LM2793 Low Noise White LED Constant Current Supply with Dual Function Brightness Control General Description Features The LM2793 is a highly efficient, semi-regulated 1.5x CMOS charge pump that provides dual constant current outputs. The LM2793 has an input voltage range of 2.7V to 5.5V. n Two Regulated Current Outputs, up to 16mA Each, Matched to Within ± 0.3% (typ.) n High Efficiency, 1.5x Regulated Charge Pump n Input Voltage Range: 2.7V to 5.5V n Soft Start Limits Inrush Current n Analog Voltage Brightness Control n PWM Brightness Control n Very Small Solution Size - NO INDUCTOR n 500kHz Switching Frequency n 3µA (typ.) Shutdown Current n LLP-10 Package: 3.0mm X 3.0mm X 0.8mm To control LED brightness, the amount of current driven to the current-mode outputs can be adjusted with an analog voltage and/or a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) square wave. Pre-regulation of the charge pump minimizes conducted noise on the input. Combined with a fixed switching frequency of 500kHz, the LM2793 is a low-noise solution. The LM2793 is available in a 10-pin Leadless Lead-frame package: LLP-10. Applications n White LED Display Backlights n White LED Keypad Backlights n 1-Cell LiIon Battery-Operated Equipment Including PDAs, Hand-held PCs, Cellular Phones n Flat Panel Displays Typical Application Circuit 20063602 © 2003 National Semiconductor Corporation DS200636 www.national.com LM2793 Low Noise White LED Constant Current Supply with Dual Function Brightness Control February 2003 LM2793 Connection Diagram LM2793 10-pin Leadless Leadframe Package (LLP-10) 3mmx3mmx0.8mm NS Package Number LDA10A 20063603 Top View Ordering Information Order Number Package Description Package Marking Supplied as Tape and Reel (Units) LM2793LD LLP-10 LM2793 1000 LM2793LDX LLP-10 LM2793 4500 Pin Description Pin Name 1 VIN Description Power supply voltage connection 2 C1- Flying capacitor C1 connection 3 C2+ Flying capacitor C2 connection 4 C1+ Flying capacitor C1 connection 5 POUT Charge pump output 6 D1 7 D2 8 SD-BRGT 9 GND 10 C2- www.national.com Current source output / LED connection Current source output / LED connection Dual function Shutdown - Brightness. Grounding pin shuts down part. Voltage between 0.75V and 2.75V (typ.) linearly adjusts current outputs. Output current equals 16mA at voltages above 2.75V. Power supply ground connection Flying capacitor C2 connection 2 Operating Ratings (Notes 2, 8) (Notes 1, 2) Input Voltage VIN If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. VSD-BRGT Continuous Power Dissipation (Note 4) 0V to VIN Brightness Adjustment Control Range of VSD-BRGT 0.75V to 2.75V -0.3V to 6.0V Junction Temperature Range (TJ) -30˚C to +100˚C -0.3V to (VIN + 0.3V) w/ 6.0V max Ambient Temperature Range (TA) -30˚C to +85 ˚C (Note 6) Internally Limited Thermal Information VIN VSD-BRGT 2.7V to 5.5V Junction Temperature (TJ-MAX-ABS) 150˚C Storage Temperature Range Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance, LLP-10 Package (θJA) (Note 7) -65˚C to 150˚C Lead Temp. (Soldering, 5 sec.) 260˚C ESD Rating (Note 5) Human Body Model 55˚C/W 2kV Machine Model 200V Electrical Characteristics (Notes 2, 8) Limits in standard typeface are for TJ = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full operating junction temprature range. Unless otherwise specified: C1=C2=CIN=CHOLD=1µF; VIN=3.6V; VSD-BRGT=3.0V; VDX=3.6V Symbol IDX Parameter Output Current Regulation ID-MATCH ID1-to-ID2 Current Matching ROUT Charge Pump Output Resistance VHR-min IQ Conditions Min Typ Max 3.3V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V VDX = 3.9V 14.7 13.7 15.9 17.2 17.3 3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V VDX = 3.8V 14.7 13.7 15.9 17.2 17.3 2.7V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V VDX = 3.4V 14.7 13.7 15.9 17.2 17.3 2.5V ≤ VDX ≤ 3.9V (Note 9) 14.7 13.7 15.9 17.2 17.3 VSD-BRGT= 2.0V 10 VSD-BRGT= 0.75V 0.1 0.3 3.0 Units mA % 3.5 Ω Minimum Current Source Voltage Headroom (VPOUT - IDX = 16mA VIDx) (Note 10) 400 mV Quiescent Supply Current IDX, IPOUT = 0 1.2 2.2 mA ISD Shutdown Supply Current 2.7V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V VSD-BRGT = 0V 3 5 µA ON/OFF SD-BRGT Pin Thresholds for Active and Shutdown Modes ILEAK-SD SD-BRGT Pin Leakage Current fSW Switching Frequency 2.7V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V tSTART Startup Time IDX = 90% steady state VIN = 2.7V Active VIN = 3.0V 0.70 0.25 Shutdown VIN = 3.0V 17 325 500 30 V µA 675 kHz µs Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the component may occur. Operating Ratings are conditions under which operation of the device is guaranteed. Operating Ratings do not imply guaranteed performance limits. For guaranteed performance limits and associated test conditions, see the Electrical Characteristics tables. Note 2: All voltages are with respect to the potential at the GND pin. Note 3: Voltage on the SD-BRGT pin should not exceed 6V. Note 4: Thermal shutdown circuitry protects the device from permanent damage. D1 and D2 may be shorted to GND without damage. 3 www.national.com LM2793 Absolute Maximum Ratings LM2793 Electrical Characteristics (Notes 2, 8) (Continued) Note 5: The human-body model is a 100 pF capacitor discharged through a 1.5 k resistor into each pin. The machine model is a 200pF capacitor discharged directly into each pin. Note 6: Maximum ambient temperature (TA-MAX) is dependent on the maximum operating junction temperature (TJ-MAX-OP = 100oC), the maximum power dissipation of the device in the application (PD-MAX), and the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance of the part/package in the application (θJA), as given by the following equation: TA-MAX = TJ-MAX-OP - (θJA x PD-MAX). The ambient temperature operating rating is provided merely for convenience. This part may be operated outside the listed TA rating, so long as the junction temperature of the device does not exceed the maximum operating rating of 100oC. Note 7: Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance is highly application and board-layout dependent. In applications where high maximum power dissipation exists, special care must be paid to thermal dissipation issues. For more information on these topics, please refer to the Power Dissipation section of this datasheet. Note 8: All room temperature limits are 100% tested or guaranteed through statistical analysis. All limits at temperature extremes are guaranteed by correlation using standard Statistical Quality Control methods (SQC). All limits are used to calculate Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL). Typical numbers are not guaranteed, but do represent the most likely norm. Note 9: Maximum LED voltage (VDx) is highly dependent on the application’s minimum input voltage and the amount of current flowing through the LEDs. Maximum LED voltage for a given application can be approximated with the following equations: VIN-MIN < 3.0V: VDx-MAX = (1.5 x VIN-MIN) - (IDXx 25 mV/mA) - (3.5Ω x 2 x IDX) VIN-MIN ≥ 3.0V: VDx-MAX = 4.3V - (IDX x 25 mV/mA) The equations above assume LEDs are connected to outputs D1 and D2, and no current drawn from the charge pump output (POUT). For a more precise and thorough analysis of maximum LED voltage, please refer to text sections of the datasheet (to appear in future datasheet revisions - in the interim, please contact National Semiconductor for more information). Note 10: Current sources are connected internally between POUT and IDx. The voltage across each current source, [V(POUT) - V(IDx)], is referred to as headroom voltage. For current sources to regulate properly, a minimum headroom voltage must be present across them. Minimum required headroom voltage is proportional to the current flowing through the current source, as dictated by this equation: VHR-min = 400mV x (IDx / 16mA). Block Diagram 20063601 www.national.com 4 LED Current vs. Input Voltage LED Current vs. SD-BRGT Voltage 20063606 20063607 Efficiency vs. Input Voltage LED Current vs. LED Voltage 20063612 20063608 Quiescent Current vs. Input Voltage Shutdown Supply Current vs. Input Voltage 20063609 20063610 5 www.national.com LM2793 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: TA = 25˚C, 2 LEDs, VDX = 3.6V, VIN = 3.6, VSD-BRGT = 3.0, C1 = C2 = CIN = CHOLD = 1µF. Capacitors are low-ESR multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC’s). LM2793 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: TA = 25˚C, 2 LEDs, VDX = 3.6V, VIN = 3.6, VSD-BRGT = 3.0, C1 = C2 = CIN = CHOLD = 1µF. Capacitors are low-ESR multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC’s). (Continued) Output Resistance vs. Temperature Startup Response 20063614 20063611 www.national.com 6 LM2793 Application Information CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The LM2793 is a 1.5x CMOS charge pump that provides two matched constant current outputs for driving up to 16mA through high forward voltage drop White LEDs from Li-Ion battery sources. The device has two regulated current sources connected to the output of the device’s 1.5x loosely regulated charge pump (POUT). The device’s looselyregulated charge pump has both open loop and closed loop modes of operation. When the device is in open loop, the voltage at POUT is 1.5 times the voltage at the input. When the device is in closed loop, the voltage at POUT is loosely regulated to 4.9V (typ.). To set the LED drive current, the device uses the voltage applied to the dual function shutdown-brightness pin (SD-BRGT) to set a reference current. This reference current is then multiplied and mirrored to each current output. The LED brightness can be controlled by both analog and/or digital methods. The digital technique uses a PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signal applied to the SD-BRGT pin. The analog technique applies an analog voltage in the range of 0.7V to 2.75 to the SD-BRGT pin to vary the LED current (see Shutdown and Brightness Control). 20063607 FIGURE 1. LED Current vs. VSD-BRGT 2 LEDs, VDX = 3.6V, VIN = 3.6V CAPACITOR SELECTION The LM2793 requires 4 external capacitors for proper operation. Surface-mount multi-layer ceramic capacitors are recommended. These capacitors are small, inexpensive and have very low equivalent series resistance (ESR, ≤15mΩ typ.). Tantalum capacitors, OS-CON capacitors, and aluminum electrolytic capacitors are generally not recommended for use with the LM2793 due to their high ESR, as compared to ceramic capacitors. For most applications, ceramic capacitors with X7R or X5R temperature characteristic are preferred for use with the LM2793. These capacitors have tight capacitance tolerance (as good as ± 10%), hold their value over temperature (X7R: ± 15% over −55˚C to 125˚C; X5R: ± 15% over −55˚C to 85˚C), and typically have little voltage coefficient. Capacitors with Y5V or Z5U temperature characteristic are generally not recommended for use with the LM2793. Capacitors with these temperature characteristics typically have wide capacitance tolerance (+80%, −20%), vary significantly over temperature (Y5V: +22%, −82% over −30˚C to +85˚C range; Z5U: +22%, −56% over +10˚C to +85˚C range), and have poor voltage coefficients. Under some conditions, a nominal 1µF Y5V or Z5U capacitor could have a capacitance of only 0.1µF. Such detrimental deviation is likely to cause Y5V and Z5U capacitors to fail to meet the minimum capacitance requirements of the LM2793. Table 1 lists suggested capacitor suppliers for the typical application circuit. SOFT START LM2793 includes a soft start function to reduce the inrush currents and high peak current during power up of the device. Soft start is implemented internally by ramping the reference voltage more slowly than the applied voltage. During soft start, the switch resistances limit the inrush current used to charge the flying and hold capacitors. SHUTDOWN AND BRIGHTNESS CONTROL The LM2793 has an active-low dual function shutdownbrightness control pin, SD-BRGT. A voltage higher than 0.65V (typ.) on SD-BRGT will put the LM2793 in active mode. Applying a voltage below 0.35V (typ.) on the SDBRGT pin will turn off the device, reducing the quiescent current to 3µA (typ.). The LM2793 has the ability to adjust LED brightness by applying an analog voltage or a PWM signal to the SDBRGT pin. For constant brightness or analog brightness control, continue with “Analog brightness control” below. Otherwise go to “Brightness control using PWM”. 1. Analog brightness control The current for the dual LED outputs can be adjusted by varying the voltage on the SD-BRGT pin. The typical range for adjusting LED brightness is between 0.7 and 2.75V. Figure 1 shows how the current changes with respect to the voltage applied to SD-BRGT. If full brightness (16mA) is desired, the voltage on SD-BRGT should be greater than 2.75V (typ.) but not more than VIN. 2. TABLE 1. Ceramic Capacitor Manufacturers Brightness control using PWM Increasing and decreasing the duty cycle of the PWM signal controls the LED brightness. Zero duty cycle will turn off the LEDs and a 50% duty cycle will result in an average ILED being half of the maximum LED current. The recommended frequency range for the PWM signal is between 100Hz and 1KHz. If the PWM frequency is much less than 100Hz, flicker may be seen in the LEDs. If the frequency is much higher than 1kHz, brightness in the LEDs will not adjust linearly with duty cycle due to the 30µs (typ.) start-up time of the device. The voltage level for the PWM signal should be greater than 2.75V (typ.) but not exceed the voltage on VIN. Manufacturer Contact TDK www.component.tdk.com Murata www.murata.com Taiyo Yuden www.t-yuden.com LED SELECTION The LM2793 is designed to drive LEDs with a forward voltage of about 3.0V to 4.0V. The typical and maximum diode forward voltage depends highly on the manufacturer and their technology. Table 2 lists two suggested manufacturers. Forward current matching is assured over the LED process variations due to the constant current output of the LM2793. 7 www.national.com LM2793 Application Information through one LED, and VLED is the forward voltage at that LED current. In the input power calculation, the 1.5 multiplier reflects the 3/2 switched capacitor gain of the LM2793. PLED = N x VLED x ILED PIN = VIN x IIN (Continued) TABLE 2. White LED Selection Manufacturer Contact Osram www.osram-os.com Nichia www.nichia.com PIN = VIN x (1.5 x N x ILED + IQ) E = (PLED ÷ PIN) It is also worth noting that efficiency as defined here is in part dependent on LED voltage. Variation in LED voltage does not affect power consumed by the circuit and typically does not relate to the brightness of the LED. For an advanced analysis, it is recommended that power consumed by the circuit (VIN x IIN) be evaluated rather than power efficiency. Power consumption of the LM2793 Typical Application Circuit is shown in Figure 3. PARALLEL DX OUTPUTS FOR INCREASED CURRENT DRIVE Outputs D1 and D2 may be connected together to drive a single LED. In such a configuration, two parallel current sources of equal value drive the single LED. The voltage on SD-BRGT should be chosen so that the current through each of the outputs is programmed to 50% of the total desired LED current. For example, if 30mA is the desired drive current for the single LED, SD-BRGT should be selected so that the current through each of the outputs is 15mA. Connecting the outputs in parallel does not affect internal operation of the LM2793 and has no impact on the Electrical Characteristics and limits previously presented. The available diode output current, maximum diode voltage, and all other specifications provided in the Electrical Characteristics table apply to this parallel output configuration, just as they do to the standard 2-LED application circuit. POUT POUT uses pre-regulation to loosely regulate the output of the LM2793 1.5x charge pump. Pre-regulation uses the voltage present at POUT to limit the gate drive of the 1.5x switched capacitor charge pump. Pre-regulation helps to reduce input current noise and large input current spikes normally associated with switched capacitor charge pumps. At voltages below 3.3V (typ.), the LM2793 acts as an open loop charge pump. When the device is in open loop, the voltage at POUT is 1.5 times the input voltage. At input voltages higher than 3.3V (typ.) POUT is loosely regulated to 4.9V (typ.). 20063613 FIGURE 3. ILED current vs. PIN 2 LEDs, 2.5 ≤ VLED ≤ 3.9V, ILED = 16mA THERMAL PROTECTION When the junction temperature exceeds 150˚C, the LM2793 internal thermal protection circuitry disables the part. This feature protects the device from damage due to excessive power dissipation. The device will recover and operate normally when the junction temperature falls below 125˚C. It is important to have good thermal conduction with a proper layout to reduce thermal resistance. POWER EFFICIENCY Figure 2 shows the efficiency of the LM2793. POWER DISSIPATION When operating within specified operating ratings, the peak power dissipation (PDISSIPATION) of the LM2793 occurs at an input voltage of 5.5V. Assuming a typical junction-to-ambient thermal resistance (θJA) for the LLP-10 package of 55˚C/W, a LED forward voltage (VDX) of 3.6V, and a total load (ILOAD) of 32mA for two White LEDs connected to D1 and D2, the power dissipation and junction temperature (TJ) are calculated below for a part operating at the maximum rated ambient temperature (TA) of 85˚C. In the equations below, VIN is the input voltage to the LM2793, PIN is the power generated by the 1.5x charge pump, and PLED is the power consumed by the LEDs. PDISSIPATION = PIN - PLED = (1.5VIN − VDX) x ILOAD = ((1.5 x 5.5V) - 3.6V) x 0.032A = 149mW 20063612 FIGURE 2. Efficiency vs. VIN 2 LEDs, VLED = 3.6V, ILED = 16mA Efficiency (E) of the LM2793 is defined here as the ratio of the power consumed by LEDs (PLED) to the power drawn from the input source (PIN). In the equations below, IQ is the quiescent current of the LM2793, ILED is the current flowing www.national.com 8 measuring 2.0mm x 1.2mm. The main advantage of this exposed DAP is to offer lower thermal resistance when it is soldered to the thermal land on the PCB. For PCB layout, National highly recommends a 1:1 ratio between the package and the PCB thermal land. To further enhance thermal conductivity, the PCB thermal land may include vias to a ground plane. For more detailed instructions on mounting LLP packages, please refer to National Semiconductor Application Note AN-1187. (Continued) TJ = TA + (PDMAX x θJA) = 85˚C + (0.149W x 55˚C/W) = 93˚C The junction temperature rating takes precedence over the ambient temperature rating. The LM2793 may be operated outside the ambient temperature rating, so long as the junction temperature of the device does not exceed the maximum operating rating of 100˚C. The maximum ambient temperature rating must be derated in applications where high power dissipation and/or poor thermal resistance causes the junction temperature to exceed 100˚C. PCB Layout Considerations The LLP is a leadframe based Chip Scale Package (CSP) with very good thermal properties. This package has an exposed DAP (die attach pad) at the center of the package 9 www.national.com LM2793 Application Information LM2793 Low Noise White LED Constant Current Supply with Dual Function Brightness Control Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 10-Pin LLP NS Package Number LDA10A LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Americas Customer Support Center Email: [email protected] Tel: 1-800-272-9959 www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Customer Support Center Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208 English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171 Français Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. National Semiconductor Asia Pacific Customer Support Center Fax: +65-6250 4466 Email: [email protected] Tel: +65-6254 4466 National Semiconductor Japan Customer Support Center Fax: 81-3-5639-7507 Email: [email protected] Tel: 81-3-5639-7560 National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.