TC652/TC653 Integrated Temperature Sensor & Brushless DC Fan Controller with FanSense™ Detect & Over-Temperature Features Package Type • Integrated Temperature Sensing and Multi-speed Fan Control • FanSense™ Fan Fault Detect Circuitry • Built-in Over-Temperature Alert (TOVER) • Temperature Proportional Fan Speed Control for Acoustic Noise Reduction and Longer Fan Life • Pulse Width Modulation Output Drive for Cost and Power Savings • Solid-State Temperature Sensing • ±1°C (Typical) Accuracy from 25°C to +70°C • 2.8V – 5.5V Operating Range • TC653 includes Auto Fan Shutdown • Low Operating Current: 50µA (Typical) Applications • • • • • • Thermal Protection For Personal Computers Digital Set-Top Boxes Notebook Computers Data Communications Power Supplies Projectors Related Literature • Application Note: AN771 Device Selection Table Part Number Package Temperature Range TC652XXVUA 8-Pin MSOP -40°C to +125°C TC653XXVUA 8-Pin MSOP -40°C to +125°C X Temperature A 25 B 30 C 35 D 40 E 45 F 50 G 55 MSOP VDD 1 FAULT 2 SHDN 3 8 PWM TC652 TC653 GND 4 7 GND 6 TOVER 5 SENSE General Description The TC652/TC653 are integrated temperature sensors and brushless DC fan speed controllers with FanSense™ technology. The TC652/TC653 measure their junction temperature and control the speed of the fan based on that temperature, making them especially suited for applications in modern electronic equipment. The FanSense™ Fan Fault detect circuitry eliminates the need for a more expensive 3-wire fan. Temperature data is converted from the on-chip thermal sensing element and translated into a fractional fan speed from 40% to 100%. A temperature selection guide in the data sheet is used to choose the low and high temperature limits to control the fan. The TC652/TC653 also include a single trip point over temperature alert (TOVER) that eliminates the need for additional temperature sensors. In addition, the TC653 includes an auto fan shutdown function for additional power savings. The TC652/TC653 are easy to use, require no software overhead and are therefore the ideal choice for implementing thermal management in a variety of systems. The "X" denotes a suffix for temperature threshold settings. Contact factory for other temperature ranges. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21453B-page 1 TC652/TC653 Typical Application Diagram +12V DC Fan 300mA Max. TC652 TC653 +5V VDD 1k 1 VDD PWM 8 2 FAULT GND 7 3 SHDN TOVER 6 4 GND FanSense™ 0.01µF SENSE 5 CSENSE GND SHDN Control Over-Temp Alert RSENSE 2Ω Fan Fault Alert µController DS21453B-page 2 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC652/TC653 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Absolute Maximum Ratings* Input Voltage (VDD to GND) ................................... +6V *Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Output Voltage (OUT to GND) ................................. 6V Voltage On Any Pin ....... (GND – 0.3V) to (VDD + 0.3V) Package Thermal Resistance (θJA ) ........... 250°C/W Operating Temperature Range ......... -40°C to +125°C Storage Temperature ......................... -65°C to +150°C TC652/TC653 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: VDD = 2.8V to 5.5V, SHDN = VDD, TA = -40°C to 125°C unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter Min Typ. Max Units VDD Supply Voltage 2.8 — 5.5 V IDD Supply Current — 50 90 µA VIH SHDN Input High Threshold 65 — — %VDD VIL SHDN Input Low Threshold — — 15 %VDD Test Conditions PWM, FAULT, TOVER are open SHDN Input PWM Output VOL PWM Output Low Voltage — — 0.3 V ISINK = 1mA VOH PWM Output High Voltage VDD – 0.5 — — V ISOURCE = 5mA tR PWM Rise Time — 10 — µsec IOH = 5mA, 1nF from PWM to GND tF PWM Fall Time — 10 — µsec IOL = 1mA, 1nF from PWM to GND fOUT PWM Frequency 10 15 — Hz tSTARTUP Start-up Time — 32/fOUT — sec VDD Rises from GND, or SHDN Released VTH (SENSE) Sense Input — 70 — mV Sense Input Threshold Voltage with Repect to Ground TH - 3 TH TH + 3 °C Note 1 -1.0 — +1.0 °C (TH – TL) ≤ 20°C -2.5 — +2.5 °C (TH – TL) ≥ 20°C — (TH – TL)/5 — °C TC653 Only VDD – 0.5 — — V ISOURCE = 1.2mA ISINK = 2.5mA Temperature Accuracy TH ACC High Temperature Accuracy (TH –TL) ACC Temp. Range Accuracy THYST Auto-shutdown Hysteresis FAULT Output FAULT Output High Voltage VHIGH VLOW FAULT Output Low Voltage — — 0.4 V tmp Missing Pulse Detector Time-out — — 32/fOUT Sec TOVER Output VHIGH TOVER Output High Voltage VDD – 0.5 — — V VLOW TOVER Output Low Voltage — — 0.4 V ISINK = 2.5mA TOVER Absolute Accuracy — TH + 10 — °C At Trip Point Trip Point Hysteresis — 5 — °C ACC TOVER HYST Note 1: ISOURCE = 1.2mA Transition from 90% to 100% Duty Cycle. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21453B-page 3 TC652/TC653 2.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 2-1. TABLE 2-1: Pin No. (8-Pin MSOP) PIN FUNCTION TABLE Symbol Description 1 VDD 2 FAULT Fan Fault Alert, Active-Low Output. FAULT goes low to indicate a fan FAULT condition. When FAULT occurs, the device is latched in Shutdown mode with PWM low. Toggling the SHDN pin or cycling the VDD will release the part and fan from shutdown. FAULT will unconditionally remain high during shutdown. 3 SHDN Fan Shutdown, Active-Low Input. During Shutdown mode the chip still monitors temperature and TOVER is low if temperature rises above factory set point. 4 GND Ground return for all TC652/TC653 functions. 5 SENSE Detect Fan Pulses Input. Pulses are detected at this pin as fan rotation chops the current through the sense resistor, RSENSE. The absence of pulses indicates a Fan Fault. 6 TOVER Over-Temperature Alert, Active-Low Output. Power Supply Input. May be independent of fan power supply. 7 GND Ground. 8 PWM PWM Fan Drive Output. Pulse width modulated rail-to-rail logic output. Nominal Frequency is 15Hz. DS21453B-page 4 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC652/TC653 3.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION The TC652/TC653 acquire and convert their junction temperature (TJ) information from an on-chip solid state sensor with a typical accuracy of ±1°C. The temperature data is digitally stored in an internal register. The register is compared with pre-defined threshold values. The six threshold values are equally distributed over a pre-defined range of temperatures (See Table 3-1 and Table 3-2). The TC652/TC653 control the speed of a DC brushless fan using a fractional speed control scheme. The output stage requires only a 2N2222-type small-signal BJT for fans up to 300mA. For larger current fans (up to 1 Amp) a logic-level N-channel MOSFET may be used. In addition to controlling the speed of the fan, the TC652/ TC653 include an on-chip over-temperature alarm (TOVER) that gives a low-true signal when the temperature of the chip exceeds TH by 10°C. This feature eliminates the need for a separate temperature sensor for over-temperature monitoring. In normal fan operation, a pulse-train is present at SENSE, Pin 5. A Missing Pulse Detector monitors this pin during fan operation (FanSense™ technology). A stalled, open, or unconnected fan causes the TC652/ TC653 to trigger its Start-up Timer once. If the FAULT persists, the FAULT output goes low, and the device is latched in its Shutdown mode. To release the fan from shutdown, toggle the SHDN or VDD pin. TABLE 3-1: TABLE 3-2: TEMPERATURE RANGE DEFINITION FOR TC653 (AUTO-SHUTDOWN MODE) Temperature (T = TJ) PWM Duty Cycle T < TL TL< = T < T1 “OFF” T1 < = T < T2 T2 < =T < T3 60% T3 < =T < T4 T4 < = T < TH 80% TH < = T < TOV 100% TOV < = T 50% 70% 90% 100% with Over-Temp Alert (TOVER = L) Note: The temperature regions defined by the six temperature thresholds are pre-defined in the TC650/651 by means of trimming. Once a TL and TH are programmed, the T1 - T4 thresholds are automatically equally spaced between TL and TH . FIGURE 3-1: VDD V+ TOVER Temperature Set Point and Trim Range TEMPERATURE RANGE DEFINITION FOR TC652 (MINIMUM-SPEED MODE) FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM SHDN Duty Cycle Logic Control PWM AD Converter Oscillator Temperature (T = TJ) PWM Duty Cycle Temp Sensor T < TL 40% Fan Detect Logic TL< = T < T1 50% T1 < = T < T2 T2 < = T <T3 60% 90mV 20k - 70% T3 < = T < T4 80% T4 < = T < TH 90% TH < = T < TOV 100% TOV < = T FAULT + CMPTR - 100% with Over-Temp Alert (TOVER = L) 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. 3.1 PWM Output The PWM pin is designed to drive a low cost transistor or MOSFET as the low side power switching element in the system. This output has an asymmetric complementary drive and is optimized for driving NPN transistors or N-channel MOSFETs. Since the system relies on PWM rather than linear power control, the dissipation in the power switch is kept to a minimum. Generally, very small devices (TO-92 or SOT packages) will suffice. The frequency of the PWM is about 15Hz. The PWM is also the time base for the Start-up Timer (see paragraphs below). The PWM duty cycle has a range of 40% to 100% for the TC652 and 50% to 100% for the TC653. DS21453B-page 5 TC652/TC653 3.2 Start-Up Timer To ensure reliable fan start-up, the Start-up Timer turns PWM high for about 2 seconds whenever the fan is started from the off state. This occurs at power-up and when coming out of Shutdown mode. 3.3 SENSE Input (FanSense™ Technology) The SENSE input, Pin 5, is connected to a low value current sensing resistor in the ground return leg of the fan circuit through the capacitor. During normal fan operation, commutation occurs as each pole of the fan is energized. This causes brief interruptions in the fan current, seen as pulses across the sense resistor. If the device is not in Shutdown mode, and pulses are not appearing at the SENSE input, a FAULT exists. The short, rapid change in fan current (high di/dt) causes a corresponding dv/dt across the sense resistor, R SENSE. The waveform on RSENSE is differentiated and converted to a logic-level pulse-train by CSENSE and the internal signal processing circuitry. The presence and frequency of this pulse-train is a direct indication of fan operation. 3.4 FAULT This pin goes low to indicate a fan FAULT condition. Pulses appearing at SENSE pin due to the PWM turning on are blanked and the remaining pulses are filtered by a Missing Pulse Detector. If consecutive pulses are not detected for 32 PWM cycles (about 2 sec), the PWM is Low and FAULT goes low. FAULT can be disabled by momentarily toggling SHDN or VDD pin, or cycling system power. FAULT remains high during Shutdown mode. 3.5 3.6 Shutdown (SHDN) The fan can be unconditionally shutdown by pulling low the SHDN pin. During shutdown, FAULT output is high and PWM output is low. This is ideal for notebook computers and other portable applications when you need to change batteries and must not have the fan running at that time. Thermal monitoring and TOVER are still in operation during shutdown. IDD shutdown current is around 50µA. 3.7 Auto-Shutdown Mode The TC653 has auto-shutdown. If the temperature is below the factory set point at minimum speed (TL), PWM is low and the fan is automatically shut off (Autoshutdown mode). This feature is ideal for notebook computers and other portable applications that need to conserve as much battery power as possible and thus run a fan when it is only absolutely needed. The TC653 will continue to be active so as to monitor temperature for TOVER. The TC653 exits Auto-shutdown mode when the temperature rises above the factory set point (T1). 3.8 Temperature Selection Guide (Minimum Fan Speed/Full Speed) The five temperature regions defined by the six thresholds are defined in the TC652/TC653 by means of factory trimming. Once a TL and T H are set, the T1 – T4 thresholds are automatically equally spaced between TL and TH. Over-Temperature Alert (TOVER) This pin goes low when the TH set point is exceeded by 10°C (typical). This indicates that the fan is at maximum drive, and the potential exists for system overheating: either heat dissipation in the system has gone beyond the cooling system's design limits, or some FAULT exists such as fan bearing failure or an airflow obstruction. This output may be treated as a “System Overheat” warning and used to trigger system shutdown, or bring other fans to full speed in the system. The fan will continue to run at 100% speed while TOVER is asserted. Built-in hysteresis prevents TOVER from “chattering” when measured temperature is at or near the T H + 10°C trip point. As temperature falls through the TH + 10°C trip point, hysteresis maintains the TOVER output low until measured temperature is 5°C above the trip point setting. DS21453B-page 6 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC652/TC653 TABLE 3-3: TEMPERATURE SELECTION GUIDE Temp. Range °C TL TH 10°C 25 35 AC 30 40 BD 15°C 20°C 30°C Part # 35 45 CE 25 40 AD 30 45 BE 25 45 AE 30 50 BF 35 55 CG 25 55 AG 4.0 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 4.1 Reducing Switching Noise For fans consuming more than 300mA, a slowdown capacitor (CSLOW) is recommended for reducing switching PWM induced noise (see Figure 4-1). The value of this capacitor should be 4.7µF to 47µF, depending on the fan current consumption. See Application Note AN771 “Suppressing Acoustic Noise in PWM Fan Speed Control Systems” for more information. FIGURE 4-1: REDUCING SWITCHING NOISE Note: The Bold Type temperature settings are available for ordering. Contact factory for other temperature selections. TL and TH can be selected in 5°C increments. TH must be chosen at least 10°C higher than TL. TL can range anywhere from 25°C to 35°C. +12V TC652 TC653 +5V VDD - 1kΩ As an example, suppose you wanted the fan to run at 40% speed at 25°C or less and go to full speed at 45°C. You would order the part number TC652AEVUA. 1 VDD PWM 8 2 FAULT GND 7 As another example, suppose you wanted the fan to turn on at 30°C and go to full speed at 45°C. You would order the part number TC653BEVUA. 3 SHDN 4 GND TOVER 6 10µF CSLOW 0.01µF NC 5 CSENSE RSENSE 2Ω GND SHDN Control Fan Fault Alert Over-Temp Alert µController 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DC Fan 400mA Max. GND DS21453B-page 7 TC652/TC653 5.0 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore outside the warranted range. IDD vs. Temperature Temp Accuracy vs. VTH 90 PWM, ISOURCE vs. (VDD - VOH), TA = 25˚C 1.0 3.0 0.9 80 VDD = 5.6V 50 40 VDD = 2.7V 30 20 0.8 2.0 1.5 1.0 VDD = 5.6V TL 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 TEMPERATURE (˚C) 1.0 450 0.9 400 0.8 VDD – VOH (V) 300 VDD = 5.5V 250 T3 T2 TTHRESHOLD T1 T4 TH 200 0.6 0.5 VDD = 5.5V 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 0.0 0.0 4 5 6 7 ISINK (mA) 8 9 10 FAULT, ISINK vs. VOL, TA = 25˚C 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ISOURCE (mA) 8 9 10 VDD = 5.5V 0.4 50 3 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 VDD = 2.8V 0.8 0.3 2 6 0.9 VDD = 2.8V 0.2 1 4 FAULT, ISOURCE vs. (VDD - VOH), TA = 25˚C 0.3 0 2 1.0 100 150 0 ISOURCE (mA) 0.7 VDD = 2.8V 350 0.4 0.1 TOVER, ISOURCE vs. (VDD - VOH), TA = 25˚C PWM, ISINK vs. VOL, TA = 25˚C 500 VDD = 5.5V 0.5 0.0 VDD – VOH (V) -50 -25 VDD = 2.8V 0.6 0.2 VDD = 2.7V 0.0 0 0.7 0.3 0.5 10 VOL (mV) 2.5 VDD – VOH (V) 60 TEMP ACCURACY (˚C) IDD (µA) 70 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ISOURCE (mA) 8 9 10 TC652/3, Fan is Running SHDN is Connected to VDD, TA = 25˚C TC653, Fan is Not Running SHDN is Connected to VDD, TA = 25˚C 5.0 5.0 450 400 VDD = 2.8V VOL (mV) 350 VDD 0.0 VDD 0.0 Start-Up Time 300 250 VDD = 5.5V 5.0 5.0 PWM 0.0 PWM 0.0 5.0 5.0 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 DS21453B-page 8 4 5 6 7 ISINK (mA) 8 9 10 FAULT 0.0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 500msec/Div FAULT 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1sec/Div 8 9 10 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC652/TC653 6.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 6.1 Package Marking Information Package marking data not available at this time. 6.2 Taping Form Component Taping Orientation for 8-Pin MSOP Devices User Direction of Feed PIN 1 W P Standard Reel Component Orientation for TR Suffix Device Carrier Tape, Number of Components Per Reel and Reel Size Package 8-Pin MSOP 6.3 Carrier Width (W) Pitch (P) Part Per Full Reel Reel Size 12 mm 8 mm 2500 13 in Package Dimensions 8-Pin MSOP PIN 1 .122 (3.10) .114 (2.90) .197 (5.00) .189 (4.80) .026 (0.65) TYP. .122 (3.10) .114 (2.90) .043 (1.10) MAX. .016 (0.40) .010 (0.25) .006 (0.15) .002 (0.05) .008 (0.20) .005 (0.13) 6° MAX. .028 (0.70) .016 (0.40) Dimensions: inches (mm) 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21453B-page 9 TC652/TC653 NOTES: DS21453B-page 10 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC652/TC653 SALES AND SUPPORT Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. 2. 3. Your local Microchip sales office The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (480) 792-7277 The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. New Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21453B-page 11 TC652/TC653 NOTES: DS21453B-page 12 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC652/TC653 Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended through suggestion only and may be superseded by updates. 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