1:11 Postscaler
1011 = 1:12 Postscaler
1100 = 1:13 Postscaler
1101 = 1:14 Postscaler
1110 = 1:15 Postscaler
1111 = 1:16 Postscaler
bit 2
TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit
1 = Timer2 is on
0 = Timer2 is off
bit 1-0
T2CKPS<1:0>: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits
00 = Prescaler is 1
01 = Prescaler is 4
1x = Prescaler is 16
TABLE 7-1:
x = Bit is unknown
SUMMARY OF ASSOCIATED TIMER2 REGISTERS
Value on
all other
Resets
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 0000
0000 0000
PIE1
—
ADIE(1)
CCP1IE(1)
C2IE
C1IE
—
TMR2IE(1)
TMR1IE
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
PIR1
—
ADIF(1)
CCP1IF(1)
C2IF
C1IF
—
TMR2IF(1)
TMR1IF
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
1111 1111
1111 1111
0000 0000
0000 0000
T2CKPS0 -000 0000
-000 0000
PR2(1)
Timer2 Module Period Register
TMR2(1)
Holding Register for the 8-bit TMR2 Register
T2CON(1)
Legend:
Note 1:
—
TOUTPS3
TOUTPS2
TOUTPS1
TOUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for Timer2 module.
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
DS41288F-page 56
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
8.0
COMPARATOR MODULE
Comparators are used to interface analog circuits to a
digital circuit by comparing two analog voltages and
providing a digital indication of their relative magnitudes.
The comparators are very useful mixed signal building
blocks because they provide analog functionality
independent of the device. The Analog Comparator
module includes the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Independent comparator control
Programmable input selection
Comparator output is available internally/externally
Programmable output polarity
Interrupt-on-change
Wake-up from Sleep
PWM shutdown
Timer1 gate (count enable)
Output synchronization to Timer1 clock input
SR Latch
Programmable and fixed voltage reference
User-enable Comparator Hysteresis
Note:
8.1
FIGURE 8-1:
SINGLE COMPARATOR
VIN+
+
VIN-
–
Output
VINVIN+
Output
Note:
The black areas of the output of the
comparator represents the uncertainty
due to input offsets and response time.
Only Comparator C2 can be linked to
Timer1.
Comparator Overview
A single comparator is shown in Figure 8-1 along with
the relationship between the analog input levels and
the digital output. When the analog voltage at VIN+ is
less than the analog voltage at VIN-, the output of the
comparator is a digital low level. When the analog
voltage at VIN+ is greater than the analog voltage at
VIN-, the output of the comparator is a digital high level.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 57
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 8-2:
COMPARATOR C1 SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM
C1CH<1:0>
C1POL
2
D
C12IN0-
0
C12IN1C12IN2-
1
MUX
2
C12IN3-
3
Q1
To
Data Bus
Q
EN
RD_CM1CON0
Set C1IF
D
Q3*RD_CM1CON0
Q
EN
CL
To PWM Logic
Reset
C1ON(1)
C1R
C1IN+
C1OE
0
MUX
1
C1VREF
C1VIN- C1VIN+ C1
+
C1OUT
C1OUT pin(2)
C1POL
Note 1:
2:
FIGURE 8-3:
When C1ON = 0, the C1 comparator will produce a ‘0’ output to the XOR Gate.
Output shown for reference only. See I/O port pin block diagram for more detail.
COMPARATOR C2 SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM
C2POL
D
Q1
To
Data Bus
Q
EN
RD_CM2CON0
C2CH<1:0>
Set C2IF
2
C12IN0-
0
C12IN1C2IN2-
1
MUX
2
C2IN3-
3
C2R
D
Q3*RD_CM2CON0
C2ON(1)
C2VREF
Note 1:
2:
DS41288F-page 58
0
MUX
1
EN
CL
Reset
C2VINC2VIN+
To other peripherals
C2OUT
C2
C2SYNC
C2POL
D
C2IN+
Q
Q
C2OE
0
MUX
1
C2OUT pin(2)
From Timer1
Clock
SYNCC2OUT
To Timer1 Gate
To SR Latch
When C2ON = 0, the C2 comparator will produce a ‘0’ output to the XOR Gate.
Output shown for reference only. See I/O port pin block diagram for more detail.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
8.2
Comparator Control
Each comparator has a separate control and
Configuration register: CM1CON0 for Comparator C1
and CM2CON0 for Comparator C2. In addition,
Comparator C2 has a second control register,
CM2CON1, for controlling the interaction with Timer1 and
simultaneous reading of both comparator outputs.
The CM1CON0 and CM2CON0 registers (see Registers
8-1 and 8-2, respectively) contain the control and Status
bits for the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Enable
Input selection
Reference selection
Output selection
Output polarity
8.2.1
COMPARATOR ENABLE
Setting the CxON bit of the CMxCON0 register enables
the comparator for operation. Clearing the CxON bit
disables the comparator for minimum current
consumption.
8.2.2
COMPARATOR INPUT SELECTION
The CxCH<1:0> bits of the CMxCON0 register direct
one of four analog input pins to the comparator
inverting input.
Note:
8.2.3
To use CxIN+ and CxIN- pins as analog
inputs, the appropriate bits must be set in
the ANSEL register and the corresponding
TRIS bits must also be set to disable the
output drivers.
COMPARATOR REFERENCE
SELECTION
Setting the CxR bit of the CMxCON0 register directs an
internal voltage reference or an analog input pin to the
non-inverting input of the comparator. See Section 8.11
“Comparator Voltage Reference” for more information
on the internal voltage reference module.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
8.2.4
COMPARATOR OUTPUT SELECTION
The output of the comparator can be monitored by
reading either the CxOUT bit of the CMxCON0 register
or the MCxOUT bit of the CM2CON1 register. In order
to make the output available for an external connection,
the following conditions must be true:
• CxOE bit of the CMxCON0 register must be set
• Corresponding TRIS bit must be cleared
• CxON bit of the CMxCON0 register must be set.
Note 1: The CxOE bit overrides the PORT data
latch. Setting the CxON has no impact on
the port override.
2: The internal output of the comparator is
latched with each instruction cycle.
Unless otherwise specified, external
outputs are not latched.
8.2.5
COMPARATOR OUTPUT POLARITY
Inverting the output of the comparator is functionally
equivalent to swapping the comparator inputs. The
polarity of the comparator output can be inverted by
setting the CxPOL bit of the CMxCON0 register.
Clearing the CxPOL bit results in a non-inverted output.
Table 8-1 shows the output state versus input
conditions, including polarity control.
TABLE 8-1:
COMPARATOR OUTPUT
STATE VS. INPUT
CONDITIONS
Input Condition
CxPOL
CxOUT
CxVIN- > CxVIN+
0
0
CxVIN- < CxVIN+
0
1
CxVIN- > CxVIN+
1
1
CxVIN- < CxVIN+
1
0
8.3
Comparator Response Time
The comparator output is indeterminate for a period of
time after the change of an input source or the selection
of a new reference voltage. This period is referred to as
the response time. The response time of the
comparator differs from the settling time of the voltage
reference. Therefore, both of these times must be
considered when determining the total response time
to a comparator input change. See the Comparator and
Voltage Reference Specifications in Section 15.0
“Electrical Specifications” for more details.
DS41288F-page 59
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
8.4
Comparator Interrupt Operation
The comparator interrupt flag can be set whenever
there is a change in the output value of the comparator.
Changes are recognized by means of a mismatch
circuit which consists of two latches and an
exclusive-or gate (see Figure 8-2 and Figure 8-3). One
latch is updated with the comparator output level when
the CMxCON0 register is read. This latch retains the
value until the next read of the CMxCON0 register or
the occurrence of a Reset. The other latch of the
mismatch circuit is updated on every Q1 system clock.
A mismatch condition will occur when a comparator
output change is clocked through the second latch on
the Q1 clock cycle. At this point the two mismatch
latches have opposite output levels which is detected
by the exclusive-or gate and fed to the interrupt
circuitry. The mismatch condition persists until either
the CMxCON0 register is read or the comparator
output returns to the previous state.
Note 1: A write operation to the CMxCON0
register will also clear the mismatch
condition because all writes include a read
operation at the beginning of the write
cycle.
FIGURE 8-4:
COMPARATOR
INTERRUPT TIMING W/O
CMxCON0 READ
Q1
Q3
CxIN+
TRT
CxOUT
Set CxIF (edge)
CxIF
reset by software
FIGURE 8-5:
COMPARATOR
INTERRUPT TIMING WITH
CMxCON0 READ
Q1
Q3
CxIN+
TRT
CxOUT
Set CxIF (edge)
CxIF
cleared by CMxCON0 read
reset by software
2: Comparator interrupts will operate correctly
regardless of the state of CxOE.
The comparator interrupt is set by the mismatch edge
and not the mismatch level. This means that the interrupt flag can be reset without the additional step of
reading or writing the CMxCON0 register to clear the
mismatch registers. When the mismatch registers are
cleared, an interrupt will occur upon the comparator’s
return to the previous state, otherwise no interrupt will
be generated.
Software will need to maintain information about the
status of the comparator output, as read from the
CMxCON0 register, or CM2CON1 register, to determine
the actual change that has occurred.
Note 1: If a change in the CMxCON0 register
(CxOUT) should occur when a read operation is being executed (start of the Q2
cycle), then the CxIF of the PIR1 register
interrupt flag may not get set.
2: When either comparator is first enabled,
bias circuitry in the comparator module
may cause an invalid output from the
comparator until the bias circuitry is stable.
Allow about 1 μs for bias settling then clear
the mismatch condition and interrupt flags
before enabling comparator interrupts.
The CxIF bit of the PIR1 register is the comparator
interrupt flag. This bit must be reset in software by
clearing it to ‘0’. Since it is also possible to write a ‘1’ to
this register, an interrupt can be generated.
The CxIE bit of the PIE1 register and the PEIE and GIE
bits of the INTCON register must all be set to enable
comparator interrupts. If any of these bits are cleared,
the interrupt is not enabled, although the CxIF bit of the
PIR1 register will still be set if an interrupt condition
occurs.
DS41288F-page 60
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
8.5
Operation During Sleep
The comparator, if enabled before entering Sleep mode,
remains active during Sleep. The additional current
consumed by the comparator is shown separately in
Section 15.0 “Electrical Specifications”. If the
comparator is not used to wake the device, power
consumption can be minimized while in Sleep mode by
turning off the comparator. Each comparator is turned off
by clearing the CxON bit of the CMxCON0 register.
A change to the comparator output can wake-up the
device from Sleep. To enable the comparator to wake
the device from Sleep, the CxIE bit of the PIE1 register
and the PEIE bit of the INTCON register must be set.
The instruction following the Sleep instruction always
executes following a wake from Sleep. If the GIE bit of
the INTCON register is also set, the device will then
execute the interrupt service routine.
8.6
Effects of a Reset
A device Reset forces the CMxCON0 and CM2CON1
registers to their Reset states. This forces both
comparators and the voltage references to their OFF
states.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 61
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 8-1:
CM1CON0: COMPARATOR 1 CONTROL REGISTER 0
R/W-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
C1ON
C1OUT
C1OE
C1POL
—
C1R
C1CH1
C1CH0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
C1ON: Comparator C1 Enable bit
1 = Comparator C1 is enabled
0 = Comparator C1 is disabled
bit 6
C1OUT: Comparator C1 Output bit
If C1POL = 1 (inverted polarity):
C1OUT = 0 when C1VIN+ > C1VINC1OUT = 1 when C1VIN+ < C1VINIf C1POL = 0 (non-inverted polarity):
C1OUT = 1 when C1VIN+ > C1VINC1OUT = 0 when C1VIN+ < C1VIN-
bit 5
C1OE: Comparator C1 Output Enable bit
1 = C1OUT is present on the C1OUT pin(1)
0 = C1OUT is internal only
bit 4
C1POL: Comparator C1 Output Polarity Select bit
1 = C1OUT logic is inverted
0 = C1OUT logic is not inverted
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
C1R: Comparator C1 Reference Select bit (non-inverting input)
1 = C1VIN+ connects to C1VREF output
0 = C1VIN+ connects to C1IN+ pin
bit 1-0
C1CH<1:0>: Comparator C1 Channel Select bit
00 = C12IN0- pin of C1 connects to C1VIN01 = C12IN1- pin of C1 connects to C1VIN10 = C12IN2- pin of C1 connects to C1VIN11 = C12IN3- pin of C1 connects to C1VIN-
Note 1:
x = Bit is unknown
Comparator output requires the following three conditions: C1OE = 1, C1ON = 1 and corresponding port
TRIS bit = 0.
DS41288F-page 62
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 8-2:
CM2CON0: COMPARATOR 2 CONTROL REGISTER 0
R/W-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
C2ON
C2OUT
C2OE
C2POL
—
C2R
C2CH1
C2CH0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
C2ON: Comparator C2 Enable bit
1 = Comparator C2 is enabled
0 = Comparator C2 is disabled
bit 6
C2OUT: Comparator C2 Output bit
If C2POL = 1 (inverted polarity):
C2OUT = 0 when C2VIN+ > C2VINC2OUT = 1 when C2VIN+ < C2VINIf C2POL = 0 (non-inverted polarity):
C2OUT = 1 when C2VIN+ > C2VINC2OUT = 0 when C2VIN+ < C2VIN-
bit 5
C2OE: Comparator C2 Output Enable bit
1 = C2OUT is present on C2OUT pin(1)
0 = C2OUT is internal only
bit 4
C2POL: Comparator C2 Output Polarity Select bit
1 = C2OUT logic is inverted
0 = C2OUT logic is not inverted
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
C2R: Comparator C2 Reference Select bits (non-inverting input)
1 = C2VIN+ connects to C2VREF
0 = C2VIN+ connects to C2IN+ pin
bit 1-0
C2CH<1:0>: Comparator C2 Channel Select bits
00 = C2VIN- pin of C2 connects to C12IN001 = C2VIN- pin of C2 connects to C12IN110 = C2VIN- pin of C2 connects to C12IN211 = C2VIN- pin of C2 connects to C12IN3-
Note 1:
x = Bit is unknown
Comparator output requires the following three conditions: C2OE = 1, C2ON = 1 and corresponding port
TRIS bit = 0.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 63
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
8.7
Comparator Analog Input
Connection Considerations
A simplified circuit for an analog input is shown in
Figure 8-6. Since the analog input pins share their
connection with a digital input, they have reverse
biased ESD protection diodes to VDD and VSS. The
analog input, therefore, must be between VSS and VDD.
If the input voltage deviates from this range by more
than 0.6V in either direction, one of the diodes is
forward biased and a latch-up may occur.
Note 1: When reading a PORT register, all pins
configured as analog inputs will read as a
‘0’. Pins configured as digital inputs will
convert as an analog input, according to
the input specification.
2: Analog levels on any pin defined as a
digital input, may cause the input buffer to
consume more current than is specified.
A maximum source impedance of 10 kΩ is recommended
for the analog sources. Also, any external component
connected to an analog input pin, such as a capacitor or
a Zener diode, should have very little leakage current to
minimize inaccuracies introduced.
FIGURE 8-6:
ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
VT ≈ 0.6V
Rs < 10K
RIC
To ADC Input
AIN
VA
CPIN
5 pF
VT ≈ 0.6V
ILEAKAGE
±500 nA
Vss
Legend: CPIN
= Input Capacitance
ILEAKAGE = Leakage Current at the pin due to various junctions
RIC
= Interconnect Resistance
= Source Impedance
RS
= Analog Voltage
VA
VT
= Threshold Voltage
DS41288F-page 64
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
8.8
8.8.2
Additional Comparator Features
There are three additional comparator features:
The Comparator C2 output can be synchronized with
Timer1 by setting the C2SYNC bit of the CM2CON1
register. When enabled, the C2 output is latched on the
falling edge of the Timer1 clock source. If a prescaler is
used with Timer1, the comparator output is latched after
the prescaling function. To prevent a race condition, the
comparator output is latched on the falling edge of the
Timer1 clock source and Timer1 increments on the
rising edge of its clock source. See the Comparator
Block Diagram (Figure 8-3) and the Timer1 Block
Diagram (Figure 6-1) for more information.
• Timer1 count enable (gate)
• Synchronizing output with Timer1
• Simultaneous read of comparator outputs
8.8.1
SYNCHRONIZING COMPARATOR
C2 OUTPUT TO TIMER1
COMPARATOR C2 GATING TIMER1
This feature can be used to time the duration or interval
of analog events. Clearing the T1GSS bit of the
CM2CON1 register will enable Timer1 to increment
based on the output of Comparator C2. This requires
that Timer1 is on and gating is enabled. See
Section 6.0 “Timer1 Module with Gate Control” for
details.
8.8.3
It is recommended to synchronize the comparator with
Timer1 by setting the C2SYNC bit when the comparator
is used as the Timer1 gate source. This ensures Timer1
does not miss an increment if the comparator changes
during an increment.
SIMULTANEOUS COMPARATOR
OUTPUT READ
The MC1OUT and MC2OUT bits of the CM2CON1
register are mirror copies of both comparator outputs.
The ability to read both outputs simultaneously from a
single register eliminates the timing skew of reading
separate registers.
Note 1: Obtaining the status of C1OUT or C2OUT
by reading CM2CON1 does not affect the
comparator interrupt mismatch registers.
REGISTER 8-3:
CM2CON1: COMPARATOR 2 CONTROL REGISTER 1
R-0
R-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-1
R/W-0
MC1OUT
MC2OUT
—
T1ACS
C1HYS
C2HYS
T1GSS
C2SYNC
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
MC1OUT: Mirror Copy of C1OUT bit
bit 6
MC2OUT: Mirror Copy of C2OUT bit
bit 5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4
T1ACS: Timer1 Alternate Clock Select bit
1 = Timer1 clock source is the system clock (FOSC)
0 = Timer1 clock source is the internal clock FOSC/4)
bit 3
C1HYS: Comparator C1 Hysteresis Enable bit
1 = Comparator C1 Hysteresis enabled
0 = Comparator C1 Hysteresis disabled
bit 2
C2HYS: Comparator C2 Hysteresis Enable bit
1 = Comparator C2 Hysteresis enabled
0 = Comparator C2 Hysteresis disabled
bit 1
T1GSS: Timer1 Gate Source Select bit
1 = Timer1 gate source is T1G
0 = Timer1 gate source is SYNCC2OUT.
bit 0
C2SYNC: Comparator C2 Output Synchronization bit
1 = C2 Output is synchronous to falling edge of Timer1 clock
0 = C2 Output is asynchronous
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS41288F-page 65
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
8.9
Comparator Hysteresis
Each comparator has built-in hysteresis that is user
enabled by setting the C1HYS or C2HYS bits of the
CM2CON1 register. The hysteresis feature can help
filter noise and reduce multiple comparator output
transitions when the output is changing state.
FIGURE 8-7:
Figure 8-9 shows the relationship between the analog
input levels and digital output of a comparator with and
without hysteresis. The output of the comparator
changes from a low state to a high state only when the
analog voltage at VIN+ rises above the upper
hysteresis threshold (VH+). The output of the
comparator changes from a high state to a low state
only when the analog voltage at VIN+ falls below the
lower hysteresis threshold (VH-).
COMPARATOR HYSTERESIS
VIN+
+
VIN-
–
Output
V+
VH+
VINVHVIN+
Output
(Without Hysteresis)
Output
(With Hysteresis)
Note:
The black areas of the comparator output represents the uncertainty due to input offsets and response time.
DS41288F-page 66
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 8-2:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE COMPARATOR AND
VOLTAGE REFERENCE MODULES
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
ANSEL
ANS7
ANS6
ANS5
ANS4
ANS3(1)
ANS2(1)
ANS1
ANS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
CM1CON0
C1ON
C1OUT
C1OE
C1POL
C1SP
C1R
C1CH1
C1CH0
0000 0000
0000 0000
CM2CON0
C2ON
C2OUT
C2OE
C2POL
C2SP
C2R
C2CH1
C2CH0
0000 0000
0000 0000
CM2CON1
MC1OUT
MC2OUT
—
T1ACS
C1HYS
C2HYS
T1GSS
C2SYNC
00-0 0010
00-0 0010
0000 000x
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 000x
PIE1
INTCON
—
ADIE(1)
CCP1IE(1)
C2IE
C1IE
—
TMR2IE(1)
TMR1IE
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
PIR1
—
ADIF(1)
CCP1IF(1)
C2IF
C1IF
—
TMR2IF(1)
TMR1IF
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
PORTA
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
--x0 x000
--x0 x000
PORTC
—
—
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
--xx 00xx
--uu 00uu
SRCON0
SR1
SR0
C1SEN
C2REN
PULSS
PULSR
—
SRCLKEN
0000 00-0
0000 00-0
SRCON1
SRCS1
SRCS0
—
—
—
—
—
—
00-- ----
00-- ----
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
--11 1111
--11 1111
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
1111 1111
1111 1111
VRR
FVREN
VR3
VR2
VR1
VR0
0000 0000
0000 0000
TRISA
TRISC
VRCON
Legend:
Note 1:
C1VREN
C2VREN
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for comparator.
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 67
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
8.10
Comparator SR Latch
inputs are high the latch will go to the Reset state. Both
the PULSS and PULSR bits are self resetting which
means that a single write to either of the bits is all that is
necessary to complete a latch Set or Reset operation.
The SR latch module provides additional control of the
comparator outputs. The module consists of a single
SR latch and output multiplexers. The SR latch can be
set, reset or toggled by the comparator outputs. The SR
latch may also be set or reset, independent of
comparator output, by control bits in the SRCON0
control register. The SR latch output multiplexers select
whether the latch outputs or the comparator outputs are
directed to the I/O port logic for eventual output to a pin.
8.10.2
The SR<1:0> bits of the SRCON0 register control the
latch output multiplexers and determine four possible
output configurations. In these four configurations, the
CxOUT I/O port logic is connected to:
•
•
•
•
The SR latch also has a variable clock, which is
connected to the set input of the latch. The SRCLKEN
bit of SRCON0 enables the SR latch set clock. The
clock will periodically pulse the set input of the latch.
Control over the frequency of the SR latch set clock is
provided by the SRCS<1:0> bits of SRCON1 register.
8.10.1
C1OUT and C2OUT
C1OUT and SR latch Q
C2OUT and SR latch Q
SR latch Q and Q
After any Reset, the default output configuration is the
unlatched C1OUT and C2OUT mode. This maintains
compatibility with devices that do not have the SR latch
feature.
LATCH OPERATION
The latch is a Set-Reset latch that does not depend on a
clock source. Each of the Set and Reset inputs are
active-high. Each latch input is connected to a
comparator output and a software controlled pulse
generator. The latch can be set by C1OUT or the PULSS
bit of the SRCON0 register. The latch can be reset by
C2OUT or the PULSR bit of the SRCON0 register. The
latch is reset-dominant, therefore, if both Set and Reset
FIGURE 8-8:
LATCH OUTPUT
The applicable TRIS bits of the corresponding ports
must be cleared to enable the port pin output drivers.
Additionally, the CxOE comparator output enable bits of
the CMxCON0 registers must be set in order to make the
comparator or latch outputs available on the output pins.
The latch configuration enable states are completely
independent of the enable states for the comparators.
SR LATCH SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM
SRCLKEN
SRCLK
SR0
C1OE
PULSS
Pulse
Gen(2)
C1OUT (from comparator)
S
0
MUX
1
Q
C1OUT pin(3)
C1SEN
SR
Latch(1)
C2OE
SYNCC2OUT (from comparator)
R
C2REN
PULSR
Note 1:
2:
3:
Pulse
Gen(2)
1
MUX
0
Q
C2OUT pin(3)
SR1
If R = 1 and S = 1 simultaneously, Q = 0, Q = 1
Pulse generator causes a 1 TOSC pulse width.
Output shown for reference only. See I/O port pin block diagram for more detail.
DS41288F-page 68
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 8-4:
SRCON0: SR LATCH CONTROL 0 REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/S-0
R/S-0
U-0
R/W-0
SR1(2)
SR0(2)
C1SEN
C2REN
PULSS
PULSR
—
SRCLKEN
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
S = Bit is set only -
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
SR1: SR Latch Configuration bit(2)
1=
C2OUT pin is the latch Q output
0=
C2OUT pin is the C2 comparator output
bit 6
SR0: SR Latch Configuration bits(2)
1=
C1OUT pin is the latch Q output
0=
C1OUT pin is the C1 Comparator output
bit 5
C1SEN: C1 Set Enable bit
1 = C1 comparator output sets SR latch
0 = C1 comparator output has no effect on SR latch
bit 4
C2REN: C2 Reset Enable bit
1 = C2 comparator output resets SR latch
0 = C2 comparator output has no effect on SR latch
bit 3
PULSS: Pulse the SET Input of the SR Latch bit
1 = Triggers pulse generator to set SR latch. Bit is immediately reset by hardware.
0 = Does not trigger pulse generator
bit 2
PULSR: Pulse the Reset Input of the SR Latch bit
1 = Triggers pulse generator to reset SR latch. Bit is immediately reset by hardware.
0 = Does not trigger pulse generator
bit 1
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 0
SRCLKEN: SR Latch Set Clock Enable bit
1 = Set input of SR latch is pulsed with SRCLK
0 = Set input of SR latch is not pulsed with the SRCLK
Note 1:
2:
The C1OUT and C2OUT bits in the CMxCON0 register will always reflect the actual comparator output (not the level on
the pin), regardless of the SR latch operation.
To enable an SR Latch output to the pin, the appropriate CxOE, and TRIS bits must be properly configured.
REGISTER 8-5:
SRCON1: SR LATCH CONTROL 1 REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
SRCS1
SRCS0
—
—
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
S = Bit is set only -
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
SRCS<1:0>: SR Latch Clock Prescale bits
00 = FOSC/16
01 = FOSC/32
10 = FOSC/64
11 = FOSC/128
bit 5-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS41288F-page 69
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
8.11
Comparator Voltage Reference
The comparator voltage reference module provides an
internally generated voltage reference for the
comparators. The following features are available:
•
•
•
•
•
Independent from Comparator operation
Two 16-level voltage ranges
Output clamped to VSS
Ratiometric with VDD
Fixed Reference (0.6V)
The VRCON register (Register 8-6) controls the
voltage reference module shown in Figure 8-9.
8.11.1
8.11.3
OUTPUT CLAMPED TO VSS
The fixed voltage reference output voltage can be set
to Vss with no power consumption by clearing the
FVREN bit of the VRCON register (FVREN = 0). This
allows the comparator to detect a zero-crossing while
not consuming additional module current.
8.11.4
OUTPUT RATIOMETRIC TO VDD
The comparator voltage reference is VDD derived and
therefore, the CVREF output changes with fluctuations in
VDD. The tested absolute accuracy of the Comparator
Voltage Reference can be found in Section 15.0
“Electrical Specifications”.
INDEPENDENT OPERATION
The comparator voltage reference is independent of
the comparator configuration. Setting the FVREN bit of
the VRCON register will enable the voltage reference.
8.11.2
OUTPUT VOLTAGE SELECTION
The CVREF voltage reference has 2 ranges with 16
voltage levels in each range. Range selection is
controlled by the VRR bit of the VRCON register. The
16 levels are set with the VR<3:0> bits of the VRCON
register.
The CVREF output voltage is determined by the
following equations:
EQUATION 8-1:
CVREF OUTPUT VOLTAGE
V RR = 1 (low range):
CVREF = (VR<3:0>/24) × V DD
V RR = 0 (high range):
CV REF = (VDD/4) + (VR<3:0> × VDD/32)
The full range of VSS to VDD cannot be realized due to
the construction of the module. See Figure 8-9.
DS41288F-page 70
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
8.11.5
FIXED VOLTAGE REFERENCE
8.11.7
The fixed voltage reference is independent of VDD, with
a nominal output voltage of 0.6V. This reference can be
enabled by setting the FVREN bit of the VRCON
register to ‘1’. This reference is always enabled when
the HFINTOSC oscillator is active.
8.11.6
Multiplexers on the output of the voltage reference
module enable selection of either the CVREF or fixed
voltage reference for use by the comparators.
Setting the C1VREN bit of the VRCON register enables
current to flow in the CVREF voltage divider and selects
the CVREF voltage for use by C1. Clearing the
C1VREN bit selects the fixed voltage for use by C1.
FIXED VOLTAGE REFERENCE
STABILIZATION PERIOD
When the fixed voltage reference module is enabled, it
will require some time for the reference and its amplifier
circuits to stabilize. The user program must include a
small delay routine to allow the module to settle. See
the electrical specifications section for the minimum
delay requirement.
FIGURE 8-9:
VOLTAGE REFERENCE
SELECTION
Setting the C2VREN bit of the VRCON register enables
current to flow in the CVREF voltage divider and selects
the CVREF voltage for use by C2. Clearing the
C2VREN bit selects the fixed voltage for use by C2.
When both the C1VREN and C2VREN bits are cleared,
current flow in the CVREF voltage divider is disabled
minimizing the power drain of the voltage reference
peripheral.
COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE BLOCK DIAGRAM
16 Stages
8R
R
R
R
R
VDD
8R
VRR
Analog
MUX
15
CVREF
To Comparators
and ADC Module
0
VR<3:0>(1)
C1VREN
4
C2VREN
To ADC Module
Fixed Ref
To Comparators
and ADC Module
1.2V
0.6V
FVREN
EN
Fixed Voltage
Reference
Note 1:
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Care should be taken to ensure VREF remains
within the comparator common mode input range.
See Section 15.0 “Electrical Specifications” for
more detail.
DS41288F-page 71
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 8-6:
VRCON: VOLTAGE REFERENCE CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
C1VREN
C2VREN
VRR
FVREN
VR3
VR2
VR1
VR0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
C1VREN: Comparator 1 Voltage Reference Enable bit
1 = CVREF circuit powered on and routed to C1VREF input of Comparator C1
0 = 0.6 Volt constant reference routed to C1VREF input of Comparator C1
bit 6
C2VREN: Comparator 2 Voltage Reference Enable bit
1 = CVREF circuit powered on and routed to C2VREF input of Comparator C2
0 = 0.6 Volt constant reference routed to C2VREF input of Comparator C2
bit 5
VRR: CVREF Range Selection bit
1 = Low range
0 = High range
bit 4
FVREN: Fixed Voltage Reference (0.6V) Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 3-0
VR<3:0>: Comparator Voltage Reference CVREF Value Selection bits (0 ≤ VR<3:0> ≤ 15)
When VRR = 1: CVREF = (VR<3:0>/24) * VDD
When VRR = 0: CVREF = VDD/4 + (VR<3:0>/32) * VDD
DS41288F-page 72
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
9.0
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC) MODULE
(PIC16F616/16HV616 ONLY)
Note:
The ADRESL and ADRESH registers are
read-only.
The Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) allows
conversion of an analog input signal to a 10-bit binary
representation of that signal. This device uses analog
inputs, which are multiplexed into a single sample and
hold circuit. The output of the sample and hold is
connected to the input of the converter. The converter
generates a 10-bit binary result via successive
approximation and stores the conversion result into the
ADC result registers (ADRESL and ADRESH).
The ADC voltage reference is software selectable to
either VDD or a voltage applied to the external reference
pins.
The ADC can generate an interrupt upon completion of
a conversion. This interrupt can be used to wake-up the
device from Sleep.
Figure 9-1 shows the block diagram of the ADC.
FIGURE 9-1:
ADC BLOCK DIAGRAM
VDD
VCFG = 0
VREF
VCFG = 1
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1/VREF
RA2/AN2
RA4/AN3
RC0/AN4
RC1/AN5
RC2/AN6
ADC
RC3/AN7
10
GO/DONE
CVREF
0.6V Reference
ADFM
1.2V Reference
4
CHS <3:0>
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
0 = Left Justify
1 = Right Justify
ADON
10
VSS
ADRESH
ADRESL
DS41288F-page 73
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
9.1
9.1.4
ADC Configuration
The source of the conversion clock is software
selectable via the ADCS bits of the ADCON1 register.
There are seven possible clock options:
When configuring and using the ADC, the following
functions must be considered:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Port configuration
Channel selection
ADC voltage reference selection
ADC conversion clock source
Interrupt control
Results formatting
9.1.1
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PORT CONFIGURATION
The ADC can be used to convert both analog and digital
signals. When converting analog signals, the I/O pin
should be configured for analog by setting the associated
TRIS and ANSEL bits. See the corresponding Port
section for more information.
Note:
FOSC/2
FOSC/4
FOSC/8
FOSC/16
FOSC/32
FOSC/64
FRC (dedicated internal oscillator)
The time to complete one bit conversion is defined as
TAD. One full 10-bit conversion requires 11 TAD periods
as shown in Figure 9-3.
For correct conversion, the appropriate TAD specification
must be met. See A/D conversion requirements in
Section 15.0 “Electrical Specifications” for more
information. Table 9-1 gives examples of appropriate
ADC clock selections.
Analog voltages on any pin that is defined
as a digital input may cause the input buffer to conduct excess current.
9.1.2
CONVERSION CLOCK
Note:
CHANNEL SELECTION
Unless using the FRC, any changes in the
system clock frequency will change the
ADC clock frequency, which may
adversely affect the ADC result.
The CHS bits of the ADCON0 register determine which
channel is connected to the sample and hold circuit.
When changing channels, a delay is required before
starting the next conversion. Refer to Section 9.2
“ADC Operation” for more information.
ADC VOLTAGE REFERENCE
9.1.3
The VCFG bit of the ADCON0 register provides control
of the positive voltage reference. The positive voltage
reference can be either VDD or an external voltage
source. The negative voltage reference is always
connected to the ground reference.
TABLE 9-1:
ADC CLOCK PERIOD (TAD) VS. DEVICE OPERATING FREQUENCIES (VDD > 3.0V)
ADC Clock Period (TAD)
ADC Clock Source
FOSC/2
ADCS<2:0>
000
Device Frequency (FOSC)
20 MHz
100 ns
(2)
ns(2)
8 MHz
250 ns
500
(2)
ns(2)
4 MHz
500 ns
μs(2)
1 MHz
2.0 μs
4.0 μs
FOSC/4
100
200
FOSC/8
001
400 ns(2)
1.0 μs(2)
2.0 μs
8.0 μs(3)
FOSC/16
101
800 ns(2)
2.0 μs
4.0 μs
16.0 μs(3)
FOSC/32
010
1.6 μs
4.0 μs
FOSC/64
110
3.2 μs
8.0 μs(3)
FRC
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
x11
2-6 μs
(1,4)
2-6 μs
(1,4)
1.0
(2)
μs(3)
32.0 μs(3)
16.0 μs(3)
64.0 μs(3)
2-6 μs
2-6 μs(1,4)
8.0
(1,4)
Shaded cells are outside of recommended range.
The FRC source has a typical TAD time of 4 μs for VDD > 3.0V.
These values violate the minimum required TAD time.
For faster conversion times, the selection of another clock source is recommended.
When the device frequency is greater than 1 MHz, the FRC clock source is only recommended if the
conversion will be performed during Sleep.
DS41288F-page 74
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 9-2:
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION TAD CYCLES
TCY to TAD TAD1 TAD2 TAD3 TAD4 TAD5 TAD6 TAD7 TAD8 TAD9 TAD10 TAD11
b9
b8
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Conversion Starts
Holding Capacitor is Disconnected from Analog Input (typically 100 ns)
Set GO/DONE bit
9.1.5
ADRESH and ADRESL registers are loaded,
GO bit is cleared,
ADIF bit is set,
Holding capacitor is connected to analog input
INTERRUPTS
9.1.6
The ADC module allows for the ability to generate an
interrupt upon completion of an analog-to-digital
conversion. The ADC interrupt flag is the ADIF bit in the
PIR1 register. The ADC interrupt enable is the ADIE bit
in the PIE1 register. The ADIF bit must be cleared in
software.
Note:
RESULT FORMATTING
The 10-bit A/D conversion result can be supplied in two
formats, left justified or right justified. The ADFM bit of
the ADCON0 register controls the output format.
Figure 9-4 shows the two output formats.
The ADIF bit is set at the completion of
every conversion, regardless of whether
or not the ADC interrupt is enabled.
This interrupt can be generated while the device is
operating or while in Sleep. If the device is in Sleep, the
interrupt will wake-up the device. Upon waking from
Sleep, the next instruction following the SLEEP
instruction is always executed. If the user is attempting
to wake-up from Sleep and resume in-line code
execution, the global interrupt must be disabled. If the
global interrupt is enabled, execution will switch to the
interrupt service routine.
Please see Section 9.1.5 “Interrupts” for more
information.
FIGURE 9-3:
10-BIT A/D CONVERSION RESULT FORMAT
ADRESH
(ADFM = 0)
ADRESL
MSB
LSB
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
10-bit A/D Result
(ADFM = 1)
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
MSB
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
LSB
bit 0
bit 7
bit 0
10-bit A/D Result
DS41288F-page 75
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
9.2
9.2.1
ADC Operation
STARTING A CONVERSION
To enable the ADC module, the ADON bit of the
ADCON0 register must be set to a ‘1’. Setting the GO/
DONE bit of the ADCON0 register to a ‘1’ will start the
analog-to-digital conversion.
Note:
9.2.2
The GO/DONE bit should not be set in the
same instruction that turns on the ADC.
Refer to Section 9.2.6 “A/D Conversion
Procedure”.
COMPLETION OF A CONVERSION
9.2.5
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
The ECCP Special Event Trigger allows periodic ADC
measurements without software intervention. When
this trigger occurs, the GO/DONE bit is set by hardware
and the Timer1 counter resets to zero.
Using the Special Event Trigger does not ensure
proper ADC timing. It is the user’s responsibility to
ensure that the ADC timing requirements are met.
See Section 10.0 “Enhanced Capture/Compare/
PWM (With Auto-Shutdown and Dead Band)
Module (PIC16F616/16HV616 Only)” for more
information.
When the conversion is complete, the ADC module will:
9.2.6
• Clear the GO/DONE bit
• Set the ADIF flag bit
• Update the ADRESH:ADRESL registers with new
conversion result
This is an example procedure for using the ADC to
perform an analog-to-digital conversion:
9.2.3
TERMINATING A CONVERSION
If a conversion must be terminated before completion,
the GO/DONE bit can be cleared in software. The
ADRESH:ADRESL registers will not be updated with
the partially complete analog-to-digital conversion
sample. Instead, the ADRESH:ADRESL register pair
will retain the value of the previous conversion. Additionally, a 2 TAD delay is required before another acquisition can be initiated. Following this delay, an input
acquisition is automatically started on the selected
channel.
Note:
9.2.4
A device Reset forces all registers to their
Reset state. Thus, the ADC module is
turned off and any pending conversion is
terminated.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
ADC OPERATION DURING SLEEP
The ADC module can operate during Sleep. This
requires the ADC clock source to be set to the FRC
option. When the FRC clock source is selected, the
ADC waits one additional instruction before starting the
conversion. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be
executed, which can reduce system noise during the
conversion. If the ADC interrupt is enabled, the device
will wake-up from Sleep when the conversion
completes. If the ADC interrupt is disabled, the ADC
module is turned off after the conversion completes,
although the ADON bit remains set.
When the ADC clock source is something other than
FRC, a SLEEP instruction causes the present
conversion to be aborted and the ADC module is
turned off, although the ADON bit remains set.
DS41288F-page 76
7.
8.
A/D CONVERSION PROCEDURE
Configure Port:
• Disable pin output driver (See TRIS register)
• Configure pin as analog
Configure the ADC module:
• Select ADC conversion clock
• Configure voltage reference
• Select ADC input channel
• Select result format
• Turn on ADC module
Configure ADC interrupt (optional):
• Clear ADC interrupt flag
• Enable ADC interrupt
• Enable peripheral interrupt
• Enable global interrupt(1)
Wait the required acquisition time(2).
Start conversion by setting the GO/DONE bit.
Wait for ADC conversion to complete by one of
the following:
• Polling the GO/DONE bit
• Waiting for the ADC interrupt (interrupts
enabled)
Read ADC Result
Clear the ADC interrupt flag (required if interrupt
is enabled).
Note 1: The global interrupt may be disabled if the
user is attempting to wake-up from Sleep
and resume in-line code execution.
2: See Section 9.3
Requirements”.
“A/D
Acquisition
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
EXAMPLE 9-1:
A/D CONVERSION
;This code block configures the ADC
;for polling, Vdd reference, Frc clock
;and AN0 input.
;
;Conversion start & polling for completion
; are included.
;
BANKSEL
ADCON1
;
MOVLW
B’01110000’ ;ADC Frc clock
MOVWF
ADCON1
;
BANKSEL
TRISA
;
BSF
TRISA,0
;Set RA0 to input
BANKSEL
ANSEL
;
BSF
ANSEL,0
;Set RA0 to analog
BANKSEL
ADCON0
;
MOVLW
B’10000001’ ;Right justify,
MOVWF
ADCON0
;Vdd Vref, AN0, On
CALL
SampleTime
;Acquisiton delay
BSF
ADCON0,GO
;Start conversion
BTFSC
ADCON0,GO
;Is conversion done?
GOTO
$-1
;No, test again
BANKSEL
ADRESH
;
MOVF
ADRESH,W
;Read upper 2 bits
MOVWF
RESULTHI
;store in GPR space
BANKSEL
ADRESL
;
MOVF
ADRESL,W
;Read lower 8 bits
MOVWF
RESULTLO
;Store in GPR space
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 77
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
9.2.7
ADC REGISTER DEFINITIONS
The following registers are used to control the operation of the ADC.
REGISTER 9-1:
ADCON0: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
ADFM
VCFG
CHS3
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
ADON
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
ADFM: A/D Conversion Result Format Select bit
1 = Right justified
0 = Left justified
bit 6
VCFG: Voltage Reference bit
1 = VREF pin
0 = VDD
bit 5-2
CHS<3:0>: Analog Channel Select bits
0000 = Channel 00 (AN0)
0001 = Channel 01 (AN1)
0010 = Channel 02 (AN2)
0011 = Channel 03 (AN3)
0100 = Channel 04 (AN4)
0101 = Channel 05 (AN5)
0110 = Channel 06 (AN6)
0111 = Channel 07 (AN7)
1000 = Reserved – do not use
1001 = Reserved – do not use
1010 = Reserved – do not use
1011 = Reserved – do not use
1100 = CVREF
1101 = 0.6V Fixed Voltage Reference(1)
1110 = 1.2V Fixed Voltage Reference(1)
1111 = Reserved – do not use
bit 1
GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit
1 = A/D conversion cycle in progress. Setting this bit starts an A/D conversion cycle.
This bit is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion has completed.
0 = A/D conversion completed/not in progress
bit 0
ADON: ADC Enable bit
1 = ADC is enabled
0 = ADC is disabled and consumes no operating current
Note 1:
When the CHS<3:0> bits change to select the 1.2V or 0.6V Fixed Voltage Reference, the reference output voltage will
have a transient. If the Comparator module uses this VP6 reference voltage, the comparator output may momentarily
change state due to the transient.
DS41288F-page 78
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 9-2:
ADCON1: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 1
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
—
ADCS2
ADCS1
ADCS0
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6-4
ADCS<2:0>: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits
000 = FOSC/2
001 = FOSC/8
010 = FOSC/32
x11 = FRC (clock derived from a dedicated internal oscillator = 500 kHz max)
100 = FOSC/4
101 = FOSC/16
110 = FOSC/64
bit 3-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS41288F-page 79
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 9-3:
ADRESH: ADC RESULT REGISTER HIGH (ADRESH) ADFM = 0 (READ-ONLY)
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
ADRES9
ADRES8
ADRES7
ADRES6
ADRES5
ADRES4
ADRES3
ADRES2
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
x = Bit is unknown
ADRES<9:2>: ADC Result Register bits
Upper 8 bits of 10-bit conversion result
REGISTER 9-4:
ADRESL: ADC RESULT REGISTER LOW (ADRESL) ADFM = 0 (READ-ONLY)
R-x
R-x
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
ADRES1
ADRES0
—
—
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
ADRES<1:0>: ADC Result Register bits
Lower 2 bits of 10-bit conversion result
bit 5-0
Reserved: Do not use.
REGISTER 9-5:
x = Bit is unknown
ADRESH: ADC RESULT REGISTER HIGH (ADRESH) ADFM = 1 (READ-ONLY)
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R-x
R-x
—
—
—
—
—
—
ADRES9
ADRES8
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-2
Reserved: Do not use.
bit 1-0
ADRES<9:8>: ADC Result Register bits
Upper 2 bits of 10-bit conversion result
REGISTER 9-6:
x = Bit is unknown
ADRESL: ADC RESULT REGISTER LOW (ADRESL) ADFM = 1 (READ-ONLY)
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
R-x
ADRES7
ADRES6
ADRES5
ADRES4
ADRES3
ADRES2
ADRES1
ADRES0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
x = Bit is unknown
ADRES<7:0>: ADC Result Register bits
Lower 8 bits of 10-bit conversion result
DS41288F-page 80
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
9.3
A/D Acquisition Requirements
For the ADC to meet its specified accuracy, the charge
holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed to fully
charge to the input channel voltage level. The Analog
Input model is shown in Figure 9-4. The source
impedance (RS) and the internal sampling switch (RSS)
impedance directly affect the time required to charge the
capacitor CHOLD. The sampling switch (RSS) impedance
varies over the device voltage (VDD), see Figure 9-4.
The maximum recommended impedance for analog
sources is 10 kΩ. As the source impedance is
decreased, the acquisition time may be decreased.
After the analog input channel is selected (or changed),
an A/D acquisition must be done before the conversion
can be started. To calculate the minimum acquisition
time, Equation 9-1 may be used. This equation
assumes that 1/2 LSb error is used (1024 steps for the
ADC). The 1/2 LSb error is the maximum error allowed
for the ADC to meet its specified resolution.
EQUATION 9-1:
ACQUISITION TIME EXAMPLE
Temperature = 50°C and external impedance of 10k Ω 5.0V V DD
Assumptions:
T ACQ = Amplifier Settling Time + Hold Capacitor Charging Time + Temperature Coefficient
= T AMP + T C + T COFF
= 5µs + T C + [ ( Temperature - 25°C ) ( 0.05µs/°C ) ]
The value for TC can be approximated with the following equations:
1
V AP PLIE D ⎛ 1 – ------------⎞ = V CHOLD
⎝
2047⎠
;[1] VCHOLD charged to within 1/2 lsb
–TC
----------⎞
⎛
RC
V AP P LI ED ⎜ 1 – e ⎟ = V CHOLD
⎝
⎠
;[2] VCHOLD charge response to VAPPLIED
– Tc
---------⎞
⎛
1
RC
V AP P LIED ⎜ 1 – e ⎟ = V A P PLIE D ⎛⎝ 1 – ------------⎞⎠
2047
⎝
⎠
;combining [1] and [2]
Solving for TC:
T C = – C HOLD ( R IC + R SS + R S ) ln(1/2047)
= – 10pF ( 1k Ω + 7k Ω + 10k Ω ) ln(0.0004885)
= 1.37 µs
Therefore:
T ACQ = 5µs + 1.37µs + [ ( 50°C- 25°C ) ( 0.05µs/°C ) ]
= 7.67µs
Note 1: The reference voltage (VREF) has no effect on the equation, since it cancels itself out.
2: The charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) is not discharged after each conversion.
3: The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources is 10 kΩ. This is required to meet the pin
leakage specification.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 81
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 9-4:
ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
ANx
Rs
CPIN
5 pF
VA
VT = 0.6V
VT = 0.6V
RIC ≤ 1k
Sampling
Switch
SS Rss
I LEAKAGE
± 500 nA
CHOLD = 10 pF
VSS/VREF-
Legend: CPIN
= Input Capacitance
= Threshold Voltage
VT
I LEAKAGE = Leakage current at the pin due to
various junctions
RIC
= Interconnect Resistance
SS
= Sampling Switch
CHOLD
= Sample/Hold Capacitance
FIGURE 9-5:
6V
5V
VDD 4V
3V
2V
RSS
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Sampling Switch
(kΩ)
ADC TRANSFER FUNCTION
Full-Scale Range
3FFh
3FEh
ADC Output Code
3FDh
3FCh
1 LSB ideal
3FBh
Full-Scale
Transition
004h
003h
002h
001h
000h
Analog Input Voltage
1 LSB ideal
VSS/VREF-
DS41288F-page 82
Zero-Scale
Transition
VDD/VREF+
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 9-2:
Name
ADCON0(1)
ADCON1
(1)
ANSEL
SUMMARY OF ASSOCIATED ADC REGISTERS
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
ADFM
VCFG
CHS3
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
ADON
0000 0000
0000 0000
—
ADCS2
ADCS1
ADCS0
—
—
—
—
-000 ----
-000 ----
ANS
ANS6
ANS5
ANS4
ANS3(1)
ANS2(1)
ANS1
ANS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
ADRESH(1,2)
A/D Result Register High Byte
xxxx xxxx
ADRESL(1,2)
A/D Result Register Low Byte
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
0000 0000
0000 0000
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
—
ADIE(1)
PIR1
—
(1)
ADIF
PORTA
—
—
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
PORTC
—
—
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
TRISA
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
—
—
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
PIE1
TRISC
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
CCP1IE(1)
C2IE
C1IE
—
TMR2IE(1)
TMR1IE
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
(1)
C2IF
C1IF
—
TMR2IF(1)
TMR1IF
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
RA1
RA0
--x0 x000
--u0 u000
RC1
RC0
--xx 00xx
--uu 00uu
TRISA1
TRISA0
--11 1111
--11 1111
TRISC1
TRISC0
--11 1111
--11 1111
CCP1IF
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for ADC module.
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
Read-only Register.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 83
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
NOTES:
DS41288F-page 84
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.0
ENHANCED CAPTURE/
COMPARE/PWM (WITH AUTOSHUTDOWN AND DEAD BAND)
MODULE
(PIC16F616/16HV616 ONLY)
The Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM module is a
peripheral which allows the user to time and control
different events. In Capture mode, the peripheral
allows the timing of the duration of an event. The
Compare mode allows the user to trigger an external
REGISTER 10-1:
event when a predetermined amount of time has
expired. The PWM mode can generate a Pulse-Width
Modulated signal of varying frequency and duty cycle.
Table 10-1 shows the timer resources required by the
ECCP module.
TABLE 10-1:
ECCP MODE – TIMER
RESOURCES REQUIRED
ECCP Mode
Timer Resource
Capture
Timer1
Compare
Timer1
PWM
Timer2
CCP1CON: ENHANCED CCP1 CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
P1M1
P1M0
DC1B1
DC1B0
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7-6
P1M<1:0>: PWM Output Configuration bits
If CCP1M<3:2> = 00, 01, 10:
xx = P1A assigned as Capture/Compare input; P1B, P1C, P1D assigned as port pins
If CCP1M<3:2> = 11:
00 = Single output; P1A modulated; P1B, P1C, P1D assigned as port pins
01 = Full-Bridge output forward; P1D modulated; P1A active; P1B, P1C inactive
10 = Half-Bridge output; P1A, P1B modulated with dead-time control; P1C, P1D assigned as port pins
11 = Full-Bridge output reverse; P1B modulated; P1C active; P1A, P1D inactive
bit 5-4
DC1B<1:0>: PWM Duty Cycle Least Significant bits
Capture mode:
Unused.
Compare mode:
Unused.
PWM mode:
These bits are the two LSbs of the PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs are found in CCPR1L.
bit 3-0
CCP1M<3:0>: ECCP Mode Select bits
0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM off (resets ECCP module)
0001 = Unused (reserved)
0010 = Compare mode, toggle output on match (CCP1IF bit is set)
0011 = Unused (reserved)
0100 = Capture mode, every falling edge
0101 = Capture mode, every rising edge
0110 = Capture mode, every 4th rising edge
0111 = Capture mode, every 16th rising edge
1000 = Compare mode, set output on match (CCP1IF bit is set)
1001 = Compare mode, clear output on match (CCP1IF bit is set)
1010 = Compare mode, generate software interrupt on match (CCP1IF bit is set, CCP1 pin is unaffected)
1011 = Compare mode, trigger special event (CCP1IF bit is set; CCP1 resets TMR1 and starts an A/D
conversion, if the ADC module is enabled)
1100 = PWM mode; P1A, P1C active-high; P1B, P1D active-high
1101 = PWM mode; P1A, P1C active-high; P1B, P1D active-low
1110 = PWM mode; P1A, P1C active-low; P1B, P1D active-high
1111 = PWM mode; P1A, P1C active-low; P1B, P1D active-low
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 85
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.1
10.1.2
Capture Mode
In Capture mode, CCPR1H:CCPR1L captures the
16-bit value of the TMR1 register when an event occurs
on pin CCP1. An event is defined as one of the
following and is configured by the CCP1M<3:0> bits of
the CCP1CON register:
•
•
•
•
Every falling edge
Every rising edge
Every 4th rising edge
Every 16th rising edge
When a capture is made, the Interrupt Request Flag bit
CCP1IF of the PIR1 register is set. The interrupt flag
must be cleared in software. If another capture occurs
before the value in the CCPR1H, CCPR1L register pair
is read, the old captured value is overwritten by the new
captured value (see Figure 10-1).
10.1.1
CCP1 PIN CONFIGURATION
In Capture mode, the CCP1 pin should be configured
as an input by setting the associated TRIS control bit.
Note:
If the CCP1 pin is configured as an output,
a write to the port can cause a capture
condition.
FIGURE 10-1:
Prescaler
÷ 1, 4, 16
CAPTURE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
CCPR1H
and
Edge Detect
10.1.3
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT
When the Capture mode is changed, a false capture
interrupt may be generated. The user should keep the
CCP1IE interrupt enable bit of the PIE1 register clear to
avoid false interrupts. Additionally, the user should
clear the CCP1IF interrupt flag bit of the PIR1 register
following any change in operating mode.
10.1.4
CCP PRESCALER
There are four prescaler settings specified by the
CCP1M<3:0> bits of the CCP1CON register.
Whenever the CCP module is turned off, or the CCP
module is not in Capture mode, the prescaler counter
is cleared. Any Reset will clear the prescaler counter.
Switching from one capture prescaler to another does not
clear the prescaler and may generate a false interrupt. To
avoid this unexpected operation, turn the module off by
clearing the CCP1CON register before changing the
prescaler (see Example 10-1).
EXAMPLE 10-1:
CLRF
MOVLW
CCPR1L
Capture
Enable
TMR1H
Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized
Counter mode for the CCP module to use the capture
feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the capture
operation may not work.
CHANGING BETWEEN
CAPTURE PRESCALERS
BANKSEL CCP1CON
Set Flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1 register)
CCP1
pin
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
MOVWF
;Set Bank bits to point
;to CCP1CON
CCP1CON
;Turn CCP module off
NEW_CAPT_PS ;Load the W reg with
; the new prescaler
; move value and CCP ON
CCP1CON
;Load CCP1CON with this
; value
TMR1L
CCP1CON<3:0>
System Clock (FOSC)
DS41288F-page 86
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 10-2:
Name
CCP1CON(1)
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
P1M1
P1M0
DC1B1
DC1B0
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
CCPR1L(1)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte
CCPR1H(1)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
0000 0000
0000 0000
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 0000
0000 0000
PIE1
—
ADIE(1)
CCP1IE(1)
C2IE
C1IE
—
TMR2IE(1)
TMR1IE
-000 0-00
0000 0-00
PIR1
—
ADIF(1)
CCP1IF(1)
C2IF
C1IF
—
TMR2IF(1)
TMR1IF
-000 0-00
0000 0-00
T1GINV
TMR1GE
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
INTCON
T1CON
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TRISA
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
--11 1111
--11 1111
TRISC
—
—
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
--11 1111
--11 1111
Legend: – = Unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used by the Capture, Compare and PWM.
Note 1:
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 87
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.2
10.2.2
Compare Mode
In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPR1 register value is
constantly compared against the TMR1 register pair
value. When a match occurs, the CCP1 module may:
•
•
•
•
•
Toggle the CCP1 output
Set the CCP1 output
Clear the CCP1 output
Generate a Special Event Trigger
Generate a Software Interrupt
All Compare modes can generate an interrupt.
FIGURE 10-2:
COMPARE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
CCP1CON<3:0>
Mode Select
Q
S
R
Output
Logic
Match
TRIS
Output Enable
Comparator
TMR1H
TMR1L
Special Event Trigger
Special Event Trigger will:
• Clear TMR1H and TMR1L registers.
• NOT set interrupt flag bit TMR1IF of the PIR1 register.
• Set the GO/DONE bit to start the ADC conversion.
10.2.1
CCP1 PIN CONFIGURATION
The user must configure the CCP1 pin as an output by
clearing the associated TRIS bit.
Note:
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE
When Generate Software Interrupt mode is chosen
(CCP1M<3:0> = 1010), the CCP1 module does not
assert control of the CCP1 pin (see the CCP1CON
register).
10.2.4
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
When Special Event Trigger mode is chosen
(CCP1M<3:0> = 1011), the CCP1 module does the
following:
• Resets Timer1
• Starts an ADC conversion if ADC is enabled
The CCP1 module does not assert control of the CCP1
pin in this mode (see the CCP1CON register).
Set CCP1IF Interrupt Flag
(PIR1)
4
CCPR1H CCPR1L
CCP1
Pin
In Compare mode, Timer1 must be running in either
Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode. The
compare operation may not work in Asynchronous
Counter mode.
10.2.3
The action on the pin is based on the value of the
CCP1M<3:0> control bits of the CCP1CON register.
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
The Special Event Trigger output of the CCP occurs
immediately upon a match between the TMR1H,
TMR1L register pair and the CCPR1H, CCPR1L
register pair. The TMR1H, TMR1L register pair is not
reset until the next rising edge of the Timer1 clock. This
allows the CCPR1H, CCPR1L register pair to
effectively provide a 16-bit programmable period
register for Timer1.
Note 1: The Special Event Trigger from the CCP
module does not set interrupt flag bit
TMR1IF of the PIR1 register.
2: Removing the match condition by
changing the contents of the CCPR1H
and CCPR1L register pair, between the
clock edge that generates the Special
Event Trigger and the clock edge that
generates the Timer1 Reset, will preclude
the Reset from occurring.
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the CCP1 compare output latch to the
default low level. This is not the PORT I/O
data latch.
DS41288F-page 88
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 10-3:
Name
CCP1CON(1)
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
P1M1
P1M0
DC1B1
DC1B0
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
CCPR1L(1)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte
CCPR1H(1)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
0000 0000
0000 0000
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 0000
0000 0000
PIE1
—
ADIE(1)
CCP1IE(1)
C2IE
C1IE
—
TMR2IE(1)
TMR1IE
-000 0-00
0000 0-00
PIR1
—
ADIF(1)
CCP1IF(1)
C2IF
C1IF
—
TMR2IF(1)
TMR1IF
-000 0-00
0000 0-00
T1GINV
TMR1GE
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
INTCON
T1CON
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TRISA
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
--11 1111
--11 1111
TRISC
—
—
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
--11 1111
--11 1111
Legend: – = Unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used by the Capture, Compare and PWM.
Note 1:
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 89
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.3
PWM Mode
The PWM mode generates a Pulse-Width Modulated
signal on the CCP1 pin. The duty cycle, period and
resolution are determined by the following registers:
•
•
•
•
PR2
T2CON
CCPR1L
CCP1CON
FIGURE 10-4:
CCP PWM OUTPUT
Period
Pulse Width
In Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) mode, the CCP
module produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output
on the CCP1 pin. Since the CCP1 pin is multiplexed
with the PORT data latch, the TRIS for that pin must be
cleared to make the CCP1 pin an output.
Note:
The PWM output (Figure 10-4) has a time base
(period) and a time that the output stays high (duty
cycle).
TMR2 = PR2
TMR2 = CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>
TMR2 = 0
Clearing the CCP1CON register will
relinquish CCP1 control of the CCP1 pin.
Figure 10-3 shows a simplified block diagram of PWM
operation.
Figure 10-4 shows a typical waveform of the PWM
signal.
For a step-by-step procedure on how to set up the CCP
module for PWM operation, see Section 10.3.7
“Setup for PWM Operation”.
FIGURE 10-3:
SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK
DIAGRAM
CCP1CON<5:4>
Duty Cycle Registers
CCPR1L
CCPR1H(2) (Slave)
CCP1
R
Comparator
TMR2
(1)
Q
S
TRIS
Comparator
PR2
Note 1:
2:
Clear Timer2,
toggle CCP1 pin and
latch duty cycle
The 8-bit timer TMR2 register is concatenated
with the 2-bit internal system clock (FOSC), or
2 bits of the prescaler, to create the 10-bit time
base.
In PWM mode, CCPR1H is a read-only register.
DS41288F-page 90
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.3.1
PWM PERIOD
EQUATION 10-2:
The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2
register of Timer2. The PWM period can be calculated
using the formula of Equation 10-1.
EQUATION 10-1:
T OSC • (TMR2 Prescale Value)
EQUATION 10-3:
(TMR2 Prescale Value)
DUTY CYCLE RATIO
( CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4> )
Duty Cycle Ratio = ----------------------------------------------------------------------4 ( PR2 + 1 )
When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events
occur on the next increment cycle:
• TMR2 is cleared
• The CCP1 pin is set. (Exception: If the PWM duty
cycle = 0%, the pin will not be set.)
• The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPR1L into
CCPR1H.
10.3.2
Pulse Width = ( CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4> ) •
PWM PERIOD
PWM Period = [ ( PR2 ) + 1 ] • 4 • T OSC •
Note:
PULSE WIDTH
The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are
used to double buffer the PWM duty cycle. This double
buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation.
The 8-bit timer TMR2 register is concatenated with
either the 2-bit internal system clock (FOSC), or 2 bits of
the prescaler, to create the 10-bit time base. The system
clock is used if the Timer2 prescaler is set to 1:1.
The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 7.1
“Timer2 Operation”) is not used in the
determination of the PWM frequency.
When the 10-bit time base matches the CCPR1H and
2-bit latch, then the CCP1 pin is cleared (see
Figure 10-3).
PWM DUTY CYCLE
10.3.3
The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing a 10-bit
value to multiple registers: CCPR1L register and
CCP1<1:0> bits of the CCP1CON register. The
CCPR1L contains the eight MSbs and the CCP1<1:0>
bits of the CCP1CON register contain the two LSbs.
CCPR1L and CCP1<1:0> bits of the CCP1CON
register can be written to at any time. The duty cycle
value is not latched into CCPR1H until after the period
completes (i.e., a match between PR2 and TMR2
registers occurs). While using the PWM, the CCPR1H
register is read-only.
The resolution determines the number of available duty
cycles for a given period. For example, a 10-bit resolution
will result in 1024 discrete duty cycles, whereas an 8-bit
resolution will result in 256 discrete duty cycles.
The maximum PWM resolution is 10 bits when PR2 is
255. The resolution is a function of the PR2 register
value as shown by Equation 10-4.
EQUATION 10-4:
TABLE 10-4:
Note:
If the pulse width value is greater than the
period the assigned PWM pin(s) will
remain unchanged.
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS (FOSC = 20 MHz)
PWM Frequency
Timer Prescale (1, 4, 16)
PR2 Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
TABLE 10-5:
PWM RESOLUTION
log [ 4 ( PR2 + 1 ) ]
Resolution = ------------------------------------------ bits
log ( 2 )
Equation 10-2 is used to calculate the PWM pulse
width.
Equation 10-3 is used to calculate the PWM duty cycle
ratio.
PWM RESOLUTION
1.22 kHz
4.88 kHz
19.53 kHz
78.12 kHz
156.3 kHz
208.3 kHz
16
4
1
1
1
1
0xFF
0xFF
0xFF
0x3F
0x1F
0x17
10
10
10
8
7
6.6
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS (FOSC = 8 MHz)
PWM Frequency
Timer Prescale (1, 4, 16)
PR2 Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
1.22 kHz
4.90 kHz
19.61 kHz
76.92 kHz
153.85 kHz
200.0 kHz
16
4
1
1
1
1
0x65
0x65
0x65
0x19
0x0C
0x09
8
8
8
6
5
5
DS41288F-page 91
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.3.4
OPERATION IN SLEEP MODE
In Sleep mode, the TMR2 register will not increment
and the state of the module will not change. If the CCP1
pin is driving a value, it will continue to drive that value.
When the device wakes up, TMR2 will continue from its
previous state.
10.3.5
CHANGES IN SYSTEM CLOCK
FREQUENCY
The PWM frequency is derived from the system clock
frequency. Any changes in the system clock frequency
will result in changes to the PWM frequency. See
Section 3.0 “Oscillator Module” for additional
details.
10.3.6
10.3.7
The following steps should be taken when configuring
the CCP module for PWM operation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
EFFECTS OF RESET
Any Reset will force all ports to Input mode and the
CCP registers to their Reset states.
6.
DS41288F-page 92
SETUP FOR PWM OPERATION
Configure the PWM pin (CCP1) as an input by
setting the associated TRIS bit.
Set the PWM period by loading the PR2 register.
Configure the CCP module for the PWM mode
by loading the CCP1CON register with the
appropriate values.
Set the PWM duty cycle by loading the CCPR1L
register and CCP1 bits of the CCP1CON register.
Configure and start Timer2:
• Clear the TMR2IF interrupt flag bit of the
PIR1 register.
• Set the Timer2 prescale value by loading the
T2CKPS bits of the T2CON register.
• Enable Timer2 by setting the TMR2ON bit of
the T2CON register.
Enable PWM output after a new PWM cycle has
started:
• Wait until Timer2 overflows (TMR2IF bit of
the PIR1 register is set).
• Enable the CCP1 pin output by clearing the
associated TRIS bit.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.4
PWM (Enhanced Mode)
The PWM outputs are multiplexed with I/O pins and are
designated P1A, P1B, P1C and P1D. The polarity of the
PWM pins is configurable and is selected by setting the
CCP1M bits in the CCP1CON register appropriately.
The Enhanced PWM Mode can generate a PWM signal
on up to four different output pins with up to 10-bits of
resolution. It can do this through four different PWM
Output modes:
•
•
•
•
Table 10-6 shows the pin assignments for each
Enhanced PWM mode.
Single PWM
Half-Bridge PWM
Full-Bridge PWM, Forward mode
Full-Bridge PWM, Reverse mode
Figure 10-5 shows an example of a simplified block
diagram of the Enhanced PWM module.
Note:
To prevent the generation of an
incomplete waveform when the PWM is
first enabled, the ECCP module waits until
the start of a new PWM period before
generating a PWM signal.
To select an Enhanced PWM mode, the P1M bits of the
CCP1CON register must be set appropriately.
FIGURE 10-5:
EXAMPLE SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE ENHANCED PWM MODE
CCP1<1:0>
CCP1M<3:0>
4
P1M<1:0>
Duty Cycle Registers
2
CCPR1L
CCP1/P1A
CCP1/P1A
TRISC<5>
CCPR1H (Slave)
P1B
R
Comparator
Output
Controller
Q
P1B
TRISC<4>
P1C
P1C
TMR2
(1)
TRISC<3>
S
P1D
Comparator
Clear Timer2,
toggle PWM pin and
latch duty cycle
PR2
Note
1:
P1D
TRISC<2>
PWM1CON
The 8-bit timer TMR2 register is concatenated with the 2-bit internal Q clock, or 2 bits of the prescaler to create the 10-bit
time base.
Note 1: The TRIS register value for each PWM output must be configured appropriately.
2: Clearing the CCP1CON register will relinquish ECCP control of all PWM output pins.
3: Any pin not used by an Enhanced PWM mode is available for alternate pin functions
TABLE 10-6:
EXAMPLE PIN ASSIGNMENTS FOR VARIOUS PWM ENHANCED MODES
ECCP Mode
P1M
CCP1/P1A
P1B
P1C
P1D
Single
00
Half-Bridge
10
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Full-Bridge, Forward
01
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Full-Bridge, Reverse
11
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 93
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 10-6:
EXAMPLE PWM (ENHANCED MODE) OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS (ACTIVE-HIGH
STATE)
P1M<1:0>
Signal
PR2+1
Pulse
Width
0
Period
00
(Single Output)
P1A Modulated
Delay(1)
Delay(1)
P1A Modulated
10
(Half-Bridge)
P1B Modulated
P1A Active
01
(Full-Bridge,
Forward)
P1B Inactive
P1C Inactive
P1D Modulated
P1A Inactive
11
(Full-Bridge,
Reverse)
P1B Modulated
P1C Active
P1D Inactive
Relationships:
• Period = 4 * TOSC * (PR2 + 1) * (TMR2 Prescale Value)
• Pulse Width = TOSC * (CCPR1L<7:0>:CCP1CON<5:4>) * (TMR2 Prescale Value)
• Delay = 4 * TOSC * (PWM1CON<6:0>)
Note 1: Dead-band delay is programmed using the PWM1CON register (Section 10.4.6 “Programmable Dead-Band Delay
mode”).
DS41288F-page 94
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 10-7:
EXAMPLE ENHANCED PWM OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS (ACTIVE-LOW STATE)
Signal
P1M<1:0>
PR2+1
Pulse
Width
0
Period
00
(Single Output)
P1A Modulated
P1A Modulated
Delay(1)
10
(Half-Bridge)
Delay(1)
P1B Modulated
P1A Active
01
(Full-Bridge,
Forward)
P1B Inactive
P1C Inactive
P1D Modulated
P1A Inactive
11
(Full-Bridge,
Reverse)
P1B Modulated
P1C Active
P1D Inactive
Relationships:
• Period = 4 * TOSC * (PR2 + 1) * (TMR2 Prescale Value)
• Pulse Width = TOSC * (CCPR1L<7:0>:CCP1CON<5:4>) * (TMR2 Prescale Value)
• Delay = 4 * TOSC * (PWM1CON<6:0>)
Note
1:
Dead-band delay is programmed using the PWM1CON register (Section 10.4.6 “Programmable Dead-Band Delay
mode”).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 95
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.4.1
HALF-BRIDGE MODE
In Half-Bridge mode, two pins are used as outputs to
drive push-pull loads. The PWM output signal is output
on the CCP1/P1A pin, while the complementary PWM
output signal is output on the P1B pin (see Figure 10-8).
This mode can be used for half-bridge applications, as
shown in Figure 10-9, or for full-bridge applications,
where four power switches are being modulated with
two PWM signals.
In Half-Bridge mode, the programmable dead-band delay
can be used to prevent shoot-through current in halfbridge power devices. The value of the PDC<6:0> bits of
the PWM1CON register sets the number of instruction
cycles before the output is driven active. If the value is
greater than the duty cycle, the corresponding output
remains inactive during the entire cycle. See 10.4.6
“Programmable Dead-Band Delay mode” for more
details of the dead-band delay operations.
Since the P1A and P1B outputs are multiplexed with
the PORT data latches, the associated TRIS bits must
be cleared to configure P1A and P1B as outputs.
FIGURE 10-8:
Period
Period
Pulse Width
P1A(2)
td
td
P1B(2)
(1)
(1)
(1)
td = Dead-Band Delay
Note 1:
2:
FIGURE 10-9:
EXAMPLE OF HALFBRIDGE PWM OUTPUT
At this time, the TMR2 register is equal to the
PR2 register.
Output signals are shown as active-high.
EXAMPLE OF HALF-BRIDGE APPLICATIONS
Standard Half-Bridge Circuit (“Push-Pull”)
FET
Driver
+
P1A
Load
FET
Driver
+
P1B
-
Half-Bridge Output Driving a Full-Bridge Circuit
V+
FET
Driver
FET
Driver
P1A
FET
Driver
Load
FET
Driver
P1B
DS41288F-page 96
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.4.2
FULL-BRIDGE MODE
P1A, P1B, P1C and P1D outputs are multiplexed with
the PORT data latches. The associated TRIS bits must
be cleared to configure the P1A, P1B, P1C and P1D
pins as outputs.
In Full-Bridge mode, all four pins are used as outputs.
An example of full-bridge application is shown in
Figure 10-10.
In the Forward mode, pin CCP1/P1A is driven to its
active state, pin P1D is modulated, while P1B and P1C
will be driven to their inactive state as shown in Figure 1011.
In the Reverse mode, P1C is driven to its active state,
pin P1B is modulated, while P1A and P1D will be driven
to their inactive state as shown Figure 10-11.
FIGURE 10-10:
EXAMPLE OF FULL-BRIDGE APPLICATION
V+
FET
Driver
QC
QA
FET
Driver
P1A
Load
P1B
FET
Driver
P1C
FET
Driver
QD
QB
VP1D
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 97
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 10-11:
EXAMPLE OF FULL-BRIDGE PWM OUTPUT
Forward Mode
Period
P1A
(2)
Pulse Width
P1B(2)
P1C(2)
P1D(2)
(1)
(1)
Reverse Mode
Period
Pulse Width
P1A(2)
P1B(2)
P1C(2)
P1D(2)
(1)
Note 1:
2:
(1)
At this time, the TMR2 register is equal to the PR2 register.
Output signal is shown as active-high.
DS41288F-page 98
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.4.2.1
Direction Change in Full-Bridge
Mode
In the Full-Bridge mode, the P1M1 bit in the CCP1CON
register allows users to control the forward/reverse
direction. When the application firmware changes this
direction control bit, the module will change to the new
direction on the next PWM cycle.
A direction change is initiated in software by changing
the P1M1 bit of the CCP1CON register. The following
sequence occurs four Timer2 cycles prior to the end of
the current PWM period:
• The modulated outputs (P1B and P1D) are placed
in their inactive state.
• The associated unmodulated outputs (P1A and
P1C) are switched to drive in the opposite
direction.
• PWM modulation resumes at the beginning of the
next period.
See Figure 10-12 for an illustration of this sequence.
The Full-Bridge mode does not provide dead-band
delay. As one output is modulated at a time, dead-band
delay is generally not required. There is a situation
where dead-band delay is required. This situation
occurs when both of the following conditions are true:
1.
2.
The direction of the PWM output changes when
the duty cycle of the output is at or near 100%.
The turn off time of the power switch, including
the power device and driver circuit, is greater
than the turn on time.
Figure 10-13 shows an example of the PWM direction
changing from forward to reverse, at a near 100% duty
cycle. In this example, at time t1, the output P1A and
P1D become inactive, while output P1C becomes
active. Since the turn off time of the power devices is
longer than the turn on time, a shoot-through current
will flow through power devices QC and QD (see
Figure 10-10) for the duration of ‘t’. The same
phenomenon will occur to power devices QA and QB
for PWM direction change from reverse to forward.
If changing PWM direction at high duty cycle is required
for an application, two possible solutions for eliminating
the shoot-through current are:
1.
2.
Reduce PWM duty cycle for one PWM period
before changing directions.
Use switch drivers that can drive the switches off
faster than they can drive them on.
Other options to prevent shoot-through current may
exist.
FIGURE 10-12:
EXAMPLE OF PWM DIRECTION CHANGE
Period(1)
Signal
Period
P1A (Active-High)
P1B (Active-High)
Pulse Width
P1C (Active-High)
(2)
P1D (Active-High)
Pulse Width
Note 1:
2:
The direction bit P1M1 of the CCP1CON register is written any time during the PWM cycle.
When changing directions, the P1A and P1C signals switch before the end of the current PWM cycle. The
modulated P1B and P1D signals are inactive at this time. The length of this time is four Timer2 counts.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 99
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 10-13:
EXAMPLE OF PWM DIRECTION CHANGE AT NEAR 100% DUTY CYCLE
Forward Period
t1
Reverse Period
P1A
P1B
DC
P1C
P1D
PW
TON
External Switch C
TOFF
External Switch D
Potential
Shoot-Through Current
Note 1:
T = TOFF – TON
All signals are shown as active-high.
2:
TON is the turn on delay of power switch QC and its driver.
3:
TOFF is the turn off delay of power switch QD and its driver.
DS41288F-page 100
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.4.3
START-UP CONSIDERATIONS
When any PWM mode is used, the application
hardware must use the proper external pull-up and/or
pull-down resistors on the PWM output pins.
Note:
When the microcontroller is released from
Reset, all of the I/O pins are in the highimpedance state. The external circuits
must keep the power switch devices in the
OFF state until the microcontroller drives
the I/O pins with the proper signal levels or
activates the PWM output(s).
The CCP1M<1:0> bits of the CCP1CON register allow
the user to choose whether the PWM output signals are
active-high or active-low for each pair of PWM output pins
(P1A/P1C and P1B/P1D). The PWM output polarities
must be selected before the PWM pins are configured as
outputs. Changing the polarity configuration while the
PWM pins are configured as outputs is not recommended
since it may result in damage to the application circuits.
The P1A, P1B, P1C and P1D output latches may not be
in the proper states when the PWM module is
initialized. Enabling the PWM pins for output at the
same time as the Enhanced PWM modes may cause
damage to the application circuit. The Enhanced PWM
modes must be enabled in the proper Output mode and
complete a full PWM cycle before configuring the PWM
pins as outputs. The completion of a full PWM cycle is
indicated by the TMR2IF bit of the PIR1 register being
set as the second PWM period begins.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 101
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.4.4
ENHANCED PWM AUTOSHUTDOWN MODE
The PWM mode supports an Auto-Shutdown mode that
will disable the PWM outputs when an external
shutdown event occurs. Auto-Shutdown mode places
the PWM output pins into a predetermined state. This
mode is used to help prevent the PWM from damaging
the application.
The auto-shutdown sources are selected using the
ECCPASx bits of the ECCPAS register. A shutdown
event may be generated by:
•
•
•
•
A logic ‘0’ on the INT pin
Comparator C1
Comparator C2
Setting the ECCPASE bit in firmware
REGISTER 10-2:
A shutdown condition is indicated by the ECCPASE
(Auto-Shutdown Event Status) bit of the ECCPAS
register. If the bit is a ‘0’, the PWM pins are operating
normally. If the bit is a ‘1’, the PWM outputs are in the
shutdown state.
When a shutdown event occurs, two things happen:
The ECCPASE bit is set to ‘1’. The ECCPASE will
remain set until cleared in firmware or an auto-restart
occurs (see Section 10.4.5 “Auto-Restart Mode”).
The enabled PWM pins are asynchronously placed in
their shutdown states. The PWM output pins are
grouped into pairs [P1A/P1C] and [P1B/P1D]. The state
of each pin pair is determined by the PSSAC and
PSSBD bits of the ECCPAS register. Each pin pair may
be placed into one of three states:
• Drive logic ‘1’
• Drive logic ‘0’
• Tri-state (high-impedance)
ECCPAS: ENHANCED CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN
CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
ECCPASE
ECCPAS2
ECCPAS1
ECCPAS0
PSSAC1
PSSAC0
PSSBD1
PSSBD0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
ECCPASE: ECCP Auto-Shutdown Event Status bit
1 = A shutdown event has occurred; ECCP outputs are in shutdown state
0 = ECCP outputs are operating
bit 6-4
ECCPAS<2:0>: ECCP Auto-shutdown Source Select bits
000 = Auto-Shutdown is disabled
001 = Comparator C1 output high
010 = Comparator C2 output high(1)
011 = Either Comparators output is high
100 = VIL on INT pin
101 = VIL on INT pin or Comparator C1 output high
110 = VIL on INT pin or Comparator C2 output high
111 = VIL on INT pin or either Comparators output is high
bit 3-2
PSSACn: Pins P1A and P1C Shutdown State Control bits
00 = Drive pins P1A and P1C to ‘0’
01 = Drive pins P1A and P1C to ‘1’
1x = Pins P1A and P1C tri-state
bit 1-0
PSSBDn: Pins P1B and P1D Shutdown State Control bits
00 = Drive pins P1B and P1D to ‘0’
01 = Drive pins P1B and P1D to ‘1’
1x = Pins P1B and P1D tri-state
DS41288F-page 102
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
Note 1: The auto-shutdown condition is a levelbased signal, not an edge-based signal.
As long as the level is present, the autoshutdown will persist.
2: Writing to the ECCPASE bit is disabled
while an auto-shutdown condition
persists.
3: Once the auto-shutdown condition has
been removed and the PWM restarted
(either through firmware or auto-restart),
the PWM signal will always restart at the
beginning of the next PWM period.
FIGURE 10-14:
PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN WITH FIRMWARE RESTART (PRSEN = 0)
PWM Period
Shutdown Event
ECCPASE bit
PWM Activity
Normal PWM
ECCPASE
Cleared by
Shutdown
Shutdown Firmware PWM
Event Occurs Event Clears
Resumes
Start of
PWM Period
10.4.5
AUTO-RESTART MODE
The Enhanced PWM can be configured to automatically restart the PWM signal once the auto-shutdown
condition has been removed. Auto-restart is enabled by
setting the PRSEN bit in the PWM1CON register.
If auto-restart is enabled, the ECCPASE bit will remain
set as long as the auto-shutdown condition is active.
When the auto-shutdown condition is removed, the
ECCPASE bit will be cleared via hardware and normal
operation will resume.
FIGURE 10-15:
PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN WITH AUTO-RESTART ENABLED (PRSEN = 1)
PWM Period
Shutdown Event
ECCPASE bit
PWM Activity
Normal PWM
Start of
PWM Period
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Shutdown
Shutdown
Event Occurs Event Clears
PWM
Resumes
DS41288F-page 103
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
10.4.6
PROGRAMMABLE DEAD-BAND
DELAY MODE
FIGURE 10-16:
In half-bridge applications where all power switches are
modulated at the PWM frequency, the power switches
normally require more time to turn off than to turn on. If
both the upper and lower power switches are switched
at the same time (one turned on, and the other turned
off), both switches may be on for a short period of time
until one switch completely turns off. During this brief
interval, a very high current (shoot-through current) will
flow through both power switches, shorting the bridge
supply. To avoid this potentially destructive shootthrough current from flowing during switching, turning
on either of the power switches is normally delayed to
allow the other switch to completely turn off.
Period
Period
Pulse Width
P1A(2)
td
td
P1B(2)
(1)
(1)
(1)
td = Dead-Band Delay
Note 1:
In Half-Bridge mode, a digitally programmable deadband delay is available to avoid shoot-through current
from destroying the bridge power switches. The delay
occurs at the signal transition from the non-active state
to the active state. See Figure 10-16 for illustration.
The lower seven bits of the associated PWM1CON
register (Register 10-3) sets the delay period in terms
of microcontroller instruction cycles (TCY or 4 TOSC).
FIGURE 10-17:
EXAMPLE OF HALFBRIDGE PWM OUTPUT
2:
At this time, the TMR2 register is equal to the
PR2 register.
Output signals are shown as active-high.
EXAMPLE OF HALF-BRIDGE APPLICATIONS
V+
Standard Half-Bridge Circuit (“Push-Pull”)
FET
Driver
+
V
-
P1A
Load
FET
Driver
+
V
-
P1B
V-
DS41288F-page 104
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 10-3:
PWM1CON: ENHANCED PWM CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
PRSEN
PDC6
PDC5
PDC4
PDC3
PDC2
PDC1
PDC0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
PRSEN: PWM Restart Enable bit
1 = Upon auto-shutdown, the ECCPASE bit clears automatically once the shutdown event goes
away; the PWM restarts automatically
0 = Upon auto-shutdown, ECCPASE must be cleared in software to restart the PWM
bit 6-0
PDC<6:0>: PWM Delay Count bits
PDCn = Number of FOSC/4 (4 * TOSC) cycles between the scheduled time when a PWM signal
should transition active and the actual time it transitions active
TABLE 10-7:
Name
CCP1CON(1)
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
P1M1
P1M0
DC1B1
DC1B0
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
CCP1M0
0000 0000
0000 0000
CCPR1L(1)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 Low Byte
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1H(1)
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 High Byte
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
0000 -000
CM1CON0
C1ON
C1OUT
C1OE
C1POL
—
C1R
C1CH1
C1CH0
0000 -000
CM2CON0
C2ON
C2OUT
C2OE
C2POL
—
C2R
C2CH1
C2CH0
0000 -000
0000 -000
CM2CON1
MC1OUT
MC2OUT
—
T1ACS
C1HYS
C2HYS
T1GSS
C2SYNC
00-0 0010
00-0 0010
ECCPAS(1)
ECCPASE
ECCPAS2
ECCPAS1
ECCPAS0
PSSAC1
PSSAC0
PSSBD1
PSSBD0
0000 0000
0000 0000
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 0000
0000 0000
—
ADIE(1)
CCP1IE(1)
C2IE
C1IE
—
TMR2IE(1)
TMR1IE
-000 0-00
0000 0-00
—
(1)
(1)
C2IF
C1IF
—
TMR2IF(1)
TMR1IF
-000 0-00
0000 0-00
0000 0000
INTCON
PIE1
PIR1
PWM1CON(1)
T2CON(1)
TMR2(1)
ADIF
CCP1IF
PRSEN
PDC6
PDC5
PDC4
PDC3
PDC2
PDC1
PDC0
0000 0000
—
TOUTPS3
TOUTPS2
TOUTPS1
TOUTPS0
TMR2ON
T2CKPS1
T2CKPS0
-000 0000
-000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
Timer2 Module Register
TRISA
—
—
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
--11 1111
--11 1111
TRISC
—
—
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
--11 1111
--11 1111
Legend: – = Unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’, u = unchanged, x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used by the Capture, Compare and PWM.
Note 1:
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 105
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
NOTES:
DS41288F-page 106
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
11.0
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
The PIC16HV610/16HV616 include a permanent
internal 5 volt (nominal) shunt regulator in parallel with
the VDD pin. This eliminates the need for an external
voltage regulator in systems sourced by an
unregulated supply. All external devices connected
directly to the VDD pin will share the regulated supply
voltage and contribute to the total VDD supply current
(ILOAD).
11.1
An external current limiting resistor, RSER, located
between the unregulated supply, VUNREG, and the VDD
pin, drops the difference in voltage between VUNREG
and VDD. RSER must be between RMAX and RMIN as
defined by Equation 11-1.
EQUATION 11-1:
RMAX =
RSER LIMITING RESISTOR
(VUMIN - 5V)
1.05 • (4 MA + ILOAD)
Regulator Operation
A shunt regulator generates a specific supply voltage
by creating a voltage drop across a pass resistor RSER.
The voltage at the VDD pin of the microcontroller is
monitored and compared to an internal voltage reference. The current through the resistor is then adjusted,
based on the result of the comparison, to produce a
voltage drop equal to the difference between the supply
voltage VUNREG and the VDD of the microcontroller.
See Figure 11-1 for voltage regulator schematic.
FIGURE 11-1:
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
RSER
ILOAD
VDD
CBYPASS
ISHUNT
(VUMAX - 5V)
0.95 • (50 MA)
Where:
RMAX = maximum value of RSER (ohms)
RMIN
= minimum value of RSER (ohms)
VUMIN = minimum value of VUNREG
VUMAX = maximum value of VUNREG
VDD
= regulated voltage (5V nominal)
ILOAD = maximum expected load current in mA
including I/O pin currents and external
circuits connected to VDD.
VUNREG
ISUPPLY
RMIN =
Feedback
1.05
= compensation for +5% tolerance of RSER
0.95
= compensation for -5% tolerance of RSER
11.2
VSS
Regulator Considerations
The supply voltage VUNREG and load current are not
constant. Therefore, the current range of the regulator
is limited. Selecting a value for RSER must take these
three factors into consideration.
Since the regulator uses the band gap voltage as the
regulated voltage reference, this voltage reference is
permanently enabled in the PIC16HV610/16HV616
devices.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 107
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
NOTES:
DS41288F-page 108
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.0
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE
CPU
The PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 has a host of
features intended to maximize system reliability,
minimize cost through elimination of external
components, provide power-saving features and offer
code protection.
These features are:
• Reset
- Power-on Reset (POR)
- Power-up Timer (PWRT)
- Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
- Brown-out Reset (BOR)
• Interrupts
• Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• Oscillator selection
• Sleep
• Code protection
• ID Locations
• In-Circuit Serial Programming™
12.1
Configuration Bits
The Configuration bits can be programmed (read as
‘0’), or left unprogrammed (read as ‘1’) to select various
device configurations as shown in Register 12-1.
These bits are mapped in program memory location
2007h.
Note:
Address 2007h is beyond the user program
memory space. It belongs to the special
configuration memory space (2000h3FFFh), which can be accessed only during
programming. See the Memory Programming Specification (DS41284) for more
information.
The PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 has two timers that
offer necessary delays on power-up. One is the
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST), intended to keep the
chip in Reset until the crystal oscillator is stable. The
other is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which provides a
fixed delay of 64 ms (nominal) on power-up only,
designed to keep the part in Reset while the power
supply stabilizes. There is also circuitry to reset the
device if a brown-out occurs, which can use the Powerup Timer to provide at least a 64 ms Reset. With these
three functions-on-chip, most applications need no
external Reset circuitry.
The Sleep mode is designed to offer a very low-current
Power-Down mode. The user can wake-up from Sleep
through:
• External Reset
• Watchdog Timer Wake-up
• An interrupt
Several oscillator options are also made available to
allow the part to fit the application. The INTOSC option
saves system cost while the LP crystal option saves
power. A set of Configuration bits are used to select
various options (see Register 12-1).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 109
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
REGISTER 12-1:
—
CONFIG: CONFIGURATION WORD REGISTER
—
—
—
—
—
BOREN1(1)
BOREN0(1)
bit 15
bit 8
CP(2)
IOSCFS
MCLRE(3)
PWRTE
WDTE
FOSC2
FOSC1
FOSC0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
P = Programmable’
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 15-10
Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’
bit 9-8
BOREN<1:0>: Brown-out Reset Selection bits(1)
11 = BOR enabled
10 = BOR enabled during operation and disabled in Sleep
0x = BOR disabled
bit 7
IOSCFS: Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bit
1 = 8 MHz
0 = 4 MHz
bit 6
CP: Code Protection bit(2)
1 = Program memory code protection is disabled
0 = Program memory code protection is enabled
bit 5
MCLRE: MCLR Pin Function Select bit(3)
1 = MCLR pin function is MCLR
0 = MCLR pin function is digital input, MCLR internally tied to VDD
bit 4
PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit
1 = PWRT disabled
0 = PWRT enabled
bit 3
WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
1 = WDT enabled
0 = WDT disabled
bit 2-0
FOSC<2:0>: Oscillator Selection bits
111 = RC oscillator: CLKOUT function on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, RC on RA5/OSC1/CLKIN
110 = RCIO oscillator: I/O function on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, RC on RA5/OSC1/CLKIN
101 = INTOSC oscillator: CLKOUT function on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, I/O function on
RA5/OSC1/CLKIN
100 = INTOSCIO oscillator: I/O function on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, I/O function on
RA5/OSC1/CLKIN
011 = EC: I/O function on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT pin, CLKIN on RA5/OSC1/CLKIN
010 = HS oscillator: High-speed crystal/resonator on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT and RA5/OSC1/CLKIN
001 = XT oscillator: Crystal/resonator on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT and RA5/OSC1/CLKIN
000 = LP oscillator: Low-power crystal on RA4/OSC2/CLKOUT and RA5/OSC1/CLKIN
Note 1:
2:
3:
Enabling Brown-out Reset does not automatically enable Power-up Timer.
The entire program memory will be erased when the code protection is turned off.
When MCLR is asserted in INTOSC or RC mode, the internal clock oscillator is disabled.
DS41288F-page 110
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.2
Calibration Bits
The 8 MHz internal oscillator is factory calibrated.
These calibration values are stored in fuses located in
the Calibration Word (2008h). The Calibration Word is
not erased when using the specified bulk erase
sequence in the Memory Programming Specification
(DS41284) and thus, does not require reprogramming.
12.3
Reset
The
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
between various kinds of Reset:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
differentiates
Power-on Reset (POR)
WDT Reset during normal operation
WDT Reset during Sleep
MCLR Reset during normal operation
MCLR Reset during Sleep
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
•
•
•
•
•
Power-on Reset
MCLR Reset
MCLR Reset during Sleep
WDT Reset
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
WDT wake-up does not cause register resets in the
same manner as a WDT Reset since wake-up is
viewed as the resumption of normal operation. TO and
PD bits are set or cleared differently in different Reset
situations, as indicated in Table 12-2. Software can use
these bits to determine the nature of the Reset. See
Table 12-4 for a full description of Reset states of all
registers.
A simplified block diagram of the On-Chip Reset Circuit
is shown in Figure 12-1.
The MCLR Reset path has a noise filter to detect and
ignore small pulses. See Section 15.0 “Electrical
Specifications” for pulse-width specifications.
Some registers are not affected in any Reset condition;
their status is unknown on POR and unchanged in any
other Reset. Most other registers are reset to a “Reset
state” on:
FIGURE 12-1:
SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT
External
Reset
MCLR/VPP pin
Sleep
WDT
Module
WDT
Time-out
Reset
POR
Detect
Power-on Reset
VDD
Brown-out(1)
Reset
BOREN
S
OST/PWRT
OST
Chip_Reset
10-bit Ripple Counter
R
Q
OSC1/
CLKI pin
PWRT
On-Chip
RC OSC
11-bit Ripple Counter
Enable PWRT
Enable OST
Note
1:
Refer to the Configuration Word register (Register 12-1).
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 111
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.3.1
POWER-ON RESET (POR)
The on-chip POR circuit holds the chip in Reset until
VDD has reached a high enough level for proper
operation. To take advantage of the POR, simply
connect the MCLR pin through a resistor to VDD. This
will eliminate external RC components usually needed
to create Power-on Reset. A maximum rise time for
VDD is required. See Section 15.0 “Electrical
Specifications” for details. If the BOR is enabled, the
maximum rise time specification does not apply. The
BOR circuitry will keep the device in Reset until VDD
reaches VBOR (see Section 12.3.4 “Brown-out Reset
(BOR)”).
Note:
FIGURE 12-2:
VDD
PIC® MCU
R1
1 kΩ (or greater)
R2
MCLR
SW1
(optional)
100 Ω
(needed with capacitor)
C1
0.1 μF
(optional, not critical)
The POR circuit does not produce an
internal Reset when VDD declines. To reenable the POR, VDD must reach Vss for
a minimum of 100 μs.
When the device starts normal operation (exits the
Reset condition), device operating parameters (i.e.,
voltage, frequency, temperature, etc.) must be met to
ensure proper operation. If these conditions are not
met, the device must be held in Reset until the
operating conditions are met.
RECOMMENDED MCLR
CIRCUIT
12.3.3
POWER-UP TIMER (PWRT)
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 has a noise filter in the
MCLR Reset path. The filter will detect and ignore
small pulses.
The Power-up Timer provides a fixed 64 ms (nominal)
time-out on power-up only, from POR or Brown-out
Reset. The Power-up Timer operates from an internal
RC oscillator. For more information, see Section 3.4
“Internal Clock Modes”. The chip is kept in Reset as
long as PWRT is active. The PWRT delay allows the
VDD to rise to an acceptable level. A Configuration bit,
PWRTE, can disable (if set) or enable (if cleared or
programmed) the Power-up Timer. The Power-up
Timer should be enabled when Brown-out Reset is
enabled, although it is not required.
It should be noted that a WDT Reset does not drive
MCLR pin low.
The Power-up Timer delay will vary from chip-to-chip
due to:
Voltages applied to the MCLR pin that exceed its
specification can result in both MCLR Resets and
excessive current beyond the device specification
during the ESD event. For this reason, Microchip
recommends that the MCLR pin no longer be tied
directly to VDD. The use of an RC network, as shown in
Figure 12-2, is suggested.
• VDD variation
• Temperature variation
• Process variation
For additional information, refer to Application Note
AN607, “Power-up Trouble Shooting” (DS00607).
12.3.2
MCLR
An internal MCLR option is enabled by clearing the
MCLRE bit in the Configuration Word register. When
MCLRE = 0, the Reset signal to the chip is generated
internally. When the MCLRE = 1, the RA3/MCLR pin
becomes an external Reset input. In this mode, the
RA3/MCLR pin has a weak pull-up to VDD.
DS41288F-page 112
See DC parameters for details
“Electrical Specifications”).
Note:
(Section 15.0
Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR
pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA,
may cause latch-up. Thus, a series resistor of 50-100 Ω should be used when
applying a “low” level to the MCLR pin,
rather than pulling this pin directly to VSS.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.3.4
BROWN-OUT RESET (BOR)
On any Reset (Power-on, Brown-out Reset, Watchdog
timer, etc.), the chip will remain in Reset until VDD rises
above VBOR (see Figure 12-3). If enabled, the Powerup Timer will be invoked by the Reset and keep the chip
in Reset an additional 64 ms.
The BOREN0 and BOREN1 bits in the Configuration
Word register select one of three BOR modes.
Selecting BOREN<1:0> = 10, the BOR is automatically
disabled in Sleep to conserve power and enabled on
wake-up. See Register 12-1 for the Configuration Word
definition.
Note:
A brown-out occurs when VDD falls below VBOR for
greater than parameter TBOR (see Section 15.0
“Electrical Specifications”). The brown-out condition
will reset the device. This will occur regardless of VDD
slew rate. A Brown-out Reset may not occur if VDD falls
below VBOR for less than parameter TBOR.
FIGURE 12-3:
If VDD drops below VBOR while the Power-up Timer is
running, the chip will go back into a Brown-out Reset
and the Power-up Timer will be re-initialized. Once VDD
rises above VBOR, the Power-up Timer will execute a
64 ms Reset.
BROWN-OUT SITUATIONS
VDD
Internal
Reset
VBOR
64 ms(1)
VDD
Internal
Reset
VBOR
< 64 ms
64 ms(1)
VDD
Internal
Reset
Note 1:
The Power-up Timer is enabled by the
PWRTE bit in the Configuration Word
register.
VBOR
64 ms(1)
64 ms delay only if PWRTE bit is programmed to ‘0’.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 113
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.3.5
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE
12.3.6
On power-up, the time-out sequence is as follows:
The Power Control register PCON (address 8Eh) has
two Status bits to indicate what type of Reset occurred
last.
• PWRT time-out is invoked after POR has expired.
• OST is activated after the PWRT time-out has
expired.
Bit 0 is BOR (Brown-out). BOR is unknown on Poweron Reset. It must then be set by the user and checked
on subsequent Resets to see if BOR = 0, indicating that
a Brown-out has occurred. The BOR Status bit is a
“don’t care” and is not necessarily predictable if the
brown-out circuit is disabled (BOREN<1:0> = 00 in the
Configuration Word register).
The total time-out will vary based on oscillator
configuration and PWRTE bit status. For example, in EC
mode with PWRTE bit erased (PWRT disabled), there
will be no time-out at all. Figure 12-4, Figure 12-5 and
Figure 12-6 depict time-out sequences.
Since the time-outs occur from the POR pulse, if MCLR
is kept low long enough, the time-outs will expire. Then,
bringing MCLR high will begin execution immediately
(see Figure 12-5). This is useful for testing purposes or
to synchronize more than one PIC16F610/616/
16HV610/616 device operating in parallel.
Bit 1 is POR (Power-on Reset). It is a ‘0’ on Power-on
Reset and unaffected otherwise. The user must write a
‘1’ to this bit following a Power-on Reset. On a subsequent Reset, if POR is ‘0’, it will indicate that a Poweron Reset has occurred (i.e., VDD may have gone too
low).
Table 12-5 shows the Reset conditions for some
special registers, while Table 12-4 shows the Reset
conditions for all the registers.
TABLE 12-1:
POWER CONTROL (PCON)
REGISTER
For more information, see Section 12.3.4 “Brown-out
Reset (BOR)”.
TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS
Power-up
Brown-out Reset
PWRTE = 0
PWRTE = 1
PWRTE = 0
PWRTE = 1
Wake-up from
Sleep
TPWRT + 1024 •
TOSC
1024 • TOSC
TPWRT + 1024 •
TOSC
1024 • TOSC
1024 • TOSC
TPWRT
—
TPWRT
—
—
Oscillator Configuration
XT, HS, LP
RC, EC, INTOSC
TABLE 12-2:
STATUS/PCON BITS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
POR
BOR
TO
PD
Condition
0
x
1
1
Power-on Reset
u
0
1
1
Brown-out Reset
u
u
0
u
WDT Reset
u
u
0
0
WDT Wake-up
u
u
u
u
MCLR Reset during normal operation
u
u
1
0
MCLR Reset during Sleep
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown
TABLE 12-3:
Name
PCON
STATUS
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH BROWN-OUT RESET
Value on
all other
Resets(1)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
—
—
—
—
—
—
POR
BOR
---- --qq ---- --uu
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
0001 1xxx 000q quuu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, – = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
Shaded cells are not used by BOR.
Note 1: Other (non Power-up) Resets include MCLR Reset and Watchdog Timer Reset during normal operation.
DS41288F-page 114
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 12-4:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (DELAYED MCLR): CASE 1
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TPWRT
PWRT Time-out
TOST
OST Time-out
Internal Reset
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (DELAYED MCLR): CASE 2
FIGURE 12-5:
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TPWRT
PWRT Time-out
TOST
OST Time-out
Internal Reset
FIGURE 12-6:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR WITH VDD)
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TPWRT
PWRT Time-out
TOST
OST Time-out
Internal Reset
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 115
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 12-4:
Register
INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR REGISTERS
Address
Power-on
Reset
MCLR Reset
WDT Reset
Brown-out Reset(1)
Wake-up from Sleep through
Interrupt
Wake-up from Sleep through
WDT Time-out
W
INDF
TMR0
—
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
00h/80h
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
01h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCL
02h/82h
0000 0000
0000 0000
PC + 1(3)
STATUS
03h/83h
0001 1xxx
000q quuu(4)
uuuq quuu(4)
FSR
04h/84h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTA
05h
--x0 x000
--u0 u000
--uu uuuu
PORTC
07h
--xx xx00
--uu 00uu
--uu uuuu
PCLATH
0Ah/8Ah
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
INTCON
0Bh/8Bh
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu(2)
PIR1
0Ch
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
-uuu u-uu(2)
TMR1L
0Eh
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TMR1H
0Fh
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
T1CON
10h
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
-uuu uuuu
(6)
11h
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
12h
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
(6)
CCPR1L
13h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1H(6)
14h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP1CON(6)
15h
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
PWM1CON(6)
16h
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ECCPAS(6)
17h
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
VRCON
19h
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CM1CON0
1Ah
0000 -000
0000 -000
uuuu -uuu
CM2CON0
1Bh
0000 -000
0000 -000
uuuu -uuu
CM2CON1
1Ch
00-0 0000
00-0 0000
uu-u uuuu
ADRESH(6)
1Eh
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
(6)
TMR2
T2CON(6)
1Fh
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
OPTION_REG
ADCON0
81h
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISA
85h
--11 1111
--11 1111
--uu uuuu
TRISC
87h
--11 1111
--11 1111
--uu uuuu
PIE1
8Ch
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
-uuu u-uu
PCON
8Eh
---- --0x
---- --uu(1, 5)
---- --uu
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, – = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
If VDD goes too low, Power-on Reset will be activated and registers will be affected differently.
One or more bits in INTCON and/or PIR1 will be affected (to cause wake-up).
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt
vector (0004h).
See Table 12-5 for Reset value for specific condition.
If Reset was due to brown-out, then bit 0 = 0. All other Resets will cause bit 0 = u.
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
ANSEL <3:2> For PIC16F616/HV616 only.
DS41288F-page 116
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 12-4:
INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR REGISTERS (CONTINUED)
Register
Address
Power-on
Reset
MCLR Reset
WDT Reset (Continued)
Brown-out Reset(1)
Wake-up from Sleep through
Interrupt
Wake-up from Sleep through
WDT Time-out (Continued)
OSCTUNE
90h
---0 0000
---u uuuu
---u uuuu
ANSEL(7)
91h
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PR2(6)
92h
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
WPUA
95h
--11 -111
--11 -111
--uu -uuu
IOCA
96h
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
SRCON0
99h
0000 00-0
0000 00-0
uuuu uu-u
SRCON1
9Ah
00-- ----
00-- ----
uu-- ----
ADRESL(6)
9Eh
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
ADCON1(6)
9Fh
-000 ----
-000 ----
-uuu ----
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
u = unchanged, x = unknown, – = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
If VDD goes too low, Power-on Reset will be activated and registers will be affected differently.
One or more bits in INTCON and/or PIR1 will be affected (to cause wake-up).
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt
vector (0004h).
See Table 12-5 for Reset value for specific condition.
If Reset was due to brown-out, then bit 0 = 0. All other Resets will cause bit 0 = u.
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
ANSEL <3:2> For PIC16F616/HV616 only.
TABLE 12-5:
INITIALIZATION CONDITION FOR SPECIAL REGISTERS
Program
Counter
Status
Register
PCON
Register
Power-on Reset
000h
0001 1xxx
---- --0x
MCLR Reset during normal operation
000h
000u uuuu
---- --uu
MCLR Reset during Sleep
000h
0001 0uuu
---- --uu
000h
0000 uuuu
---- --uu
PC + 1
uuu0 0uuu
---- --uu
Condition
WDT Reset
WDT Wake-up
Brown-out Reset
Interrupt Wake-up from Sleep
000h
0001 1uuu
---- --10
PC + 1(1)
uuu1 0uuu
---- --uu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, – = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’.
Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE, is set, the PC is loaded with
the interrupt vector (0004h) after execution of PC + 1.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 117
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.4
Interrupts
The PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
sources of interrupt:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
has
multiple
External Interrupt RA2/INT
Timer0 Overflow Interrupt
PORTA Change Interrupts
2 Comparator Interrupts
A/D Interrupt (PIC16F616/16HV616 only)
Timer1 Overflow Interrupt
Timer2 Match Interrupt (PIC16F616/16HV616 only)
Enhanced CCP Interrupt (PIC16F616/16HV616
only)
For external interrupt events, such as the INT pin or
PORTA change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be
three or four instruction cycles. The exact latency
depends upon when the interrupt event occurs (see
Figure 12-8). The latency is the same for one or twocycle instructions. Once in the Interrupt Service
Routine, the source(s) of the interrupt can be
determined by polling the interrupt flag bits. The
interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in software before
re-enabling interrupts to avoid multiple interrupt
requests.
Note 1: Individual interrupt flag bits are set,
regardless of the status of their
corresponding mask bit or the GIE bit.
The Interrupt Control register (INTCON) and Peripheral
Interrupt Request Register 1 (PIR1) record individual
interrupt requests in flag bits. The INTCON register
also has individual and global interrupt enable bits.
The Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE of the INTCON
register, enables (if set) all unmasked interrupts, or
disables (if cleared) all interrupts. Individual interrupts
can be disabled through their corresponding enable
bits in the INTCON register and PIE1 register. GIE is
cleared on Reset.
When an interrupt is serviced, the following actions
occur automatically:
• The GIE is cleared to disable any further interrupt.
• The return address is pushed onto the stack.
• The PC is loaded with 0004h.
The Return from Interrupt instruction, RETFIE, exits
the interrupt routine, as well as sets the GIE bit, which
re-enables unmasked interrupts.
The following interrupt flags are contained in the INTCON register:
• INT Pin Interrupt
• PORTA Change Interrupt
• Timer0 Overflow Interrupt
The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the
special register, PIR1. The corresponding interrupt
enable bit is contained in special register, PIE1.
The following interrupt flags are contained in the PIR1
register:
•
•
•
•
•
2: When an instruction that clears the GIE
bit is executed, any interrupts that were
pending for execution in the next cycle
are ignored. The interrupts, which were
ignored, are still pending to be serviced
when the GIE bit is set again.
For additional information on Timer1, Timer2,
comparators, ADC, Enhanced CCP modules, refer to
the respective peripheral section.
12.4.1
RA2/INT INTERRUPT
The external interrupt on the RA2/INT pin is edgetriggered; either on the rising edge if the INTEDG bit of
the OPTION register is set, or the falling edge, if the
INTEDG bit is clear. When a valid edge appears on the
RA2/INT pin, the INTF bit of the INTCON register is set.
This interrupt can be disabled by clearing the INTE
control bit of the INTCON register. The INTF bit must
be cleared by software in the Interrupt Service Routine
before re-enabling this interrupt. The RA2/INT interrupt
can wake-up the processor from Sleep, if the INTE bit
was set prior to going into Sleep. See Section 12.7
“Power-Down Mode (Sleep)” for details on Sleep and
Figure 12-9 for timing of wake-up from Sleep through
RA2/INT interrupt.
Note:
The ANSEL register must be initialized to
configure an analog channel as a digital
input. Pins configured as analog inputs will
read ‘0’ and cannot generate an interrupt.
A/D Interrupt
2 Comparator Interrupts
Timer1 Overflow Interrupt
Timer2 Match Interrupt
Enhanced CCP Interrupt
DS41288F-page 118
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.4.2
TIMER0 INTERRUPT
12.4.3
An overflow (FFh → 00h) in the TMR0 register will set
the T0IF bit of the INTCON register. The interrupt can
be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing T0IE bit of the
INTCON register. See Section 5.0 “Timer0 Module”
for operation of the Timer0 module.
An input change on PORTA sets the RAIF bit of the
INTCON register. The interrupt can be enabled/
disabled by setting/clearing the RAIE bit of the INTCON
register. Plus, individual pins can be configured through
the IOCA register.
Note:
FIGURE 12-7:
PORTA INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE
If a change on the I/O pin should occur
when any PORTA operation is being
executed, then the RAIF interrupt flag may
not get set.
INTERRUPT LOGIC
IOC-RA0
IOCA0
IOC-RA1
IOCA1
IOC-RA2
IOCA2
IOC-RA3
IOCA3
IOC-RA4
IOCA4
IOC-RA5
IOCA5
T0IF
T0IE
TMR2IF(2)
(2)
INTF
INTE
RAIF
RAIE
TMR2IE
TMR1IF
TMR1IE
C1IF
C1IE
PEIE
C2IF
C2IE
GIE
Wake-up (If in Sleep mode)(1)
Interrupt to CPU
ADIF(2)
ADIE(2)
CCP1IF(2)
CCP1IE(2)
Note 1:
2:
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Some peripherals depend upon the system clock for
operation. Since the system clock is suspended during Sleep, only
those peripherals which do not depend upon the system clock will wake
the part from Sleep. See Section 12.7.1 “Wake-up from Sleep”.
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
DS41288F-page 119
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 12-8:
INT PIN INTERRUPT TIMING
Q1 Q2
Q3
Q4 Q1 Q2
Q3 Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
OSC1
CLKOUT (3)
(4)
INT pin
(1)
(1)
INTF flag
(INTCON reg.)
Interrupt Latency (2)
(5)
GIE bit
(INTCON reg.)
INSTRUCTION FLOW
PC
Instruction
Fetched
INTCON
Dummy Cycle
Inst (PC)
0005h
Inst (0004h)
Inst (0005h)
Dummy Cycle
Inst (0004h)
INTF flag is sampled here (every Q1).
2:
Asynchronous interrupt latency = 3-4 TCY. Synchronous latency = 3 TCY, where TCY = instruction cycle time. Latency
is the same whether Inst (PC) is a single cycle or a 2-cycle instruction.
3:
CLKOUT is available only in INTOSC and RC Oscillator modes.
4:
For minimum width of INT pulse, refer to AC specifications in Section 15.0 “Electrical Specifications”.
5:
INTF is enabled to be set any time during the Q4-Q1 cycles.
TABLE 12-6:
Name
—
Inst (PC + 1)
Inst (PC – 1)
0004h
PC + 1
PC + 1
Inst (PC)
Instruction
Executed
Note 1:
PC
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH INTERRUPTS
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Value on
POR, BOR
Bit 0
Value on
all other
Resets
GIE
PEIE
T0IE
INTE
RAIE
T0IF
INTF
RAIF
0000 0000
0000 0000
IOCA
—
—
IOCA5
IOCA4
IOCA3
IOCA2
IOCA1
IOCA0
--00 0000
--00 0000
PIR1
—
ADIF(1)
CCP1IF(1)
C2IF
C1IF
—
TMR2IF(1)
TMR1IF
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
PIE1
—
ADIE(1)
CCP1IE(1)
C2IE
C1IE
—
TMR2IE(1)
TMR1IE
-000 0-00
-000 0-00
Legend:
Note
1:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented read as ‘0’, q = value depends upon condition.
Shaded cells are not used by the interrupt module.
PIC16F616/16HV616 only.
DS41288F-page 120
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.5
Context Saving During Interrupts
During an interrupt, only the return PC value is saved
on the stack. Typically, users may wish to save key
registers during an interrupt (e.g., W and STATUS
registers). This must be implemented in software.
Temporary
holding
registers
W_TEMP
and
STATUS_TEMP should be placed in the last 16 bytes
of GPR (see Figure 2-4). These 16 locations are
common to all banks and do not require banking. This
makes context save and restore operations simpler.
The code shown in Example 12-1 can be used to:
•
•
•
•
•
Store the W register
Store the STATUS register
Execute the ISR code
Restore the Status (and Bank Select Bit register)
Restore the W register
Note:
The PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 does
not require saving the PCLATH. However,
if computed GOTO’s are used in both the
ISR and the main code, the PCLATH must
be saved and restored in the ISR.
EXAMPLE 12-1:
MOVWF
SWAPF
SAVING STATUS AND W REGISTERS IN RAM
W_TEMP
STATUS,W
MOVWF
STATUS_TEMP
:
:(ISR)
:
SWAPF
STATUS_TEMP,W
MOVWF
SWAPF
SWAPF
STATUS
W_TEMP,F
W_TEMP,W
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
;Copy W to TEMP
;Swap status to
;Swaps are used
;Save status to
register
be saved into W
because they do not affect the status bits
bank zero STATUS_TEMP register
;Insert user code here
;Swap STATUS_TEMP register into W
;(sets bank to original state)
;Move W into STATUS register
;Swap W_TEMP
;Swap W_TEMP into W
DS41288F-page 121
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.6
12.6.1
Watchdog Timer (WDT)
WDT PERIOD
The WDT has a nominal time-out period of 18 ms (with
no prescaler). The time-out periods vary with
temperature, VDD and process variations from part to
part (see Table 15-4, Parameter 31). If longer time-out
periods are desired, a prescaler with a division ratio of
up to 1:128 can be assigned to the WDT under
software control by writing to the OPTION register.
Thus, time-out periods up to 2.3 seconds can be
realized.
The Watchdog Timer is a free running, on-chip RC
oscillator, which requires no external components. This
RC oscillator is separate from the external RC oscillator
of the CLKIN pin and INTOSC. That means that the
WDT will run, even if the clock on the OSC1 and OSC2
pins of the device has been stopped (for example, by
execution of a SLEEP instruction). During normal operation, a WDT Time-out generates a device Reset. If the
device is in Sleep mode, a WDT Time-out causes the
device to wake-up and continue with normal operation.
The WDT can be permanently disabled by programming the Configuration bit, WDTE, as clear
(Section 12.1 “Configuration Bits”).
The CLRWDT and SLEEP instructions clear the WDT
and the prescaler, if assigned to the WDT, and prevent
it from timing out and generating a device Reset.
The TO bit in the STATUS register will be cleared upon
a Watchdog Timer Time-out.
12.6.2
WDT PROGRAMMING
CONSIDERATIONS
It should also be taken in account that under worstcase conditions (i.e., VDD = Min., Temperature = Max.,
Max. WDT prescaler) it may take several seconds
before a WDT Time-out occurs.
FIGURE 12-2:
WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM
CLKOUT
(= FOSC/4)
Data Bus
0
8
1
SYNC 2
Cycles
1
T0CKI
pin
TMR0
0
0
T0CS
T0SE
Set Flag bit T0IF
on Overflow
8-bit
Prescaler
PSA
1
PSA
8
3
PS<2:0>
1
WDT
Time-Out
Watchdog
Timer
0
PSA
WDTE
Note 1: T0SE, T0CS, PSA, PS<2:0> are bits in the OPTION register.
TABLE 12-7:
WDT STATUS
Conditions
WDT
WDTE = 0
CLRWDT Command
Cleared
Exit Sleep + System Clock = EXTRC, INTRC, EC
Exit Sleep + System Clock = XT, HS, LP
DS41288F-page 122
Cleared until the end of OST
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 12-8:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH WATCHDOG TIMER
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
OPTION_REG
RAPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
IOSCFS
CP
MCLRE
PWRTE
WDTE
FOSC2
FOSC1
FOSC0
—
—
(1)
CONFIG
Legend:
Note 1:
Shaded cells are not used by the Watchdog Timer.
See Register 12-1 for operation of all Configuration Word register bits.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 123
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.7
Power-Down Mode (Sleep)
The Power-Down mode is entered by executing a
SLEEP instruction.
If the Watchdog Timer is enabled:
•
•
•
•
•
WDT will be cleared but keeps running.
PD bit in the STATUS register is cleared.
TO bit is set.
Oscillator driver is turned off.
I/O ports maintain the status they had before SLEEP
was executed (driving high, low or high-impedance).
For lowest current consumption in this mode, all I/O pins
should be either at VDD or VSS, with no external circuitry
drawing current from the I/O pin and the comparators
and CVREF should be disabled. I/O pins that are highimpedance inputs should be pulled high or low externally
to avoid switching currents caused by floating inputs.
The T0CKI input should also be at VDD or VSS for lowest
current consumption. The contribution from on-chip pullups on PORTA should be considered.
The MCLR pin must be at a logic high level.
Note:
12.7.1
It should be noted that a Reset generated
by a WDT time-out does not drive MCLR
pin low.
WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP
The device can wake-up from Sleep through one of the
following events:
1.
2.
3.
External Reset input on MCLR pin.
Watchdog Timer wake-up (if WDT was
enabled).
Interrupt from RA2/INT pin, PORTA change or a
peripheral interrupt.
The first event will cause a device Reset. The two latter
events are considered a continuation of program
execution. The TO and PD bits in the STATUS register
can be used to determine the cause of device Reset.
The PD bit, which is set on power-up, is cleared when
Sleep is invoked. TO bit is cleared if WDT wake-up
occurred.
The following peripheral interrupts can wake the device
from Sleep:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Timer1 interrupt. Timer1 must be operating as
an asynchronous counter.
ECCP Capture mode interrupt.
A/D conversion (when A/D clock source is RC).
Comparator output changes state.
Interrupt-on-change.
External Interrupt from INT pin.
When the SLEEP instruction is being executed, the next
instruction (PC + 1) is prefetched. For the device to
wake-up through an interrupt event, the corresponding
interrupt enable bit must be set (enabled). Wake-up is
regardless of the state of the GIE bit. If the GIE bit is
clear (disabled), the device continues execution at the
instruction after the SLEEP instruction. If the GIE bit is
set (enabled), the device executes the instruction after
the SLEEP instruction, then branches to the interrupt
address (0004h). In cases where the execution of the
instruction following SLEEP is not desirable, the user
should have a NOP after the SLEEP instruction.
Note:
If the global interrupts are disabled (GIE is
cleared) and any interrupt source has both
its interrupt enable bit and the corresponding interrupt flag bits set, the device will
immediately wake-up from Sleep.
The WDT is cleared when the device wakes up from
Sleep, regardless of the source of wake-up.
12.7.2
WAKE-UP USING INTERRUPTS
When global interrupts are disabled (GIE cleared) and
any interrupt source has both its interrupt enable bit
and interrupt flag bit set, one of the following will occur:
• If the interrupt occurs before the execution of a
SLEEP instruction, the SLEEP instruction will
complete as a NOP. Therefore, the WDT and WDT
prescaler and postscaler (if enabled) will not be
cleared, the TO bit will not be set and the PD bit
will not be cleared.
• If the interrupt occurs during or after the
execution of a SLEEP instruction, the device will
Immediately wake-up from Sleep. The SLEEP
instruction is executed. Therefore, the WDT and
WDT prescaler and postscaler (if enabled) will be
cleared, the TO bit will be set and the PD bit will
be cleared.
Even if the flag bits were checked before executing a
SLEEP instruction, it may be possible for flag bits to
become set before the SLEEP instruction completes.
To determine whether a SLEEP instruction executed,
test the PD bit. If the PD bit is set, the SLEEP instruction
was executed as a NOP.
To ensure that the WDT is cleared, a CLRWDT instruction
should be executed before a SLEEP instruction. See
Figure 12-9 for more details.
Other peripherals cannot generate interrupts since
during Sleep, no on-chip clocks are present.
DS41288F-page 124
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 12-9:
WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP THROUGH INTERRUPT
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
OSC1
TOST(2)
CLKOUT(4)
INT pin
INTF flag
(INTCON reg.)
Interrupt Latency (3)
GIE bit
(INTCON reg.)
Instruction Flow
PC
Instruction
Fetched
Instruction
Executed
Note
12.8
Processor in
Sleep
PC
Inst(PC) = Sleep
Inst(PC – 1)
PC + 1
PC + 2
PC + 2
Inst(PC + 1)
Inst(PC + 2)
Sleep
Inst(PC + 1)
PC + 2
Dummy Cycle
0004h
0005h
Inst(0004h)
Inst(0005h)
Dummy Cycle
Inst(0004h)
1:
XT, HS or LP Oscillator mode assumed.
2:
TOST = 1024 TOSC (drawing not to scale). This delay does not apply to EC, INTOSC and RC Oscillator modes.
3:
GIE = ‘1’ assumed. In this case after wake-up, the processor jumps to 0004h. If GIE = ‘0’, execution will continue in-line.
4:
CLKOUT is not available in XT, HS, LP or EC Oscillator modes, but shown here for timing reference.
Code Protection
If the code protection bit(s) have not been
programmed, the on-chip program memory can be
read out using ICSP™ for verification purposes.
Note:
12.9
The entire Flash program memory will be
erased when the code protection is turned
off. See the Memory Programming
Specification
(DS41284)
for
more
information.
ID Locations
Four memory locations (2000h-2003h) are designated
as ID locations where the user can store checksum or
other code identification numbers. These locations are
not accessible during normal execution but are
readable and writable during Program/Verify mode.
Only the Least Significant 7 bits of the ID locations are
used.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 125
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
12.10 In-Circuit Serial Programming™
The PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 microcontrollers
can be serially programmed while in the end
application circuit. This is simply done with five
connections for:
•
•
•
•
•
clock
data
power
ground
programming voltage
The device is placed into a Program/Verify mode by
holding the RA0 and RA1 pins low, while raising the
MCLR (VPP) pin from VIL to VIHH. See the Memory
Programming Specification (DS41284) for more
information. RA0 becomes the programming data and
RA1 becomes the programming clock. Both RA0 and
RA1 are Schmitt Trigger inputs in Program/Verify
mode.
A typical In-Circuit Serial Programming connection is
shown in Figure 12-10.
TYPICAL IN-CIRCUIT
SERIAL
PROGRAMMING™
CONNECTION
To Normal
Connections
External
Connector
Signals
*
PIC12F615/12HV615
PIC12F609/12HV609
+5V
VDD
0V
VSS
VPP
MCLR/VPP/GP3/RA3
CLK
GP1
Data I/O
GP0
*
*
To erase the device VDD must be above
the Bulk Erase VDD minimum given in the
Memory
Programming
Specification
(DS41284)
12.11 In-Circuit Debugger
This allows customers to manufacture boards with
unprogrammed devices and then program the
microcontroller just before shipping the product. This
also allows the most recent firmware or a custom
firmware to be programmed.
FIGURE 12-10:
Note:
Since in-circuit debugging requires access to three pins,
MPLAB® ICD 2 development with an 14-pin device is
not practical. A special 28-pin PIC16F610/616/
16HV610/616 ICD device is used with MPLAB ICD 2 to
provide separate clock, data and MCLR pins and frees
all normally available pins to the user.
A special debugging adapter allows the ICD device to
be used in place of a PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
device. The debugging adapter is the only source of the
ICD device.
When the ICD pin on the PIC16F610/616/16HV610/
616 ICD device is held low, the In-Circuit Debugger
functionality is enabled. This function allows simple
debugging functions when used with MPLAB ICD 2.
When the microcontroller has this feature enabled,
some of the resources are not available for general
use. Table 12-9 shows which features are consumed
by the background debugger.
TABLE 12-9:
DEBUGGER RESOURCES
Resource
Description
I/O pins
ICDCLK, ICDDATA
Stack
1 level
Program Memory
Address 0h must be NOP
700h-7FFh
For more information, see “MPLAB® ICD 2 In-Circuit
Debugger User’s Guide” (DS51331), available on
Microchip’s web site (www.microchip.com).
*
To Normal
Connections
* Isolation devices (as required)
DS41288F-page 126
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 12-11:
28 PIN ICD PINOUT
28-Pin PDIP
In-Circuit Debug Device
1
2
3
28
27
26
4
5
25
24
6
7
8
9
10
11
PIC16F616-ICD
VDD
CS0
CS1
CS2
RA5
RA4
RA3
RC5
RC4
RC3
NC
ICDCLK
ICDMCLR
ICDDATA
23
22
21
20
19
18
12
17
13
14
16
15
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
GND
RA0
RA1
SHUNTEN
RA2
RC0
RC1
RC2
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
ICD
DS41288F-page 127
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
NOTES:
DS41288F-page 128
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
13.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
The PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 instruction set is
highly orthogonal and is comprised of three basic
categories:
TABLE 13-1:
OPCODE FIELD
DESCRIPTIONS
Field
Description
Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F)
f
• Byte-oriented operations
• Bit-oriented operations
• Literal and control operations
W
Working register (accumulator)
b
Bit address within an 8-bit file register
k
Literal field, constant data or label
Each PIC16 instruction is a 14-bit word divided into an
opcode, which specifies the instruction type and one or
more operands, which further specify the operation of
the instruction. The formats for each of the categories
is presented in Figure 13-1, while the various opcode
fields are summarized in Table 13-1.
x
Don’t care location (= 0 or 1).
The assembler will generate code with x = 0.
It is the recommended form of use for
compatibility with all Microchip software tools.
d
Destination select; d = 0: store result in W,
d = 1: store result in file register f.
Default is d = 1.
Table 13-2 lists the instructions recognized by the
MPASMTM assembler.
For byte-oriented instructions, ‘f’ represents a file
register designator and ‘d’ represents a destination
designator. The file register designator specifies which
file register is to be used by the instruction.
The destination designator specifies where the result of
the operation is to be placed. If ‘d’ is zero, the result is
placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is one, the result is placed
in the file register specified in the instruction.
For bit-oriented instructions, ‘b’ represents a bit field
designator, which selects the bit affected by the
operation, while ‘f’ represents the address of the file in
which the bit is located.
For literal and control operations, ‘k’ represents an
8-bit or 11-bit constant, or literal value.
One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods;
for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, this gives a normal
instruction execution time of 1 μs. All instructions are
executed within a single instruction cycle, unless a
conditional test is true, or the program counter is
changed as a result of an instruction. When this occurs,
the execution takes two instruction cycles, with the
second cycle executed as a NOP.
All instruction examples use the format ‘0xhh’ to
represent a hexadecimal number, where ‘h’ signifies a
hexadecimal digit.
PC
Program Counter
TO
Time-out bit
Carry bit
C
DC
Digit carry bit
Zero bit
Z
PD
Power-down bit
FIGURE 13-1:
GENERAL FORMAT FOR
INSTRUCTIONS
Byte-oriented file register operations
13
8 7 6
OPCODE
d
f (FILE #)
d = 0 for destination W
d = 1 for destination f
f = 7-bit file register address
Bit-oriented file register operations
13
10 9
7 6
0
OPCODE
b (BIT #)
f (FILE #)
b = 3-bit address
f = 7-bit file register address
Literal and control operations
General
13
13.1
8
7
OPCODE
Read-Modify-Write Operations
Any instruction that specifies a file register as part of
the instruction performs a Read-Modify-Write (RMW)
operation. The register is read, the data is modified,
and the result is stored according to either the instruction or the destination designator ‘d’. A read operation
is performed on a register even if the instruction writes
to that register.
0
0
k (literal)
k = 8-bit immediate value
CALL and GOTO instructions only
13
11
OPCODE
10
0
k (literal)
k = 11-bit immediate value
For example, a CLRF PORTA instruction will read
PORTA, clear all the data bits, then write the result
back to PORTA. This example would have the unintended consequence of clearing the condition that set
the RAIF flag.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 129
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 13-2:
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 INSTRUCTION SET
Mnemonic,
Operands
14-Bit Opcode
Description
Cycles
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
BYTE-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
ADDWF
ANDWF
CLRF
CLRW
COMF
DECF
DECFSZ
INCF
INCFSZ
IORWF
MOVF
MOVWF
NOP
RLF
RRF
SUBWF
SWAPF
XORWF
f, d
f, d
f
–
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f
–
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
Add W and f
AND W with f
Clear f
Clear W
Complement f
Decrement f
Decrement f, Skip if 0
Increment f
Increment f, Skip if 0
Inclusive OR W with f
Move f
Move W to f
No Operation
Rotate Left f through Carry
Rotate Right f through Carry
Subtract W from f
Swap nibbles in f
Exclusive OR W with f
BCF
BSF
BTFSC
BTFSS
f, b
f, b
f, b
f, b
Bit Clear f
Bit Set f
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
1
1
1
1
1
1
1(2)
1
1(2)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xxx
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xx0
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
xxxx
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
0000
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
00bb
01bb
10bb
11bb
bfff
bfff
bfff
bfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
111x
1001
0kkk
0000
1kkk
1000
00xx
0000
01xx
0000
0000
110x
1010
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0000
kkkk
0000
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0100
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
1001
kkkk
1000
0011
kkkk
kkkk
0111
0101
0001
0001
1001
0011
1011
1010
1111
0100
1000
0000
0000
1101
1100
0010
1110
0110
C, DC, Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
C
C
C, DC, Z
Z
1, 2
1, 2
2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2, 3
1, 2
1, 2, 3
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
1
1
1 (2)
1 (2)
01
01
01
01
1, 2
1, 2
3
3
LITERAL AND CONTROL OPERATIONS
ADDLW
ANDLW
CALL
CLRWDT
GOTO
IORLW
MOVLW
RETFIE
RETLW
RETURN
SLEEP
SUBLW
XORLW
Note 1:
2:
3:
k
k
k
–
k
k
k
–
k
–
–
k
k
Add literal and W
AND literal with W
Call Subroutine
Clear Watchdog Timer
Go to address
Inclusive OR literal with W
Move literal to W
Return from interrupt
Return with literal in W
Return from Subroutine
Go into Standby mode
Subtract W from literal
Exclusive OR literal with W
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
11
11
10
00
10
11
11
00
11
00
00
11
11
C, DC, Z
Z
TO, PD
Z
TO, PD
C, DC, Z
Z
When an I/O register is modified as a function of itself (e.g., MOVF PORTA, 1), the value used will be that value present
on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external
device, the data will be written back with a ‘0’.
If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if
assigned to the Timer0 module.
If the Program Counter (PC) is modified, or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second
cycle is executed as a NOP.
DS41288F-page 130
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
13.2
Instruction Descriptions
ADDLW
Add literal and W
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDLW
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) + k → (W)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Description:
The contents of the W register
are added to the eight-bit literal ‘k’
and the result is placed in the
W register.
k
BCF
Bit Clear f
Syntax:
[ label ] BCF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operation:
0 → (f<b>)
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is cleared.
BSF
Bit Set f
Syntax:
[ label ] BSF
f,b
ADDWF
Add W and f
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDWF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Operation:
(W) + (f) → (destination)
Operation:
1 → (f<b>)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Add the contents of the W register
with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in the W register. If
‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back
in register ‘f’.
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is set.
ANDLW
AND literal with W
BTFSC
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Syntax:
[ label ] ANDLW
Syntax:
[ label ] BTFSC f,b
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
Operation:
(W) .AND. (k) → (W)
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b≤7
Status Affected:
Z
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 0
Description:
The contents of W register are
AND’ed with the eight-bit literal
‘k’. The result is placed in the W
register.
Status Affected:
None
Description:
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘1’, the next
instruction is executed.
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, the next
instruction is discarded, and a NOP
is executed instead, making this a
two-cycle instruction.
ANDWF
f,d
k
AND W with f
Syntax:
[ label ] ANDWF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(W) .AND. (f) → (destination)
f,d
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
AND the W register with register
‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in
the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the
result is stored back in register ‘f’.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
f,b
DS41288F-page 131
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
BTFSS
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
CLRWDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Syntax:
[ label ] BTFSS f,b
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRWDT
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
0≤b<7
Operands:
None
Operation:
00h → WDT
0 → WDT prescaler,
1 → TO
1 → PD
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Description:
CLRWDT instruction resets the
Watchdog Timer. It also resets the
prescaler of the WDT.
Status bits TO and PD are set.
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 1
Status Affected:
None
Description:
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, the next
instruction is executed.
If bit ‘b’ is ‘1’, then the next
instruction is discarded and a NOP
is executed instead, making this a
two-cycle instruction.
CALL
Call Subroutine
COMF
Complement f
Syntax:
[ label ] CALL k
Syntax:
[ label ] COMF
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 2047
Operands:
Operation:
(PC)+ 1→ TOS,
k → PC<10:0>,
(PCLATH<4:3>) → PC<12:11>
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
f,d
Operation:
(f) → (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
complemented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’,
the result is stored back in
register ‘f’.
DECF
Decrement f
Syntax:
[ label ] DECF f,d
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Call Subroutine. First, return
address (PC + 1) is pushed onto
the stack. The eleven-bit
immediate address is loaded into
PC bits <10:0>. The upper bits of
the PC are loaded from PCLATH.
CALL is a two-cycle instruction.
CLRF
Clear f
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
Operands:
Operation:
00h → (f)
1→Z
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - 1 → (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
cleared and the Z bit is set.
Description:
Decrement register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’,
the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
CLRW
Clear W
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRW
f
Operands:
None
Operation:
00h → (W)
1→Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
W register is cleared. Zero bit (Z)
is set.
DS41288F-page 132
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
DECFSZ
Decrement f, Skip if 0
INCFSZ
Increment f, Skip if 0
Syntax:
[ label ] DECFSZ f,d
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - 1 → (destination);
skip if result = 0
Operation:
(f) + 1 → (destination),
skip if result = 0
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
decremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
If the result is ‘1’, the next
instruction is executed. If the
result is ‘0’, then a NOP is
executed instead, making it a
two-cycle instruction.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
If the result is ‘1’, the next
instruction is executed. If the
result is ‘0’, a NOP is executed
instead, making it a two-cycle
instruction.
GOTO
Unconditional Branch
IORLW
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 2047
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
k → PC<10:0>
PCLATH<4:3> → PC<12:11>
Operation:
(W) .OR. k → (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Description:
GOTO is an unconditional branch.
The eleven-bit immediate value is
loaded into PC bits <10:0>. The
upper bits of PC are loaded from
PCLATH<4:3>. GOTO is a
two-cycle instruction.
The contents of the W register are
OR’ed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’.
The result is placed in the
W register.
INCF
Increment f
IORWF
Inclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) + 1 → (destination)
Operation:
(W) .OR. (f) → (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
Description:
Inclusive OR the W register with
register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
GOTO k
INCF f,d
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
INCFSZ f,d
Inclusive OR literal with W
IORLW k
IORWF
f,d
DS41288F-page 133
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
MOVF
Move f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
MOVF f,d
MOVWF
Move W to f
Syntax:
[ label ]
MOVWF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
Operation:
(W) → (f)
f
Operation:
(f) → (dest)
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ is
moved to a destination dependent
upon the status of ‘d’. If d = 0,
destination is W register. If d = 1,
the destination is file register ‘f’
itself. d = 1 is useful to test a file
register since status flag Z is
affected.
Move data from W register to
register ‘f’.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example:
MOVF
Example:
MOVW
F
OPTION
Before Instruction
OPTION =
W
=
After Instruction
OPTION =
W
=
FSR, 0
0xFF
0x4F
0x4F
0x4F
After Instruction
W =
value in FSR
register
Z = 1
MOVLW
Move literal to W
NOP
No Operation
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operands:
None
Operation:
k → (W)
Operation:
No operation
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The eight-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into
W register. The “don’t cares” will
assemble as ‘0’s.
Description:
No operation.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example:
MOVLW k
Example:
MOVLW
NOP
0x5A
After Instruction
W =
DS41288F-page 134
NOP
0x5A
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
RETFIE
Return from Interrupt
RETLW
Return with literal in W
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
TOS → PC,
1 → GIE
Operation:
k → (W);
TOS → PC
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Return from Interrupt. Stack is
POPed and Top-of-Stack (TOS) is
loaded in the PC. Interrupts are
enabled by setting Global
Interrupt Enable bit, GIE
(INTCON<7>). This is a two-cycle
instruction.
Description:
The W register is loaded with the
eight-bit literal ‘k’. The program
counter is loaded from the top of
the stack (the return address).
This is a two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Example:
RETFIE
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Example:
RETFIE
After Interrupt
PC =
GIE =
TOS
1
TABLE
RETLW k
CALL TABLE;W contains
;table offset
;value
GOTO DONE
•
•
ADDWF PC ;W = offset
RETLW k1 ;Begin table
RETLW k2 ;
•
•
•
RETLW kn ;End of table
DONE
Before Instruction
W = 0x07
After Instruction
W = value of k8
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
RETURN
Return from Subroutine
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
Operation:
TOS → PC
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Return from subroutine. The stack
is POPed and the top of the stack
(TOS) is loaded into the program
counter. This is a two-cycle
instruction.
RETURN
DS41288F-page 135
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
RLF
Rotate Left f through Carry
SLEEP
Enter Sleep mode
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ] SLEEP
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
None
Operation:
Operation:
See description below
Status Affected:
C
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
rotated one bit to the left through
the Carry flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is placed in the W register.
If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored
back in register ‘f’.
00h → WDT,
0 → WDT prescaler,
1 → TO,
0 → PD
RLF
f,d
C
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example:
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Description:
The power-down Status bit, PD is
cleared. Time-out Status bit, TO
is set. Watchdog Timer and its
prescaler are cleared.
The processor is put into Sleep
mode with the oscillator stopped.
Register f
RLF
REG1,0
Before Instruction
REG1
C
=
=
1110 0110
0
=
=
=
1110 0110
1100 1100
1
After Instruction
REG1
W
C
RRF
Rotate Right f through Carry
SUBLW
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ] SUBLW k
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
k - (W) → (W)
Operation:
See description below
Status Affected: C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
C
Description:
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
rotated one bit to the right through
the Carry flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is placed in the W register.
If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed
back in register ‘f’.
RRF f,d
C
DS41288F-page 136
Register f
Subtract W from literal
The W register is subtracted (2’s
complement method) from the
eight-bit literal ‘k’. The result is
placed in the W register.
Result
Condition
C=0
W>k
C=1
W≤k
DC = 0
W<3:0> > k<3:0>
DC = 1
W<3:0> ≤ k<3:0>
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
SUBWF
Subtract W from f
XORWF
Exclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[ label ] SUBWF f,d
Syntax:
[ label ] XORWF
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - (W) → (destination)
Operation:
(W) .XOR. (F.) → (destination)
Status Affected: C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
Description:
Exclusive OR the contents of the
W register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
Subtract (2’s complement method)
W register from register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
C=0
W>f
C=1
W≤f
DC = 0
W<3:0> > f<3:0>
DC = 1
W<3:0> ≤ f<3:0>
SWAPF
Swap Nibbles in f
Syntax:
[ label ] SWAPF f,d
Operands:
0 ≤ f ≤ 127
d ∈ [0,1]
Operation:
(f<3:0>) → (destination<7:4>),
(f<7:4>) → (destination<3:0>)
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The upper and lower nibbles of
register ‘f’ are exchanged. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is placed in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed in register ‘f’.
XORLW
f,d
Exclusive OR literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ] XORLW k
Operands:
0 ≤ k ≤ 255
Operation:
(W) .XOR. k → (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of the W register
are XOR’ed with the eight-bit
literal ‘k’. The result is placed in
the W register.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 137
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
NOTES:
DS41288F-page 138
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
14.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
The PIC® microcontrollers and dsPIC® digital signal
controllers are supported with a full range of software
and hardware development tools:
• Integrated Development Environment
- MPLAB® IDE Software
• Compilers/Assemblers/Linkers
- MPLAB C Compiler for Various Device
Families
- HI-TECH C for Various Device Families
- MPASMTM Assembler
- MPLINKTM Object Linker/
MPLIBTM Object Librarian
- MPLAB Assembler/Linker/Librarian for
Various Device Families
• Simulators
- MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
• Emulators
- MPLAB REAL ICE™ In-Circuit Emulator
• In-Circuit Debuggers
- MPLAB ICD 3
- PICkit™ 3 Debug Express
• Device Programmers
- PICkit™ 2 Programmer
- MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
• Low-Cost Demonstration/Development Boards,
Evaluation Kits, and Starter Kits
14.1
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software
The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of software
development previously unseen in the 8/16/32-bit
microcontroller market. The MPLAB IDE is a Windows®
operating system-based application that contains:
• A single graphical interface to all debugging tools
- Simulator
- Programmer (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Emulator (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Debugger (sold separately)
• A full-featured editor with color-coded context
• A multiple project manager
• Customizable data windows with direct edit of
contents
• High-level source code debugging
• Mouse over variable inspection
• Drag and drop variables from source to watch
windows
• Extensive on-line help
• Integration of select third party tools, such as
IAR C Compilers
The MPLAB IDE allows you to:
• Edit your source files (either C or assembly)
• One-touch compile or assemble, and download to
emulator and simulator tools (automatically
updates all project information)
• Debug using:
- Source files (C or assembly)
- Mixed C and assembly
- Machine code
MPLAB IDE supports multiple debugging tools in a
single development paradigm, from the cost-effective
simulators, through low-cost in-circuit debuggers, to
full-featured emulators. This eliminates the learning
curve when upgrading to tools with increased flexibility
and power.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 139
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
14.2
MPLAB C Compilers for Various
Device Families
The MPLAB C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC18,
PIC24 and PIC32 families of microcontrollers and the
dsPIC30 and dsPIC33 families of digital signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful integration
capabilities, superior code optimization and ease of
use.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
14.3
HI-TECH C for Various Device
Families
The HI-TECH C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC
family of microcontrollers and the dsPIC family of digital
signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful
integration capabilities, omniscient code generation
and ease of use.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
The compilers include a macro assembler, linker, preprocessor, and one-step driver, and can run on multiple
platforms.
14.4
MPASM Assembler
The MPASM Assembler is a full-featured, universal
macro assembler for PIC10/12/16/18 MCUs.
The MPASM Assembler generates relocatable object
files for the MPLINK Object Linker, Intel® standard HEX
files, MAP files to detail memory usage and symbol
reference, absolute LST files that contain source lines
and generated machine code and COFF files for
debugging.
The MPASM Assembler features include:
14.5
MPLINK Object Linker/
MPLIB Object Librarian
The MPLINK Object Linker combines relocatable
objects created by the MPASM Assembler and the
MPLAB C18 C Compiler. It can link relocatable objects
from precompiled libraries, using directives from a
linker script.
The MPLIB Object Librarian manages the creation and
modification of library files of precompiled code. When
a routine from a library is called from a source file, only
the modules that contain that routine will be linked in
with the application. This allows large libraries to be
used efficiently in many different applications.
The object linker/library features include:
• Efficient linking of single libraries instead of many
smaller files
• Enhanced code maintainability by grouping
related modules together
• Flexible creation of libraries with easy module
listing, replacement, deletion and extraction
14.6
MPLAB Assembler, Linker and
Librarian for Various Device
Families
MPLAB Assembler produces relocatable machine
code from symbolic assembly language for PIC24,
PIC32 and dsPIC devices. MPLAB C Compiler uses
the assembler to produce its object file. The assembler
generates relocatable object files that can then be
archived or linked with other relocatable object files and
archives to create an executable file. Notable features
of the assembler include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support for the entire device instruction set
Support for fixed-point and floating-point data
Command line interface
Rich directive set
Flexible macro language
MPLAB IDE compatibility
• Integration into MPLAB IDE projects
• User-defined macros to streamline
assembly code
• Conditional assembly for multi-purpose
source files
• Directives that allow complete control over the
assembly process
DS41288F-page 140
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
14.7
MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator allows code
development in a PC-hosted environment by simulating the PIC MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs on an instruction
level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be
examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from
a comprehensive stimulus controller. Registers can be
logged to files for further run-time analysis. The trace
buffer and logic analyzer display extend the power of
the simulator to record and track program execution,
actions on I/O, most peripherals and internal registers.
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator fully supports
symbolic debugging using the MPLAB C Compilers,
and the MPASM and MPLAB Assemblers. The software simulator offers the flexibility to develop and
debug code outside of the hardware laboratory environment, making it an excellent, economical software
development tool.
14.8
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit
Emulator System
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System is
Microchip’s next generation high-speed emulator for
Microchip Flash DSC and MCU devices. It debugs and
programs PIC® Flash MCUs and dsPIC® Flash DSCs
with the easy-to-use, powerful graphical user interface of
the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE),
included with each kit.
The emulator is connected to the design engineer’s PC
using a high-speed USB 2.0 interface and is connected
to the target with either a connector compatible with incircuit debugger systems (RJ11) or with the new highspeed, noise tolerant, Low-Voltage Differential Signal
(LVDS) interconnection (CAT5).
The emulator is field upgradable through future firmware
downloads in MPLAB IDE. In upcoming releases of
MPLAB IDE, new devices will be supported, and new
features will be added. MPLAB REAL ICE offers significant advantages over competitive emulators including
low-cost, full-speed emulation, run-time variable
watches, trace analysis, complex breakpoints, a ruggedized probe interface and long (up to three meters) interconnection cables.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
14.9
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger
System
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger System is Microchip's most cost effective high-speed hardware
debugger/programmer for Microchip Flash Digital Signal Controller (DSC) and microcontroller (MCU)
devices. It debugs and programs PIC® Flash microcontrollers and dsPIC® DSCs with the powerful, yet easyto-use graphical user interface of MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE).
The MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger probe is connected to the design engineer's PC using a high-speed
USB 2.0 interface and is connected to the target with a
connector compatible with the MPLAB ICD 2 or MPLAB
REAL ICE systems (RJ-11). MPLAB ICD 3 supports all
MPLAB ICD 2 headers.
14.10 PICkit 3 In-Circuit Debugger/
Programmer and
PICkit 3 Debug Express
The MPLAB PICkit 3 allows debugging and programming of PIC® and dsPIC® Flash microcontrollers at a
most affordable price point using the powerful graphical
user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment (IDE). The MPLAB PICkit 3 is connected
to the design engineer's PC using a full speed USB
interface and can be connected to the target via an
Microchip debug (RJ-11) connector (compatible with
MPLAB ICD 3 and MPLAB REAL ICE). The connector
uses two device I/O pins and the reset line to implement in-circuit debugging and In-Circuit Serial Programming™.
The PICkit 3 Debug Express include the PICkit 3, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
DS41288F-page 141
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
14.11 PICkit 2 Development
Programmer/Debugger and
PICkit 2 Debug Express
14.13 Demonstration/Development
Boards, Evaluation Kits, and
Starter Kits
The PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer/Debugger is
a low-cost development tool with an easy to use interface for programming and debugging Microchip’s Flash
families of microcontrollers. The full featured
Windows® programming interface supports baseline
(PIC10F,
PIC12F5xx,
PIC16F5xx),
midrange
(PIC12F6xx, PIC16F), PIC18F, PIC24, dsPIC30,
dsPIC33, and PIC32 families of 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit
microcontrollers, and many Microchip Serial EEPROM
products. With Microchip’s powerful MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE) the PICkit™ 2
enables in-circuit debugging on most PIC® microcontrollers. In-Circuit-Debugging runs, halts and single
steps the program while the PIC microcontroller is
embedded in the application. When halted at a breakpoint, the file registers can be examined and modified.
A wide variety of demonstration, development and
evaluation boards for various PIC MCUs and dsPIC
DSCs allows quick application development on fully functional systems. Most boards include prototyping areas for
adding custom circuitry and provide application firmware
and source code for examination and modification.
The PICkit 2 Debug Express include the PICkit 2, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
14.12 MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
The MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer is a universal,
CE compliant device programmer with programmable
voltage verification at VDDMIN and VDDMAX for
maximum reliability. It features a large LCD display
(128 x 64) for menus and error messages and a modular, detachable socket assembly to support various
package types. The ICSP™ cable assembly is included
as a standard item. In Stand-Alone mode, the MPLAB
PM3 Device Programmer can read, verify and program
PIC devices without a PC connection. It can also set
code protection in this mode. The MPLAB PM3
connects to the host PC via an RS-232 or USB cable.
The MPLAB PM3 has high-speed communications and
optimized algorithms for quick programming of large
memory devices and incorporates an MMC card for file
storage and data applications.
DS41288F-page 142
The boards support a variety of features, including LEDs,
temperature sensors, switches, speakers, RS-232
interfaces, LCD displays, potentiometers and additional
EEPROM memory.
The demonstration and development boards can be
used in teaching environments, for prototyping custom
circuits and for learning about various microcontroller
applications.
In addition to the PICDEM™ and dsPICDEM™ demonstration/development board series of circuits, Microchip
has a line of evaluation kits and demonstration software
for analog filter design, KEELOQ® security ICs, CAN,
IrDA®, PowerSmart battery management, SEEVAL®
evaluation system, Sigma-Delta ADC, flow rate
sensing, plus many more.
Also available are starter kits that contain everything
needed to experience the specified device. This usually
includes a single application and debug capability, all
on one board.
Check the Microchip web page (www.microchip.com)
for the complete list of demonstration, development
and evaluation kits.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.0
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Absolute Maximum Ratings(†)
Ambient temperature under bias..........................................................................................................-40° to +125°C
Storage temperature ........................................................................................................................ -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ................................................................................................... -0.3V to +6.5V
Voltage on MCLR with respect to Vss ............................................................................................... -0.3V to +13.5V
Voltage on all other pins with respect to VSS ........................................................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Total power dissipation(1) ............................................................................................................................... 800 mW
Maximum current out of VSS pin ...................................................................................................................... 95 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ......................................................................................................................... 95 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD)...............................................................................................................± 20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (Vo < 0 or Vo >VDD).........................................................................................................± 20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin.................................................................................................... 25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin .............................................................................................. 25 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTA and PORTC (combined) ........................................................................... 90 mA
Maximum current sourced PORTA and PORTC (combined) ........................................................................... 90 mA
Note 1:
Power dissipation is calculated as follows: PDIS = VDD x {IDD – ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD – VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOl x
IOL).
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those
indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure above maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 143
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 15-1:
PIC16F610/616 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH,
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
5.5
5.0
VDD (V)
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
0
8
10
20
Frequency (MHz)
Note 1: The shaded region indicates the permissible combinations of voltage and frequency.
FIGURE 15-2:
PIC16HV610/616 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH,
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
5.0
VDD (V)
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
0
8
10
20
Frequency (MHz)
Note 1: The shaded region indicates the permissible combinations of voltage and frequency.
DS41288F-page 144
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 15-3:
PIC16F610/616 FREQUENCY TOLERANCE GRAPH,
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
125
± 5%
Temperature (°C)
85
± 2%
60
± 1%
25
0
-40
2.5
2.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 15-4:
PIC16HV610/616 FREQUENCY TOLERANCE GRAPH,
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
125
± 5%
Temperature (°C)
85
± 2%
60
± 1%
25
0
-40
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 145
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.1
DC Characteristics: PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616-I (Industrial)
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616-E (Extended)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym
VDD
D001
Characteristic
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended
Min
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
Supply Voltage
PIC16F610/616
2.0
—
5.5
(2)
V
FOSC < = 4 MHz
D001
PIC16HV610/616
2.0
—
—
V
FOSC < = 4 MHz
D001B
PIC16F610/616
2.0
—
5.5
V
FOSC < = 8 MHz
D001B
PIC16HV610/616
2.0
—
—(2)
V
FOSC < = 8 MHz
D001C
PIC16F610/616
3.0
—
5.5
V
FOSC < = 10 MHz
D001C
PIC16HV610/616
3.0
—
—(2)
V
FOSC < = 10 MHz
D001D
PIC16F610/616
4.5
—
5.5
V
FOSC < = 20 MHz
D001D
PIC16HV610/616
4.5
—
—(2)
V
FOSC < = 20 MHz
D002*
VDR
RAM Data Retention
Voltage(1)
1.5
—
—
V
Device in Sleep mode
D003
VPOR
VDD Start Voltage to
ensure internal Power-on
Reset signal
—
VSS
—
V
See Section 12.3.1 “Power-on Reset
(POR)” for details.
D004*
SVDD
VDD Rise Rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset
signal
0.05
—
—
V/ms See Section 12.3.1 “Power-on Reset
(POR)” for details.
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered in Sleep mode without losing RAM data.
2: User defined. Voltage across the shunt regulator should not exceed 5V.
DS41288F-page 146
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.2
DC Characteristics: PIC16F610/616-I (Industrial)
PIC16F610/616-E (Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D010
Conditions
Device Characteristics
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Note
VDD
Supply Current (IDD)
PIC16F610/616
D011*
D012
D013*
D014
D016*
D017
D018
D019
(1, 2)
—
13
25
μA
2.0
—
19
29
μA
3.0
—
32
51
μA
5.0
—
135
225
μA
2.0
—
185
285
μA
3.0
—
300
405
μA
5.0
—
240
360
μA
2.0
—
360
505
μA
3.0
—
0.66
1.0
mA
5.0
—
75
110
μA
2.0
—
155
255
μA
3.0
—
345
530
μA
5.0
—
185
255
μA
2.0
—
325
475
μA
3.0
—
0.665
1.0
mA
5.0
—
245
340
μA
2.0
—
360
485
μA
3.0
—
0.620
0.845
mA
5.0
—
395
550
μA
2.0
—
0.620
0.850
mA
3.0
—
1.2
1.6
mA
5.0
—
175
235
μA
2.0
—
285
390
μA
3.0
—
530
750
μA
5.0
—
2.2
3.1
mA
4.5
—
2.8
3.35
mA
5.0
FOSC = 32 kHz
LP Oscillator mode
FOSC = 1 MHz
XT Oscillator mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
XT Oscillator mode
FOSC = 1 MHz
EC Oscillator mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
EC Oscillator mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
INTOSC mode
FOSC = 8 MHz
INTOSC mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
EXTRC mode(3)
FOSC = 20 MHz
HS Oscillator mode
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave,
from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD; MCLR = VDD; WDT disabled.
2: The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors, such as I/O
pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have
an impact on the current consumption.
3: For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can
be extended by the formula IR = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in kΩ.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 147
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.3
DC Characteristics: PIC16HV610/616-I (Industrial)
PIC16HV610/616-E (Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D010
Conditions
Device Characteristics
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Note
VDD
Supply Current (IDD)
PIC16HV610/616
D011*
D012
D013*
D014
D016*
D017
D018
D019
(1, 2)
—
160
230
μA
2.0
—
240
310
μA
3.0
—
280
400
μA
4.5
—
270
380
μA
2.0
—
400
560
μA
3.0
—
520
780
μA
4.5
—
380
540
μA
2.0
—
575
810
μA
3.0
—
0.875
1.3
mA
4.5
—
215
310
μA
2.0
—
375
565
μA
3.0
—
570
870
μA
4.5
—
330
475
μA
2.0
—
550
800
μA
3.0
—
0.85
1.2
mA
4.5
—
310
435
μA
2.0
—
500
700
μA
3.0
—
0.74
1.1
mA
4.5
—
460
650
μA
2.0
—
0.75
1.1
mA
3.0
—
1.2
1.6
mA
4.5
—
320
465
μA
2.0
—
510
750
μA
3.0
—
0.770
1.0
mA
4.5
—
2.5
3.4
mA
4.5
FOSC = 32 kHz
LP Oscillator mode
FOSC = 1 MHz
XT Oscillator mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
XT Oscillator mode
FOSC = 1 MHz
EC Oscillator mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
EC Oscillator mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
INTOSC mode
FOSC = 8 MHz
INTOSC mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
EXTRC mode(3)
FOSC = 20 MHz
HS Oscillator mode
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 4.5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave,
from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD; MCLR = VDD; WDT disabled.
2: The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors, such as I/O
pin loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have
an impact on the current consumption.
3: For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can
be extended by the formula IR = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in kΩ.
DS41288F-page 148
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.4
DC Characteristics: PIC16F610/616- I (Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D020
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Conditions
Device Characteristics
Min
Max
Units
VDD
Note
WDT, BOR, Comparators, VREF and
T1OSC disabled
0.9
μA
2.0
0.15
1.2
μA
3.0
0.35
1.5
μA
5.0
150
500
nA
3.0
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +25°C for industrial
—
0.5
1.5
μA
2.0
WDT Current(1)
—
2.5
4.0
μA
3.0
Power-down Base
Current(IPD)(2)
—
—
PIC16F610/616
—
—
D021
Typ†
0.05
—
9.5
17
μA
5.0
D022
—
5.0
9
μA
3.0
—
6.0
12
μA
5.0
D023
—
105
115
μA
2.0
D024
D025
D026*
D027
D028
—
110
125
μA
3.0
—
116
140
μA
5.0
—
50
60
μA
2.0
—
55
65
μA
3.0
—
60
75
μA
5.0
—
30
40
μA
2.0
—
45
60
μA
3.0
—
75
105
μA
5.0
—
39
50
μA
2.0
—
59
80
μA
3.0
—
98
130
μA
5.0
—
5.5
10
μA
2.0
—
7.0
12
μA
3.0
—
8.5
14
μA
5.0
—
0.2
1.6
μA
3.0
—
0.36
1.9
μA
5.0
BOR Current(1)
Comparator Current(1), both
comparators enabled
Comparator Current(1), single
comparator enabled
CVREF Current(1) (high range)
CVREF Current(1) (low range)
T1OSC Current(1), 32.768 kHz
A/D Current(1), no conversion in
progress.
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this
peripheral is enabled. The peripheral Δ current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD
current from this limit. Max values should be used when calculating total current consumption.
2: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 149
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.5
DC Characteristics: PIC16F610/616-E (Extended)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D020E
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended
Conditions
Device Characteristics
Power-down Base
Current (IPD)(2)
PIC16F610/616
D021E
Min
—
Typ†
0.05
Max
4.0
Units
μA
VDD
Note
2.0
WDT, BOR, Comparators, VREF and
T1OSC disabled
—
0.15
5.0
μA
3.0
—
0.35
8.5
μA
5.0
—
0.5
5.0
μA
2.0
—
2.5
8.0
μA
3.0
—
9.5
19
μA
5.0
D022E
—
5.0
15
μA
3.0
—
6.0
19
μA
5.0
D023E
—
105
130
μA
2.0
D024E
D025E
D026E*
D027E
D028E
—
110
140
μA
3.0
—
116
150
μA
5.0
—
50
70
μA
2.0
—
55
75
μA
3.0
—
60
80
μA
5.0
—
30
40
μA
2.0
—
45
60
μA
3.0
—
75
105
μA
5.0
—
39
50
μA
2.0
—
59
80
μA
3.0
—
98
130
μA
5.0
—
5.5
16
μA
2.0
—
7.0
18
μA
3.0
—
8.5
22
μA
5.0
—
0.2
6.5
μA
3.0
—
0.36
10
μA
5.0
WDT Current(1)
BOR Current(1)
Comparator Current(1), both
comparators enabled
Comparator Current(1), single
comparator enabled
CVREF Current(1) (high range)
CVREF Current(1) (low range)
T1OSC Current(1), 32.768 kHz
A/D Current(1), no conversion in
progress
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this
peripheral is enabled. The peripheral Δ current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD
current from this limit. Max values should be used when calculating total current consumption.
2: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD.
DS41288F-page 150
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.6
DC Characteristics: PIC16HV610/616- I (Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D020
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
Conditions
Device Characteristics
Power-down Base
Current(IPD)(2,3)
PIC16HV610/616
D021
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
—
135
200
μA
—
210
280
μA
3.0
—
260
350
μA
4.5
—
135
200
μA
2.0
—
210
285
μA
3.0
VDD
Note
2.0
WDT, BOR, Comparators, VREF and
T1OSC disabled
—
265
360
μA
4.5
D022
—
215
285
μA
3.0
—
265
360
μA
4.5
D023
—
240
340
μA
2.0
D024
D025
D026*
D027
D028
—
320
420
μA
3.0
—
370
500
μA
4.5
—
185
270
μA
2.0
—
265
350
μA
3.0
—
320
430
μA
4.5
—
165
235
μA
2.0
—
255
330
μA
3.0
—
330
430
μA
4.5
—
175
245
μA
2.0
—
275
350
μA
3.0
—
355
450
μA
4.5
—
140
205
μA
2.0
—
220
290
μA
3.0
—
270
360
μA
4.5
—
210
280
μA
3.0
—
260
350
μA
4.5
WDT Current(1)
BOR Current(1)
Comparator Current(1), both
comparators enabled
Comparator Current(1), single
comparator enabled
CVREF Current(1) (high range)
CVREF Current(1) (low range)
T1OSC Current(1), 32.768 kHz
A/D Current(1), no conversion in
progress
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 4.5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this
peripheral is enabled. The peripheral Δ current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD
current from this limit. Max values should be used when calculating total current consumption.
2: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD.
3: Shunt regulator is always enabled and always draws operating current.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 151
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.7
DC Characteristics: PIC16HV610/616-E (Extended)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
D020E
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended
Conditions
Device Characteristics
Power-down Base
Current (IPD)(2, 3)
PIC16HV610/616
D021E
D022E
D023E
D024E
D025E
D026E*
D027E
D028E
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
VDD
Note
WDT, BOR, Comparators, VREF and
T1OSC disabled
—
135
200
μA
2.0
—
210
280
μA
3.0
—
260
350
μA
4.5
—
135
200
μA
2.0
—
210
285
μA
3.0
—
265
360
μA
4.5
—
215
285
μA
3.0
—
265
360
μA
4.5
—
240
360
μA
2.0
—
320
440
μA
3.0
—
370
500
μA
4.5
—
185
280
μA
2.0
—
265
360
μA
3.0
—
320
430
μA
4.5
—
165
235
μA
2.0
—
255
330
μA
3.0
—
330
430
μA
4.5
—
175
245
μA
2.0
—
275
350
μA
3.0
—
355
450
μA
4.5
—
140
205
μA
2.0
—
220
290
μA
3.0
—
270
360
μA
4.5
—
210
280
μA
3.0
—
260
350
μA
4.5
WDT Current(1)
BOR Current(1)
Comparator Current(1), both
comparators enabled
Comparator Current(1), single
comparator enabled
CVREF Current(1) (high range)
CVREF Current(1) (low range)
T1OSC Current(1), 32.768 kHz
A/D Current(1), no conversion in
progress
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 4.5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this
peripheral is enabled. The peripheral Δ current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD
current from this limit. Max values should be used when calculating total current consumption.
2: The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD.
3: Shunt regulator is always enabled and always draws operating current.
DS41288F-page 152
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.8
DC Characteristics:
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616- I (Industrial)
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 - E (Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym
VIL
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Vss
—
0.8
V
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
Vss
—
0.15 VDD
V
2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 4.5V
2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
Input Low Voltage
I/O port:
D030
with TTL buffer
D030A
Vss
—
0.2 VDD
V
D032
MCLR, OSC1 (RC mode)
VSS
—
0.2 VDD
V
D033
OSC1 (XT and LP modes)
VSS
—
0.3
V
D033A
OSC1 (HS mode)
VSS
—
0.3 VDD
V
2.0
—
VDD
V
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
0.25 VDD + 0.8
—
VDD
V
2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 4.5V
0.8 VDD
—
VDD
V
2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
0.8 VDD
—
VDD
V
1.6
—
VDD
V
D031
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
VIH
Input High Voltage
I/O ports:
D040
—
with TTL buffer
D040A
D041
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
D042
MCLR
D043
OSC1 (XT and LP modes)
D043A
OSC1 (HS mode)
0.7 VDD
—
VDD
V
D043B
OSC1 (RC mode)
0.9 VDD
—
VDD
V
(Note 1)
—
± 0.1
±1
μA
VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD,
Pin at high-impedance
(2,3)
IIL
Input Leakage Current
D060
I/O ports
D061
RA3/MCLR(3,4)
—
± 0.7
±5
μA
VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
D063
OSC1
—
± 0.1
±5
μA
VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, XT, HS and
LP oscillator configuration
IPUR
PORTA Weak Pull-up Current(5)
50
250
400
μA
VDD = 5.0V, VPIN = VSS
VOL
Output Low Voltage
—
—
0.6
V
IOL = 7.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
I/O ports
—
—
0.6
V
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
Output High Voltage
VDD – 0.7
—
—
V
IOH = -2.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +125°C
I/O ports(2)
VDD – 0.7
—
—
V
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40°C to +85°C
D070*
D080
VOH
D090
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended to use an external
clock in RC mode.
Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent
normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
This specification applies to RA3/MCLR configured as RA3 input with internal pull-up disabled.
This specification applies to all weak pull-up pins, including the weak pull-up on RA3/MCLR. When RA3/MCLR is
configured as MCLR reset pin, the weak pull-up is always enabled.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 153
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.9
DC Characteristics:
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616- I (Industrial)
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 - E (Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C for industrial
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C for extended
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym
D101*
COSC2
D101A* CIO
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Capacitive Loading Specs on
Output Pins
OSC2 pin
—
—
15
pF
In XT, HS and LP modes when
external clock is used to drive
OSC1
All I/O pins
—
—
50
pF
10K
100K
—
E/W
Program Flash Memory
D130
EP
Cell Endurance
D130A
ED
Cell Endurance
D131
VPR
VDD for Read
D132
VPEW
D133
TPEW
D134
TRETD
*
†
Note 1:
1K
10K
—
E/W
VMIN
—
5.5
V
VDD for Erase/Write
4.5
—
5.5
V
Erase/Write cycle time
—
2
2.5
ms
Characteristic Retention
40
—
—
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C
+85°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
VMIN = Minimum operating
voltage
Year Provided no other
specifications are violated
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended to use an external
clock in RC mode.
DS41288F-page 154
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.10 Thermal Considerations
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Typ
Units
70*
85.0*
100*
37*
32.5*
31.0*
31.7*
2.6*
150*
—
—
C/W
C/W
C/W
C/W
C/W
C/W
C/W
C/W
C
W
W
—
—
W
W
Conditions
TH01
θJA
Thermal Resistance
Junction to Ambient
TH02
θJC
Thermal Resistance
Junction to Case
TH03
TH04
TH05
TDIE
Die Temperature
PD
Power Dissipation
PINTERNAL Internal Power Dissipation
TH06
TH07
PI/O
PDER
*
Note 1:
2:
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
IDD is current to run the chip alone without driving any load on the output pins.
TA = Ambient Temperature.
I/O Power Dissipation
Derated Power
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
14-pin PDIP package
14-pin SOIC package
14-pin TSSOP package
16-pin QFN 4x4mm package
14-pin PDIP package
14-pin SOIC package
14-pin TSSOP package
16-pin QFN 4x4mm package
PD = PINTERNAL + PI/O
PINTERNAL = IDD x VDD
(NOTE 1)
PI/O = Σ (IOL * VOL) + Σ (IOH * (VDD - VOH))
PDER = PDMAX (TDIE - TA)/θJA
(NOTE 2)
DS41288F-page 155
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.11
Timing Parameter Symbology
The timing parameter symbols have been created with
one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
2. TppS
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings:
pp
cc
CCP1
ck
CLKOUT
cs
CS
di
SDI
do
SDO
dt
Data in
io
I/O Port
mc
MCLR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
H
High
I
Invalid (High-impedance)
L
Low
FIGURE 15-5:
T
Time
osc
rd
rw
sc
ss
t0
t1
wr
OSC1
RD
RD or WR
SCK
SS
T0CKI
T1CKI
WR
P
R
V
Z
Period
Rise
Valid
High-impedance
LOAD CONDITIONS
Load Condition
Pin
CL
VSS
Legend: CL = 50 pF for all pins
15 pF for OSC2 output
DS41288F-page 156
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.12 AC Characteristics: PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616 (Industrial, Extended)
FIGURE 15-6:
CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
OSC1/CLKIN
OS02
OS04
OS04
OS03
OSC2/CLKOUT
(LP,XT,HS Modes)
OSC2/CLKOUT
(CLKOUT Mode)
TABLE 15-1:
CLOCK OSCILLATOR TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
No.
Sym
OS01
FOSC
Characteristic
External CLKIN Frequency(1)
(1)
Oscillator Frequency
OS02
TOSC
External CLKIN Period(1)
Oscillator Period(1)
OS03
TCY
Instruction Cycle Time(1)
OS04*
TOSH,
TOSL
External CLKIN High,
External CLKIN Low
TOSR,
TOSF
External CLKIN Rise,
External CLKIN Fall
OS05*
*
†
Note 1:
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
DC
—
37
kHz
DC
—
4
MHz
XT Oscillator mode
DC
—
20
MHz
HS Oscillator mode
DC
—
20
MHz
EC Oscillator mode
LP Oscillator mode
—
32.768
—
kHz
LP Oscillator mode
0.1
—
4
MHz
XT Oscillator mode
1
—
20
MHz
HS Oscillator mode
DC
—
4
MHz
RC Oscillator mode
27
—
∞
μs
LP Oscillator mode
250
—
∞
ns
XT Oscillator mode
50
—
∞
ns
HS Oscillator mode
50
—
∞
ns
EC Oscillator mode
—
30.5
—
μs
LP Oscillator mode
250
—
10,000
ns
XT Oscillator mode
50
—
1,000
ns
HS Oscillator mode
250
—
—
ns
RC Oscillator mode
200
TCY
DC
ns
TCY = 4/FOSC
2
—
—
μs
LP oscillator
100
—
—
ns
XT oscillator
20
—
—
ns
HS oscillator
0
—
∞
ns
LP oscillator
0
—
∞
ns
XT oscillator
0
—
∞
ns
HS oscillator
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period. All specified values are based on
characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing
code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current
consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min” values with an external clock applied to OSC1 pin. When an
external clock input is used, the “max” cycle time limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 157
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 15-2:
OSCILLATOR PARAMETERS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
OS06
TWARM
Internal Oscillator Switch
when running(3)
OS07
INTOSC
Internal Calibrated
INTOSC Frequency(2)
(4MHz)
OS08
INTOSC
OS10*
Internal Calibrated
INTOSC Frequency(2)
(8MHz)
TIOSC ST INTOSC Oscillator Wakeup from Sleep
Start-up Time
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
Freq.
Tolerance
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
—
—
—
2
TOSC
Conditions
Slowest clock
±1%
3.96
4.0
4.04
MHz
VDD = 3.5V, TA = 25°C
±2%
3.92
4.0
4.08
MHz
2.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V,
0°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C
±5%
3.80
4.0
4.2
MHz
2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V,
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C (Ind.),
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C (Ext.)
±1%
7.92
8.0
8.08
MHz
VDD = 3.5V, TA = 25°C
±2%
7.84
8.0
8.16
MHz
2.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V,
0°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C
±5%
7.60
8.0
8.40
MHz
2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V,
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C (Ind.),
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C (Ext.)
—
5.5
12
24
μs
VDD = 2.0V, -40°C to +85°C
—
3.5
7
14
μs
VDD = 3.0V, -40°C to +85°C
—
3
6
11
μs
VDD = 5.0V, -40°C to +85°C
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period. All specified values are based on
characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing
code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected
current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min” values with an external clock applied to the OSC1 pin.
When an external clock input is used, the “max” cycle time limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices.
To ensure these oscillator frequency tolerances, VDD and VSS must be capacitively decoupled as close to the device as
possible. 0.1 μF and 0.01 μF values in parallel are recommended.
By design.
DS41288F-page 158
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 15-7:
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING
Cycle
Write
Fetch
Read
Execute
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
FOSC
OS12
OS11
OS20
OS21
CLKOUT
OS19
OS18
OS16
OS13
OS17
I/O pin
(Input)
OS14
OS15
I/O pin
(Output)
New Value
Old Value
OS18, OS19
TABLE 15-3:
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING PARAMETERS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
TOSH2CKL
FOSC↑ to CLKOUT↓ (1)
—
—
70
ns
VDD = 5.0V
OS12
TOSH2CKH
FOSC↑ to CLKOUT↑
—
—
72
ns
VDD = 5.0V
OS13
TCKL2IOV
CLKOUT↓ to Port out valid(1)
—
—
20
ns
OS14
TIOV2CKH
Port input valid before CLKOUT↑(1)
TOSC + 200 ns
—
—
ns
OS15
TOSH2IOV
FOSC↑ (Q1 cycle) to Port out valid
—
50
70*
ns
VDD = 5.0V
OS16
TOSH2IOI
FOSC↑ (Q2 cycle) to Port input invalid
(I/O in hold time)
50
—
—
ns
VDD = 5.0V
OS17
TIOV2OSH
Port input valid to FOSC↑ (Q2 cycle)
(I/O in setup time)
20
—
—
ns
OS18
TIOR
Port output rise time(2)
—
—
15
40
72
32
ns
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 5.0V
OS19
TIOF
Port output fall time(2)
—
—
28
15
55
30
ns
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 5.0V
OS20*
TINP
INT pin input high or low time
25
—
—
ns
OS21*
TRAP
PORTA interrupt-on-change new input
level time
TCY
—
—
ns
OS11
*
†
Note 1:
2:
(1)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated.
Measurements are taken in RC mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC.
Includes OSC2 in CLKOUT mode.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 159
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 15-8:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND
POWER-UP TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time-out
32
OSC
Start-Up Time
Internal Reset(1)
Watchdog Timer
Reset(1)
31
34
34
I/O pins
Note
1:
Asserted low.
FIGURE 15-9:
BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING AND CHARACTERISTICS
VDD
VBOR + VHYST
VBOR
(Device in Brown-out Reset)
(Device not in Brown-out Reset)
37
Reset
(due to BOR)
*
33*
64 ms delay only if PWRTE bit in the Configuration Word register is programmed to ‘0’.
DS41288F-page 160
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 15-4:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER
AND BROWN-OUT RESET PARAMETERS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
30
TMCL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
2
5
—
—
—
—
μs
μs
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +125°C
31*
TWDT
Watchdog Timer Time-out
Period (No Prescaler)
10
10
20
20
30
35
ms
ms
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +125°C
32
TOST
Oscillation Start-up Timer
Period(1, 2)
—
1024
—
33*
TPWRT
Power-up Timer Period
40
65
140
ms
34*
TIOZ
I/O High-impedance from
MCLR Low or Watchdog Timer
Reset
—
—
2.0
μs
35*
VBOR
Brown-out Reset Voltage
2.0
2.15
2.3
V
36*
VHYST
Brown-out Reset Hysteresis
—
100
—
mV
37*
TBOR
Brown-out Reset Minimum
Detection Period
100
—
—
μs
TOSC (NOTE 3)
(NOTE 4)
VDD ≤ VBOR
Legend: TBD = To Be Determined
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period. All specified values
are based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions
with the device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min” values
with an external clock applied to the OSC1 pin. When an external clock input is used, the “max” cycle time
limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices.
2: By design.
3: Period of the slower clock.
4: To ensure these voltage tolerances, VDD and VSS must be capacitivey decoupled as close to the device as
possible. 0.1 μF and 0.01 μF values in parallel are recommended.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 161
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 15-10:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
T0CKI
40
41
42
T1CKI
45
46
49
47
TMR0 or
TMR1
TABLE 15-5:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
No.
40*
Sym
TT0H
Characteristic
T0CKI High Pulse Width
No Prescaler
With Prescaler
41*
TT0L
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
No Prescaler
42*
TT0P
T0CKI Period
45*
TT1H
T1CKI High Synchronous, No Prescaler
Time
Synchronous,
with Prescaler
With Prescaler
Asynchronous
46*
TT1L
T1CKI Low
Time
Synchronous, No Prescaler
Synchronous,
with Prescaler
Asynchronous
47*
TT1P
T1CKI Input Synchronous
Period
48
FT1
Timer1 Oscillator Input Frequency Range
(oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN)
49*
TCKEZTMR1 Delay from External Clock Edge to Timer
Increment
Asynchronous
*
†
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
15
—
—
ns
30
—
—
ns
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
15
—
—
ns
30
—
—
ns
Greater of:
30 or TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
60
—
—
ns
—
32.768
—
kHz
2 TOSC
—
7 TOSC
—
Conditions
N = prescale value
(2, 4, ..., 256)
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
Timers in Sync
mode
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS41288F-page 162
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 15-11:
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (ECCP)
CCP1
(Capture mode)
CC01
CC02
CC03
Note:
TABLE 15-6:
Refer to Figure 15-5 for load conditions.
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (ECCP)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
No.
CC01*
CC02*
CC03*
Sym
TccL
TccH
TccP
Characteristic
CCP1 Input Low Time
CCP1 Input High Time
CCP1 Input Period
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
No Prescaler
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
With Prescaler
20
—
—
ns
No Prescaler
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
With Prescaler
20
—
—
ns
3TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
Conditions
N = prescale
value (1, 4 or
16)
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 163
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 15-7:
COMPARATOR SPECIFICATIONS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature -40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristics
CM01
VOS
Input Offset Voltage(2)
CM02
VCM
Input Common Mode Voltage
CM03* CMRR
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
CM04* TRT
Response Time(1)
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
—
± 5.0
± 10
mV
0
—
VDD – 1.5
V
+55
—
—
dB
Falling
—
150
600
ns
Rising
—
200
1000
ns
CM05* TMC2COV Comparator Mode Change to Output Valid
—
—
10
μs
CM06* VHYS
—
45
60
mV
Input Hysteresis Voltage
Comments
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: Response time is measured with one comparator input at (VDD - 1.5)/2 - 100 mV to (VDD - 1.5)/2 + 20 mV.
The other input is at (VDD -1.5)/2.
2: Input offset voltage is measured with one comparator input at (VDD - 1.5V)/2.
TABLE 15-8:
COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE (CVREF) SPECIFICATIONS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristics
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Comments
CV01
CLSB
Step Size(2)
—
—
VDD/24
VDD/32
—
—
V
V
Low Range (VRR = 1)
High Range (VRR = 0)
CV02
CACC
Absolute Accuracy(3)
—
—
—
—
± 1/2
± 1/2
LSb
LSb
Low Range (VRR = 1)
High Range (VRR = 0)
CV03
CR
Unit Resistor Value (R)
—
2k
—
Ω
CV04
CST
Settling Time(1)
—
—
10
μs
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design
guidance only and are not tested.
Note 1: Settling time measured while VRR = 1 and VR<3:0> transitions from ‘0000’ to ‘1111’.
2: See Section 8.11 “Comparator Voltage Reference” for more information.
3: Absolute Accuracy when CVREF output is ≤ (VDD-1.5).
TABLE 15-9:
VOLTAGE REFERENCE SPECIFICATIONS
VR Voltage Reference Specifications
Param
No.
Symbol
Characteristics
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Min
Typ
Max
Units
V
VP6OUT
VP6 voltage output
0.50
0.6
0.7
VR02
V1P2OUT
V1P2 voltage output
1.05
1.20
1.35
V
VR03*
TSTABLE
Settling Time
—
10
—
μs
VR01
*
Comments
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
DS41288F-page 164
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 15-10: SHUNT REGULATOR SPECIFICATIONS (PIC16HV610/616 only)
SHUNT REGULATOR CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Symbol
Characteristics
VSHUNT Shunt Voltage
SR01
SR02
ISHUNT
SR03*
TSETTLE Settling Time
SR04
CLOAD
Load Capacitance
SR05
ΔISNT
Regulator operating current
*
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Min
Typ
Max
Units
4.75
5
5.4
V
Shunt Current
Comments
4
—
50
mA
—
—
150
ns
To 1% of final value
0.01
—
10
μF
Bypass capacitor on VDD
pin
—
180
—
μA
Includes band gap
reference current
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
TABLE 15-11: PIC16F616/16HV616 A/D CONVERTER (ADC) CHARACTERISTICS:
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
Sym
No.
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
AD01
NR
Resolution
—
—
10 bits
AD02
EIL
Integral Error
—
—
±1
LSb VREF = 5.12V(5)
AD03
EDL
Differential Error
—
—
±1
LSb No missing codes to 10 bits
VREF = 5.12V(5)
AD04
EOFF
Offset Error
—
+1.5
+ 2.0
LSb VREF = 5.12V(5)
AD07
EGN
Gain Error
—
—
±1
LSb VREF = 5.12V(5)
2.2
2.5
—
—
VDD
V
VSS
—
VREF
V
Voltage(3)
bit
AD06 VREF
AD06A
Reference
AD07
VAIN
Full-Scale Range
AD08
ZAIN
Recommended
Impedance of Analog
Voltage Source
—
—
10
kΩ
AD09* IREF
VREF Input Current(3)
10
—
1000
μA
During VAIN acquisition.
Based on differential of VHOLD to VAIN.
—
—
50
μA
During A/D conversion cycle.
Absolute minimum to ensure 1 LSb
accuracy
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: Total Absolute Error includes integral, differential, offset and gain errors.
2: The A/D conversion result never decreases with an increase in the input voltage and has no missing
codes.
3: ADC VREF is from external VREF or VDD pin, whichever is selected as reference input.
4: When ADC is off, it will not consume any current other than leakage current. The power-down current
specification includes any such leakage from the ADC module.
5: VREF = 5V for PIC16HV616.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 165
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 15-12: PIC16F616/16HV616 A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Param
No.
Sym
AD130* TAD
Characteristic
A/D Clock Period
A/D Internal RC
Oscillator Period
AD131 TCNV
Conversion Time
(not including
Acquisition Time)(1)
Min
Typ†
1.6
—
9.0
μs
TOSC-based, VREF ≥ 3.0V
3.0
—
9.0
μs
TOSC-based, VREF full range
3.0
6.0
9.0
μs
ADCS<1:0> = 11 (ADRC mode)
At VDD = 2.5V
1.6
4.0
6.0
μs
At VDD = 5.0V
—
11
—
TAD
Set GO/DONE bit to new data in A/D
Result register
11.5
—
μs
Amplifier Settling Time
—
—
5
μs
Q4 to A/D Clock Start
—
TOSC/2
—
—
—
TOSC/2 + TCY
—
—
AD132* TACQ Acquisition Time
AD133*
TAMP
AD134 TGO
Max Units
Conditions
If the A/D clock source is selected as
RC, a time of TCY is added before the
A/D clock starts. This allows the SLEEP
instruction to be executed.
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: ADRESH and ADRESL registers may be read on the following TCY cycle.
2: See Section 9.3 “A/D Acquisition Requirements” for minimum conditions.
DS41288F-page 166
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 15-12:
PIC16F616/16HV616 A/D CONVERSION TIMING (NORMAL MODE)
BSF ADCON0, GO
AD134
1 TCY
(TOSC/2(1))
AD131
Q4
AD130
A/D CLK
9
A/D Data
8
7
6
3
2
1
0
NEW_DATA
OLD_DATA
ADRES
1 TCY
ADIF
GO
DONE
Note 1:
Sampling Stopped
AD132
Sample
If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the
SLEEP instruction to be executed.
FIGURE 15-13:
PIC16F616/16HV616 A/D CONVERSION TIMING (SLEEP MODE)
BSF ADCON0, GO
AD134
(TOSC/2 + TCY(1))
1 TCY
AD131
Q4
AD130
A/D CLK
9
A/D Data
8
7
6
OLD_DATA
ADRES
3
2
1
0
NEW_DATA
ADIF
1 TCY
GO
DONE
Sample
Note 1:
AD132
Sampling Stopped
If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the
SLEEP instruction to be executed.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 167
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
15.13 High Temperature Operation
This section outlines the specifications for the
PIC16F616 device operating in a temperature range
between -40°C and 150°C.(4) The specifications
between -40°C and 150°C(4) are identical to those
shown in DS41302 and DS80329.
Note 1: Writes are not allowed for
Program Memory above 125°C.
Flash
2: All AC timing specifications are increased
by 30%. This derating factor will include
parameters such as TPWRT.
3: The temperature range indicator in the
part number is “H” for -40°C to 150°C.(4)
Example: PIC16F616T-H/ST indicates the
device is shipped in a tAPE and reel configuration, in the TSSOP package, and is
rated for operation from -40°C to 150°C.(4)
4: AEC-Q100 reliability testing for devices
intended to operate at 150°C is 1,000
hours. Any design in which the total operating time from 125°C to 150°C will be
greater than 1,000 hours is not warranted
without prior written approval from
Microchip Technology Inc.
TABLE 15-13: ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Parameter
Max. Current: VDD
Max. Current:
VSS
Max. Current: PIN
Max. Current: PIN
Pin Current: at VOH
Pin Current: at VOL
Source/Sink
Value
Units
Source
20
mA
Sink
50
mA
Source
5
mA
Sink
10
mA
Source
3
mA
Sink
8.5
mA
Port Current: A and C
Source
20
mA
Port Current: A and C
Sink
50
mA
155
°C
Maximum Junction Temperature
Note:
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only, and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions
above those indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure above maximum
rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
DS41288F-page 168
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 15-14: DC CHARACTERISTICS FOR IDD SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIC16F616 – H (High
Temp.)
Param
No.
Device
Characteristics
Condition
Units
μA
D011
μA
D012
μA
mA
D013
μA
D014
μA
mA
D016
μA
D017
μA
mA
D018
μA
D019
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Typ
Max
VDD
D010
Supply Current (IDD)
Min
mA
—
13
58
2.0
—
19
67
3.0
—
32
92
5.0
—
135
316
2.0
—
185
400
3.0
—
300
537
5.0
—
240
495
2.0
—
360
680
3.0
—
0.660
1.20
5.0
—
75
158
2.0
—
155
338
3.0
—
345
792
5.0
—
185
357
2.0
—
325
625
3.0
—
0.665
1.30
5.0
—
245
476
2.0
—
360
672
3.0
—
620
1.10
5.0
—
395
757
2.0
—
0.620
1.20
3.0
—
1.20
2.20
5.0
—
175
332
2.0
—
285
518
3.0
—
530
972
5.0
—
2.20
4.10
4.5
—
2.80
4.80
5.0
Note
IDD LP OSC (32 kHz)
IDD XT OSC (1 MHz)
IDD XT OSC (4 MHz)
IDD EC OSC (1 MHz)
IDD EC OSC (4 MHz)
IDD INTOSC (4 MHz)
IDD INTOSC (8 MHz)
IDD EXTRC (4 MHz)
IDD HS OSC (20 MHz)
DS41288F-page 169
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 15-15: DC CHARACTERISTICS FOR IPD SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIC16F616 – H (High Temp.)
Param
No.
Condition
Device
Characteristics
Units
Power Down IPD
μA
Max
—
0.05
12
2.0
—
0.15
13
3.0
—
0.35
14
5.0
—
0.5
20
2.0
—
2.5
25
3.0
—
9.5
36
5.0
μA
—
5.0
28
3.0
—
6.0
36
5.0
—
105
195
2.0
μA
—
110
210
3.0
—
116
220
5.0
—
50
105
2.0
—
55
110
3.0
—
60
125
5.0
—
30
58
2.0
—
45
85
3.0
—
75
142
5.0
—
39
76
2.0
—
59
114
3.0
—
98
190
5.0
D021E
μA
D023E
μA
D024E
μA
D025E
μA
D026E
μA
D027E
Typ
VDD
D020E
D022E
Min
μA
—
5.5
30
2.0
—
7.0
35
3.0
—
8.5
45
5.0
—
0.2
12
3.0
—
0.3
15
5.0
Note
IPD Base
WDT Current
BOR Current
IPD Current (Both
Comparators Enabled)
IPD Current (One Comparator
Enabled)
IPD (CVREF, High Range)
IPD (CVREF, Low Range)
IPD (T1 OSC, 32 kHz)
IPD (A2D on, not converting)
TABLE 15-16: WATCHDOG TIMER SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIC16F616 – H (High Temp.)
Param
No.
31
Sym
TWDT
Characteristic
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
(No Prescaler)
Units
Min
Typ
Max
ms
6
20
70
Conditions
150°C Temperature
TABLE 15-17: LEAKAGE CURRENT SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIC16F616 – H (High Temp.)
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristic
Units
Min
Typ
Max
Conditions
D061
IIL
Input Leakage Current(1)
(GP3/RA3/MCLR)
µA
—
±0.5
±5.0
VSS ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
D062
IIL
Input Leakage Current(2)
(GP3/RA3/MCLR)
µA
50
250
400
VDD = 5.0V
Note 1:
2:
This specification applies when GP3/RA3/MCLR is configured as an input with the pull-up disabled. The
leakage current for the GP3/RA3/MCLR pin is higher than for the standard I/O port pins.
This specification applies when GP3/RA3/MCLR is configured as the MCLR Reset pin function with the
weak pull-up enabled.
DS41288F-page 170
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE 15-18: OSCILLATOR PARAMETERS FOR PIC16F616 – H (High Temp.)
Param
No.
OS08
Note 1:
Sym
Characteristic
INTOSC Int. Calibrated INTOSC
Freq.(1)
Frequency
Tolerance
Units
Min
Typ
Max
±10%
MHz
7.2
8.0
8.8
Conditions
2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ 150°C
To ensure these oscillator frequency tolerances, VDD and VSS must be capacitively decoupled as close to
the device as possible. 0.1 µF and 0.01 µF values in parallel are recommended.
TABLE 15-19: COMPARATOR SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIC16F616 – H (High Temp.)
Param
No.
CM01
Sym
VOS
Characteristic
Input Offset Voltage
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Units
Min
Typ
Max
mV
—
±5
±20
Conditions
(VDD - 1.5)/2
DS41288F-page 171
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
NOTES:
DS41288F-page 172
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
16.0
DC AND AC CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS AND TABLES
Note:
The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of
samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are
not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified
operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore, outside the warranted range.
“Typical” represents the mean of the distribution at 25°C. “Maximum” or “minimum” represents (mean + 3σ) or (mean 3σ) respectively, where s is a standard deviation, over each temperature range.
FIGURE 16-1:
PIC16F610/616 IDD LP (32 kHz) vs. VDD
60
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
50
Maximum
40
IDD LP (µA)
Typical
30
20
10
0
2
1
4
3
6
5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-2:
PIC16F610/616 IDD EC (1 MHz) vs. VDD
600
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
IDD EC (µA)
500
400
Typical
300
200
100
0
1
2
4
3
5
6
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 173
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-3:
PIC16F610/616 IDD EC (4 MHz) vs. VDD
1200
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
1000
Maximum
IDD EC (µA)
800
Typical
600
400
200
0
2
1
FIGURE 16-4:
4
3
6
5
VDD (V)
PIC16F610/616 IDD XT (1 MHz) vs. VDD
1200
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
1000
IDD XT (µA)
800
600
Maximum
400
Typical
200
0
1
FIGURE 16-5:
2
3
VDD (V)
4
6
5
PIC16F610/616 IDD XT (4 MHz) vs. VDD
1200
800
IDD XT (µA)
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
1000
Typical
600
400
200
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
VDD (V)
DS41288F-page 174
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-6:
PIC16F610/616 IDD INTOSC (4 MHz) vs. VDD
900
Maximum
800
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
IDD INTOSC (µA)
700
Typical
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2
1
FIGURE 16-7:
3
VDD (V)
4
6
5
PIC16F610/616 IDD INTOSC (8 MHz) vs. VDD
1800
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
1600
1400
IDD INTOSC (µA)
Typical
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1
2
4
3
5
6
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 175
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-8:
PIC16F610/616 IDD EXTRC (4 MHz) vs. VDD
800
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
700
600
IDD EXTRC (µA)
Typical
500
400
300
200
100
0
1
2
4
3
5
6
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-9:
PIC16F610/616 IDD HS (20 MHz) vs. VDD
4
Maximum
3
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
IDD HS (µA)
Typical
2
1
0
4
6
5
VDD (V)
DS41288F-page 176
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-10:
PIC16F610/616 IPD BASE vs. VDD
9
Extended
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
8
Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 85°C)
Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
7
IPD BASE (µA)
6
5
4
3
2
Industrial
1
Typical
0
2
1
4
3
6
5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-11:
PIC16F610/616 IPD COMPARATOR (SINGLE ON) vs. VDD
90
Extended
80
IPD CMP (µA)
Industrial
70
Typical
60
50
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 85°C)
Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
40
30
1
2
4
3
5
6
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 177
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-12:
PIC16F610/616 IPD COMPARATOR (BOTH ON) vs. VDD
160
Extended
150
Industrial
140
IPD CMP (µA)
130
120
Typical
110
100
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 85°C)
Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
90
80
2
1
4
3
6
5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-13:
PIC16F610/616 IPD WDT vs. VDD
IPD WDT (µA)
20
Extended
18
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
16
Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 85°C)
Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
14
12
Industrial
10
Typical
8
6
4
2
0
1
2
4
3
5
6
VDD (V)
DS41288F-page 178
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-14:
PIC16F610/616 IPD BOR vs. VDD
20
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Extended
Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 85°C)
18
Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
16
IPD BOR (µA)
14
Industrial
12
10
8
Typical
6
4
2
0
2
1
4
3
6
5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-15:
PIC16F610/616 IPD CVREF (LOW RANGE) vs. VDD
140
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum
Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 85°C)
120
Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
Typical
100
IPD CVREF (µA)
80
60
40
20
0
1
2
4
3
5
6
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 179
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-16:
PIC16F610/616 IPD CVREF (HI RANGE) vs. VDD
120
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
IPD CVREF (µA)
Maximum
Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 85°C)
Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
100
80
Typical
60
40
20
0
1
2
3
4
6
5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-17:
PIC16F610/616 IPD T1OSC vs. VDD
25
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 85°C)
Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
IPD T1OSC (µA)
20
Extended
15
Industrial
10
Typical
5
0
1
2
4
3
5
6
VDD (V)
DS41288F-page 180
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-18:
PIC16F616 IPD A/D vs. VDD
14
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
10
IPD A2D (µA)
Extended
Industrial: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 85°C)
Extended: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
12
8
6
4
Industrial
2
Typical
0
2
1
4
3
6
5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-19:
PIC16HV610/616 IDD LP (32 kHz) vs. VDD
450
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
400
350
IDD LP (µA)
300
Typical
250
200
150
100
50
0
1
2
3
4
5
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 181
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-20:
PIC16HV610/616 IDD EC (1 MHz) vs. VDD
1000
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
900
IDD EC (µA)
800
Maximum
700
600
Typical
500
400
300
200
100
2
1
3
5
4
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-21:
PIC16HV610/616 IDD EC (4 MHz) vs. VDD
1400
IDD EC (µA)
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
1200
1000
Typical
800
600
400
200
0
2
1
3
5
4
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-22:
PIC16HV610/616 IDD XT (1 MHz) vs. VDD
900
800
IDD XT (µA)
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
700
600
Typical
500
400
300
200
100
0
1
2
3
4
5
VDD (V)
DS41288F-page 182
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-23:
PIC16HV610/616 IDD XT (4 MHz) vs. VDD
1400
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
1200
IDD XT (µA)
1000
Typical
800
600
400
200
0
2
1
3
5
4
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-24:
PIC16HV610/616 IDD INTOSC (4 MHz) vs. VDD
1200
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
IDD INTOSC (µA)
1000
800
Typical
600
400
200
0
2
1
3
5
4
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-25:
PIC16HV610/616 IDD INTOSC (8 MHz) vs. VDD
IDD INTOSC (µA)
2000
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
1500
Typical
1000
500
0
1
2
3
4
5
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 183
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-26:
PIC16HV610/616 IDD EXTRC (4 MHz) vs. VDD
1200
IDD EXTRC (µA)
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
1000
800
Typical
600
400
200
0
1
2
3
5
4
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-27:
PIC16HV610/616 IPD BASE vs. VDD
400
IPD BASE (µA)
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
350
300
Typical
250
200
150
100
50
0
1
2
3
5
4
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-28:
PIC16HV610/616 IPD COMPARATOR (SINGLE ON) vs. VDD
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
500
Maximum
IPD CMP (µA)
400
Typical
300
200
100
0
1
2
3
4
5
VDD (V)
DS41288F-page 184
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-29:
PIC16HV610/616 IPD COMPARATOR (BOTH ON) vs. VDD
600
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
500
Maximum
IPD CMP (µA)
400
Typical
300
200
100
0
2
1
3
5
4
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-30:
PIC16HV610/616 IPD WDT vs. VDD
400
IPD WDT (µA)
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
350
300
Typical
250
200
150
100
50
0
2
1
3
5
4
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-31:
PIC16HV610/616 IPD BOR vs. VDD
400
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
IPD BOR (µA)
350
Maximum
300
Typical
250
200
150
100
2
3
4
5
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 185
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-32:
PIC16HV610/616 IPD CVREF (LOW RANGE) vs. VDD
500
400
IPD CVREF (µA)
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
Typical
300
200
100
0
2
1
3
5
4
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-33:
PIC16HV610/616 IPD CVREF (HI RANGE) vs. VDD
500
Maximum
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
400
IPD CVREF (µA)
Typical
300
200
100
0
2
1
3
5
4
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-34:
PIC16HV610/616 IPD T1OSC vs. VDD
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
400
350
Maximum
IPD T1OSC (µA)
300
Typical
250
200
150
100
50
0
1
2
3
4
5
VDD (V)
DS41288F-page 186
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-35:
PIC16HV616 IPD A/D vs. VDD
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
400
350
Maximum
300
IPD A2D (µA)
Typical
250
200
150
100
50
0
2
FIGURE 16-36:
3
4
VDD (V)
5
VOL vs. IOL OVER TEMPERATURE (VDD = 3.0V)
0.8
0.7
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
Max. 125°C
0.6
Max. 85°C
VOL (V)
0.5
0.4
Typical 25°C
0.3
0.2
Min. -40°C
0.1
0.0
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
IOL (mA)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 187
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-37:
VOL vs. IOL OVER TEMPERATURE (VDD = 5.0V)
0.45
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
0.40
Max. 125°C
0.35
Max. 85°C
VOL (V)
0.30
0.25
Typ. 25°C
0.20
Min. -40°C
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
IOL (mA)
FIGURE 16-38:
VOH vs. IOH OVER TEMPERATURE (VDD = 3.0V)
3.5
3.0
Max. -40°C
Typ. 25°C
2.5
Min. 125°C
VOH (V)
2.0
1.5
1.0
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
0.5
0.0
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-3.0
-3.5
-4.0
IOH (mA)
DS41288F-page 188
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-39:
VOH vs. IOH OVER TEMPERATURE (VDD = 5.0V)
5.5
5.0
Max. -40°C
Typ. 25°C
VOH (V)
4.5
Min. 125°C
4.0
3.5
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
3.0
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
-2.5
-3.0
-3.5
-4.0
-4.5
-5.0
IOH (mA)
FIGURE 16-40:
TTL INPUT THRESHOLD VIN vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE
1.7
1.5
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
Max. -40°C
VIN (V)
1.3
Typ. 25°C
1.1
Min. 125°C
0.9
0.7
0.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 189
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-41:
SCHMITT TRIGGER INPUT THRESHOLD VIN vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE
4.0
VIH Max. 125°C
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
3.5
VIH Min. -40°C
VIN (V)
3.0
2.5
2.0
VIL Max. -40°C
1.5
VIL Min. 125°C
1.0
0.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-42:
TYPICAL HFINTOSC START-UP TIMES vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE
16
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
14
85°C
12
25°C
Time (µs)
10
-40°C
8
6
4
2
0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
DS41288F-page 190
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-43:
MAXIMUM HFINTOSC START-UP TIMES vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE
25
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
Time (µs)
20
15
85°C
25°C
10
-40°C
5
0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-44:
MINIMUM HFINTOSC START-UP TIMES vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE
10
9
Typical: Statistical Mean @25°C
Maximum: Mean (Worst-Case Temp) + 3σ
(-40°C to 125°C)
8
7
Time (μs)
85°C
6
25°C
5
-40°C
4
3
2
1
0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 191
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-45:
TYPICAL HFINTOSC FREQUENCY CHANGE vs. VDD (25°C)
5
4
Change from Calibration (%)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-46:
TYPICAL HFINTOSC FREQUENCY CHANGE vs. VDD (85°C)
5
4
Change from Calibration (%)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
VDD (V)
DS41288F-page 192
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-47:
TYPICAL HFINTOSC FREQUENCY CHANGE vs. VDD (125°C)
5
4
Change from Calibration (%)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 16-48:
TYPICAL HFINTOSC FREQUENCY CHANGE vs. VDD (-40°C)
5
4
Change from Calibration (%)
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 193
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-49:
0.6V REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. TEMP (TYPICAL)
0.61
2.5V
Reference Voltage (V)
0.6
3V
4V
0.59
5V
0.58
5.5V
0.57
0.56
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Temp (C)
FIGURE 16-50:
1.2V REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. TEMP (TYPICAL)
1.26
2.5V
1.25
Reference Voltage (V)
3V
1.24
4V
5V
1.23
5.5V
1.22
1.21
1.2
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Temp (C)
FIGURE 16-51:
SHUNT REGULATOR VOLTAGE vs. INPUT CURRENT (TYPICAL)
5.16
-40°C
25°C
85°C
Shunt Regulator Voltage (V)
5.14
5.12
5.1
125°C
5.08
5.06
5.04
5.02
5
4.98
4.96
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Input Current (mA)
DS41288F-page 194
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-52:
SHUNT REGULATOR VOLTAGE vs. TEMP (TYPICAL)
Shunt Regulator Voltage (V)
5.16
5.14
5.12
5.1
50 mA
5.08
40 mA
5.06
5.04
20 mA
5.02
15 mA
5
10 mA
4.98
4 mA
4.96
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Temp (C)
FIGURE 16-53:
COMPARATOR RESPONSE TIME (RISING EDGE)
1000
900
Max. 125°C
Response Time (nS)
800
700
600
500
Note: Vcm = (VDD - 1.5V)/2
V+ input = Vcm
V- input = Transition from Vcm + 100mV to Vcm - 20mV
Max. 85°C
400
300
Typ. 25°C
Min. -40°C
200
100
0
2.0
2.5
4.0
5.5
VDD (V)
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 195
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
FIGURE 16-54:
COMPARATOR RESPONSE TIME (FALLING EDGE)
1000
900
Max. 125°C
800
Response Time (nS)
700
600
500
Note: VCM = (VDD - 1.5V)/2
V+ input = VCM
V- input = Transition from VCM - 100MV to VCM + 20MV
Max. 85°C
400
300
Typ. 25°C
200
Min. -40°C
100
0
2.0
2.5
4.0
5.5
VDD (V)
WDT TIME-OUT PERIOD vs. VDD OVER TEMPERATURE
FIGURE 16-55:
55
50
45
40
Time (ms)
35
30
125°C
25
85°C
20
25°C
15
-40°C
10
5
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
VDD (V)
DS41288F-page 196
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
17.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
17.1
Package Marking Information
14-Lead PDIP
Example
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
14-Lead SOIC (.150”)
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
14-Lead TSSOP
XXXXXXXX
YYWW
NNN
16-Lead QFN
Legend: XX...X
Y
YY
WW
NNN
e3
*
*
Example
PIC16F616-E
0610017
Example
XXXX/ST
0610
017
Example
XXXXXXX
XXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
Note:
PIC16F616
-I/P e3
0610017
16F616
-I/ML
0610017
Customer-specific information
Year code (last digit of calendar year)
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Alphanumeric traceability code
Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn)
This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 )
can be found on the outer packaging for this package.
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will
be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available
characters for customer-specific information.
Standard PIC® device marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code, and traceability
code. For PIC® device marking beyond this, certain price adders apply. Please check with your
Microchip Sales Office. For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP price.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 197
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
17.2
Package Details
The following sections give the technical details of the packages.
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DS41288F-page 199
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DS41288F-page 201
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© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
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© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 203
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
NOTES:
DS41288F-page 204
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
APPENDIX A:
DATA SHEET
REVISION HISTORY
Revision A
This is a new data sheet.
Revision B (12/06)
Added PIC16F610/16HV610 parts.
Replaced Package Drawings.
Revision C (03/2007)
Replaced Package Drawings (Rev. AM); Replaced
Development Support Section; Revised Product ID
System.
Revision D (06/2008)
Added Graphs; Revised 28-Pin ICD Pinout, Electrical
Specifications Section; Package Details.
Revision E (09/2009)
Added section 15.13 (High Temperature Operation) to
the Electrical Specifications Chapter; Other minor
corrections.
Revision F (11/2009)
Updated Figure 16-52.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 205
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
APPENDIX B:
MIGRATING FROM
OTHER PIC®
DEVICES
This discusses some of the issues in migrating from
other PIC® devices to the PIC16F6XX Family of
devices.
B.1
PIC16F676 to PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
TABLE B-1:
FEATURE COMPARISON
Feature
Max Operating Speed
Max Program Memory (Words)
PIC16F676
PIC16F610/16HV610
PIC16F616/16HV616
20 MHz
20 MHz
20 MHz
1024
1024
2048
SRAM (bytes)
64
64
128
A/D Resolution
10-bit
None
10-bit
1/1
1/1
2/1
Timers (8/16-bit)
Oscillator Modes
8
8
8
Brown-out Reset
Y
Y
Y
RA0/1/2/4/5
RA0/1/2/4/5, MCLR
RA0/1/2/4/5, MCLR
RA0/1/2/3/4/5
RA0/1/2/3/4/5
RA0/1/2/3/4/5
Internal Pull-ups
Interrupt-on-change
Comparator
1
2
2
ECCP
N
N
Y
INTOSC Frequencies
Internal Shunt Regulator
Note:
4 MHz
4/8 MHz
4/8 MHz
N
Y (PIC16HV610)
Y (PIC16HV616)
This device has been designed to perform
to the parameters of its data sheet. It has
been tested to an electrical specification
designed to determine its conformance
with these parameters. Due to process
differences in the manufacture of this
device, this device may have different
performance characteristics than its earlier
version. These differences may cause this
device to perform differently in your
application than the earlier version of this
device.
DS41288F-page 206
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
INDEX
A
A/D
Specifications.................................................... 165, 166
Absolute Maximum Ratings .............................................. 143
AC Characteristics
Industrial and Extended ............................................ 157
Load Conditions ........................................................ 156
ADC .................................................................................... 73
Acquisition Requirements ........................................... 81
Associated registers.................................................... 83
Block Diagram............................................................. 73
Calculating Acquisition Time....................................... 81
Channel Selection....................................................... 74
Configuration............................................................... 74
Configuring Interrupt ................................................... 76
Conversion Clock........................................................ 74
Conversion Procedure ................................................ 76
Internal Sampling Switch (RSS) Impedance................ 81
Interrupts..................................................................... 75
Operation .................................................................... 76
Operation During Sleep .............................................. 76
Port Configuration ....................................................... 74
Reference Voltage (VREF)........................................... 74
Result Formatting........................................................ 75
Source Impedance...................................................... 81
Special Event Trigger.................................................. 76
Starting an A/D Conversion ........................................ 75
ADCON0 Register............................................................... 78
ADCON1 Register............................................................... 79
ADRESH Register (ADFM = 0) ........................................... 80
ADRESH Register (ADFM = 1) ........................................... 80
ADRESL Register (ADFM = 0)............................................ 80
ADRESL Register (ADFM = 1)............................................ 80
Analog-to-Digital Converter. See ADC
ANSEL Register .................................................................. 34
Assembler
MPASM Assembler................................................... 140
B
Block Diagrams
(CCP) Capture Mode Operation ................................. 86
ADC ............................................................................ 73
ADC Transfer Function ............................................... 82
Analog Input Model ............................................... 64, 82
CCP PWM................................................................... 90
Clock Source............................................................... 27
Comparator C1 ........................................................... 58
Comparator C2 ........................................................... 58
Compare Mode Operation .......................................... 88
Crystal Operation ........................................................ 29
External RC Mode....................................................... 30
In-Circuit Serial Programming Connections.............. 126
Interrupt Logic ........................................................... 119
MCLR Circuit............................................................. 112
On-Chip Reset Circuit ............................................... 111
PIC16F610/16HV610.................................................... 9
PIC16F616/16HV616.................................................. 10
PWM (Enhanced)........................................................ 93
RA0 and RA1 Pins ...................................................... 36
RA2 Pins ..................................................................... 37
RA3 Pin....................................................................... 38
RA4 Pin....................................................................... 39
RA5 Pin....................................................................... 40
RC0 and RC1 Pins...................................................... 43
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
RC2 and RC3 Pins ..................................................... 43
RC4 Pin ...................................................................... 44
RC5 Pin ...................................................................... 44
Resonator Operation .................................................. 29
Timer1 ........................................................................ 49
Timer2 ........................................................................ 55
TMR0/WDT Prescaler ................................................ 45
Watchdog Timer ....................................................... 122
Brown-out Reset (BOR).................................................... 113
Associated Registers................................................ 114
Specifications ........................................................... 161
Timing and Characteristics ....................................... 160
C
C Compilers
MPLAB C18.............................................................. 140
Calibration Bits.................................................................. 111
Capture Module. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM
(ECCP)
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP)
Associated registers w/ Capture/Compare/PWM 87, 89,
105
Capture Mode............................................................. 86
CCP1 Pin Configuration ............................................. 86
Compare Mode........................................................... 88
CCP1 Pin Configuration ..................................... 88
Software Interrupt Mode ............................... 86, 88
Special Event Trigger ......................................... 88
Timer1 Mode Selection................................. 86, 88
Prescaler .................................................................... 86
PWM Mode................................................................. 90
Duty Cycle .......................................................... 91
Effects of Reset .................................................. 92
Example PWM Frequencies and Resolutions, 20
MHz ............................................................ 91
Example PWM Frequencies and Resolutions, 8
MHz ............................................................ 91
Operation in Sleep Mode.................................... 92
Setup for Operation ............................................ 92
System Clock Frequency Changes .................... 92
PWM Period ............................................................... 91
Setup for PWM Operation .......................................... 92
CCP1CON (Enhanced) Register ........................................ 85
Clock Sources
External Modes........................................................... 28
EC ...................................................................... 28
HS ...................................................................... 29
LP ....................................................................... 29
OST .................................................................... 28
RC ...................................................................... 30
XT ....................................................................... 29
Internal Modes............................................................ 30
INTOSC .............................................................. 30
INTOSCIO .......................................................... 30
CM1CON0 Register............................................................ 62
CM2CON0 Register............................................................ 63
CM2CON1 Register............................................................ 65
Code Examples
A/D Conversion .......................................................... 77
Assigning Prescaler to Timer0.................................... 46
Assigning Prescaler to WDT....................................... 46
Changing Between Capture Prescalers ..................... 86
Indirect Addressing..................................................... 24
Initializing PORTA ...................................................... 33
DS41288F-page 207
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
Initializing PORTC....................................................... 42
Saving Status and W Registers in RAM ................... 121
Code Protection ................................................................ 125
Comparator
C2OUT as T1 Gate ..................................................... 65
Operation .................................................................... 57
Operation During Sleep .............................................. 61
Response Time ........................................................... 59
Synchronizing COUT w/Timer1 .................................. 65
Comparator Analog Input Connection Considerations........ 64
Comparator Hysteresis ....................................................... 66
Comparator Module ............................................................ 57
Associated registers.................................................... 67
C1 Output State Versus Input Conditions ................... 59
Comparator Voltage Reference (CVREF) ............................ 70
Effects of a Reset........................................................ 61
Comparator Voltage Reference (CVREF)
Response Time ........................................................... 59
Comparator Voltage Reference (CVREF)
Specifications ............................................................ 164
Comparators
C2OUT as T1 Gate ..................................................... 50
Effects of a Reset........................................................ 61
Specifications ............................................................ 164
Compare Module. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM
(ECCP)
CONFIG Register.............................................................. 110
Configuration Bits.............................................................. 109
CPU Features ................................................................... 109
Customer Change Notification Service ............................. 211
Customer Notification Service........................................... 211
Customer Support ............................................................. 211
D
Data Memory....................................................................... 14
DC and AC Characteristics
Graphs and Tables ................................................... 173
DC Characteristics
Extended and Industrial .................................... 153, 154
Industrial and Extended ............................................ 146
Development Support ....................................................... 139
Device Overview ................................................................... 9
E
ECCP. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM
ECCPAS Register ............................................................. 102
Effects of Reset
PWM mode ................................................................. 92
Electrical Specifications .................................................... 143
Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM..................................... 85
Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP)
Enhanced PWM Mode ................................................ 93
Auto-Restart...................................................... 103
Auto-shutdown .................................................. 102
Direction Change in Full-Bridge Output Mode .... 99
Full-Bridge Application ........................................ 97
Full-Bridge Mode................................................. 97
Half-Bridge Application ....................................... 96
Half-Bridge Application Examples..................... 104
Half-Bridge Mode ................................................ 96
Output Relationships (Active-High and Active-Low)
94
Output Relationships Diagram ............................ 95
Programmable Dead Band Delay ..................... 104
Shoot-through Current ...................................... 104
Start-up Considerations .................................... 101
DS41288F-page 208
Specifications ........................................................... 163
Timer Resources ........................................................ 85
Errata .................................................................................... 8
F
Firmware Instructions ....................................................... 129
Fuses. See Configuration Bits
G
General Purpose Register File ........................................... 14
H
High Temperature Operation ............................................ 168
I
ID Locations...................................................................... 125
In-Circuit Debugger........................................................... 126
In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP)............................... 126
Indirect Addressing, INDF and FSR registers..................... 24
Instruction Format............................................................. 129
Instruction Set................................................................... 129
ADDLW..................................................................... 131
ADDWF..................................................................... 131
ANDLW..................................................................... 131
ANDWF..................................................................... 131
MOVF ....................................................................... 134
BCF .......................................................................... 131
BSF........................................................................... 131
BTFSC ...................................................................... 131
BTFSS ...................................................................... 132
CALL......................................................................... 132
CLRF ........................................................................ 132
CLRW ....................................................................... 132
CLRWDT .................................................................. 132
COMF ....................................................................... 132
DECF ........................................................................ 132
DECFSZ ................................................................... 133
GOTO ....................................................................... 133
INCF ......................................................................... 133
INCFSZ..................................................................... 133
IORLW ...................................................................... 133
IORWF...................................................................... 133
MOVLW .................................................................... 134
MOVWF .................................................................... 134
NOP .......................................................................... 134
RETFIE ..................................................................... 135
RETLW ..................................................................... 135
RETURN................................................................... 135
RLF ........................................................................... 136
RRF .......................................................................... 136
SLEEP ...................................................................... 136
SUBLW ..................................................................... 136
SUBWF..................................................................... 137
SWAPF ..................................................................... 137
XORLW .................................................................... 137
XORWF .................................................................... 137
Summary Table ........................................................ 130
INTCON Register................................................................ 20
Internal Oscillator Block
INTOSC
Specifications ........................................... 158, 159
Internal Sampling Switch (RSS) Impedance........................ 81
Internet Address ............................................................... 211
Interrupts........................................................................... 118
ADC ............................................................................ 76
Associated Registers ................................................ 120
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
Context Saving.......................................................... 121
Interrupt-on-Change.................................................... 34
PORTA Interrupt-on-Change .................................... 119
RA2/INT .................................................................... 118
Timer0....................................................................... 119
TMR1 .......................................................................... 51
INTOSC Specifications ............................................. 158, 159
IOCA Register ..................................................................... 35
L
Load Conditions ................................................................ 156
M
MCLR ................................................................................ 112
Internal ...................................................................... 112
Memory Organization.......................................................... 13
Data ............................................................................ 14
Program ...................................................................... 13
Microchip Internet Web Site .............................................. 211
Migrating from other PIC Devices ..................................... 206
MPLAB ASM30 Assembler, Linker, Librarian ................... 140
MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software .. 139
MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer .................................... 142
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System................. 141
MPLINK Object Linker/MPLIB Object Librarian ................ 140
O
OPCODE Field Descriptions ............................................. 129
Operational Amplifier (OPA) Module
AC Specifications...................................................... 165
OPTION Register .......................................................... 19, 47
Oscillator
Associated registers.............................................. 31, 54
Oscillator Module ................................................................ 27
EC ............................................................................... 27
HS ............................................................................... 27
INTOSC ...................................................................... 27
INTOSCIO................................................................... 27
LP................................................................................ 27
RC............................................................................... 27
RCIO ........................................................................... 27
XT ............................................................................... 27
Oscillator Parameters ....................................................... 158
Oscillator Specifications .................................................... 157
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
Specifications............................................................ 161
OSCTUNE Register ............................................................ 31
P
P1A/P1B/P1C/P1D.See Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM
(ECCP)........................................................................ 93
Packaging ......................................................................... 197
Marking ..................................................................... 197
PDIP Details.............................................................. 198
PCL and PCLATH ............................................................... 24
Stack ........................................................................... 24
PCON Register ........................................................... 23, 114
PIE1 Register ...................................................................... 21
Pin Diagram
PDIP, SOIC, TSSOP................................................. 4, 5
QFN .......................................................................... 6, 7
Pinout Descriptions
PIC16F610/16HV610.................................................. 11
PIC16F616/16HV616.................................................. 12
PIR1 Register...................................................................... 22
PORTA................................................................................ 33
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Additional Pin Functions ............................................. 34
ANSEL Register ................................................. 34
Interrupt-on-Change ........................................... 34
Weak Pull-Ups.................................................... 34
Associated registers ................................................... 41
Pin Descriptions and Diagrams .................................. 36
RA0............................................................................. 36
RA1............................................................................. 36
RA2............................................................................. 37
RA3............................................................................. 38
RA4............................................................................. 39
RA5............................................................................. 40
Specifications ........................................................... 159
PORTA Register ................................................................. 33
PORTC ............................................................................... 42
Associated registers ................................................... 44
P1A/P1B/P1C/P1D.See Enhanced Capture/Compare/
PWM (ECCP) ..................................................... 42
Specifications ........................................................... 159
PORTC Register................................................................. 42
Power-Down Mode (Sleep)............................................... 124
Power-on Reset (POR)..................................................... 112
Power-up Timer (PWRT) .................................................. 112
Specifications ........................................................... 161
Precision Internal Oscillator Parameters .......................... 159
Prescaler
Shared WDT/Timer0................................................... 46
Switching Prescaler Assignment ................................ 46
Program Memory ................................................................ 13
Map and Stack (PIC16F610/16HV610) ...................... 13
Map and Stack (PIC16F616/16HV616) ...................... 13
Programming, Device Instructions.................................... 129
PWM Mode. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM ........ 93
PWM1CON Register......................................................... 105
R
Reader Response............................................................. 212
Read-Modify-Write Operations ......................................... 129
Registers
ADCON0 (ADC Control 0) .......................................... 78
ADCON1 (ADC Control 1) .......................................... 79
ADRESH (ADC Result High) with ADFM = 0) ............ 80
ADRESH (ADC Result High) with ADFM = 1) ............ 80
ADRESL (ADC Result Low) with ADFM = 0).............. 80
ADRESL (ADC Result Low) with ADFM = 1).............. 80
ANSEL (Analog Select) .............................................. 34
CCP1CON (Enhanced CCP1 Control) ....................... 85
CM1CON0 (C1 Control) ............................................. 62
CM2CON0 (C2 Control) ............................................. 63
CM2CON1 (C2 Control) ............................................. 65
CONFIG (Configuration Word) ................................. 110
Data Memory Map (PIC16F610/16HV610) ................ 15
Data Memory Map (PIC16F616/16HV616) ................ 15
ECCPAS (Enhanced CCP Auto-shutdown Control) . 102
INTCON (Interrupt Control) ........................................ 20
IOCA (Interrupt-on-Change PORTA).......................... 35
OPTION_REG (OPTION)..................................... 19, 47
OSCTUNE (Oscillator Tuning).................................... 31
PCON (Power Control Register)................................. 23
PCON (Power Control) ............................................. 114
PIE1 (Peripheral Interrupt Enable 1) .......................... 21
PIR1 (Peripheral Interrupt Register 1) ........................ 22
PORTA ....................................................................... 33
PORTC ....................................................................... 42
PWM1CON (Enhanced PWM Control) ..................... 105
Reset Values ............................................................ 116
DS41288F-page 209
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
Reset Values (special registers) ............................... 117
Special Function Registers ......................................... 14
Special Register Summary ......................................... 17
SRCON0 (SR Latch Control 0) ................................... 69
SRCON1 (SR Latch Control 1) ................................... 69
STATUS ...................................................................... 18
T1CON ........................................................................ 52
T2CON ........................................................................ 56
TRISA (Tri-State PORTA) ........................................... 33
TRISC (Tri-State PORTC) .......................................... 42
VRCON (Voltage Reference Control) ......................... 72
WPUA (Weak Pull Up PORTA)................................... 35
Reset................................................................................. 111
Revision History ................................................................ 205
S
Shoot-through Current ...................................................... 104
Sleep
Power-Down Mode ................................................... 124
Wake-up.................................................................... 124
Wake-up using Interrupts .......................................... 124
Software Simulator (MPLAB SIM)..................................... 141
Special Event Trigger.......................................................... 76
Special Function Registers ................................................. 14
SRCON0 Register............................................................... 69
SRCON1 Register............................................................... 69
STATUS Register................................................................ 18
T
T1CON Register.................................................................. 52
T2CON Register.................................................................. 56
Thermal Considerations .................................................... 155
Time-out Sequence........................................................... 114
Timer0 ................................................................................. 45
Associated Registers .................................................. 47
External Clock ............................................................. 46
Interrupt....................................................................... 47
Operation .................................................................... 45
Specifications ............................................................ 162
T0CKI .......................................................................... 46
Timer1 ................................................................................. 49
Associated registers.................................................... 54
Asynchronous Counter Mode ..................................... 50
Reading and Writing ........................................... 50
Interrupt....................................................................... 51
Modes of Operation .................................................... 49
Operation .................................................................... 49
Operation During Sleep .............................................. 51
Oscillator ..................................................................... 50
Prescaler ..................................................................... 50
Specifications ............................................................ 162
Timer1 Gate
Inverting Gate ..................................................... 51
Selecting Source........................................... 50, 65
SR Latch ............................................................. 68
Synchronizing COUT w/Timer1 .......................... 65
TMR1H Register ......................................................... 49
TMR1L Register .......................................................... 49
Timer2
Associated registers.................................................... 56
Timers
Timer1
T1CON................................................................ 52
Timer2
T2CON................................................................ 56
Timing Diagrams
DS41288F-page 210
A/D Conversion......................................................... 167
A/D Conversion (Sleep Mode) .................................. 167
Brown-out Reset (BOR)............................................ 160
Brown-out Reset Situations ...................................... 113
CLKOUT and I/O ...................................................... 159
Clock Timing ............................................................. 157
Comparator Output ..................................................... 57
Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP)............. 163
Full-Bridge PWM Output............................................. 98
Half-Bridge PWM Output .................................... 96, 104
INT Pin Interrupt ....................................................... 120
PWM Auto-shutdown
Auto-restart Enabled......................................... 103
Firmware Restart .............................................. 103
PWM Direction Change .............................................. 99
PWM Direction Change at Near 100% Duty Cycle... 100
PWM Output (Active-High) ......................................... 94
PWM Output (Active-Low) .......................................... 95
Reset, WDT, OST and Power-up Timer ................... 160
Time-out Sequence
Case 1 .............................................................. 115
Case 2 .............................................................. 115
Case 3 .............................................................. 115
Timer0 and Timer1 External Clock ........................... 162
Timer1 Incrementing Edge ......................................... 52
Wake-up from Interrupt............................................. 125
Timing Parameter Symbology .......................................... 156
TRISA ................................................................................. 33
TRISA Register................................................................... 33
TRISC ................................................................................. 42
TRISC Register................................................................... 42
V
Voltage Reference (VR)
Specifications ........................................................... 164
Voltage Reference. See Comparator Voltage Reference
(CVREF)
Voltage References
Associated registers ................................................... 67
VP6 Stabilization ........................................................ 71
VREF. SEE ADC Reference Voltage
W
Wake-up Using Interrupts ................................................. 124
Watchdog Timer (WDT).................................................... 122
Associated registers ................................................. 123
Specifications ........................................................... 161
WPUA Register................................................................... 35
WWW Address ................................................................. 211
WWW, On-Line Support ....................................................... 8
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Microchip provides online support via our WWW site at
www.microchip.com. This web site is used as a means
to make files and information easily available to
customers. Accessible by using your favorite Internet
browser, the web site contains the following
information:
Users of Microchip products can receive assistance
through several channels:
• Product Support – Data sheets and errata,
application notes and sample programs, design
resources, user’s guides and hardware support
documents, latest software releases and archived
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• General Technical Support – Frequently Asked
Questions (FAQ), technical support requests,
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• Business of Microchip – Product selector and
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representatives
•
•
•
•
•
Distributor or Representative
Local Sales Office
Field Application Engineer (FAE)
Technical Support
Development Systems Information Line
Customers
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support. Local sales offices are also available to help
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Technical support is available through the web site
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To register, access the Microchip web site at
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© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS41288F-page 211
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
READER RESPONSE
It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our documentation
can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at (480) 792-4150.
Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this document.
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Device: PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
Literature Number: DS41288F
Questions:
1. What are the best features of this document?
2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs?
3. Do you find the organization of this document easy to follow? If not, why?
4. What additions to the document do you think would enhance the structure and subject?
5. What deletions from the document could be made without affecting the overall usefulness?
6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)?
7. How would you improve this document?
DS41288F-page 212
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616
PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office.
PART NO.
X
/XX
XXX
Device
Temperature
Range
Package
Pattern
Examples:
a)
b)
Device:
PIC16F610/616/16HV610/616, PIC16F610/616/16HV610/
616T(1)
c)
d)
e)
Temperature
Range:
I
E
H
= -40°C to +85°C
= -40°C to +125°C
= -40°C to +150°C
(Industrial)
(Extended)
(High Temp.)(2)
f)
g)
Package:
ML
P
SL
ST
=
=
=
=
Quad Flat No Leads (QFN)
Plastic DIP (PDIP)
14-lead Small Outline (3.90 mm) (SOIC)
Thin Shrink Small Outline (4.4 mm) (TSSOP)
h)
i)
j)
Pattern:
QTP, SQTP or ROM Code; Special Requirements
(blank otherwise)
k)
l)
m)
PIC16F610-E/P 301 = Extended Temp., PDIP
package, 20 MHz, QTP pattern #301
PIC16F616-E/P 301 = Extended Temp., PDIP
package, 20 MHz, QTP pattern #301
PIC16HV610-E/P 301 = Extended Temp.,
PDIP package, 20 MHz, QTP pattern #301
PIC16HV616-E/P 301 = Extended Temp.,
PDIP package, 20 MHz, QTP pattern #301
PIC16F610-I/SL = Industrial Temp., SOIC
package, 20 MHz
PIC16F616-I/SL = Industrial Temp., SOIC
package, 20 MHz
PIC16HV610-I/SL = Industrial Temp., SOIC
package, 20 MHz
PIC16HV616-I/SL = Industrial Temp., SOIC
package, 20 MHz
PIC16F610T-E/ST Tape and Reel, Extended
Temp., TSSOP package, 20 MHz
PIC16F616T-E/ST Tape and Reel, Extended
Temp., TSSOP package, 20 MHz
PIC16HV610T-E/ST Tape and Reel, Extended
Temp., TSSOP package, 20 MHz
PIC16HV616T-E/ST Tape and Reel, Extended
Temp., TSSOP package, 20 MHz
PIC16F616 - H/SL = High Temp., SOIC package, 20 MHz.
Note 1:
2:
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
T = in tape and reel for TSSOP, SOIC
and QFN packages only.
High Temp. available for PIC16F616 only.
DS41288F-page 213
WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE
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Fax: 886-3-6578-370
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Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340
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Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
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Tel: 44-118-921-5869
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
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Tel: 86-756-3210040
Fax: 86-756-3210049
03/26/09
DS41288F-page 214
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.