HPC36164/46164, HPC36104/46104 High-Performance microController with A/D General Description The HPC46164 and HPC46104 are members of the HPCTM family of High Performance microControllers. Each member of the family has the same core CPU with a unique memory and I/O configuration to suit specific applications. The HPC46164 has 16k bytes of on-chip ROM. The HPC46104 has no on-chip ROM and is intended for use with external memory. Each part is fabricated in National’s advanced microCMOS technology. This process combined with an advanced architecture provides fast, flexible I/O control, efficient data manipulation, and high speed computation. The HPC devices are complete microcomputers on a single chip. All system timing, internal logic, ROM, RAM, and I/O are provided on the chip to produce a cost effective solution for high performance applications. On-chip functions such as UART, up to eight 16-bit timers with 4 input capture registers, vectored interrupts, WATCHDOGTM logic and MICROWIRE/PLUSTM provide a high level of system integration. The ability to address up to 64k bytes of external memory enables the HPC to be used in powerful applications typically performed by microprocessors and expensive peripheral chips. The term ‘‘HPC46164’’ is used throughout this datasheet to refer to the HPC46164 and HPC46104 devices unless otherwise specified. The HPC46164 and HPC46104 have, as an on-board peripheral, an 8-channel 8-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter. This A/D converter can operate in a single-ended mode where the analog input voltage is applied across one of the eight input channels (D0–D7) and AGND. The A/D converter can also operate in differential mode where the analog input voltage is applied across two adjacent input channels. The A/D converter will convert up to eight channels in singleended mode and up to four channel pairs in differential mode. The microCMOS process results in very low current drain and enables the user to select the optimum speed/power product for his system. The IDLE and HALT modes provide further current savings. The HPC is available only in an 80-pin PQFP package. Features Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y HPC familyÐcore features: Ð 16-bit architecture, both byte and word Ð 16-bit data bus, ALU, and registers Ð 64k bytes of external direct memory addressing Ð FASTÐ200 ns for fastest instruction when using 20.0 MHz clock, 134 ns at 30.0 MHz Ð High code efficiencyÐmost instructions are single byte Ð 16 x 16 multiply and 32 x 16 divide Ð Eight vectored interrupt sources Ð Four 16-bit timer/counters with 4 synchronous outputs and WATCHDOG logic Ð MICROWIRE/PLUS serial I/O interface Ð CMOSÐvery low power with two power save modes: IDLE and HALT A/DÐ8-channel 8-bit analog-to-digital converter with g (/2 LSB non-linearity UARTÐfull duplex, programmable baud rate Four additional 16-bit timer/counters with pulse width modulated outputs Four input capture registers 52 general purpose I/O lines (memory mapped) 16k bytes of ROM, 512 bytes of RAM on-chip ROMless version available (HPC46104) Commercial (0§ C to a 70§ C) and industrial (b40§ C to a 85§ C) temperature ranges Block Diagram (HPC46164 with 16k ROM shown) TL/DD/9682 – 1 Series 32000É and TRI-STATEÉ are registered trademarks of National Semiconductor Corporation. MOLETM , HPCTM , COPSTM microcontrollers, WATCHDOGTM and MICROWIRE/PLUSTM are trademarks of National Semiconductor Corporation. PC-ATÉ is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. SunOSTM is a trademark of Sun Microsystems C1995 National Semiconductor Corporation TL/DD/9682 RRD-B30M105/Printed in U. S. A. HPC36164/46164, HPC36104/46104 High-Performance microController with A/D January 1993 Absolute Maximum Ratings VCC with Respect to GND If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/Distributors for availability and specifications. Total Allowable Source or Sink Current Storage Temperature Range b 65§ C to a 150§ C Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec.) 300§ C All Other Pins b 0.5V to 7.0V (VCC a 0.5)V to (GND b 0.5)V Note: Absolute maximum ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. DC and AC electrical specifications are not ensured when operating the device at absolute maximum ratings. 100 mA DC Electrical Characteristics VCC e 5.0V g 10% unless otherwise specified, TA e 0§ C to a 70§ C for HPC46164/HPC46104, b40§ C to a 85§ C for HPC36164/HPC36104 Symbol ICC1 ICC2 ICC3 Parameter Supply Current IDLE Mode Current HALT Mode Current Max Units VCC e 5.5V, fin e 30 MHz (Note 1) Test Conditions Min 65 mA VCC e 5.5V, fin e 20 MHz (Note 1) 47 mA VCC e 5.5V, fin e 2.0 MHz (Note 1) 10 mA VCC e 5.5V, fin e 30 MHz (Note 1) 5 mA VCC e 5.5V, fin e 20 MHz (Note 1) 3 mA VCC e 5.5V, fin e 2.0 MHz (Note 1) VCC e 5.5V, fin e 0 kHz (Note 1) 1 mA 300 mA 100 mA VCC e 2.5V, fin e 0 kHz (Note 1) INPUT VOLTAGE LEVELS FOR SCHMITT TRIGGERED INPUTS RESET, NMI, WO; AND ALSO CKI VIH1 Logic High VIL1 Logic Low 0.9 VCC V 0.1 VCC V ALL OTHER INPUTS VIH2 Logic High (except Port D) VIL2 Logic Low (except Port D) 0.7 VCC VIH3 Logic High (Port D Only) (Note 9 in AC Characteristics) VIL3 Logic Low (Port D Only) (Note 9 in AC Characteristics) ILI1 Input Leakage Current ILI2 Input Leakage Current RDY/HLD, EXUI VIN e 0 and VIN e VCC VIN e 0 ILI3 Input Leakage Current B12 CI Input Capacitance RESET e 0, VIN e VCC (Note 2) CIO I/O Capacitance (Note 2) V 0.2 VCC 0.7 VCC V V 0.2 VCC V g2 mA b3 b 50 mA 0.5 7 mA 10 pF 20 pF OUTPUT VOLTAGE LEVELS VOH1 Logic High (CMOS) IOH e b10 mA (Note 2) VOL1 Logic Low (CMOS) IOH e 10 mA (Note 2) VOH2 Port A/B Drive, CK2 (A0 – A15, B10, B11, B12, B15) IOH e b7 mA VOL2 VOH3 IOH e b1.6 mA (except WO) VOL3 VOH4 ST1 and ST2 Drive IOH e b6 mA VOH5 VOL5 2.4 0.4 IOL e 0.5 mA IOH e b1 mA RAM Keep-Alive Voltage (Note 3) 0.4 IOZ TRI-STATEÉ Leakage Current VIN e 0 and VIN e VCC V V 0.4 2.4 2.5 V V 2.4 IOL e 3 mA VRAM V V 2.4 IOL e 1.6 mA Port A/B Drive (A0 – A15, B10, B11, B12, B15) When Used as External Address/Data Bus V 0.1 IOL e 3 mA Other Port Pin Drive, WO (open drain) (B0 – B9, B13, B14, P0 – P3) VOL4 VCC b 0.1 V V 0.4 V VCC V g5 mA Note 1: ICC1, ICC2, ICC3 measured with no external drive (IOH and IOL e 0, IIH and IIL e 0). ICC1 is measured with RESET e GND. ICC3 is measured with NMI e VCC and A/D inactive. CKI driven to VIH1 and VIL1 with rise and fall times less than 10 ns. VREF e AGND e GND. Note 2: This is guaranteed by design and not tested. Note 3: Test duration is 100 ms. 2 20 MHz AC Electrical Characteristics (See Notes 1 and 4 and Figure 1 through Figure 5 .) VCC e 5V g 10%, TA e 0§ C to a 70§ C for HPC46164 and b40§ C to a 85§ C for HPC36164. External Hold MICROWIRE/PLUS Timers Clocks Symbol and Formula UPI Timing Min Max Units fC CKI Operating Frequency 2 20 MHz tC1 e 1/fC CKI Clock Period 50 500 ns tCKIH CKI High Time 22.5 ns tCKIL CKI Low Time 22.5 ns tC e 2/fC CPU Timing Cycle 100 ns tWAIT e tC CPU Wait State Period 100 ns tDC1C2R Delay of CK2 Rising Edge after CKI Falling Edge 0 55 ns (Note 2) tDC1C2F Delay of CK2 Falling Edge after CKI Falling Edge 0 55 ns (Note 2) fU e fC/8 fMW External UART Clock Input Frequency External MICROWIRE/PLUS Clock Input Frequency 2.5* 1.25 MHz MHz fXIN e fC/22 tXIN e tC External Timer Input Frequency Pulse Width for Timer Inputs 0.91 100 MHz ns tUWS MICROWIRE Setup Time Master Slave 100 20 ns MICROWIRE Hold Time Master Slave 20 50 ns tUWH tUWV Parameter MICROWIRE Output Valid Time Master Slave 50 150 Notes ns tSALE e */4 tC a 40 HLD Falling Edge before ALE Rising Edge 115 ns tHWP e tC a 10 HLD Pulse Width 110 ns tHAE e tC a 100 HLDA Falling Edge after HLD Falling Edge 200 ns tHAD e */4 tC a 85 HLDA Rising Edge after HLD Rising Edge 160 ns tBF e (/2 tC a 66 Bus Float after HLDA Falling Edge 116 ns (Note 5) (Note 5) tBE e (/2 tC a 66 Bus Enable after HLDA Rising Edge 116 ns tUAS Address Setup Time to Falling Edge of URD 10 ns tUAH Address Hold Time from Rising Edge of URD 10 ns tRPW URD Pulse Width 100 tOE URD Falling Edge to Output Data Valid 0 60 ns tOD Rising Edge of URD to Output Data Invalid 5 35 ns tDRDY RDRDY Delay from Rising Edge of URD 70 ns tWDW UWR Pulse Width 40 ns tUDS Input Data Valid before Rising Edge of UWR 10 ns tUDH Input Data Hold after Rising Edge of UWR 20 tA WRRDY Delay from Rising Edge of UWR (Note 3) ns (Note 6) ns 70 ns *This maximum frequency is attainable provided that this external baud clock has a duty cycle such that the high period includes two (2) falling edges of the CK2 clock. 3 20 MHz (Continued) AC Electrical Characteristics (See Notes 1 and 4 and Figure 1 through Figure 5 .) VCC e 5V g 10%, TA e 0§ C to a 70§ C for HPC46164 and b40§ C to a 85§ C for HPC36164. Ready Input Write Cycles Read Cycles Address Cycles Symbol and Formula Parameter Min Max Units tDC1ALER Delay from CKI Rising Edge to ALE Rising Edge 0 35 ns tDC1ALEF Delay from CKI Rising Edge to ALE Falling Edge 0 35 ns tDC2ALER e (/4 tC a 20 Delay from CK2 Rising Edge to ALE Rising Edge 45 ns tDC2ALEF e (/4 tC a 20 Delay from CK2 Falling Edge to ALE Falling Edge 45 ns tLL e (/2 tC b 9 ALE Pulse Width 41 ns tST e (/4 tC b 7 Setup of Address Valid before ALE Falling Edge 18 ns tVP e (/4 tC b 5 Hold of Address Valid after ALE Falling Edge 20 ns tARR e (/4 tC b 5 ALE Falling Edge to RD Falling Edge 20 tACC e tC a WS b 55 Data Input Valid after Address Output Valid 145 ns tRD e (/2 tC a WS b 65 Data Input Valid after RD Falling Edge 85 ns tRW e (/2 tC a WS b 10 RD Pulse Width tDR e */4 tC b 15 Hold of Data Input Valid after RD Rising Edge 0 tRDA e tC b 15 Bus Enable after RD Rising Edge 85 (Notes 1, 2) (Note 2) (Note 2) ns 140 (Note 6) ns 60 ns ns tARW e (/2 tC b 5 ALE Falling Edge to WR Falling Edge 45 ns tWW e */4 tC a WS b 15 WR Pulse Width 160 ns tV e (/2 tC a WS b 5 Data Output Valid before WR Rising Edge 145 ns tHW e (/4 tC b 5 Hold of Data Valid after WR Rising Edge 20 ns tDAR e (/4 tC a WS b 50 Falling Edge of ALE to Falling Edge of RDY tRWP e tC RDY Pulse Width 75 100 Notes (Notes 1, 2) ns ns Note: CL e 40 pF. Note 1: These AC characteristics are guaranteed with external clock drive on CKI having 50% duty cycle and with less than 15 pF load on CKO with rise and fall times (tCKIR and tCKIL) on CKI input less than 2.5 ns. Note 2: Do not design with these parameters unless CKI is driven with an active signal. When using a passive crystal circuit, its stability is not guaranteed if either CKI or CKO is connected to any external logic other than the passive components of the crystal circuit. Note 3: tHAE is spec’d for case with HLD falling edge occurring at the latest time it can be accepted during the present CPU cycle being executed. If HLD falling edge occurs later, tHAE may be as long as (3 tC a 4WS a 72 tC a 100) may occur depending on the following CPU instruction cycles, its wait states and ready input. Note 4: WS (tWAIT) c (number of preprogrammed wait states). Minimum and maximum values are calculated at maximum operating frequency, tC e 20 MHz, with one wait state programmed. Note 5: Due to emulation restrictionsÐactual limits will be better. Note 6: This is guaranteed by design and not tested. 4 A/D Converter Specifications VCC e 5V g 10% (VSS b 0.05V) s Any Input s (VCC a 0.05V), fC e 20 MHz and Prescalar e fC/12. Parameter Conditions Min Resolution Max Units 8 Bits Reference Voltage Input AGND e 0V VCC V Absolute Accuracy VCC e 5.5V, VREF e 5V, VCC e 5V, VREF e 5V and VCC e 4.5V, VREF e 4.5V g2 LSB VCC e 5.5V, VREF e 5V, VCC e 5V, VREF e 5V and VCC e 4.5V, VREF e 4.5V g (/2 LSB VCC e 5.5V, VREF e 5V, VCC e 5V, VREF e 5V and VCC e 4.5V, VREF e 4.5V g (/2 LSB 1.6 4.8 kX AGND VREF V DC Common Mode Error g (/4 LSB Off Channel Leakage Current g2 mA Non-Linearity Differential Non-Linearity 3 Typ Input Reference Resistance Common Mode Input Range (Note 9) On Channel Leakage Current A/D Clock Frequency (Note 8) 0.1 Conversion Time (Note 7) 12.5 g2 mA 1.67 MHz A/D Clock Cycles Note 7: Conversion Time includes sample and hold time. See following diagrams. Note 8: See Prescalar description. Note 9: For VIN(b) l VIN( a ) the digital output code will be 0000 0000. Two on-chip diodes are tied to each analog input. The diodes will forward conduct for analog input voltages below ground or above the VCC supply. Be careful, during testing at low VCC levels (4.5V), as high level analog inputs (5.0V) can cause this input diode to conductÐespecially at elevated temperatures, and cause errors for analog inputs near full-scale. The spec allows 50 mV forward bias of either diode. This means that as long as the analog VIN does not exceed the supply voltage by more than 50 mV, the output code will be correct. To achieve an absolute 0 VDC to 5.0VDC input voltage range will therefore require a minimum supply voltage of 4.950 VDC over temperature variations, initial tolerance and loading. Timing Diagram TL/DD/9682 – 11 Note: The trigger condition generated by the start conversion method selected by the SC bits requires one CK2 to propagate through before the trigger condition is known. Once the trigger condition is known, the sample and hold will start at the next rising edge of ADCLK. The figure shows worst case. 5 30 MHz AC Electrical Characteristics (See Notes 1 and 4 and Figure 1 through Figure 5 .) VCC e 5V g 10%, TA e 0§ C to a 70§ C for HPC46164/HPC46104, b55§ C to a 125§ C for HPC16164/HPC16104. External Hold MICROWIRE/PLUS Timers Clocks Symbol and Formula UPI Timing Min Max Units fC CKI Operating Frequency 2 30 MHz tC1 e 1/fC CKI Clock Period 33 500 ns tCKIH CKI High Time 15 ns tCKIL CKI Low Time 16.6 ns tC e 2/fC CPU Timing Cycle 66 ns tWAIT e tC CPU Wait State Period 66 ns tDC1C2R Delay of CK2 Rising Edge after CKI Falling Edge 0 55 ns (Note 2) tDC1C2F Delay of CK2 Falling Edge after CKI Falling Edge 0 55 ns (Note 2) fU e fC/8 fMW External UART Clock Input Frequency External MICROWIRE/PLUS Clock Input Frequency 3.75* 1.875 MHz MHz fXIN e fC/22 tXIN e tC External Timer Input Frequency Pulse Width for Timer Inputs 1.36 66 MHz ns tUWS MICROWIRE Setup Time Master Slave 100 20 ns MICROWIRE Hold Time Master Slave 20 50 ns tUWH tUWV Parameter MICROWIRE Output Valid Time Master Slave 50 150 Notes ns tSALE e */4 tC a 40 HLD Falling Edge before ALE Rising Edge 90 ns tHWP e tC a 10 HLD Pulse Width 76 ns tHAE e tC a 85 HLDA Falling Edge after HLD Falling Edge 151 ns tHAD e */4 tC a 85 HLDA Rising Edge after HLD Rising Edge 135 ns (Note 3) tBF e (/2 tC a 66 Bus Float after HLDA Falling Edge 99 ns (Note 5) tBE e (/2 tC a 66 Bus Enable after HLDA Rising Edge 99 ns (Note 5) tUAS Address Setup Time to Falling Edge of URD 10 ns tUAH Address Hold Time from Rising Edge of URD 10 ns tRPW URD Pulse Width 100 tOE URD Falling Edge to Output Data Valid 0 60 ns tOD Rising Edge of URD to Output Data Invalid 5 35 ns tDRDY RDRDY Delay from Rising Edge of URD 70 ns tWDW UWR Pulse Width 40 ns tUDS Input Data Valid before Rising Edge of UWR 10 ns tUDH Input Data Hold after Rising Edge of UWR 20 tA WRRDY Delay from Rising Edge of UWR ns (Note 6) ns 70 ns *This maximum frequency is attainable provided that this external baud clock has a duty cycle such that the high period includes two (2) falling edges of the CK2 clock. 6 30 MHz (Continued) AC Electrical Characteristics (See Notes 1 and 4 and Figure 1 through Figure 5 .) VCC e 5V g 10%, TA e 0§ C to a 70§ C for HPC46164/HPC46104, b55§ C to a 125§ C for HPC16164/HPC16104. Ready Input Write Cycles Read Cycles Address Cycles Symbol and Formula Parameter Min Max Units tDC1ALER Delay from CKI Rising Edge to ALE Rising Edge 0 35 ns tDC1ALEF Delay from CKI Rising Edge to ALE Falling Edge 0 35 ns tDC2ALER e (/4 tC a 20 Delay from CK2 Rising Edge to ALE Rising Edge 37 ns tDC2ALEF e (/4 tC a 20 Delay from CK2 Falling Edge to ALE Falling Edge 37 ns tLL e (/2 tC b 9 ALE Pulse Width 24 ns tST e (/4 tC b 7 Setup of Address Valid before ALE Falling Edge 9 ns tVP e (/4 tC b 5 Hold of Address Valid after ALE Falling Edge 11 ns tARR e (/4 tC b 5 ALE Falling Edge to RD Falling Edge 11 tACC e tC a WS b 32 Data Input Valid after Address Output Valid 100 ns tRD e (/2 tC a WS b 39 Data Input Valid after RD Falling Edge 60 ns tRW e (/2 tC a WS b 14 RD Pulse Width 85 tDR e */4 tC b 15 Hold of Data Input Valid after RD Rising Edge 0 tRDA e tC b 15 Bus Enable after RD Rising Edge 51 (Notes 1, 2) (Note 2) (Note 2) ns (Note 6) ns 35 ns ns tARW e (/2 tC b 5 ALE Falling Edge to WR Falling Edge 28 ns tWW e */4 tC a WS b 15 WR Pulse Width 101 ns tV e (/2 tC a WS b 5 Data Output Valid before WR Rising Edge 94 ns tHW e (/4 tC b 10 Hold of Data Valid after WR Rising Edge 7 ns tDAR e (/4 tC a WS b 50 Falling Edge of ALE to Falling Edge of RDY tRWP e tC RDY Pulse Width 33 66 Notes (Notes 1, 2) ns ns Note: CL e 40 pF. Note 1: These AC characteristics are guaranteed with external clock drive on CKI having 50% duty cycle and with less than 15 pF load on CKO with rise and fall times (tCKIR and tCKIL) on CKI input less than 2.5 ns. Note 2: Do not design with these parameters unless CKI is driven with an active signal. When using a passive crystal circuit, its stability is not guaranteed if either CKI or CKO is connected to any external logic other than the passive components of the crystal circuit. Note 3: tHAE is specified for case with HLD falling edge occurring at the latest time it can be accepted during the present CPU cycle being executed. If HLD falling edge occurs later, tHAE may be as long as (3 tC a 4WS a 72 tC a 100) may occur depending on the following CPU instruction cycles, its wait states and ready input. Note 4: WS (tWAIT) c (number of preprogrammed wait states). Minimum and maximum values are calculated at maximum operating frequency, tC e 30 MHz, with one wait state programmed. Note 5: Due to emulation restrictionsÐactual limits will be better. Note 6: This is guaranteed by design and not tested. 7 CKI Input Signal Characteristics Rise/Fall Time TL/DD/9682 – 34 Duty Cycle TL/DD/9682 – 35 FIGURE 1. CKI Input Signal TL/DD/9682 – 40 Note: AC testing inputs are driven at VIH for a logic ‘‘1’’ and VIL for a logic ‘‘0’’. Output timing measurements are made at 2.0V for a logic ‘‘1’’ and 0.8V for a logic ‘‘0’’. FIGURE 2. Input and Output for AC Tests 8 Timing Waveforms TL/DD/9682 – 2 FIGURE 3. CKI, CK2, ALE Timing Diagram TL/DD/9682 – 3 FIGURE 4. Write Cycle TL/DD/9682 – 4 FIGURE 5. Read Cycle 9 Timing Waveforms (Continued) TL/DD/9682 – 5 FIGURE 6. Ready Mode Timing TL/DD/9682 – 6 FIGURE 7. Hold Mode Timing TL/DD/9682 – 39 FIGURE 8. MICROWIRE Setup/Hold Timing 10 Timing Waveforms (Continued) TL/DD/9682 – 9 FIGURE 9. UPI Read Timing TL/DD/9682 – 10 FIGURE 10. UPI Write Timing 11 Pin Descriptions Port D is an 8-bit input port that can be used as general purpose digital inputs or as analog channel inputs for the A/D converter. These functions of Port D are mutually exclusive and under the control of software. Port P is a 4-bit output port that can be used as general purpose data, or selected to be controlled by timers 4 through 7 in order to generate frequency, duty cycle and pulse width modulated outputs. The HPC46164 is available only in an 80-pin PQFP package. I/O PORTS Port A is a 16-bit bidirectional I/O port with a data direction register to enable each separate pin to be individually defined as an input or output. When accessing external memory, port A is used as the multiplexed address/data bus. Port B is a 16-bit port with 12 bits of bidirectional I/O similar in structure to Port A. Pins B10, B11, B12 and B15 are general purpose outputs only in this mode. Port B may also be configured via a 16-bit function register BFUN to individually allow each pin to have an alternate function. B0: B1: B2: B3: B4: B5: B6: B7: TDX UART Data Output CKX T2IO T3IO SO SK HLDA UART Clock (Input or Output) Timer2 I/O Pin Timer3 I/O Pin MICROWIRE/PLUS Output MICROWIRE/PLUS Clock (Input or Output) POWER SUPPLY PINS VCC1 and Positive Power Supply VCC2 GND DGND Note: There are two electrically connected VCC pins on the chip, GND and DGND are electrically isolated. Both VCC pins and both ground pins must be used. CLOCK PINS CKI The Chip System Clock Input CKO The Chip System Clock Output (inversion of CKI) Hold Acknowledge Output B8: TS0 Timer Synchronous Output B9: TS1 Timer Synchronous Output B10: UA0 Address 0 Input for UPI Mode B11: WRRDY Write Ready Output for UPI Mode B12: B13: TS2 Timer Synchronous Output B14: TS3 Timer Synchronous Output B15: RDRDY Read Ready Output for UPI Mode When accessing external memory, four bits of port B are used as follows: B10: ALE Address Latch Enable Output B11: WR Write Output B12: HBE High Byte Enable Output/Input (sampled at reset) B15: RD Read Output Pins CKI and CKO are usually connected across an external crystal. CK2 Clock Output (CKI divided by 2) OTHER PINS WO This is an active low open drain output that signals an illegal situation has been detected by the WATCHDOG logic. ST1 Bus Cycle Status Output: indicates first opcode fetch. ST2 Bus Cycle Status Output: indicates machine states (skip, interrupt and first instruction cycle). RESET Active low input that forces the chip to restart and sets the ports in a TRI-STATE mode. RDY/HLD Selected by a software bit. It’s either a READY input to extend the bus cycle for slower memories, or a HOLD request input to put the bus in a high impedance state for DMA purposes. VREF A/D converter reference voltage input. Port I is an 8-bit input port that can be read as general purpose inputs and is also used for the following functions: I0: I1: NMI Nonmaskable Interrupt Input I2: INT2 Maskable Interrupt/Input Capture/URD I3: I4: INT3 INT4 Maskable Interrupt/Input Capture/UWR Maskable Interrupt/Input Capture I5: I6: I7: SI RDX MICROWIRE/PLUS Data Input UART Data Input External Start A/D Conversion Ground for On-Chip Logic Ground for Output Buffers EXM EI EXUI 12 External memory enable (active high) disables internal ROM and maps it to external memory. External interrupt with vector address FFF1:FFF0. (Rising/falling edge or high/low level sensitive). Alternately can be configured as 4th input capture. External active low interrupt which is internally OR’ed with the UART interrupt with vector address FFF3:FFF2. Connection Diagram TL/DD/9682 – 45 Top View Order Number HPC46064XXX/F20, HPC46064XXX/F30, HPC46004VF20 or HPC46004VF30 See NS Package Number VF80B Ports A & B A write operation to a port pin configured as an input causes the value to be written into the data register, a read operation returns the value of the pin. Writing to port pins configured as outputs causes the pins to have the same value, reading the pins returns the value of the data register. Primary and secondary functions are multiplexed onto Port B through the alternate function register (BFUN). The secondary functions are enabled by setting the corresponding bits in the BFUN register. The highly flexible A and B ports are similarly structured. The Port A (see Figure 11 ) consists of a data register and a direction register. Port B (see Figures 12, 13 and 14 ) has an alternate function register in addition to the data and direction registers. All the control registers are read/write registers. The associated direction registers allow the port pins to be individually programmed as inputs or outputs. Port pins selected as inputs, are placed in a TRI-STATE mode by resetting corresponding bits in the direction register. 13 Ports A & B (Continued) TL/DD/9682 – 13 FIGURE 11. Port A: I/O Structure TL/DD/9682 – 14 FIGURE 12. Structure of Port B Pins B0, B1, B2, B5, B6 and B7 (Typical Pins) 14 Ports A & B (Continued) TL/DD/9682 – 15 FIGURE 13. Structure of Port B Pins B3, B4, B8, B9, B13 and B14 (Timer Synchronous Pins) 15 Ports A & B (Continued) TL/DD/9682 – 16 FIGURE 14. Structure of Port B Pins B10, B11, B12 and B15 (Pins with Bus Control Roles) Operating Modes and on-chip RAM and Register range, and the ‘‘illegal address detection’’ feature of the WATCHDOG logic is engaged. A logic ‘‘1’’ in the EA bit enables accesses to be made anywhere within the 64k byte address range and the ‘‘illegal address detection’’ feature of the WATCHDOG logic is disabled. The EA bit should be set to ‘‘1’’ by software when using the HPC46104 to disable the ‘‘illegal address detection’’ feature of WATCHDOG. All HPC devices can be used with external memory. External memory may be any combination of RAM and ROM. Both 8-bit and 16-bit external data bus modes are available. Upon entering an operating mode in which external memory is used, port A becomes the Address/Data bus. Four pins of port B become the control lines ALE, RD, WR and HBE. The High Byte Enable pin (HBE) is used in 16-bit mode to select high order memory bytes. The RD and WR signals are only generated if the selected address is off-chip. The 8-bit mode is selected by pulling HBE high at reset. If HBE is left floating or connected to a memory device chip select at reset, the 16-bit mode is entered. The following sections describe the operating modes of the HPC46164 and HPC46104. To offer the user a variety of I/O and expanded memory options, the HPC46164 and HPC46104 have four operating modes. The ROMless HPC46104 has one mode of operation. The various modes of operation are determined by the state of both the EXM pin and the EA bit in the PSW register. The state of the EXM pin determines whether on-chip ROM will be accessed or external memory will be accessed within the address range of the on-chip ROM. The on-chip ROM range of the HPC46164 is C000 to FFFF (16k bytes). The HPC46104 has no on-chip ROM and is intended for use with external memory for program storage. A logic ‘‘0’’ state on the EXM pin will cause the HPC device to address onchip ROM when the Program Counter (PC) contains addresses within the on-chip ROM address range. A logic ‘‘1’’ state on the EXM pin will cause the HPC device to address memory that is external to the HPC when the PC contains on-chip ROM addresses. The EXM pin should always be pulled high (logic ‘‘1’’) on the HPC46104 because no onchip ROM is available. The function of the EA bit is to determine the legal addressing range of the HPC device. A logic ‘‘0’’ state in the EA bit of the PSW register does two thingsÐaddresses are limited to the on-chip ROM range Note: The HPC devices use 16-bit words for stack memory. Therefore, when using the 8-bit mode, User’s Stack must be in internal RAM. 16 HPC46164 Operating Modes on-chip ROM and RAM (see Table I). WATCHDOG illegal address detection is disabled and memory accesses may be made anywhere in the 64k byte address range without triggering an illegal address condition. The Expanded Normal mode is entered with the EXM pin pulled low (logic ‘‘0’’) and setting the EA bit in the PSW register to ‘‘1’’. SINGLE CHIP NORMAL MODE In this mode, the HPC46164 functions as a self-contained microcomputer (see Figure 15 ) with all memory (RAM and ROM) on-chip. It can address internal memory only, consisting of 16k bytes of ROM (C000 to FFFF) and 512 bytes of on-chip RAM and Registers (0000 to 02FF). The ‘‘illegal address detection’’ feature of the WATCHDOG is enabled in the Single-Chip Normal mode and a WATCHDOG Output (WO) will occur if an attempt is made to access addresses that are outside of the on-chip ROM and RAM range of the device. Ports A and B are used for I/O functions and not for addressing external memory. The EXM pin and the EA bit of the PSW register must both be logic ‘‘0’’ to enter the SingleChip Normal mode. SINGLE-CHIP ROMLESS MODE In this mode, the on-chip mask programmed ROM of the HPC46164 is not used. The address space corresponding to the on-chip ROM is mapped into external memory so 16k of external memory may be used with the HPC46164 (see Table I). The WATCHDOG circuitry detects illegal addresses (addresses not within the on-chip ROM and RAM range). The Single-Chip ROMless mode is entered when the EXM pin is pulled high (logic ‘‘1’’) and the EA bit is logic ‘‘0’’. TABLE I. HPC46164 Operating Modes Operating Mode EXM Pin EA Bit Memory Configuration Single-Chip Normal 0 0 C000:FFFF on-chip Expanded Normal 0 1 C000:FFFF on-chip 0300:BFFF off-chip Single-Chip ROMless 1 0 C000:FFFF off-chip Expanded ROMless 1 1 0300:FFFF off-chip Note: In all operating modes, the on-chip RAM and Registers (0000:02FF) may be accessed. EXPANDED ROMLESS MODE This mode of operation is similar to Single-Chip ROMless mode in that no on-chip ROM is used, however, a full 64k bytes of external memory may be used. The ‘‘illegal address detection’’ feature of WATCHDOG is disabled. The EXM pin must be pulled high (logic ‘‘1’’) and the EA bit in the PSW register set to ‘‘1’’ to enter this mode. TL/DD/9682 – 17 FIGURE 15. Single-Chip Mode EXPANDED NORMAL MODE The Expanded Normal mode of operation enables the HPC46164 to address external memory in addition to the TL/DD/9682 – 18 FIGURE 16. 8-Bit External Memory 17 HPC46164 Operating Modes (Continued) TL/DD/9682 – 19 FIGURE 17. 16-Bit External Memory HPC46104 Operating Modes Power Save Modes EXPANDED ROMLESS MODE Because the HPC46104 has no on-chip ROM, it has only one mode of operation, the Expanded ROMless Mode. The EXM pin must be pulled high (logic ‘‘1’’) on power up, the EA bit in the PSW register should be set to a ‘‘1’’. The HPC46104 is a ROMless device and is intended for use with external memory. The external memory may be any combination of ROM and RAM. Up to 64k bytes of external memory may be accessed. It is necessary to vector on reset to an address between C000 and FFFF, therefore the user should have external memory at these addresses. The EA bit in the PSW register must immediately be set to ‘‘1’’ at the beginning of the user’s program to disable illegal address detection in the WATCHDOG logic. Two power saving modes are available on the HPC46164: HALT and IDLE. In the HALT mode, all processor activities are stopped. In the IDLE mode, the on-board oscillator and timer T0 are active but all other processor activities are stopped. In either mode, all on-board RAM, registers and I/O are unaffected. HALT MODE The HPC46164 is placed in the HALT mode under software control by setting bits in the PSW. All processor activities, including the clock and timers, are stopped. In the HALT mode, power requirements for the HPC46164 are minimal and the applied voltage (VCC) may be decreased without altering the state of the machine. There are two ways of exiting the HALT mode: via the RESET or the NMI. The RESET input reinitializes the processor. Use of the NMI input will generate a vectored interrupt and resume operation from that point with no initialization. The HALT mode can be enabled or disabled by means of a control register HALT enable. To prevent accidental use of the HALT mode the HALT enable register can be modified only once. TABLE II. HPC46104 Operating Modes Operating Mode EXM Pin EA Bit Memory Configuration Expanded ROMless 1 1 0300:FFFF off-chip Note: The on-chip RAM and Registers (0000:02FF) of the HPC46104 may be accessed at all times. IDLE MODE The HPC46164 is placed in the IDLE mode through the PSW. In this mode, all processor activity, except the onboard oscillator and Timer T0, is stopped. As with the HALT mode, the processor is returned to full operation by the RESET or NMI inputs, but without waiting for oscillator stabilization. A timer T0 overflow will also cause the HPC46164 to resume normal operation. Wait States The internal ROM can be accessed at the maximum operating frequency with one wait state. With 0 wait states, internal ROM accesses are limited to )/3 fC max. The HPC46164 provides four software selectable Wait States that allow access to slower memories. The Wait States are selected by the state of two bits in the PSW register. Additionally, the RDY input may be used to extend the instruction cycle, allowing the user to interface with slow memories and peripherals. 18 or disabled. Additionally, a Global Interrupt Enable Bit in the ENIR Register allows the Maskable interrupts to be collectively enabled or disabled. Thus, in order for a particular interrupt to request service, both the individual enable bit and the Global Interrupt bit (GIE) have to be set. HPC46164 Interrupts Complex interrupt handling is easily accomplished by the HPC46164’s vectored interrupt scheme. There are eight possible interrupt sources as shown in Table III. TABLE III. Interrupts Vector Address Interrupt Source FFFF:FFFE RESET 0 FFFD:FFFC Nonmaskable external on rising edge of I1 pin 1 FFFB:FFFA External interrupt on I2 pin 2 FFF9:FFF8 External interrupt on I3 pin 3 FFF7:FFF6 External interrupt on I4 pin 4 FFF5:FFF4 Overflow on internal timers 5 FFF3:FFF2 Internal on the UART transmit/receive complete or external on EXUI or A/D converter FFF1:FFF0 External interrupt on EI pin INTERRUPT PENDING REGISTER (IRPD) The IRPD register contains a bit allocated for each interrupt vector. The occurrence of specified interrupt trigger conditions causes the appropriate bit to be set. There is no indication of the order in which the interrupts have been received. The bits are set independently of the fact that the interrupts may be disabled. IRPD is a Read/Write register. The bits corresponding to the maskable, external interrupts are normally cleared by the HPC46164 after servicing the interrupts. For the interrupts from the on-board peripherals, the user has the responsibility of resetting the interrupt pending flags through software. The NMI bit is read only and I2, I3, and I4 are designed as to only allow a zero to be written to the pending bit (writing a one has no affect). A LOAD IMMEDIATE instruction is to be the only instruction used to clear a bit or bits in the IRPD register. This allows a mask to be used, thus ensuring that the other pending bits are not affected. Arbitration Ranking 6 7 INTERRUPT CONDITION REGISTER (IRCD) Three bits of the register select the input polarity of the external interrupt on I2, I3, and I4. Interrupt Arbitration The HPC46164 contains arbitration logic to determine which interrupt will be serviced first if two or more interrupts occur simultaneously. The arbitration ranking is given in Table III. The interrupt on Reset has the highest rank and is serviced first. Servicing the Interrupts The Interrupt, once acknowledged, pushes the program counter (PC) onto the stack thus incrementing the stack pointer (SP) twice. The Global Interrupt Enable bit (GIE) is copied into the CGIE bit of the PSW register; it is then reset, thus disabling further interrupts. The program counter is loaded with the contents of the memory at the vector address and the processor resumes operation at this point. At the end of the interrupt service routine, the user does a RETI instruction to pop the stack and re-enable interrupts if the CGIE bit is set, or RET to just pop the stack if the CGIE bit is clear, and then returns to the main program. The GIE bit can be set in the interrupt service routine to nest interrupts if desired. Figure 18 shows the Interrupt Enable Logic. Interrupt Processing Interrupts are serviced after the current instruction is completed except for the RESET, which is serviced immediately. RESET and EXUI are level-LOW-sensitive interrupts and EI is programmable for edge-(RISING or FALLING) or level(HIGH or LOW) sensitivity. All other interrupts are edge-sensitive. NMI is positive-edge sensitive. The external interrupts on I2, I3 and I4 can be software selected to be rising or falling edge. External interrupt (EXUI) is shared with the onboard UART. The EXUI interrupt is level-LOW-sensitive. To select this interrupt, disable the ERI and ETI UART interrupts by resetting these enable bits in the ENUI register. To select the on-board UART interrupt, leave this pin floating. Reset The RESET input initializes the processor and sets ports A and B in the TRI-STATE condition and Port P in the LOW state. RESET is an active-low Schmitt trigger input. The processor vectors to FFFF:FFFE and resumes operation at the address contained at that memory location (which must correspond to an on board location). The Reset vector address must be between C000 and FFFF when using the HPC46104. Interrupt Control Registers The HPC46164 allows the various interrupt sources and conditions to be programmed. This is done through the various control registers. A brief description of the different control registers is given below. INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER (ENIR) RESET and the External Interrupt on I1 are non-maskable interrupts. The other interrupts can be individually enabled 19 FIGURE 18. Block Diagram of Interrupt Logic TL/DD/9682 – 20 Servicing the Interrupts (Continued) 20 Timer Overview the value of T8 (which is identical to T0) when a specific event occurs on the EI pin. The HPC46164 contains a powerful set of flexible timers enabling the HPC46164 to perform extensive timer functions not usually associated with microcontrollers. The HPC46164 contains nine 16-bit timers. Timer T0 is a freerunning timer, counting up at a fixed CKI/16 (Clock Input/ 16) rate. It is used for WATCHDOG logic, high speed event capture, and to exit from the IDLE mode. Consequently, it cannot be stopped or written to under software control. Timer T0 permits precise measurements by means of the capture registers I2CR, I3CR, and I4CR. A control bit in the register TMMODE configures timer T1 and its associated register R1 as capture registers I3CR and I2CR. The capture registers I2CR, I3CR, and I4CR respectively, record the value of timer T0 when specific events occur on the interrupt pins I2, I3, and I4. The control register IRCD programs the capture registers to trigger on either a rising edge or a falling edge of its respective input. The specified edge can also be programmed to generate an interrupt (see Figure 19 ). The timers T2 and T3 have selectable clock rates. The clock input to these two timers may be selected from the following two sources: an external pin, or derived internally by dividing the clock input. Timer T2 has additional capability of being clocked by the timer T3 underflow. This allows the user to cascade timers T3 and T2 into a 32-bit timer/ counter. The control register DIVBY programs the clock input to timers T2 and T3 (see Figure 20 ). The timers T1 through T7 in conjunction with their registers form Timer-Register pairs. The registers hold the pulse duration values. All the Timer-Register pairs can be read from or written to. Each timer can be started or stopped under software control. Once enabled, the timers count down, and upon underflow, the contents of its associated register are automatically loaded into the timer. SYNCHRONOUS OUTPUTS The flexible timer structure of the HPC46164 simplifies pulse generation and measurement. There are four synchronous timer outputs (TS0 through TS3) that work in conjunction with the timer T2. The synchronous timer outputs can be used either as regular outputs or individually programmed to toggle on timer T2 underflows (see Figure 20 ). TL/DD/9682 – 21 FIGURE 19. Timers T0, T1 and T8 with Four Input Capture Registers The HPC46164 provides an additional 16-bit free running timer, T8, with associated input capture register EICR (External Interrupt Capture Register) and Configuration Register, EICON. EICON is used to select the mode and edge of the EI pin. EICR is a 16-bit capture register which records TL/DD/9682 – 22 FIGURE 20. Timers T2 – T3 Block 21 Synchronous outputs based on Timer T2 can be generated on the 4 outputs TS0 – TS3. Each output can be individually programmed to toggle on T2 underflow. Register R2 contains the time delay between events. Figure 23 is an example of synchronous pulse train generation. Timer Overview (Continued) Timer/register pairs 4–7 form four identical units which can generate synchronous outputs on port P (see Figure 21 ). Maximum output frequency for any timer output can be obtained by setting timer/register pair to zero. This then will produce an output frequency equal to (/2 the frequency of the source used for clocking the timer. TL/DD/9682 – 25 FIGURE 23. Synchronous Pulse Generation WATCHDOG Logic TL/DD/9682–23 FIGURE 21. Timers T4–T7 Block The WATCHDOG Logic monitors the operations taking place and signals upon the occurrence of any illegal activity. The illegal conditions that trigger the WATCHDOG logic are potentially infinite loops and illegal addresses. Should the WATCHDOG register not be written to before Timer T0 overflows twice, or more often than once every 4096 counts, an infinite loop condition is assumed to have occurred. An illegal condition also occurs when the processor generates an illegal address when in the Single-Chip modes.* Any illegal condition forces the WATCHDOG Output (WO) pin low. The WO pin is an open drain output and can be connected to the RESET or NMI inputs or to the users external logic. Timer Registers There are four control registers that program the timers. The divide by (DIVBY) register programs the clock input to timers T2 and T3. The timer mode register (TMMODE) contains control bits to start and stop timers T1 through T3. It also contains bits to latch, acknowledge and enable interrupts from timers T0 through T3. The control register PWMODE similarly programs the pulse width timers T4 through T7 by allowing them to be started, stopped, and to latch and enable interrupts on underflows. The PORTP register contains bits to preset the outputs and enable the synchronous timer output functions. *Note: See Operating Modes for details. Timer Applications MICROWIRE/PLUS The use of Pulse Width Timers for the generation of various waveforms is easily accomplished by the HPC46164. Frequencies can be generated by using the timer/register pairs. A square wave is generated when the register value is a constant. The duty cycle can be controlled simply by changing the register value. MICROWIRE/PLUS is used for synchronous serial data communications (see Figure 24 ). MICROWIRE/PLUS has an 8-bit parallel-loaded, serial shift register using SI as the input and SO as the output. SK is the clock for the serial shift register (SIO). The SK clock signal can be provided by an internal or external source. The internal clock rate is programmable by the DIVBY register. A DONE flag indicates when the data shift is completed. The MICROWIRE/PLUS capability enables it to interface with any of National Semiconductor’s MICROWIRE peripherals (i.e., A/D converters, display drivers, EEPROMs). TL/DD/9682–24 FIGURE 22. Square Wave Frequency Generation 22 lectable binary steps or T3 underflow from 153 Hz to 1.25 MHz with CKI at 20.0 MHz. MICROWIRE/PLUS (Continued) The contents of the SIO register may be accessed through any of the memory access instructions. Data waiting to be transmitted in the SIO register is clocked out on the falling edge of the SK clock. Serial data on the SI pin is clocked in on the rising edge of the SK clock. MICROWIRE/PLUS Application Figure 25 illustrates a MICROWIRE/PLUS arrangement for an automotive application. The microcontroller-based system could be used to interface to an instrument cluster and various parts of the automobile. The diagram shows two HPC46164 microcontrollers interconnected to other MICROWIRE peripherals. HPC46164 Ý1 is set up as the master and initiates all data transfers. HPC46164 Ý2 is set up as a slave answering to the master. The master microcontroller interfaces the operator with the system and could also manage the instrument cluster in an automotive application. Information is visually presented to the operator by means of an LCD display controlled by the COP472 display driver. The data to be displayed is sent serially to the COP472 over the MICROWIRE/PLUS link. Data such as accumulated mileage could be stored and retrieved from the EEPROM COP494. The slave HPC46164 could be used as a fuel injection processor and generate timing signals required to operate the fuel valves. The master processor could be used to periodically send updated values to the slave via the MICROWIRE/PLUS link. To speed up the response, chip select logic is implemented by connecting an output from the master to the external interrupt input on the slave. TL/DD/9682 – 26 FIGURE 24. MICROWIRE/PLUS MICROWIRE/PLUS Operation The HPC46164 can enter the MICROWIRE/PLUS mode as the master or a slave. A control bit in the IRCD register determines whether the HPC46164 is the master or slave. The shift clock is generated when the HPC46164 is configured as a master. An externally generated shift clock on the SK pin is used when the HPC46164 is configured as a slave. When the HPC46164 is a master, the DIVBY register programs the frequency of the SK clock. The DIVBY register allows the SK clock frequency to be programmed in 14 se- 23 MICROWIRE/PLUS Application (Continued) TL/DD/9682 – 27 FIGURE 25. MICROWIRE/PLUS Application 24 HPC46164 UART The HPC46164 contains a software programmable UART. The UART (see Figure 26 ) consists of a transmit shift register, a receiver shift register and five addressable registers, as follows: a transmit buffer register (TBUF), a receiver buffer register (RBUF), a UART control and status register (ENU), a UART receive control and status register (ENUR) and a UART interrupt and clock source register (ENUI). The ENU register contains flags for transmit and receive functions; this register also determines the length of the data frame (8 or 9 bits) and the value of the ninth bit in transmission. The ENUR register flags framing and data overrun errors while the UART is receiving. Other functions of the ENUR register include saving the ninth bit received in the data frame and enabling or disabling the UART’s Wake-up Mode of operation. The determination of an internal or external clock source is done by the ENUI register, as well as selecting the number of stop bits and enabling or disabling transmit and receive interrupts. The baud rate clock for the Receiver and Transmitter can be selected for either an internal or external source using two bits in the ENUI register. The internal baud rate is programmed by the DIVBY register. The baud rate may be selected from a range of 8 Hz to 128 kHz in binary steps or T3 underflow. By selecting a 9.83 MHz crystal, all standard baud rates from 75 baud to 38.4 kBaud can be generated. The external baud clock source comes from the CKX pin. The Transmitter and Receiver can be run at different rates by selecting one to operate from the internal clock and the other from an external source. The HPC46164 UART supports two data formats. The first format for data transmission consists of one start bit, eight data bits and one or two stop bits. The second data format for transmission consists of one start bit, nine data bits, and one or two stop bits. Receiving formats differ from transmission only in that the Receiver always requires only one stop bit in a data frame. UART Wake-up Mode The HPC46164 UART features a Wake-up Mode of operation. This mode of operation enables the HPC46164 to be networked with other processors. Typically in such environments, the messages consist of addresses and actual data. Addresses are specified by having the ninth bit in the data frame set to 1. Data in the message is specified by having the ninth bit in the data frame reset to 0. The UART monitors the communication stream looking for addresses. When the data word with the ninth bit set is received, the UART signals the HPC46164 with an interrupt. The processor then examines the content of the receiver buffer to decide whether it has been addressed and whether to accept subsequent data. TL/DD/9682 – 28 FIGURE 26. UART Block Diagram 25 vert on any selected channel-pair and store the result in its associated result register-pair then stop. The A/D can also be programmed to do this continuously. Conversion can also be done on any channel-pair storing the result into four result register-pairs for a history of the differential input. Finally, all input channel-pairs can be converted continuously. The final mode of operation suppresses the external address/data bus activity during the single conversion modes. These quiet modes of operation utilize the RDY function of the HPC Core to insert wait states in the instruction being executed in order to limit digital noise in the environment due to external bus activity when addressing external memory. The overall effect is to increase the accuracy of the A/D. A/D Converter The HPC46164 has an on-board eight-channel 8-bit Analog to Digital converter. Conversion is peformed using a successive approximation technique. The A/D converter cell can operate in single-ended mode where the input voltage is applied across one of the eight input channels (D0–D7) and AGND or in differential mode where the input voltage is applied across two adjacent input channels. The A/D converter will convert up to eight channels in single-ended mode and up to four channel-pairs in differential mode. OPERATING MODES The operating modes of the converter are selected by 4 bits called ADMODE (CR2.4–7) see Table IV. Associated with the eight input channels in single-ended mode are eight result registers, one for each channel. The A/D converter can be programmed by software to convert on any specific channel storing the result in the result register associated with that channel. It can also be programmed to stop after one conversion or to convert continuously. If a brief history of the signal on any specific input channel is required, the converter can be programmed to convert on that channel and store the consecutive results in each of the result registers before stopping. As a final configuration in single-ended mode, the converter can be programmed to convert the signal on each input channel and store the result in its associated result register continuously. Associated with each even-odd pair of input channels in differential mode of operation are four result register-pairs. The A/D converter performs two conversions on the selected pair of input channels. One conversion is performed assuming the positive connection is made to the even channel and the negative connection is made to the following odd channel. This result is stored in the result register associated with the even channel. Another conversion is performed assuming the positive connection is made to the odd channel and the negative connection is made to the preceding even channel. This result is stored in the result register associated with the odd channel. This technique does not require that the programmer know the polarity of the input signal. If the even channel result register is nonzero (meaning the odd channel result register is zero), then the input signal is positive with respect to the odd channel. If the odd channel result register is non-zero (meaning the even channel result register is zero), then the input signal is positive with respect to the even channel. The same operating modes for single-ended operation also apply when the inputs are taken from channel-pairs in differential mode. The programmer can configure the A/D to con- CONTROL The conversion clock supplied to the A/D converter can be selected by three bits in CR1 used as a prescaler on CKI. These bits can be used to ensure that the A/D is clocked as fast as possible when different external crystal frequencies are used. Controlling the starting of conversion cycles in each of the operating modes can be done by four different methods. The method is selected by two bits called SC (CR3.0 – 1). Conversion cycles can be initiated through software by resetting a bit in a control register, through hardware by an underflow of Timer T2, or externally by a rising or falling edge of a signal input on I7. INTERRUPTS The A/D converter can interrupt the HPC when it completes a conversion cycle if one of the noncontinuous modes has been selected. If one of the cycle modes was selected, then the converter will request an interrupt after eight conversions. If one of the one-shot modes was selected, then the converter will request an interrupt after every conversion. When this interrupt is generated, the HPC vectors to the onboard peripheral interrupt vector location at address FFF2. The service routine must then determine if the A/D converter requested the interrupt by checking the A/D done flag which doubles as the A/D interrupt pending flag. Analog Input and Source Resistance Considerations Figure 27 shows the A/D pin model for the HPC46164 in single ended mode. The differential mode has similar A/D pin model. The leads to the analog inputs should be kept as short as possible. Both noise and digital clock coupling to an A/D input can cause conversion errors. The clock lead should be kept away from the analog input line to reduce coupling. The A/D channel input pins do not have any internal output driver circuitry connected to them because this circuitry would load the analog input singals due to output buffer leakage current. TL/DD/9682 – 12 *The analog switch is closed only during the sample time. FIGURE 27. Port D Input Structure 26 A/D Converter (Continued) If large source resistance is necessary, the recommended solution is to slow down the A/D clock speed in proportion to the source resistance. The A/D converter may be operated at the maximum speed for RS less than 1 kX. For RS greater than 1 kX, A/D clock speed needs to be reduced. For example, with RS e 2 kX, the A/D converter may be operated at half the maximum speed. A/D converter clock speed may be slowed down by either increasing the A/D prescaler divide-by or decreasing the CKI clock frequency. The A/D clock speed may be reduced to its minimum frequency of 100 kHz. TABLE IV. A/D Operating Modes Mode 0 Single-ended, single channel, single result register, one-shot (default value on power-up) Mode 1 Single-ended, single channel, single result register, continuous Mode 2 Single-ended, single channel, multiple result registers, stop after 8 Mode 3 Single-ended, multiple channel, multiple result registers, continuous Mode 4 Differential, single channel-pair, single result register-pair, one-shot Mode 5 Differential, single channel-pair, single result register-pair, continuous Mode 6 Differential, single channel-pair, multiple result register-pairs, stop after 4 pairs Mode 7 Differential, multiple channel-pair, multiple result register-pairs, continuous Mode 8 Single-ended, single channel, single result register, one-shot (default value on powerup), quiet address/data bus Mode C Differential, single channel-pair, single result register-pair, one-shot, quiet address/data bus Universal Peripheral Interface The Universal Peripheral Interface (UPI) allows the HPC46164 to be used as an intelligent peripheral to another processor. The UPI could thus be used to tightly link two HPC46164’s and set up systems with very high data exchange rates. Another area of application could be where an HPC46164 is programmed as an intelligent peripheral to a host system such as the Series 32000É microprocessor. Figure 28 illustrates how an HPC46164 could be used as an intelligent peripherial for a Series 32000-based application. The interface consists of a Data Bus (port A), a Read Strobe (URD), a Write Strobe (UWR), a Read Ready Line (RDRDY), a Write Ready Line (WRRDY) and one Address Input (UA0). The data bus can be either eight or sixteen bits wide. The URD and UWR inputs may be used to interrupt the HPC46164. The RDRDY and WRRDY outputs may be used to interrupt the host processor. The UPI contains an Input Buffer (IBUF), an Output Buffer (OBUF) and a Control Register (UPIC). In the UPI mode, port A on the HPC46164 is the data bus. UPI can only be used if the HPC46164 is in the Single-Chip mode. Source impedances greater than 1 kX on the analog input lines will adversely affect internal RC charging time during input sampling. As shown in Figure 27 , the analog switch to the capacitor array is closed only during the 2 A/D cycle sample time. Large source impedances on the analog inputs may result in the capacitor array not being charged to the correct voltage levels, causing scale errors. TL/DD/9682 – 30 FIGURE 28. HPC46164 as a Peripheral: (UPI Interface to Series 32000 Application) 27 Shared Memory Support the HPC46164. In response, the HPC46164 places its system bus in a TRI-STATE Mode, freeing it for use by the host. The host waits for the acknowledge signal (HLDA) from the HPC46164 indicating that the sytem bus is free. On receiving the acknowledge, the host can rapidly transfer data into, or out of, the shared memory by using a conventional DMA controller. Upon completion of the message transfer, the host removes the HOLD request and the HPC46164 resumes normal operations. To insure proper operation, the interface logic shown is recommended as the means for enabling and disabling the user’s bus. Figure 29 illustrates an application of the shared memory interface between the HPC46164 and a Series 32000 system. Shared memory access provides a rapid technique to exchange data. It is effective when data is moved from a peripheral to memory or when data is moved between blocks of memory. A related area where shared memory access proves effective is in multiprocessing applications where two CPUs share a common memory block. The HPC46164 supports shared memory access with two pins. The pins are the RDY/HLD input pin and the HLDA output pin. The user can software select either the Hold or Ready function by the state of a control bit. The HLDA output is multiplexed onto port B. The host uses DMA to interface with the HPC46164. The host initiates a data transfer by activating the HLD input of TL/DD/9682 – 31 FIGURE 29. Shared Memory Application: HPC46164 Interface to Series 32000 System 28 Memory directly by instructions or indirectly through the B, X and SP registers. Memory can be addressed as words or bytes. Words are always addressed on even-byte boundaries. The HPC46164 uses memory-mapped organization to support registers, I/O and on-chip peripheral functions. The HPC46164 memory address space extends to 64 kbytes and registers and I/O are mapped as shown in Table V. The HPC46164 has been designed to offer flexibility in memory usage. A total address space of 64 kbytes can be addressed with 16 kbytes of ROM and 512 bytes of RAM available on the chip itself. The ROM may contain program instructions, constants or data. The ROM and RAM share the same address space allowing instructions to be executed out of RAM. Program memory addressing is accomplished by the 16-bit program counter on a byte basis. Memory can be addressed TABLE V. HPC46164 Memory Map FFFF:FFF0 FFEF:FFD0 FFCF:FFCE : : C001:C000 BFFF:BFFE : : 0301:0300 02FF:02FE : : 01C1:01C0 Interrupt Vectors JSRP Vectors ( On-Chip ROM* USER MEMORY External Expansion ( Memory ( On-Chip RAM 0195:0194 WATCHDOG Address 0192 0191:0190 018F:018E 018D:018C 018B:018A 0189:0188 0187:0186 0185:0184 0183:0182 0181:0180 T0CON Register TMMODE Register DIVBY Register T3 Timer R3 Register T2 Timer R2 Register I2CR Register/ R1 I3CR Register/ T1 I4CR Register 015E:015F 015C 0153:0152 0151:0150 014F:014E 014D:014C 014B:014A 0149:0148 0147:0146 0145:0144 0143:0142 0141:0140 EICR EICON Port P Register PWMODE Register R7 Register T7 Timer R6 Register T6 Timer R5 Register T5 Timer R4 Register T4 Timer 0128 0126 0124 0122 0120 ENUR Register TBUF Register RBUF Register ENUI Register ENU Register USER RAM WATCHDOG Logic Timer Block T0:T3 Timer Block T4:T7 UART 011F:011E 011D:011C 011B:011A 0119:0118 0117:0116 0115:0114 0113:0112 0111:0110 0106 A/D Result Register 7 A/D Result Register 6 A/D Result Register 5 A/D Result Register 4 A/D Result Register 3 A/D Result Register 2 A/D Result Register 1 A/D Result Register 0 A/D Control Register 3 0104 Port D Input Register 0102 0100 A/D Control Register 2 A/D Control Register 1 A to D Registers 00F5:00F4 00F3:00F2 00F1:00F0 BFUN Register DIR B Register DIR A Register / IBUF PORTS A & B CONTROL 00E6 UPIC Register UPI CONTROL 00E3:00E2 00E1:00E0 Port B Port A / OBUF PORTS A & B 00DE 00DD:00DC 00D8 00D6 00D4 00D2 00D0 Reserved HALT Enable Register Port I Input Register SIO Register IRCD Register IRPD Register ENIR Register PORT CONTROL & INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTERS 00CF:00CE 00CD:00CC 00CB:00CA 00C9:00C8 00C7:00C6 00C5:00C4 00C3:00C2 00C0 X Register B Register K Register A Register PC Register SP Register Reserved PSW Register HPC CORE REGISTERS 00BF:00BE : : 0001:0000 On-Chip RAM USER RAM A to D Registers *Note: The HPC46164 On-Chip ROM is on addresses C000:FFFF and the External Expansion Memory is 0300:BFFF. The HPC46104 have no On-Chip ROM, External Memory is 0300:FFFF. 29 Design Considerations chip. The power planes in the PC board should be decoupled with three decoupling capacitors as close to the chip as possible. A 1.0 mF, a 0.1 mF, and a 0.001 mF dipped mica or ceramic cap mounted as close to the HPC as is physically possible on the board, using the shortest leads, or surface mount components. This should provide a stable power supply, and noiseless ground plane which will vastly improve the performance of the crystal oscillator network. Designs using the HPC family of 16-bit high speed CMOS microcontrollers need to follow some general guidelines on usage and board layout. Floating inputs are a frequently overlooked problem. CMOS inputs have extremely high impedance and, if left open, can float to any voltage. You should thus tie unused inputs to VCC or ground, either through a resistor or directly. Unlike the inputs, unused output should be left floating to allow the output to switch without drawing any DC current. To reduce voltage transients, keep the supply line’s parasitic inductances as low as possible by reducing trace lengths, using wide traces, ground planes, and by decoupling the supply with bypass capacitors. In order to prevent additional voltage spiking, this local bypass capacitor must exhibit low inductive reactance. You should therefore use high frequency ceramic capacitors and place them very near the IC to minimize wiring inductance. TABLE VI. HPC Oscillator Table XTAL Freq (MHz) R1 (X) s2 1500 4 1200 6 910 # Keep VCC bus routing short. When using double sided or 8 750 multilayer circuit boards, use ground plane techniques. 10 600 # Keep ground lines short, and on PC boards make them 12 470 14 390 16 300 # In systems mixing linear and logic functions and where 18 220 supply noise is critical to the analog components’ performance, provide separate supply buses or even separate supplies. 20 180 22 150 # If you use local regulators, bypass their inputs with a tan- 24 120 talum capacitor of at least 1 mF and bypass their outputs with a 10 mF to 50 mF tantalum or aluminum electrolytic capacitor. 26 100 28 75 # If the system uses a centralized regulated power supply, 30 62 as wide as possible, even if trace width varies. Use separate ground traces to supply high current devices such as relay and transmission line drivers. RF e 3.3 MX use a 10 mF to 20 mF tantalum electrolytic capacitor or a 50 mF to 100 mF aluminum electrolytic capacitor to decouple the VCC bus connected to the circuit board. C1 e 27 pF C2 e 33F XTAL Specifications: The crystal used was an M-TRON Industries MP-1 Series XTAL. ‘‘AT’’ cut, parallel resonant # Provide localized decoupling. For random logic, a rule of thumb dictates approximately 10 nF (spaced within 12 cm) per every two to five packages, and 100 nF for every 10 packages. You can group these capacitances, but it’s more effective to distribute them among the ICs. If the design has a fair amount of synchronous logic with outputs that tend to switch simultaneously, additional decoupling might be advisable. Octal flip-flop and buffers in bus-oriented circuits might also require more decoupling. Note that wire-wrapped circuits can require more decoupling than ground plane or multilayer PC boards. A recommended crystal oscillator circuit to be used with the HPC is shown in Figure 30 . See table for recommended component values. The recommended values given in Table VI have yielded consistent results and are made to match a crystal with a 20 pF load capacitance, with some small allowance for layout capacitance. A recommended layout for the oscillator network should be as close to the processor as physically possible, entirely within ‘‘1’’ distance. This is to reduce lead inductance from long PC traces, as well as interference from other components, and reduce trace capacitance. The layout contains a large ground plane either on the top or bottom surface of the board to provide signal shielding, and a convenient location to ground both the HPC and the case of the crystal. It is very critical to have an extremely clean power supply for the HPC crystal oscillator. Ideally one would like a VCC and ground plane that provide low inductance power lines to the CL e 18 pF Series Resistance is 25X @ 25 MHz 40X @ 10 MHz 600X @ 2 MHz TL/DD/9682 – 41 FIGURE 30. Recommended Crystal Circuit HPC46164 CPU The HPC46164 CPU has a 16-bit ALU and six 16-bit registers: Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) The ALU is 16 bits wide and can do 16-bit add, subtract and shift or logic AND, OR and exclusive OR in one timing cycle. The ALU can also output the carry bit to a 1-bit C register. 30 HPC46164 CPU (Continued) Accumulator (A) Register Indexed The 16-bit A register is the source and destination register for most I/O, arithmetic, logic and data memory access operations. Address (B and X) Registers The 16-bit B and X registers can be used for indirect addressing. They can automatically count up or down to sequence through data memory. Boundary (K) Register The 16-bit K register is used to set limits in repetitive loops of code as register B sequences through data memory. Stack Pointer (SP) Register The 16-bit SP register is the pointer that addresses the stack. The SP register is incremented by two for each push or call and decremented by two for each pop or return. The stack can be placed anywhere in user memory and be as deep as the available memory permits. Program (PC) Register The 16-bit PC register addresses program memory. The instruction contains an 8-bit address field and an 8- or 16-bit displacement field. The contents of the WORD addressed is added to the displacement to get the address of the operand. Immediate The instruction contains an 8-bit or 16-bit immediate field that is used as the operand. Register Indirect (Auto Increment and Decrement) The operand is the memory addressed by the X register. This mode automatically increments or decrements the X register (by 1 for bytes and by 2 for words). Register Indirect (Auto Increment and Decrement) with Conditional Skip The operand is the memory addressed by the B register. This mode automatically increments or decrements the B register (by 1 for bytes and by 2 for words). The B register is then compared with the K register. A skip condition is generated if B goes past K. ADDRESSING MODESÐDIRECT MEMORY AS DESTINATION Direct Memory to Direct Memory The instruction contains two 8- or 16-bit address fields. One field directly points to the source operand and the other field directly points to the destination operand. Immediate to Direct Memory The instruction contains an 8- or 16-bit address field and an 8- or 16-bit immediate field. The immediate field is the operand and the direct field is the destination. Addressing Modes ADDRESSING MODESÐACCUMULATOR AS DESTINATION Register Indirect This is the ‘‘normal’’ mode of addressing for the HPC46164 (instructions are single-byte). The operand is the memory addressed by the B register (or X register for some instructions). Direct The instruction contains an 8-bit or 16-bit address field that directly points to the memory for the operand. Indirect The instruction contains an 8-bit address field. The contents of the WORD addressed points to the memory for the operand. Double Register Indirect Using the B and X Registers Used only with Reset, Set and IF bit instructions; a specific bit within the 64 kbyte address range is addressed using the B and X registers. The address of a byte of memory is formed by adding the contents of the B register to the most significant 13 bits of the X register. The specific bit to be modified or tested within the byte of memory is selected using the least significant 3 bits of register X. HPC Instruction Set Description Mnemonic Description Action ADD ADC ADDS DADC SUBC DSUBC MULT DIV DIVD Add Add with carry Add short imm8 Decimal add with carry Subtract with carry Decimal subtract w/carry Multiply (unsigned) Divide (unsigned) Divide Double Word (unsigned) MA a MemI x MA carry x C MA a MemI a C x MA carry x C A a imm8 x A carry x C MA a MemI a C x MA (Decimal) carry x C MAbMemI a C x MA carry x C MAbMemI a C x MA (Decimal) carry x C MA*MemI x MA & X, 0 x K, 0 x C MA/MemI x MA, rem. x X, 0 x K, 0 x C X & MA/MemI x MA, rem x X, 0 x K, Carry x C IFEQ IFGT If equal If greater than Compare MA & MemI, Do next if equal Compare MA & MemI, Do next if MA l MemI AND OR XOR Logical and Logical or Logical exclusive-or MA and MemI x MA MA or MemI x MA MA xor MemI x MA ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTIONS MEMORY MODIFY INSTRUCTIONS INC DECSZ Mem a 1 x Mem Mem b1 x Mem, Skip next if Mem e 0 Increment Decrement, skip if 0 31 HPC Instruction Set Description (Continued) Mnemonic Description Action BIT INSTRUCTIONS SBIT RBIT IFBIT 1 x Mem.bit 0 x Mem.bit If Mem.bit is true, do next instr. Set bit Reset bit If bit MEMORY TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS LD ST X PUSH POP LDS XS Load Load, incr/decr X Store to Memory Exchange Exchange, incr/decr X Push Memory to Stack Pop Stack to Memory MemI x MA Mem(X) x A, X g 1 (or 2) x X A x Mem A Ý Mem A Ý Mem(X), X g 1 (or 2) x X W x W(SP), SP a 2 x SP SPb2 x SP, W(SP) x W Load A, incr/decr B, Skip on condition Exchange, incr/decr B, Skip on condition Mem(B) x A, B g 1 (or 2) x B, Skip next if B greater/less than K Mem(B) Ý A, B g 1 (or 2) x B, Skip next if B greater/less than K REGISTER LOAD IMMEDIATE INSTRUCTIONS LD B LD K LD X LD BK imm x B imm x K imm x X imm x B,imm x K Load B immediate Load K immediate Load X immediate Load B and K immediate ACCUMULATOR AND C INSTRUCTIONS CLR A INC A DEC A COMP A SWAP A RRC A RLC A SHR A SHL A SC RC IFC IFNC 0xA A a 1xA A b 1xA 1’s complement of A x A A15:12 w A11:8 w A7:4 Ý A3:0 C x A15 x . . . x A0 x C C w A15 w . . . w A0 w C 0 x A15 x . . . x A0 x C C w A15 w . . . w A0 w 0 1xC 0xC Do next if C e 1 Do next if C e 0 Clear A Increment A Decrement A Complement A Swap nibbles of A Rotate A right thru C Rotate A left thru C Shift A right Shift A left Set C Reset C IF C IF not C TRANSFER OF CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS JSRP Jump subroutine from table JSR Jump subroutine relative JSRL JP JMP JMPL JID JIDW NOP RET RETSK RETI Jump subroutine long Jump relative short Jump relative Jump relative long Jump indirect at PC a A PC x W(SP),SP a 2 x SP W(tableÝ) x PC PC x W(SP),SP a 2 x SP,PC a Ý x PC (Ýis a 1025 to b1023) PC x W(SP),SP a 2 x SP,PC a Ý x PC PC a Ý x PC(Ý is a 32 to b31) PC a Ý x PC(Ýis a 257 to b255) PC a Ý x PC PC a A a 1 x PC then Mem(PC) a PC x PC PC a 1 x PC SPb2 x SP,W(SP) x PC SPb2 x SP,W(SP) x PC, & skip SPb2 x SP,W(SP) x PC, interrupt re-enabled No Operation Return Return then skip next Return from interrupt Note: W is 16-bit word of memory MA is Accumulator A or direct memory (8- or 16-bit) Mem is 8-bit byte or 16-bit word of memory MemI is 8- or 16-bit memory or 8- or 16-bit immediate data imm is 8-bit or 16-bit immediate data imm8 is 8-bit immediate data only 32 Memory Usage Number of Bytes for Each Instruction (number in parenthesis is 16-Bit field) Using Accumulator A Reg Indir. (B) (X) Direct To Direct Memory Indir Index Immed. Direct Immed. * ** * ** LD X ST 1 1 1 1 1 1 2(4) 2(4) 2(4) 3 3 3 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 2(3) Ð Ð 3(5) Ð Ð 5(6) Ð Ð 3(4) Ð Ð 5(6) Ð Ð ADC ADDS SBC DADC DSBC ADD MULT DIV DIVD 1 Ð 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Ð 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3(4) Ð 3(4) 3(4) 3(4) 3(4) 3(4) 3(4) 3(4) 3 Ð 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4(5) Ð 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 2 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 2(3) 2(3) 2(3) Ð 4(5) Ð 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 5(6) Ð 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 4(5) Ð 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 5(6) Ð 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) IFEQ IFGT AND OR XOR 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3(4) 3(4) 3(4) 3(4) 3(4) 3 3 3 3 3 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 2(3) 2(3) 2(3) 2(3) 2(3) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) 5(6) *8-bit direct address **16-bit direct address Instructions that Modify Memory Directly Immediate Load Instructions (B) (X) Direct Indir Index B&X SBIT RBIT IFBIT 1 1 1 2 2 2 3(4) 3(4) 3(4) 3 3 3 4(5) 4(5) 4(5) 1 1 1 DECSZ INC 3 3 2 2 2(4) 2(4) 3 3 4(5) 4(5) Register Indirect Instructions with Auto Increment and Decrement Register B With Skip LDS A,* XS A,* (B a ) (Bb) 1 1 1 1 Register X LD A,* X A,* (X a ) (Xb) 1 1 1 1 Instructions Using A and C CLR INC DEC COMP SWAP RRC RLC SHR SHL SC RC IFC IFNC A A A A A A A A A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Stack Reference Instructions Direct PUSH POP 2 2 33 Immed. LD B,* LD X,* LD K,* 2(3) 2(3) 2(3) LD BK,*,* 3(5) Transfer of Control Instructions JSRP JSR JSRL JP JMP JMPL JID JIDW NOP RET RETSK RETI 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 Code Efficiency It can handle both 16-bit words and 8-bit bytes. One of the most important criteria of a single chip microcontroller is code efficiency. The more efficient the code, the more features that can be put on a chip. The memory size on a chip is fixed so if code is not efficient, features may have to be sacrificed or the programmer may have to buy a larger, more expensive version of the chip. The HPC46164 has been designed to be extremely codeefficient. The HPC46164 looks very good in all the standard coding benchmarks; however, it is not realistic to rely only on benchmarks. Many large jobs have been programmed onto the HPC46164, and the code savings over other popular microcontrollers has been considerable. Reasons for this saving of code include the following: The 16-bit capability saves code since many variables can be stored as one piece of data and the programmer does not have to break his data into two bytes. Many applications store most data in 4-digit variables. The HPC46164 supplies 8-bit byte capability for 2-digit variables and literal variables. MULTIPLY AND DIVIDE INSTRUCTIONS The HPC46164 has 16-bit multiply, 16-bit by 16-bit divide, and 32-bit by 16-bit divide instructions. This saves both code and time. Multiply and divide can use immediate data or data from memory. The ability to multiply and divide by immediate data saves code since this function is often needed for scaling, base conversion, computing indexes of arrays, etc. SINGLE BYTE INSTRUCTIONS The majority of instructions on the HPC46164 are singlebyte. There are two especially code-saving instructions: JP is a 1-byte jump. True, it can only jump within a range of plus or minus 32, but many loops and decisions are often within a small range of program memory. Most other micros need 2-byte instructions for any short jumps. JSRP is a 1-byte call subroutine. The user makes a table of the 16 most frequently called subroutines and these calls will only take one byte. Most other micros require two and even three bytes to call a subroutine. The user does not have to decide which subroutine addresses to put into this table; the assembler can give this information. Development Support HPC MICROCONTROLLER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM The HPC microcontroller development system is an in-system emulator (ISE) designed to support the entire family of HPC Microcontrollers. The complete package of hardware and software tools combined with a host system provides a powerful system for design, development and debug of HPC based designs. Software tools are available for IBM PC-ATÉ (MS-DOS, PC-DOS) and for Unix based multi-user Sun SparcStation (SunOSTM ). The stand alone units comes complete with a power supply and external emulation POD. This unit can be connected to various host systems through an RS-232 link. The software package includes an ANSI compatible C-Compiler, Linker, Assembler and librarian package. Source symbolic debug capability is provided through a user friendly MS-windows 3.0 interface for IBM PC-AT environment and through a line debugger under Sunview for Sun SparcStations. The ISE provides fully transparent in-system emulation at speeds up to 20 MHz 1 waitstate. A 2k word (48-bit wide) trace buffer gives trace trigger and non intrusive monitoring of the system. External triggering is also available through an external logic interface socket on the POD. Direct EPROM programming can be done through the use of externally mounted EPROM socket. Form-Fit-Function emulator programming is supported by a programming board included with the system. Comprehensive on-line help and diagnostics features reduced user’s design and debug time. 8 hardware breakpoints (Address/range), 64 kbytes of user memory, and break on external events are some of the other features offered. Hewlett Packard model HP64775 Emulator/Analyzer providing in-system emulation for up to 30 MHz 1 waitstate is also available. Contact your local sales office for technical details and support. EFFICIENT SUBROUTINE CALLS The 2-byte JSR instructions can call any subroutine within plus or minus 1k of program memory. MULTIFUNCTION INSTRUCTIONS FOR DATA MOVEMENT AND PROGRAM LOOPING The HPC46164 has single-byte instructions that perform multiple tasks. For example, the XS instruction will do the following: 1. Exchange A and memory pointed to by the B register 2. Increment or decrement the B register 3. Compare the B register to the K register 4. Generate a conditional skip if B has passed K The value of this multipurpose instruction becomes evident when looping through sequential areas of memory and exiting when the loop is finished. BIT MANIPULATION INSTRUCTIONS Any bit of memory, I/O or registers can be set, reset or tested by the single byte bit instructions. The bits can be addressed directly or indirectly. Since all registers and I/O are mapped into the memory, it is very easy to manipulate specific bits to do efficient control. DECIMAL ADD AND SUBTRACT This instruction is needed to interface with the decimal user world. 34 Development Support (Continued) Development Tools Selection Table Product HPC16104/ 16164 Order Part Number Description Manual Number Includes HPC-DEV-ISE4 HPC-DEV-ISE-E HPC In-System Emulator HPC In-System Emulator for Europe and South East Asia HPC MDS User’s Manual MDS Comm User’s Manual HPC Emulator Programmer HPC16104/16164 Manual 420420184-001 424420188-001 420421313-001 HPC-DEV-IBMA Assembler/Linker/ Library Package for IBM PC-AT HPC Assembler/Linker Librarian User’s Manual 424410836-001 HPC-DEV-IBMC C Compiler/Assembler/ Linker/Library Package for IBM PC-AT HPC C Compiler User’s Manual 424410883-001 HPC Assembler/Linker/Library User’s Manual 424410836-001 Source Symbolic Debugger for IBM PC-AT C Compiler/Assembler/Linker Library Package for IBM PC-AT Source/Symbolic Debugger User’s Manual HPC C Compiler User’s Manual 424420189-001 HPC Assembler/Linker/Library User’s Manual 424410836-001 HPC-DEV-WDBC HPC-DEV-SUNC C Compiler/Assembler/Linker Library Package for Sun SparcStation HPC Compiler User’s Manual HPC Assembler/Linker/Library User’s Manual HPC-DEV-SUNDB Source/Symbolic Debugger for Sun SparcStation C Compiler/Assembler/Linker Library Package Source/Symbolic Debugger User’s Manual HPC C Compiler User’s Manual HPC Assembler/Linker/Library User’s Manual HPC-DEV-SYS4 HPC In-System Emulator with C Compiler/Assembler/ Linker/Library and Source Symbolic Debugger HPC-DEV-SYS4-E Same for Europe and South East Asia 424410883-001 Complete System: HPC16104/ 16164 controller Applications Group and a FILE SECTION which consists of several file areas where valuable application software and utilities can be found. The minimum requirement for accessing Dial-A-Helper is a Hayes compatible modem. If the user has a PC with a communications package then files from the FILE SECTION can be down loaded to disk for later use. How to Order To order a complete development package, select the section for the microcontroller to be developed and order the parts listed. DIAL-A-HELPER Dial-A-Helper is a service provided by the Microcontroller Applications group. Dial-A-Helper is an Electronic Bulletin Board Information system and additionally, provides the capability of remotely accessing the development system at a customer site. Order P/N: MDS-DIAL-A-HLP Information System Package Contains: Dial-A-Helper Users Manual Public Domain Communications Software INFORMATION SYSTEM The Dial-A-Helper system provides access to an automated information storage and retrieval system that may be accessed over standard dial-up telephone lines 24 hours a day. The system capabilities include a MESSAGE SECTION (electronic mail) for communications to and from the Micro- 35 FACTORY APPLICATIONS SUPPORT Dial-A-Helper also provides immediate factory applications support. If a user is having difficulty in operating a MDS, he can leave messages on our electronic bulletin board, which we will respond to. Voice: (408) 721-5582 Modem: (408) 739-1162 Baud: 300 or 1200 baud Set-Up: Length: 8-Bit Parity: None Stop Bit: 1 Operation: 24 Hrs. 7 Days DIAL-A-HELPER TL/DD/9682 – 37 Part Selection The HPC family includes devices with many different options and configurations to meet various application needs. The number HPC46164 has been generically used throughout this datasheet to represent the whole family of parts. The following chart explains how to order various options available when ordering HPC family members. Note: All options may not currently be available. TL/DD/9682 – 46 36 37 HPC36164/46164, HPC36104/46104 High-Performance microController with A/D Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) Plastic Flat Quad Package (VF) Order Number HPC46064XXX/F20, HPC46064XXX/F30, HPC46004VF20 or HPC46004VF30 NS Package Number VF80B LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform, when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation 1111 West Bardin Road Arlington, TX 76017 Tel: 1(800) 272-9959 Fax: 1(800) 737-7018 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. National Semiconductor Europe Fax: (a49) 0-180-530 85 86 Email: cnjwge @ tevm2.nsc.com Deutsch Tel: (a49) 0-180-530 85 85 English Tel: (a49) 0-180-532 78 32 Fran3ais Tel: (a49) 0-180-532 93 58 Italiano Tel: (a49) 0-180-534 16 80 National Semiconductor Hong Kong Ltd. 13th Floor, Straight Block, Ocean Centre, 5 Canton Rd. Tsimshatsui, Kowloon Hong Kong Tel: (852) 2737-1600 Fax: (852) 2736-9960 National Semiconductor Japan Ltd. Tel: 81-043-299-2309 Fax: 81-043-299-2408 National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications. 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