TC3401 16-Bit Low Cost, Low Power Sigma-Delta A/D Converter Package Type Features • 16-bit Resolution at Eight Conversions Per Second, Adjustable Down to 10-bit Resolution at 512 Conversions Per Second • 1.8V – 5.5V Operation, Low Power Operating 300µA; Sleep: 50µA • microPort™ Serial Bus Requires only two Interface Lines • Uses Internal or External Reference • Automatically Enters Sleep Mode when not in use • True Differential Inputs with Built-In Multiplexer Provide Ratiometric Conversions • Early Warning Power Fail Detector, also suitable as Wake-Up Timer Operational in Shutdown Mode • VDD Monitor and Reset Generator Operational in Shutdown Mode 16-Pin PDIP 16-Pin QSOP IN1+ 1 16 VDD IN1- 2 15 SCLK IN2+ 3 14 ADDR IN2- 4 13 RESET PFI 5 12 ENABLE VTH 6 11 PFO REFIN 7 10 SDAT GND 8 9 REFOUT TC3401 Applications • Consumer Electronics, Thermostats, CO Monitors, Humidity Meters, Security Sensors • Embedded Systems, Data Loggers, Portable Equipment • Medical Instruments Device Selection Table Part Number Package Temperature Range TC3401VPE 16-Pin PDIP (Narrow) 0°C to +85°C TC3401VQR 16-Pin QSOP Narrow) 0°C to +85°C General Description The TC3401 is a low cost, low power analog-to-digital converter based on Microchip’s Sigma-Delta technology. It will perform 16-bit conversions (15-bit plus sign) at up to eight per second. The TC3401 is optimized for use as a microcontroller peripheral in low cost, battery operated systems. A voltage reference is included, or an external reference can be used. A VDD monitor with a reset generator provides Power-on Reset and Brownout protection while an extra threshold detector is suitable for use as an early warning Power Fail detector, or as a Wake-up Timer. The TC3401’s 2-wire microPort™ digital interface is used for starting conversions and for reading out the data. Driving the SCLK line low starts a conversion. After the conversion starts, each additional falling edge (up to six) detected on SCLK for t4 seconds reduces the A/D resolution by one bit and cuts conversion time in half. After a conversion is completed, clocking the SCLK line puts the MSB through LSB of the resulting data word onto the SDAT line, much like a shift register. The part automatically sleeps when not performing a data conversion. The TC3401 is available in a 16-Pin PDIP and a 16-Pin QSOP package. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21410B-page 1 TC3401 Typical Application VBATT VDD + Input 1 – IN1+ IN1- + – IN2+ IN2- Input 2 VBATT R1 130k TC3401 VBATT RESET R2 110k REFIN REFOUT R3 390 ±10% I/01 I/02 I/03 µ Controller R6 100k VTH C1 0.1µF VCC ENABLE SDAT SCLK ADDR RST VBATT R7 100k I/04 I/05 PFO PFI VBATT C2 10µF R4 1MΩ Functional Block Diagram VDD REFOUT 1.193V TC3401 x2 – IN2+ + IN2- – SET D Q ADDR CLR VTH – + Start Conv. Data Shift Reg. Σ–∆ Modulator 1 of 2 AMux Clock Generator and Control Circuitry Reset Delay Timer SDAT CLKOUT IN1- CONVCLK + CONV done IN1+ REFIN SCLK ENABLE RESET 1.23V PFI PFO – + 1.23V GND DS21410B-page 2 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC3401 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS *Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Absolute Maximum Ratings* Supply Voltage ..................................................... 6.0V Voltage on Pins: PFO, RESET .......................... (GND – 0.3V) to 5.5V Input Voltage (All Other Pins): .................................. (GND – 0.3V) to (VDD + 0.3V) Operating Temperature Range ................. 0°C to 85°C Storage Temperature ........................ -65°C to +150°C TC3401 DC ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: TA = 25°C and VDD = 2.7V, unless otherwise specified. Boldface type specifications apply for temperatures of 0°C to 85°C. VREF = 1.25V, Internal Clock Frequency = 520kHz. Symbol Parameter Min Typ Max Unit 1.8 — 5.5 V µA µA µA Test Conditions Power Supply VDD Supply Voltage IDD Supply Current, During Data Conversion — 300 — IDD SLEEP Supply Current, Sleep Mode — 50 80 — 50 130 TA = +25°C Accuracy (Differential Inputs) RES Resolution — 16 — Bits INL Integral Non-Linearity — .0038 — %FSR VDD = 2.7V VOS Offset Error — — ±0.9 %FSR IN+, IN- = 0V VNOISE Referred to input — 60 — µVrms CMR Common Mode Rejection — 75 — dB FSE Full Scale Error — 0.4% — %FS PSRR Power Supply Rejection Ratio — 75 — dB VDD = 2.5V to 3.5V Note 1 At DC IN+, INVIN ± Differential Input Voltage Absolute Voltage Range on IN+, IN- — — VDD V GND — VDD V Input Bias Current — 1 100 nA CIN Input Sampling Capacitance — 2 — pF RIN Differential Input Resistance — 2.0 — MΩ Note 2 REFIN, REFOUT VREF REFIN Voltage Range 0 — 1.25 V IREF REFIN Input Current — 1 — µA VREFOUT REFOUT Voltage — 1.193 — V REFSINK REFOUT Current Sink Capability — 10 — µA REFSRC REFOUT Current Source Capability 300 — — µA Note 1: Differential input voltage defined as (VIN+ – VIN -). 2: Resistance from INn+ to INn- or INn to GND. 3: @ VDD = 1.8V, ISOURCE ≤ 200µA. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21410B-page 3 TC3401 TC3401 DC ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (CONTINUED) Electrical Characteristics: TA = 25°C and VDD = 2.7V, unless otherwise specified. Boldface type specifications apply for temperatures of 0°C to 85°C. VREF = 1.25V, Internal Clock Frequency = 520kHz. Symbol Parameter Min Typ Max Unit V Test Conditions SCLK, ADDR, ENABLE VIL Input Low Voltage — — 0.3 x VDD VIH Input High Voltage 0.7 x VDD — — V ILEAK Leakage Current — 1 — µA SDAT, RESET, PFO VOL Output Low Voltage VOH Output High Voltage (SDAT) VDD MIN Minimum VDD for PFO, RESET Valid — — 0.4 V IOL = 1.5mA 0.9 x VDD — — V ISOURCE = 400µA (Note 3) — 1.1 1.3 µA VTH , PFI VCCPFI PFI Input Voltage Range 0 — VDD V -0.1 .01 0.1 µA Threshold (VTH, PFI) — 1.23 — V Threshold Hysteresis — 30 — mV Threshold Tempco — 30 — ppm/°C V TH, PFI Input Current VTHR Note 1: Differential input voltage defined as (VIN+ – VIN -). 2: Resistance from INn+ to INn- or INn to GND. 3: @ VDD = 1.8V, ISOURCE ≤ 200µA. TC3401 AC ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: TA = 25°C and VDD = 2.7V, unless otherwise specified. Boldface type specifications apply for temperatures of 0°C to 85°C. VREF = 1.25V, Internal Clock Frequency = 520kHz. Parameter Min Typ Max Unit t1 Symbol Resolution Reduction Clock Width 1 — — µsec Width of SCLK (Negative) t2 Resolution Reduction Clock Width 1 — — µsec Width of SCLK (Positive) t3 Conversion Time (15-bit Plus Sign) — 125 — msec 16-bit Conversion, TA = 25°C (Note 1) Conversion Time (14-bit Plus Sign) — t3/2.0 — msec 15-bit Conversion Conversion Time (13-bit Plus Sign) — t3/4.0 — msec 14-bit Conversion Conversion Time (12-bit Plus Sign) — t3/7.8 — msec 13-bit Conversion Conversion Time (11-bit Plus Sign) — t3/15.1 — msec 12-bit Conversion Conversion Time (10-bit Plus Sign) — t3/28.6 — msec 11-bit Conversion Conversion Time (9-bit Plus Sign) — t3/51.4 — msec 10-bit Conversion Width of SCLK t4 Resolution Reduction Window t5 SCLK to Data Valid t6 Test Conditions — t3/85.7 — msec 1000 — — nsec SCLK Falling Edge to SDAT Valid Address Setup 0 — — nsec Address Valid to SCLK t7 Address Hold 1000 — — nsec SCLK to Address Valid Hold t8 Acknowledge Delay — — 1000 nsec SCLK to SDAT Delay t9 RESET Active Time-out Period — t3*2 — msec Delay from POR or Brown-out Recovery to RESET = VOH t10 PFO Delay — 25 — µsec PFI to PFO Delay t11 RESET Delay 5 — 64 µsec Delay VTH Falling at 10V/msec to RESET Low Note 1: Nominal temperature drift is -2830ppm/C° for temperature less than 25°C and -1340ppm/°C for temperatures greater than 25°C. DS21410B-page 4 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC3401 2.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 2-1. TABLE 2-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE Pin No. (16-Pin PDIP) (16-Pin QSOP) Symbol 1 IN1+ Analog Input. This is the positive terminal of a true differential input consisting of IN1+ and IN1-. VIN1 = (IN1+ – IN-). See Section 1.0, Electrical Characteristics. 2 IN1- Analog Input. This is the negative terminal of a true differential input consisting of IN1+ and IN1-. VIN1 = (IN+ – IN-) IN1- can swing to, but not below, ground. See Section 1.0, Electrical Characteristics. 3 IN2+ Analog Input. This is the positive terminal of a true differential input consisting of IN2+ and IN2-. VIN2 = (IN2+ – IN-). See Section 1.0, Electrical Characteristics. 4 IN2- Analog Input. This is the negative terminal of a true differential input consisting of IN2+ and IN2-. VIN2 = (IN+ – IN-) IN2- can swing to, but not below, ground. See Section 1.0, Electrical Characteristics. 5 PFI Analog Input. This is the positive input to an internal comparator used as a threshold detector The negative input is tied to an internal reference. 6 VTH Analog Input. This is the positive input to the internal comparator used to monitor the voltage supply. The negative input is tied to an internal reference. When VTH falls below the internal reference, the reset generator drives RESET low. See Section 1.0, Electrical Characteristics. 7 REFIN Analog Input. The converter’s reference voltage is the differential between this pin and ground times two. It may be tied directly to REFOUT or scaled using a resistor divider. Any user supplied reference voltage less than 1.25 may be used in place of REFOUT. 8 GND Ground Terminal. 9 REFOUT 10 SDAT Digital Output (push-pull). This is the microPort™ serial data output. SDAT is driven low while the TC3401 is converting data, effectively providing a “busy” signal. After the conversion is complete, every high to low transition on the SCLK pin puts a bit from the resulting data word on the SDAT pin (from MSB to LSB). 11 PFO Digital Output (open drain). This is the output of the internal threshold detector. When PFI is less than the internal reference, PFO is driven low. 12 ENABLE Digital Input. When this input control is pulled low, the part is internally restarted. That is, any data conversion or data read sequence is cleared and the part goes into Sleep mode. When ENABLE returns high, the part resumes normal operation. 13 RESET Digital Output (open drain). This is the output of the VDD monitor reset generator. RESET is driven low when a Power-on Reset or Brown-out condition is detected. See Section 1.0, AC Electrical Characteristics. 14 ADDR Digital Input. This input controls the analog input multiplexer to select one of two input channels. This address is latched at the falling edge of the SCLK, which starts an A/Dconversion. (0 = Input 1, 1 = Input 2). 15 SCLK Digital Input. This is the microPort™ serial clock input. The TC3401 comes out of Sleep mode and a conversion cycle begins when this pin is driven low. After the conversion starts, each additional falling edge (up to six) detected on SCLK for t4 seconds reduces the A/D resolution by one bit. When the conversion is complete, the data word can be shifted out on the SDAT pin by clocking the SCLK pin. 16 VDD Description Analog Output. The internal reference connects to this pin. It may be scaled externally and tied to the REFIN input to provide the converter’s reference voltage. Care must be taken in connecting external circuitry to this pin. This pin is in a high impedance state during Sleep mode. Power Supply Input. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21410B-page 5 TC3401 3.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION The TC3401 has a 16-bit sigma-delta A/D converter. It has two differential inputs, an analog multiplexer, a VDD monitor with reset generator and an early warning Power Fail detector. See the Typical Application circuit and the Functional Block diagram. The key components of the TC3401 are described below. Also refer to Figure 3-5, A/D Operational Flowchart and the Timing Diagrams, Figure 3-1, Figure 3-2 and Figure 3-3. 3.1 A/D Converter Operation When the TC3401 is not converting, it is in Sleep mode with both the SCLK and SDAT lines high. An A/D conversion is initiated by a high to low transition on the SCLK line at which time the internal clock of the TC3401 is started and the address value (ADDR) is internally latched. The address value steers the analog multiplexer to select the input channel to be converted. Each additional high to low transition of SCLK (following the initial SCLK falling edge) during the time interval t4, will decrement the conversion resolution by one bit and reduce the conversion time by one half. The time interval t4 is referred to as the resolution reduction window. The minimum conversion resolution is 10-bits so any more than 6 SCLK transitions during t4 will be ignored. After each high to low transition of SCLK, in the t4 interval, the SDAT output is driven high by the TC3401 to acknowledge that the resolution has been decremented. When the SCLK returns high or the t4 interval ends, the SDAT line returns low (see Figure 3-2). When the conversion is complete SDAT is driven high. The TC3401 now enters Sleep mode and the conversion value can be read as a serial data word on the SDAT line. 3.2 TABLE 3-1: DATA CONVERSION WORD VS. VOLTAGE INPUT (REFIN = 1.193V) Data Word INn+ – INn- (Volts) 0111 1111 1111 1111 2.38596 (Positive Full Scale) 0000 0000 0000 0001 72.8 E -6 0000 0000 0000 0000 0 1111 1111 1111 1111 -72.8 E -6 1000 0000 0000 0001 -2.38596 (Negative Full Scale) 1000 0000 0000 0000 Reserved Code The SCLK input has a filter which rejects any positive or negative pulse of width less than 50nsec to reduce noise. The rejection width of this pulse can vary between 50nsec and 750nsec depending on processing parameters and supply voltage. Figure 3-1 and Table 3-2 show information for determining the mode of operation for the TC3401 part by recording the value of SDAT for SCLK in a high, then low, then high state. For example, if SCLK goes through a 1-0-1 transition and the corresponding values of SDAT are 1-1-0, then the SCLK falling edge started a new data conversion. A 0-1-0 for SDAT would have indicated a resolution reduction had occurred. This is useful if the microcontroller has a Watchdog Reset or otherwise loses track of where the TC3401 is in the conversion and data readout sequence. The microcontroller can simply transition SCLK until it “finds” a Start Conversion condition. FIGURE 3-1: SCLK, SDAT LOGIC STATE DIAGRAM SCLK Reading the Data Word After the conversion is complete and SDAT goes high, the conversion value can be clocked serially onto the SDAT line by high to low transitions of the SCLK. The data word is in two’s compliment format with the sign bit clocked onto the SDAT line, first followed by the MSB and ending in the LSB. For a 16-bit conversion the data word would consist of a sign bit followed by 15 magnitude bits, Table 3-1 shows the data word versus input voltage for a 16-bit conversion. Note that the full scale input voltage range is ±(2 REFIN – 1LSB). When REFOUT is fed back directly to REFIN, an LSB is 73µV for a 16-bit conversion, as REFOUT is typically 1.193V. Figure 3-4 shows typical SCLK and SDAT waveforms for 16, 12 and 10-bit conversions. Note that any complete convert and read cycle requires 17 negative edge clock pulses. The first is the convert command. Then, up to six of these can occur in the resolution reduction window, t4, to decrement resolution. The remaining pulses clock out the conversion data word. DS21410B-page 6 SDAT B A TABLE 3-2: C SCLK, SDAT LOGIC STATE A B C Status 1 1 0 Start Conversion 0 1 0 Resolution Reduction x 1 1 Data Transfer x 0 0 Data Transfer or Busy* *Note: The code X00 has a dual meaning: Data Transfer or Busy converting. To avoid confusion, the user should send only the required number of pulses for the desired resolution, then wait for SDAT to rise to 1, indicating conversion is complete before clocking SCLK again to read out data bits. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC3401 FIGURE 3-2: CONVERSION AND DATA OUTPUT TIMING t2 t1 SCLK t4 t8 t8 t5 Sleep Mode SDAT DN (MSB) DN-1 DN-1 D0 (LSB) t3 Data Conversion Complete t6 t7 ADDR Start Conversion and Resolution Control Timing RESET AND POWER FAIL TIMING VDD Volts FIGURE 3-3: Data Output Timing 1.80 VTH 1.23 1.20 Hysteresis 1.1 Time 0 t9 t11 t11 t9 RESET VDD Reset Generator Timing Volts VDD PFI 1.23 1.20 Hysteresis 1.1 Time 0 t10 t10 t10 t10 PFO Power Fail Comparator Timing 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21410B-page 7 TC3401 FIGURE 3-4: SCLK AND SDAT WAVEFORMS FOR 16, 12 AND 10-BIT CONVERSIONS 16-bit Data Conversion, Data Word A5A5h SCLK t3a SDAT Data Conversion Complete 16-bit Data Conversion, Long Start Pulse, Data Word 5A5Ah SCLK > t3a SDAT Data Conversion Complete 12-bit Conversion, Data Word = AB3h SCLK < t4 SDAT t3e Data Conversion Complete 10-bit Conversion with "Extra" Data Reduction Clocks, Data Word = 3A4h SCLK < t4 t3g SDAT Data Conversion Complete DS21410B-page 8 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC3401 FIGURE 3-5: A/D OPERATIONAL FLOWCHART SDAT = Low POR CONVCLK = 2m? (Conversion Done?) Sleep SDAT = High No Yes No SCLK Hgh to Low? Power Down Analog, Conversion Complete, SDAT = High Yes Power Up Analog, Start CONVCLK (= 0), Start Conversion, Resolution = 2m (m = 16), Latch Input Channel Address (if applicable). SCLK Low to High transition? SCLK High to Low? No Yes No SDAT = Dm; m=m–1 Yes SDAT = Low m ≥ 0? CONVCLK < 29? Yes No No Yes SDAT = High Internal Reset No SCLK High to Low? Yes No Sleep A/D Resolution > 210? Yes Reduce A/D Resolution by 1-bit (m = m – 1); SDAT = High 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21410B-page 9 TC3401 3.3 VDD Monitor The TC3401 RESET output is in high impedance provided the voltage at V TH is greater than the internal voltage reference. This reference is approximately the same value as the voltage appearing at REFOUT. When VTH is less than the internal reference, RESET is pulled low. When VTH rises above the internal reference voltage again, RESET is held low for the reset active time-out period, t9, before being released. The RESET output is ensured to be valid for VDD = 1.3V to 5.5V. When used to generate a Power-on or Brown-out Reset, an external resistor network is required to divide the appropriate V DD threshold down to 1.23V at the VTH input, (See the Typical Application circuit). For example, to generate a POR for a VDD at 3V -10%, the values of R1 and R2 should be 137kΩ and 115kΩ respectively. Since RESET is an open drain, it can be wired-OR’ed with another open drain or external switch if desired. DS21410B-page 10 3.4 Power Fail Detector The Power Fail detector is a comparator in which the inverting input is connected to the internal voltage reference. The non-inverting input is the PFI pin of the TC3401 and the PFO pin is the active low, open drain output. This comparator is suitable as an early warning fail or low battery indicator. In a typical application, where a voltage regulator is being used to supply power to a system, the Power Fail comparator would monitor the input voltage to the regulator while the VDD monitor would measure the output voltage of the regulator. Both PFO and RESET would drive interrupt pins of a microcontroller. The Power Fail detector may be used as a Wake-up or Watchdog Timer. The Typical Application circuit shows an RC network on PFI with the capacitor tied to a tristated µC I/O pin. If R4 is 1 MΩ and C2 is 10µF, the time constant is roughly ten seconds. The µC resets the RC network by driving the I/O tied to PFI low and then tristating it. The RC network will ramp to 1.23V in roughly 9 seconds, assuming a VBATT of 3.0V. With PFO tied to a µC input or interrupt, the µC will see a low to high transition on PFO when the voltage on PFI exceeds 1.23V. The PFO output is specified to be valid for V DD = 1.3 to 5.5V. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC3401 4.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 4.1 Package Marking Information Package marking data not available at this time. 4.2 Taping Forms Component Taping Orientation for 16-Pin QSOP (Narrow) Devices User Direction of Feed PIN 1 W P Standard Reel Component Orientation for TR Suffix Device Carrier Tape, Reel Size, Number of Components Per Reel and Reel Size Package 16-Pin QSOP (N) 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. Carrier Width (W) Pitch (P) Part Per Full Reel Reel Size 12 mm 8 mm 2500 13 in DS21410B-page 11 TC3401 4.3 Package Dimensions 16-Pin PDIP (Narrow) PIN 1 .270 (6.86) .240 (6.10) .045 (1.14) .030 (0.76) .770 (19.56) .740 (18.80) .310 (7.87) .290 (7.37) .200 (5.08) .140 (3.56) .040 (1.02) .020 (0.51) .150 (3.81) .115 (2.92) .014 (0.36) .008 (0.20) 10° MAX. .400 (10.16) .310 (7.87) .110 (2.79) .090 (2.29) .070 (1.78) .045 (1.14) .022 (0.56) .015 (0.38) Dimensions: inches (mm) 16-Pin QSOP (Narrow) PIN 1 .157 (3.99) .150 (3.81) .244 (6.20) .228 (5.80) .196 (4.98) .189 (4.80) .010 (0.25) .004 (0.10) .069 (1.75) .053 (1.35) .025 (0.635) TYP. .012 (0.31) .008 (0.21) 8° MAX. .010 (0.25) .007 (0.19) .050 (1.27) .016 (0.41) Dimensions: inches (mm) DS21410B-page 12 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC3401 SALES AND SUPPORT Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. 2. 3. Your local Microchip sales office The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (480) 792-7277 The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. New Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. © 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21410B-page 13 TC3401 NOTES: DS21410B-page 14 © 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC3401 Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended through suggestion only and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. No representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property rights. 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Le Colleoni 1 20041 Agrate Brianza Milan, Italy Tel: 39-039-65791-1 Fax: 39-039-6899883 United Kingdom Microchip Ltd. 505 Eskdale Road Winnersh Triangle Wokingham Berkshire, England RG41 5TU Tel: 44 118 921 5869 Fax: 44-118 921-5820 05/01/02 *DS21410B* DS21410B-page 16 2002 Microchip Technology Inc.