LM3940 1A Low Dropout Regulator for 5V to 3.3V Conversion General Description Features The LM3940 is a 1A low dropout regulator designed to provide 3.3V from a 5V supply. n n n n n n The LM3940 is ideally suited for systems which contain both 5V and 3.3V logic, with prime power provided from a 5V bus. Because the LM3940 is a true low dropout regulator, it can hold its 3.3V output in regulation with input voltages as low as 4.5V. The T0-220 package of the LM3940 means that in most applications the full 1A of load current can be delivered without using an additional heatsink. The surface mount TO-263 package uses minimum board space, and gives excellent power dissipation capability when soldered to a copper plane on the PC board. Output voltage specified over temperature Excellent load regulation Guaranteed 1A output current Requires only one external component Built-in protection against excess temperature Short circuit protected Applications n Laptop/Desktop Computers n Logic Systems Typical Application DS012080-1 *Required if regulator is located more than 1" from the power supply filter capacitor or if battery power is used. **See Application Hints. © 1999 National Semiconductor Corporation DS012080 www.national.com LM3940 1A Low Dropout Regulator for 5V to 3.3V Conversion May 1999 Connection Diagram/Ordering Information DS012080-2 DS012080-3 3-Lead TO-220 Package (Front View) Order Part Number LM3940IT-3.3 NSC Drawing Number TO3B 3-Lead TO-263 Package (Front View) Order Part Number LM3940IS-3.3 NSC Drawing Number TS3B DS012080-10 3-Lead SOT-223 (Front View) Order Part Number LM3940IMP-3.3 Package Marked L52B NSC Drawing Number MA04A DS012080-27 DS012080-28 16-Lead Ceramic Dual-in-Line Package (Top View) Order Part Number LM3940J-3.3-QML 5962-9688401QEA NSC Drawing Number J16A www.national.com 16-Lead Ceramic Surface-Mount Package (Top View) Order Part Number LM3940WG-3.3-QML 5962-9688401QXA NSC Drawing Number WG16A 2 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1) Operating Junction Temperature Range −40˚C to +125˚C Lead Temperature (Soldering, 5 seconds) 260˚C Power Dissipation (Note 2) Internally Limited Input Supply Voltage 7.5V ESD Rating (Note 3) 2 kV If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Storage Temperature Range −65˚C to +150˚C Electrical Characteristics Limits in standard typeface are for TJ = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full operating temperature range. Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 5V, IL = 1A, COUT = 33 µF. Symbol VO Parameter Output Voltage Line Regulation Conditions 5 mA ≤ IL ≤ 1A Typical 3.3 IL = 5 mA LM3940 (Note 4) min max 3.20 3.40 3.13 3.47 20 40 35 50 Units V mV 4.5V ≤ VO ≤ 5.5V Load Regulation 50 mA ≤ IL ≤ 1A Output Impedance IL (DC) = 100 mA IL (AC) = 20 mA (rms) f = 120 Hz 80 ZO IQ en VO − VIN Quiescent Current 4.5V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V IL = 5 mA VIN = 5V 35 mΩ 10 15 mA 20 110 Output Noise Voltage IL = 1A BW = 10 Hz–100 kHz IL = 5 mA 150 Dropout Voltage IL = 1A 0.5 200 250 µV (rms) 0.8 (Note 5) V 1.0 IL = 100 mA 110 150 mV 200 IL(SC) Short Circuit Current RL = 0 1.7 1.2 A Note 1: Absolute maximum ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the component may occur. Electrical specifications do not apply when operating the device outside of its rated operating conditions. Note 2: The maximum allowable power dissipation is a function of the maximum junction temperature, TJ, the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance, θJ−A, and the ambient temperature, TA. Exceeding the maximum allowable power dissipation will cause excessive die temperature, and the regulator will go into thermal shutdown. The value of θJ−A (for devices in still air with no heatsink) is 60˚C/W for the TO-220 package, 80˚C/W for the TO-263 package, and 174˚C/W for the SOT-223 package. The effective value of θJ−A can be reduced by using a heatsink (see Application Hints for specific information on heatsinking). Note 3: ESD rating is based on the human body model: 100 pF discharged through 1.5 kΩ. Note 4: All limits guaranteed for TJ = 25˚C are 100% tested and are used to calculate Outgoing Quality Levels. All limits at temperature extremes are guaranteed via correlation using standard Statistical Quality Control (SQC) methods. Note 5: Dropout voltage is defined as the input-output differential voltage where the regulator output drops to a value that is 100 mV below the value that is measured at VIN = 5V. 3 www.national.com Typical Performance Characteristics Dropout Voltage Dropout Voltage vs Temperature Output Voltage vs Temperature DS012080-13 DS012080-15 DS012080-14 Quiescent Current vs Temperature Quiescent Current vs Load Quiescent Current vs VIN DS012080-18 DS012080-17 DS012080-16 Line Transient Response Load Transient Response Ripple Rejection DS012080-20 DS012080-19 DS012080-21 Low Voltage Behavior Output Impedance DS012080-22 www.national.com Peak Output Current DS012080-23 4 DS012080-24 Application Hints The figure below shows the voltages and currents which are present in the circuit, as well as the formula for calculating the power dissipated in the regulator: EXTERNAL CAPACITORS The output capacitor is critical to maintaining regulator stability, and must meet the required conditions for both ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance) and minimum amount of capacitance. MINIMUM CAPACITANCE: The minimum output capacitance required to maintain stability is 33 µF (this value may be increased without limit). Larger values of output capacitance will give improved transient response. ESR LIMITS: The ESR of the output capacitor will cause loop instability if it is too high or too low. The acceptable range of ESR plotted versus load current is shown in the graph below. It is essential that the output capacitor meet these requirements, or oscillations can result. DS012080-6 IIN = IL + IG PD = (VIN − VOUT) IL + (VIN) IG FIGURE 2. Power Dissipation Diagram The next parameter which must be calculated is the maximum allowable temperature rise, TR (max). This is calculated by using the formula: TR (max) = TJ (max) − TA (max) Where: TJ (max) is the maximum allowable junction temperature, which is 125˚C for commercial grade parts. TA (max) is the maximum ambient temperature which will be encountered in the application. Using the calculated values for TR(max) and PD, the maximum allowable value for the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance, θ(J−A), can now be found: θ(J−A) = TR (max)/PD IMPORTANT: If the maximum allowable value for θ(J−A) is found to be ≥ 60˚C/W for the TO-220 package, ≥ 80˚C/W for the TO-263 package, or ≥174˚C/W for the SOT-223 package, no heatsink is needed since the package alone will dissipate enough heat to satisfy these requirements. If the calculated value for θ(J−A)falls below these limits, a heatsink is required. DS012080-5 FIGURE 1. ESR Limits It is important to note that for most capacitors, ESR is specified only at room temperature. However, the designer must ensure that the ESR will stay inside the limits shown over the entire operating temperature range for the design. For aluminum electrolytic capacitors, ESR will increase by about 30X as the temperature is reduced from 25˚C to −40˚C. This type of capacitor is not well-suited for low temperature operation. Solid tantalum capacitors have a more stable ESR over temperature, but are more expensive than aluminum electrolytics. A cost-effective approach sometimes used is to parallel an aluminum electrolytic with a solid Tantalum, with the total capacitance split about 75/25% with the Aluminum being the larger value. If two capacitors are paralleled, the effective ESR is the parallel of the two individual values. The “flatter” ESR of the Tantalum will keep the effective ESR from rising as quickly at low temperatures. HEATSINKING TO-220 PACKAGE PARTS The TO-220 can be attached to a typical heatsink, or secured to a copper plane on a PC board. If a copper plane is to be used, the values of θ(J−A) will be the same as shown in the next section for the TO-263. HEATSINKING A heatsink may be required depending on the maximum power dissipation and maximum ambient temperature of the application. Under all possible operating conditions, the junction temperature must be within the range specified under Absolute Maximum Ratings. To determine if a heatsink is required, the power dissipated by the regulator, PD, must be calculated. 5 www.national.com Application Hints As a design aid, Figure 4 shows the maximum allowable power dissipation compared to ambient temperature for the TO-263 device (assuming θ(J−A) is 35˚C/W and the maximum junction temperature is 125˚C). (Continued) If a manufactured heatsink is to be selected, the value of heatsink-to-ambient thermal resistance, θ(H−A), must first be calculated: θ(H−A) = θ(J−A) − θ(C−H) − θ(J−C) Where: θ(J−C) is defined as the thermal resistance from the junction to the surface of the case. A value of 4˚C/W can be assumed for θ(J−C) for this calculation. is defined as the thermal resistance beθ(C−H) tween the case and the surface of the heatsink. The value of θ(C−H) will vary from about 1.5˚C/W to about 2.5˚C/W (depending on method of attachment, insulator, etc.). If the exact value is unknown, 2˚C/W should be assumed for θ(C−H). When a value for θ(H−A) is found using the equation shown, a heatsink must be selected that has a value that is less than or equal to this number. DS012080-8 FIGURE 4. Maximum Power Dissipation vs TAMB for the TO-263 Package Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the information for the SOT-223 package. Figure 6 assumes a θ(J−A) of 74˚C/W for 1 ounce copper and 51˚C/W for 2 ounce copper and a maximum junction temperature of 125˚C. θ(H−A) is specified numerically by the heatsink manufacturer in the catalog, or shown in a curve that plots temperature rise vs power dissipation for the heatsink. HEATSINKING TO-263 AND SOT-223 PACKAGE PARTS Both the TO-263 (“S”) and SOT-223 (“MP”) packages use a copper plane on the PCB and the PCB itself as a heatsink. To optimize the heat sinking ability of the plane and PCB, solder the tab of the package to the plane. Figure 3 shows for the TO-263 the measured values of θ(J−A) for different copper area sizes using a typical PCB with 1 ounce copper and no solder mask over the copper area used for heatsinking. DS012080-11 FIGURE 5. θ(J−A) vs Copper (2 ounce) Area for the SOT-223 Package DS012080-7 FIGURE 3. θ(J−A) vs Copper (1 ounce) Area for the TO-263 Package As shown in the figure, increasing the copper area beyond 1 square inch produces very little improvement. It should also be observed that the minimum value of θ(J−A) for the TO-263 package mounted to a PCB is 32˚C/W. DS012080-12 FIGURE 6. Maximum Power Dissipation vs TAMB for the SOT-223 Package Please see AN1028 for power enhancement techniques to be used with the SOT-223 package. www.national.com 6 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 3-Lead SOT-223 Package Order Part Number LM3940IMP-3.3 NSC Package Number MA04A 7 www.national.com Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) 3-Lead TO-220 Package Order Part Number LM3940IT-3.3 NSC Package Number TO3B www.national.com 8 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) 3-Lead TO-263 Package Order Part Number LM3940IS-3.3 NSC Package Number TS3B 9 www.national.com Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) 16-Lead Ceramic Dual-in-Line Package Order Part Number LM3940J-3.3-QML 5962-9688401QEA NSC Drawing Number J16A www.national.com 10 LM3940 1A Low Dropout Regulator for 5V to 3.3V Conversion Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) 16-Lead Ceramic Surface-Mount Package Order Part Number LM3940WG-3.3-QML 5962-9688401QXA NSC Package Number WG16A LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. 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