AN00055 STARplug efficient low power supply

AN00055
STARplug efficient low power supply
Rev. 02 — 4 June 2009
Application note
Document information
Info
Content
Keywords
TEA152x, STARplug, Portable products, AC/DC conversion,
DC/DC conversion, High efficiency, Flyback converter, Standby supply,
Low power standby, Cellular phones, GSM chargers
Abstract
This application note describes the application of TEA152x flyback
controller as follows:
• Provides simple guidelines for creating an efficient AC/DC conversion.
• Describes the basic operation of a standard flyback or Buck converter.
• Gives a general description of the TEA152x (STARplug) controller.
• Gives a step-by-step design procedure for a flyback and
Buck converter.
• Describes the performance of the small demoboard (5 V/3 W).
AN00055
NXP Semiconductors
STARplug efficient low power supply
Revision history
Rev
Date
02
20090604
01
-
Description
•
The format of this data sheet has been redesigned to comply with the new identity
guidelines of NXP Semiconductors.
•
Legal texts have been adapted to the new company name where appropriate.
First issue
Contact information
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
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1. Introduction
This document explains the operation and application of the STARplug flyback converter.
This chapter describes the contents of this application note and the purpose of each
chapter. Every chapter covers a self contained topic, most of which can be read without
going through the previous chapter(s) first. Specific references to other sections are
included which contribute to an even better comprehension of the subjects.
The first part of this application note is background information about flyback converters
using a transformer with only one output, the non-isolated Buck converter and especially
about the STARplug itself. The second part illustrates the STARplug reference design.
In Section 2 “Flyback and buck topology; theory and operation” the basic operation of a
flyback converter is described in brief. Since the STARplug is also able to operate in a
Buck converter configuration, this type of topology is highlighted also. More details of the
exact operation of flyback or Buck converters can be found in electronic reference books.
Section 3 “Functional description” serves as background information about the STARplug
features in general.
The actual application design is covered by Section 4 “General step-by-step design
procedure”, which provides a guide through the design procedure. With this chapter it is
easy to achieve a successful flyback or Buck converter design.
The last chapter highlights the performance of the reference design; a small 5 V/3 W
output voltage supply for the universal mains.
2. Flyback and buck topology; theory and operation
This section describes the operation of the isolated flyback converter and the non-isolated
Buck (down) converter.
2.1 Flyback converter
In many applications isolation from the mains is necessary for safety. The flyback
converter does not need an additional inductive element for mains isolation because the
inductor itself can be provided with an additional winding for mains isolation. In
comparison with the push-pull and the forward converter the flyback converter is a less
expensive and a simpler system. It is a single circuit needing only one inductive element.
Figure 1 shows a simplified application diagram of an isolated flyback converter,
connected to a supply and a load. The polarity of relevant voltages and currents is also
included in this diagram. For a basic understanding of the application, Vin and Vo should
be considered to be DC. In a practical application, a MOSFET or Bipolar transistor
replaces the switch S1 while a diode replaces the switch S2.
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Ip
Is
+
+
S2
−
Vin
+
Vin
+
VS2
+
Cin
Cout
S1
−
−
+
VL
Vo
Rload
VS1
−
−
Graphic ID
Fig 1.
Basic flyback converter
The circuit is defined by the state of the switches. There are four possible modes with the
two switches, but not all of them are applicable. Modes 1 and 2 are the most important
and nearly always present, while mode 3 is only present for the discontinuous conduction
mode. Mode 4 must be prevented. The configuration of the switches for the four different
modes is displayed in Table 1.
Table 1.
Mode table
Mode
S1
S2
Duration
1
On
Off
δ1.T
2
Off
On
δ2.T
3
Off
Off
δ3.T
4
On
On
δ4.T
Figure 2 shows the equivalent circuit diagrams for the three applicable modes. Simplified
waveforms for one complete switching cycle are also shown.
Information about the exact operation can be found in electronic reference books.
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Fig 2.
Flyback converter modes of operation
During the time δ1.T (mode 1) switch S1 is switched on and a current starts to flow through
the primary winding of the transformer. At the moment switch S1 is switched off the
secondary switch S2 is closed and a current starts to flow towards the output. The peak
value of this current is equal to the transformers turns ratio (Np/Ns) multiplied by the
primary peak current at the moment of switching off the switch S1. During the conduction
time of switch S2, the output voltage is reflected to the primary side of the transformer.
Mode 3 is entered as soon as the current through switch S2 has decreased to zero.
The mode of operating just described is called the discontinuous conduction mode. The
border between the discontinuous conduction mode and the continuous conduction mode
is reached when the time δ3.T has become zero seconds.
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2.2 Buck converter
Not all applications need to have an output that is isolated from the mains. In this case the
Buck (down) converter is a good alternative. The converter requires only one inductive
element instead of a transformer with (at least) two windings as used in the flyback
converter.
Figure 3 shows a simplified application diagram of the non-isolated Buck converter
connected to a supply and a load. This converter type will take an unregulated input
voltage and produce a lower regulated output voltage.
Is1
+
+
S1
Vin
+
Vin
Cin
Is1
VS1
VS2
−
−
+
S2
−
+
L IL
+
VS2
−
Cout
Vout
Rload
−
Graphic ID
Fig 3.
Basic Buck converter
The polarity of relevant voltages and currents is also included in this diagram. For a basic
understanding of the application, Vin and Vo should be considered to be DC like. In a
practical application, a MOSFET or bipolar transistor replaces the switch S1 while a diode
replaces the switch S2.
The circuit is defined by the state of the switches. With two switches there are four modes
but not all of them are applicable. Modes 1 and 2 are the most important and nearly
always present while mode 3 is only present for the discontinuous conduction mode.
Mode 4 must be prevented. The state of the switches in the different modes is displayed in
Table 2.
Table 2.
Table of possible modes
Mode
S1
S2
Duration
1
On
Off
δ1.T
2
Off
On
δ2.T
3
Off
Off
δ3.T
4
On
On
n/a
Operation of the flyback converter is briefly explained below. Figure 4 shows the
equivalent circuit diagrams for the three applicable modes. Simplified waveforms for one
complete switching cycle are also shown.
Information about the exact operation can readily be found in electronic reference books.
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IS1=IL
S1
Vin
+
+
VL
Cin
+
S2
δ3.T
Closed
Open
Open
Open
Closed
Open
δ1.T
Switch 1
Switch 2
−
VL
+
L
VS2
−
δ2.T
Interval
Vin-Vout
Cout
Vout
Rload
Vout
t
0
−
Mode 1 (δ1.T)
VS1
Vin
Vin-Vout
t
0
+
S1
Vin
+
Cin
VS2
VS1
VL
−
−
+
S2
IS2=IL
Cout
Vout
Vout
Vin
+
L
Rload
t
0
IS1
−
Ipk
Mode 2 (δ2.T)
t
0
IS2
+
S1
Vin
+
VS1
−
Cin
+
S2
Ipk
IL=0
+
L
VS2
−
t
0
Cout
Vout
IL
Ipk
Rload
−
Mode 3 (δ3.T)
0
t
δ1.T
δ2.T
δ3.T
Graphic ID
Fig 4.
Buck converter modes of operation
During the time δ1.T (mode 1) switch S1 is switched on and an increasing current starts to
flow through the inductor towards the output. When switch S1 is switched off, the inductor
current flows through switch S2. The inductor current decreases due to a negative voltage
(Vo) across the coil. Mode 3 is entered as soon as the current through the inductor has
decreased to zero.
The mode of operating just described is called the discontinuous conduction mode. The
border between the discontinuous conduction mode and the continuous conduction mode
is reached when the time δ3.T has become zero seconds.
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3. Functional description
This chapter serves as background information. It describes the features and control
mechanism of the STARplug controller. Most features can be identified in Figure 5.
VCC
SUPPLY
DRAIN
VALLEY
TEA152x
n.c.
LOGIC
GND
100 mV
PWM
STOP
OSCILLATOR
RC
LOW FREQ.
THERMAL
SHUTDOWN
SOURCE
PROTECTION
LOGIC
F
POWER-UP
RESET
1.8
blank
U
overcurrent
2.5 V
0.5 V
A=10×
AUX
REG
short winding
0.75 V
Graphic ID
Fig 5.
STARplug block diagram
3.1 Start-up and UnderVoltage LockOut (UVLO)
The start-up is realized with an accurate high voltage start-up current source instead of a
dissipative bleeder resistor as commonly used by low voltage control ICs. When the
voltage on the drain pin is high enough, a start-up current will flow towards the VCC pin.
The STARplug starts switching as soon as the voltage on the VCC pin passes the VCC-start
level.
The supply drawn from the drain pin of the IC is, for high efficiency operation, stopped and
taken over by the auxiliary winding of the transformer as soon as the VCC voltage is high
enough.
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When the auxiliary supply is not sufficient, the internal high voltage supply will also supply
the IC. As soon as the voltage on the VCC pin drops below the VUVLO level, the IC will stop
switching and will restart from the rectified mains voltage.
3.2 Power MOS transistor
The STARplug has an onboard power switch. The switch is capable to withstand 650 V on
the drain. The devices are not avalanche rugged, thus sufficient measures need to be
taken to prevent a breakdown of the device. The on-state resistance (RDSon) of the MOS
transistor depends on the type of STARplug that is chosen. See the data sheet for more
information.
3.3 Oscillator
A parallel connection of a capacitor and a resistor to the RC pin sets the switching
frequency of the STARplug. The capacitor is charged rapidly to the VRC-max level and,
starting from a new primary stroke, it will be discharged by the resistor to the VRC-min level.
As soon as the VRC-min level has been reached, the capacitor is charged again. The
switching frequency is calculated with Equation 1.
V RC – max
1
------ = t ch arg e + R osc ⋅ C osc ⋅ 1n ⎛⎝ ----------------------⎞⎠
V RC – min
f sw
(1)
The frequency is reduced as soon as the switching duty cycle drops below a certain value.
The reduction in frequency is accomplished by increasing the charge time of the oscillator.
3.4 Control mechanism
The STARplug uses voltage mode control. The conduction time of the internal MOS
transistor, and therefore also the primary peak current, is modulated through the
transformer (= converted power). This method of controlling the primary peak current is
called Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). The implementation is shown in Figure 6.
GND
PWM
RC
2.5 V
Driver
A=10×
Vreg_interm
Graphic ID
Fig 6.
STARplug regulation mechanism
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3.4.1 PWM control
The internal regulation voltage (Vreg_intern) is equal to the difference between the external
regulation voltage and the internal voltage source (2.5 V) multiplied by 10. This internal
regulation voltage is compared with the voltage of the oscillator. As soon as the oscillator
voltage is lower than the internal regulation voltage, the power MOS transistor is turned
off. The higher the external regulation voltage, the lower the conduction time of the MOST
transistor. Figure 7 visualizes this mechanism of controlling the conduction time of the
MOST.
VRC
Low Power
Vreg_Intern
High Power
t
ton (low power)
ton (high power)
Fig 7.
Graphic ID
Regulation mechanism
3.4.2 Maximum duty cycle
The power MOS transistor will always be switched off as soon as the oscillator voltage is
decreased below the VRC-Dmax level (typical 140 mV). The maximum conduction time of
the power MOS transistor is calculated with Equation 2.
V RC – max
t on – max = R osc ⋅ C osc ⋅ 1n ⎛ ----------------------⎞
⎝ V RC – min ⎠
(2)
3.4.3 Minimum duty cycle
The minimum duty cycle is 0 %. This is achieved when the internal regulation voltage is
equal to (or higher than) the maximum oscillator voltage. In this case the power MOS
transistor is not switched on.
3.4.4 Advantage exponential oscillator
The use of an exponential oscillator has the advantage that the relative sensitivity of the
duty cycle to the regulation voltage at low duty cycles is almost equal to the relative
sensitivity at high duty cycles. This results in a more constant gain over the duty cycle
range compared to a PWM system with a linear sawtooth oscillator. A small variation in
the regulation voltage, see Figure 8, results in a variation of the conduction time of the
MOS transistor. This variation is smaller at low duty cycle levels than at high duty cycle
levels. For a sawtooth oscillator, the variation is equal over the full duty cycle range.
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VRC
Vreg intern
ΔV
ΔV
t
Δt
Δt
Graphic ID
Fig 8.
Regulation mechanism
The variation in the conduction time of the MOS transistor results in a variation of
transferred power. For an exponential oscillator the variation in transferred power at a low
duty cycle level is lower with respect to the linear oscillator. This ensures stable operation
at low duty cycle levels.
3.5 Demagnetization
The STARplug will always operate in discontinuous conduction mode.
The auxiliary winding of the transformer is connected to the AUX pin of the STARplug via
a resistor. Via the two anti-parallel diodes, a current will flow into (or out of) the AUX pin.
Whether this current flows into or out of the AUX pin depends on the auxiliary winding
voltage of the transformer.
As long as the secondary diode is conducting, the voltage of the auxiliary winding is
positive. This injects a current in the AUX pin. As a result, the AUX pin voltage is clamped
to a positive diode voltage. As long as the AUX pin voltage is higher than 100 mV, the
oscillator will not start a new primary stroke.
Demagnetization recognition is suppressed during the tsuppr time. This time starts when
switching off the integrated power MOS transistor. Especially for applications with low
output voltages and transformers with a large leakage induction this might be necessary
to prevent a false demagnetization detection. tsuppr time starts when switching off the
power MOS transistor.
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VRC
Vreg intern
ΔV
ΔV
t
Δt
Δt
Graphic ID
Fig 9.
Demagnetization circuit
3.6 Valley switching
In order to increase the efficiency of a STARplug converter, a dedicated valley switching
circuitry is build in.
Minimizing the switch-on losses of the power MOS transistor increases the efficiency of
the converter. See Figure 10 and Figure 11.
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VALLEY
LOGIC
Drain
Demag
STOP
RC
PROTECTION
LOGIC
OSC.
LOW FREQ.
Graphic ID
a. Circuit
VRC
1
VDrain
2
Primary
stroke
Secondary
stroke
Free
ringing
Graphic ID
b. Graph
Fig 10. Valley switch circuit
Lp
Drain
Cpar
Rsrc
Graphic ID
Fig 11. Components at the drain pin
When the internal power MOS transistor is switched-on, a new primary stroke is started.
After a certain time, determined by the oscillator voltage (VRC) and the internal regulation
voltage (Vreg_intern), the power switch is turned off (see Section 3.4.1). Now the secondary
stroke is started.
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The duration of the secondary stroke is determined by the energy stored in the
transformer and the output voltage. The STARplug detects the secondary stroke with the
demagnetization function. Due to the inductance of the primary transformer and a
parasitic capacitance on the drain pin, the voltage on the drain pin shows an oscillation.
The frequency of this oscillation is calculated with Equation 3.
As soon as the oscillator is ready (VRC = VRC-max) and the secondary stroke has ended
(VAUX < 100 mV), the oscillator waits for a low drain voltage before a new primary stroke is
started. The voltage, the value of the parasitic capacitor and the switching frequency
determine the switch-on losses (see Equation 4).
1
f ringing = ----------------------------------------2 ⋅ π ⋅ L p ⋅ C par
(3)
1
2
P switch – on = --- ⋅ C par ⋅ V DRAIN ⋅ f Switching
2
(4)
The power MOS transistor can be switched on just before (at low ringing frequencies) or
just after (at high ringing frequencies) the actual valley. For a flyback application with a
reflected output voltage (nVout) of 80 V, a typical curve is drawn in Figure 12.
Graphic ID
40
phase
(deg)
20
0
-20
−40
100
300
500
700
900
Ringing frequency (kHz)
Fig 12. Typical switch-on angle (at nVout = 80 V)
Figure 12 shows that for a ringing frequency of 480 kHz the power MOS transistor is
switched on exactly in the valley, thus at the minimum drain voltage. This reduces the
switch-on losses to the minimum. At a ringing frequency of 200 kHz the MOS transistor is
switched-on at about 33 ° before the actual valley. Still the switch-on losses are reduced
significantly.
The valley-switching feature is disabled for STARplug types in a DBS9P envelope
(TEA152xAJM version).
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3.7 Current protections
Via the external source resistor, the current through the internal power MOS transistor is
converted into a voltage and supplied to two comparators. With these two comparators
two types of current protections are implemented in the STARplug. See Section 3.7.1 and
Section 3.7.2.
3.7.1 OverCurrent Protection (OCP)
Cycle by cycle, the voltage on the SOURCE pin is measured and compared to the Vsrc-max
max level.
The power MOS transistor is switched off as soon the voltage on the source pin exceeds
the Vsrc-max level (typical 0.5 V). To prevent a false OCP detection at switching on the
power MOS transistor, the comparator is disabled during the tLEB time (typical 350 ns).
3.7.2 Short Winding Protection (SWP)
If the voltage on the SOURCE pin exceeds the VSWP level, (i.e. short circuit of the output
diode), the circuit will stop switching. Only a power-on reset will restart the STARplug to
normal operation. Of course, to prevent a false detection this comparator is also disabled
for the first tLEB time.
PROTECTION
LOGIC
SOURCE
blank
0.5 V
overcurrent
Rsrc
0.75 V
short winding
Graphic ID
Fig 13. Current protections
3.8 OverTemperature Protection (OTP)
An accurate temperature protection is provided with the STARplug. When the junction
temperature exceeds the thermal shut-down temperature (Tprot(max)), the IC will stop
switching and the supply current is lowered to the start-up current level. As a result, the
internal junction temperature will decrease. The STARplug resumes operation as soon as
the temperature has dropped sufficient (Tprot(max) − Tprot(hys)). Should the temperature rise
higher than the Tprot(max) level again, switching is stopped and the supply current is
lowered. So low frequent cycling between on and off state occurs.
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4. General step-by-step design procedure
This chapter guides you through the procedure for designing a basic flyback or Buck
converter with the STARplug.
4.1 Designing the basic STARplug application
Figure 14 shows the most basic application using the STARplug. This application behaves
like a primary regulated voltage source.
Input
Section
SR1
R1
Clamp
L1
AC
DC+
AC
DC−
C1
C2
Dsec
L2
Z1
Cout
C3
D1
DM
Output
Section
Raux
Demag
AUX
TR1
R2
D2
VCC
TEA 152x
Cosc
Rreg1
RC
REG
GND
SRC
Rosc
Supply
Generation
Rsrc
Rreg2
Cvcc
OCP
Regulation
Y-Cap
Oscillator
Graphic ID
Fig 14. Basic STARplug application
The mains voltage is rectified, buffered and filtered in the input section and connected to
the primary winding of the transformer. Around the STARplug (TEA152x), the following
blocks can be identified:
•
•
•
•
•
Oscillator
OCP and SWP
Regulation
Demagnetization detection
Supply generation
In the output section, the transferred energy is stored in a capacitor and filtered before it
will be available on the output pins.
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A clamp is added across the primary winding of the transformer to prevent a voltage
overshoot that is too high on the drain pin of the STARplug when the internal power MOS
transistor is switched off.
4.1.1 Input section
4.1.1.1
Determine system requirements
In order to calculate the input section, the following system parameters must be identified:
• Minimum and maximum AC input voltage
Select the minimum and maximum AC mains voltages from Table 3.
Table 3.
Input voltage ranges
Input voltage range
VAC-min
VAC-max
110 V
80 V (AC)
135 V (AC)
230 V
195 V (AC)
276 V (AC)
Universal mains
80 V (AC)
276 V (AC)
• Frequency of the mains
The frequency mentioned is the minimum line frequency possible. Tolerances are
included.
• Required output power and voltage
• Estimated efficiency
Efficiency loss due to output diode:
The voltage drop across the output diode effects the efficiency of the whole converter.
An increase in the voltage drop across the output diode results in a decrease of the
efficiency of the converter.
If the output voltage is below about 7 V and high efficiency is required, use a Schottky
Barrier diode or a Fast PN diode.
The efficiency loss due to the output diode is calculated with Equation 5.
Efficiency loss due to snubber/clamp circuit:
A snubber network on the drain pin or a clamp circuit across the primary winding of
the transformer is required to keep the drain voltage below the breakdown voltage of
the integrated MOS transistor. The estimated efficiency loss due to a snubber or
clamp circuit is displayed in Table 4.
Efficiency loss due to other components:
Efficiency loss due to other components in the application is estimated to be about
5 %.
Efficiency of the whole converter:
The estimated efficiency of the whole converter is calculated with Equation 6.
V f, Dout
P loss, Dout (%) = ----------------- ⋅ 100 %
Vo
(5)
PN diode: Vf,Dout = 0.7 V
Schottky diode: Vf,Dout = 0.5 V
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Table 4.
Clamp/snubber efficiency loss
Power range
Efficiency loss
RC snubber
Po < 3 W
20 %
RCD clamp
Full range
15 %
Zener clamp
Full range
10 %
100 – P loss, diode – P loss, clamp – P loss, additional
η = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
4.1.1.2
(6)
Calculate the inrush resistor (R1)
The inrush resistor limits the maximum peak current through the diode bridge rectifier. The
minimum value for this resistor is calculated with Equation 7. For almost all diode bridge
rectifiers, the IFSM parameter is about 20 A.
2 ⋅ V AC, max
R inrush = ------------------------------I FSM
4.1.1.3
(7)
Calculate the minimum DC voltage
Before the minimum DC bus voltage can be calculated two additional parameters have to
be defined.
• The total buffer capacitance
Select the Cbuf multiplier from Table 5 and determine the total input capacitance
Cbuf,tot.
Table 5.
Cbuf multipliers
Input voltage range
Cbuf (μF/W)
110 V
3
230 V
1
Universal mains
3
Po
C buf, tot = ------ ⋅ C buf
η
(8)
• The conduction time (tc) of the diode bridge rectifier
The conduction time of the diode bridge rectifier depends on the value of the inrush
resistor (R1), the output power and the total capacitance of the buffer capacitors. A
good practical value is a conduction time of 3 ms.
The minimum DC voltage can now be calculated with Equation 9.
V DC, min =
4.1.1.4
1
2 ⋅ P o ⋅ ⎛ -------------------- – t c⎞⎠
⎝
2
f
⋅
2
mains
2 ⋅ V AC – min – ------------------------------------------------------η ⋅ C buf, tot
(9)
Calculate the maximum DC voltage
The maximum DC bus voltage is built up out of two components; the peak voltage of the
mains (Vpk,mains) and an additional voltage increase due to mains transients (ΔVtransient).
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The first part is easily defined by Equation 10.
2 ⋅ V ac, max
V pk, mains =
(10)
The second part is more difficult to determine. See Equation 11.
ΔV transient
α
α
β
α
⎛ – -----------– ------------- ⋅ 1n ⎛ ---⎞ ⎞
- ⋅ 1n ⎛⎝ ---⎞⎠
⎝ β⎠
β
α–β
α–β
α
⎜
⎟
–e
= V tran, pk ⋅ ------------- ⋅ e
⎟
α–β ⎜
⎝
⎠
(11)
1
α = ---------------------------------------R inrush ⋅ C buf, tot
1
β = ---------t tran
The equations for calculating the voltage increase due to a transient are not practical. A
more convenient method is applying Figure 15. This figure shows the increase in DC
supply voltage as a function of the input filter time constant (Rinrush × Cbuf,tot) for a high
energy mains transient (1 kV/50 μs).
Graphic ID
120
ΔVtran
Typical supply voltage increase due a
high energy mains transient.
100
Transient height
Rise time
Duration
:1 kV
:1.2 μs
:50 μs (half time)
80
60
40
300
500
700
900
1100
Time constant (μs) (Rinrush.CBuf,tot)
Fig 15. Supply voltage increase due to mains transient
The maximum DC bus voltage can now be determined with Equation 12.
V DC, max = V pk, mains + ΔV tran
(12)
Check if the maximum DC bus voltage exceeds the 475 V. If this is the case, it is
recommended to reduce the effect of the mains transient by increasing the resistance
value for Rinrush (R1).
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Example:
Vpk,mains = 390 V, thus ΔVtran ≤ 85 V (475 V − 390 V) gives a Rinrush . Cbuf,tot time
constant of 450 μs. If the total buffer capacitance is 11.5 μF (6.8 μF + 4.7 μF), the value
of the inrush resistor needs to be at least 39 Ω.
4.1.2 Clamp
The maximum clamping voltage can be found if Equation 13 is applied. In this equation
BVDSS is the breakdown voltage of the integrated power MOS transistor of the STARplug.
Since the power MOS transistor is not avalanche rugged, a small safety margin is added
(a Vmargin of 25 V is sufficient).
V clamp, max = BV DSS – V DC, max – V m arg in
(13)
4.1.3 Oscillator
Before the oscillator components can be calculated, the operating frequency has to be
chosen. The switching frequency of the STARplug can be set between 10 kHz and
200 kHz. Common switching frequencies that are used are 40 kHz to 50 kHz and
100 kHz.
The oscillator frequency is set by two parallel components, a resistor (Rosc) and a
capacitor (Cosc). The capacitor is rapidly charged to the VRC-max (typical 2.5 V) level and
discharged via the resistor to the VRC-min level (typical 75 mV). The discharge takes
3.5 RC times (RC = oscillator time constant = Rosc · Cosc).
The oscillator time constant is calculated with Equation 14. The oscillator charge time is
derived from the STARplug specification (tcharge = 1 μs).
1
1
RC = ------- ⋅ ⎛ --------------- – t ch arg e⎞
⎠
3.5 ⎝ f switch
(14)
The values for both Rosc and Cosc can now easily be extracted from the RC time constant.
Using an oscillator capacitor less than 220 pF is not recommended. The drain voltage
might distort the oscillator voltage in this case. From efficiency point of view, a large Cosc
capacitor is not preferred at high operating frequencies (at 200 kHz and Cosc = 10 nF a
power 12.5 mW is dissipated in the oscillator).
Example:
For a switching frequency of 100 kHz, an oscillator time constant of 2.57 μs is required.
This time constant is made with the parallel connection of a 7.5 kΩ resistor and a
330 pF capacitor.
4.1.4 OCP resistor
The OCP resistor (Rsrc) sets the transformer's primary peak current and thus also the
maximum transferred output power. The maximum required transformer's peak current is
calculated with Equation 15.
⎛ 2 ⋅ Po
1 ⎞ π 2 ⋅ P o ⋅ C par⎞
1
+ -------------I p = f switch ⋅ ⎜ ----------------------- ⋅ ⎛ ------------------- + ⋅ -----------------------------⎟
η ⋅ f switch ⎠
⎝ η ⋅ f switch ⎝ V DC, min nVout⎠
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In this equation the new variable nVout represents the reflected output voltage. At this
moment, no transformer parameters are available. A suitable value for nVout can be found
when the clamp voltage, calculated with Equation 13, is divided by approximately 1.5. In
practical situations a nVout of 80 V up to 120 V is often used.
The capacitor Cpar is represents the parasitic drain capacitance. A typical value for Cpar is
100 pF.
Equation 16 is used to calculate the value of the OCP resistor. The typical value for
Vsrc-max is 0.5 V.
V src – max
R src ≤ ---------------------Ip
(16)
Example:
For a 3 Watt application running at a switching frequency of 100 kHz and an efficiency
of 75 %, the primary peak current through the transformer will be 230 mA
(case VDC,min = nVout = 80 V). The Rsrc resistor is set to 2 Ω, limiting the peak current to
250 mA.
4.1.5 Transformer
A STARplug application requires a 3-winding transformer. The main winding is called Np,
the output winding Ns and the auxiliary winding Na. For all three windings, the number of
turns will be calculated. Also included are equations for the inductance value of Np and the
air gap in the center leg of an E-core.
4.1.5.1
Calculate the primary inductance
The inductance value (Lp) of the primary winding (Np) is calculated with Equation 17:
2 ⋅ Po
L p = --------------------------------2
η ⋅ I p ⋅ f switch
4.1.5.2
(17)
Selecting the core type
If a core fits the application is determined by the maximum stored energy in the
transformer together with the required air gap. A core with a large air gap can store more
energy in its ferried material than a core with a small air gap. Also the spread on the
primary inductance (Lp) of the transformer will be lower for wide air gaps. The
disadvantage of a wide air gap is the high leakage inductance of the transformer. A trade
off has to be made between high storable energy levels, low leakage inductance and
small tolerances on the inductance. In practical situations, the air gap for a flyback
transformer is about 100 μm up to 300 μm.
With Equation 18 the maximum energy stored in the transformer is calculated:
2
2
E core = I L = I p ⋅ L p
(18)
Select a suitable core from Table 6. Use Equation 19 as selection criteria:
E core ( 100
μm )
≤ E core ≤ E core ( 300
μm )
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Table 6.
Core selection table
Maximum Ecore (mJ) for
Core type
Effective core area
Ae (mm2)
lgap = 100 μm
lgap = 300 μm
0.10
0.23
E13/7/4
12.40
0.13
0.33
E16/12/5
19.40
0.14
0.34
E16/8/5
20.10
0.15
0.35
E13/6/6
20.20
0.20
0.45
E19/8/5
22/60
0.21
0.50
E20/10/5
31.20
0.27
0.62
E20/10/6
32.00
0.33
0.78
E25/9/6
38.40
0.33
0.78
E25/10/6
37.00
0.38
0.88
E19/8/9
41.30
0.45
1.00
E25/13/7
52.00
0.64
1.40
E30/15/7
60.00
0.74
1.80
E31/13/9
83.20
0.74
1.80
E32/16/9
83.00
0.74
1.80
E34/14/9
80.70
Table 6 only contains values for E-cores. Other core types may also fit the application.
See the corresponding data books for detailed information.
Example:
If the maximum peak current through the transformer is 330 mA (Equation 15) and the
primary inductance equals 1.5 mH (Equation 17), the maximum stored energy Ecore
equals 0.163 mJ. The following E-cores can be used: E13 and E16 types.
4.1.5.3
Determine the air gap
The length of the required air gap can be calculated with Equation 20:
2
l gap
8
4 ⋅ π ⋅ L p ⋅ I p ⋅ 10
( mm ) = -------------------------------------------2
A e ⋅ B max
(20)
In this equation the parameter Ae represents the effective core area in mm2 and Bmax
represents the maximum flux density in mille-tesla. For most ferried materials a Bmax
value of 275 mille-tesla is low enough to prevent saturation.
Example:
Core type: E13/7/4 (Ae = 12.4 mm2)
Ip: 330 mA
Lp = 1.5 mH
Bmax = 275 mT
The air gap length will be 0.1 mm = 100 μm
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4.1.5.4
Primary winding count
Determine the number of primary winding with Equation 21:
B max ⋅ l g
4
N p = -------------------- ⋅ 10
4 ⋅ π ⋅ Ip
4.1.5.5
(21)
Secondary winding count
Apply Equation 22 for the number of secondary windings:
V o + V f,Dsec
N s = N p ⋅ ---------------------------nV out
(22)
The values for nVout and Vf,Dsec have been identified earlier (see Section 4.1.1 and
Section 4.1.4). Obtain a practical value for Ns by rounding the calculated value to its
nearest integer.
4.1.5.6
Auxiliary winding count
The number of windings for the auxiliary output of the transformer depends on the supply
voltage of the STARplug. Initially the STARplug is self-supplying until supply is taken over
by the auxiliary winding. The maximum supply voltage (VCC) for the STARplug is 40 V. To
prevent the internal high voltage supply from supplying the IC a minimum VCC voltage of
13 V is acceptable. A practical VCC value is 20 V.
After the VCC voltage is chosen, the number of auxiliary winding turns can be determined
(Equation 23):
V CC + V f, Daux
N a = N s ⋅ ---------------------------------V o + V f,Dsec
(23)
Normally the auxiliary diode is a General Purpose PN-diode. The voltage drop across the
PN diode is 0.7 V. Obtain a practical value for Ns by rounding the calculated value to its
nearest integer.
4.1.6 Regulation components
Easy interfacing with both the primary and the secondary regulations is possible. In case
of the secondary regulation, additional secondary electronics drives the photo diode of an
opto coupler. In this case, the resistor Rreg1 is replaced by the opto coupler's transistor.
The other method (less accurate one) is called primary regulation. In this case the output
voltage is controlled on the primary side of the flyback converter. Due to the fact that all
windings of the transformer have the same flux variation, the secondary voltage and the
auxiliary voltage (VCC) are related via the turn ratio Na/Ns of the transformer. The supply
voltage is calculated with Equation 24:
Na
V CC = ------ ⋅ ( V o + V f,Dsec ) – V f, Daux
Ns
(24)
The VCC voltage information is provided to the REG pin via a resistive divider. The
STARplug directly regulates the VCC output voltage and indirectly the output voltage.
The ratio between the two resistors is defined by Equation 25:
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V CC
R reg1 = ⎛ ---------------------- – 1⎞⎠ ⋅ R reg2
⎝V
duty – DC
(25)
To prevent distortion on the regulator pin due to in coupling of high voltage signals it is
recommended to keep the lower regulator resistor (Rreg2) below 10 kΩ.
4.1.7 Demagnetization
The auxiliary resistor (RAUX) limits the current in the AUX pin of the STARplug. According
the specification, the maximum current into or out of the AUX pin is respectively 5 mA and
10 mA. These values are far beyond the current that is really needed for detecting
demagnetization. A good approximation for the resistance value for RAUX is given in
Equation 26:
R AUX ≈ 7 ⋅ nVout ( kΩ )
(26)
4.1.8 Supply generation
Due to the fact that the integrated start-up current source is only switched-off when the
auxiliary winding provides enough energy to supply the IC, only a small supply capacitor
(CVCC) less than 1 μF is required (470 nF will fit practically all applications).
The diode which connects the supply to the auxiliary winding is of the general purpose PN
type. The required breakdown voltage of this diode is calculated with Equation 27:
Na
V br, Daux = ------ ⋅ V dc, max
Np
(27)
The transformer parameters Na and Np are determined in Section 4.1.4 and the maximum
DC voltage in Section 4.1.1. A resistor is placed in series with the diode. The function of
this resistor is to prevent peak rectification. The exact value for this resistor has to be
defined empirically. A good value to start with is 100 Ω to 560 Ω.
4.1.9 Output section
4.1.9.1
Output diode
What kind of diode will be used (PN or Schottky) is decided in Section 4.1.1. Equation 28
can be used to determine the minimum breakdown voltage for the diode:
Np
I pk,Dsec = ------ ⋅ I p
Na
Np
I pk,Dsec = ------ ⋅ I p
Na
(28)
See Equation 15 for I p
(29)
Calculate the average output current with the following equations and select an output
diode with a higher rating:
Ns ⋅ Lp
t fb = ------------------------------------------- ⋅ I pk,Dsec
N p ⋅ ( V o + V f,Dsec )
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Np
I avg,Dsec = ------ ⋅ I p ⋅ t fb ⋅ f switch
Na
4.1.9.2
(31)
Output capacitor
Select an output capacitor with low ESR characteristics and a ripple current rating (IRMS)
of at least the value as determined by Equation 32.
t ⋅f
2
⎛N
-----p- ⋅ I ⎞ ⋅ fb switch- – I o
⎝ N s p⎠ -----------------------3
2
I C, RMS =
4.1.9.3
(32)
Output filter
The resonance frequency of the output filter must be set to a frequency below the
minimum operating frequency. The minimum operating frequency of the STARplug
application can be as low as 0 Hz, but this is not a practical value. With the following
equations, an output filter section can be calculated which has a resonance frequency of
1/20th of the switching frequency.
100
LC = ----------------------------2
( π ⋅ f switch )
(33)
LC
L filter = -------------C filter
(34)
4.1.10 Flyback converter formula overview
4.1.10.1
Table 7.
Select input voltage range
Select input voltage range
Input voltage range
VAC-min
VAC-max
Cbuf (μF/W)
For equations
110 V
80 V (AC)
135 V (AC)
3
(1) = Vac,max
230 V
195 V (AC)
276 V (AC)
1
(2) = Vac,min
Universal mains
80 V (AC)
276 V (AC)
3
(3) = Cbuf
4.1.10.2
Mains frequency
Table 8.
Mains frequency
Line frequency (fline): … Hz
Tolerance (tol): … %
(4) = fmains
tol ⎞ ⋅ f
f mains = ⎛⎝ 1 – -------100⎠ line
4.1.10.3
Output
Table 9.
Output
Voltage (Vo): … V
Power (Po): … W
(5) = Po
P
I o = -----oVo
(6) = Vo
(7) = Io
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4.1.10.4
Estimate efficiency
Table 10.
Output diode voltage drop
(Vf,Dout): … V
V f, Dout
P loss, Dout (%) = ----------------Vo
Table 11.
Snubber / clamp losses
Power range
Ploss,clamp (%)
RC snubber
Po < 3 W
20
RCD clamp
Full range
15
Zener clamp
Full range
10
Additional losses are about 5 %.
Table 12.
Calculate system efficiency
100 – Ploss, Dout – P loss, clamp – P losss, additional
η = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
4.1.10.5
Total buffer capacitance
Table 13.
Total buffer capacitance
(9) = Cbuf,tot
P o (5)
C buf, tot = ------------- ⋅ C buf (3)
η(8)
4.1.10.6
(8) = η
Minimum DC supply voltage
Table 14.
Minimum DC supply voltage
Set conduction time bridge rectifier:
tc = 3 ms
V DC, min =
4.1.10.7
2 ⋅ P o (5)
2
1
2 ⋅ V ac, min (2) – ----------------------------------------- ⋅ ⎛ ----------------------------–t ⎞
η(8) ⋅ C buf, tot (9) ⎝ 2 ⋅ f mains (4) c⎠
(10) = VDC,min
Inrush resistor
Table 15.
Inrush resistor
Get the non-repetitive peak forward current rating (IFSM) of the bridge
Rectifier diodes (commonly used 20 A)
(11) = Rinrush
2 ⋅ Vac· , max (1)
R inrush = ------------------------------------I FSM
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4.1.10.8
Maximum DC voltage
Table 16.
Maximum DC voltage
a) Peak mains voltage
2 ⋅ V ac, max (1)
V pk, mains =
b) Transient influence. A typical transient is defined as:
Height: Vtran = 1 kV
Half-time: ttran = 50 μs
⎧
α
β
α
⎪
α
- 1n ⎛ ---⎞
– ------------- 1n ⎛ ---⎞ ⎞
⎛ – -----------⎪
α – β ⎝ β⎠
α – β ⎝ β⎠ ⎟
α
⎜
–e
⎪ ΔV transient = V tran, pk ⋅ ------------- ⋅ ⎜ e
⎟
α–β
⎪
⎝
⎠
⎪
⎨
1
α = ----------------------------------------⎪
R inrush ⋅ C buf, tot
⎪
⎪
1 ⎞
⎛ β = --------⎪
⎝
⎪
t tran⎠
⎩
(12) Rinrush
c) Calculate VDC, max
V DC, max = V pk, mains + ΔV transient
(13) VDC,max
d) Check VDC,max
Transient
influence
VDC,max
INCREASE
Rinrush
Y
> 475 V
N
4.1.10.9
Rinrush
or
VDC,max
Maximum peak clamp voltage
Table 17.
Maximum peak clamp voltage
Breakdown voltage (BVDSS) = 650 V
Marginal voltage (Vmargin) = 25 V
V cl, max = BVDSS – V DC, max – V m arg in
4.1.10.10
(14) Vcl,max
Oscillator
Table 18.
Oscillator
Select a maximum operating frequency between 10 kHz and 200 kHz:
fswitch: ... kHz
1
1 – 1 μ⎞
RC osc = ------- ⋅ ⎛ -------------⎠
3.5 ⎝ f switch
Select an oscillator capacitor between 220 pF and 1000 pF and calculate the oscillator resistor:
Cosc: ... pF
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Table 18.
Oscillator …continued
(15) Rosc
RC osc
R osc = -------------C osc
(16) Cosc
Recalculate the maximum switching frequency
1
f switch = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------3.5 ⋅ R osc (15) ⋅ C osc (16) + 1 μ
4.1.10.11
(17) fswitch
Reflected output voltage
Table 19.
Reflected output voltage
Typical values for nVout:
80 V ≤ nVout ≤ 120 V
(18) nVout
Vclamp
nVout ≈ -------------------1.5
4.1.10.12
Primary peak current
Table 20.
Primary peak current
Cpar represents the parasitic capacitor on the drain node (typical value 100 pF)
2 ⋅ P o (5)
2 ⋅ P o (5) ⋅ C par ⎞
⎛
1
1
I p = f switch (17) ⋅ ⎜ ----------------------------------------- ⋅ ⎛ ------------------------------⎟
- + --------------------------⎞⎠ + π ⋅ ---------------------------------------⎝
⋅
(17)
η(8)
f
η(8) ⋅ f switch (17)⎠
V DC, min (10) nVout(18)
⎝
switch
4.1.10.13
Source resistor
Table 21.
Source resistor
(19) Ip
R src = 0.5
------Ip
4.1.10.14
(20) Rsrc
Primary inductance
Table 22.
Primary inductance
2 ⋅ Po (5)
L p = -------------------------------------------------------------2
η(8) ⋅ I p (19) ⋅ f switch (17)
4.1.10.15
(21) Lp
Transformer’s air gap
Table 23.
Transformer’s air gap
Effective core area (Ae): … mm2
Maximum flux density (Bmax): … mille-tesla (Typical value for Bmax = 275 mille-tesla)
2
8
4 ⋅ π ⋅ L p (21) ⋅ I p (19) ⋅ 10
I gap (mm) = ----------------------------------------------------------------2
A e ⋅ B max
4.1.10.16
Primary winding
Table 24.
Primary winding
B max ⋅ I gap (22)
4
N p = ------------------------------------- ⋅ 10
4 ⋅ π ⋅ I p (19)
(23) Np
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4.1.10.17
Secondary winding
Table 25.
Secondary winding
V o (6) + V f, Dsec
N s = N p (23) ⋅ ------------------------------------nVout(18)
4.1.10.18
(24) Ns
Auxiliary winding
Table 26.
Auxiliary winding
Set VCC to 20 V
Set Vf,Daux to 0.7 V
V CC + V f, Daux
N a = N s (24) ⋅ ------------------------------------V o (6) + V f, Dsec
4.1.10.19
Recalculate supply voltage
Table 27.
Recalculate supply voltage
N a (25)
V CC = ---------------- ⋅ ( V o (6) + V f, Dsec ) – V f, Daux
N s (24)
4.1.10.20
(25) Na
(26) VCC
Regulator resistors
Table 28.
Regulator resistors
Set Rreg2 between 1 kΩ and 10 kΩ
V CC (26) ⎞
– 1 ⋅ R reg2
R reg1 = ⎛ -------------------⎝ 2.5
⎠
4.1.10.21
Auxiliary resistor
Table 29.
Auxiliary resistor
R aux (kΩ ) ≈ 7 ⋅ nVout(18)
4.1.10.22
(27) Rreg1
(28) Rreg2
(29) Raux
Auxiliary supply
Table 30.
Auxiliary supply
Set supply capacitor 470 nF
N a (25)
V br, Daux = ---------------- ⋅ V DC, max (13)
N p (23)
4.1.10.23
(30) Vbr, Daux
Output diode
Table 31.
Output diode
Minimum required breakdown voltage:
N s (24)
V br, Dsec = ---------------- ⋅ V DC, max (13)
N p (23)
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Table 31.
Output diode
Minimum required average current:
N s (24) ⋅ L p (21) ⋅ I p (19)
tfb = -------------------------------------------------------------N p (23) ⋅ ( V o (6) + V f, Dsec )
N p (23)
I avg, Dsec = ---------------- ⋅ I p (19) ⋅ t fb ⋅ f switch (17)
N s (24)
4.1.10.24
(32) Iavg, Dsec
Output capacitor
Table 32.
Output capacitor
Select a low ESR capacitor with a high ripple current specification.
I C, RMS =
4.1.10.25
N p (23)
t fb ⋅ f switch (17)
2
⎛ ---------------⋅ I (19)⎞ ⋅ ----------------------------------- – I o (7)
⎝ N s (24) p
⎠
3
(33) IC, RMS
Output filter
Table 33.
Output filter
Select a filter capacitor and determine the filter inductance
Filter capacitor (Ae): … μF
100
LC = ---------------------------------------2
( π ⋅ f switch (17) )
(34) Cfilter
LC
L filter = -------------C filter
(35) Lfilter
4.2 Designing the Buck application
Figure 16 shows the application diagram of a Buck converter built up around the
STARplug. This circuit is capable of producing a regulated output voltage (13 V to 40 V)
directly from the rectified mains voltage. How the different blocks need to be dimensioned
is explained below.
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Input
(DC)
DRN
AUX
VCC
D2
TEA152x
REG
RC
Rosc
Rreg1
GND
CVCC
SRC
Cosc
Rsrc
Rreg2
L1
+
Raux
D1
Cout
Output
Z1
Fig 16. STARplug Buck converter
4.2.1 OverCurrent Protection (OCP)
The resistor Rsrc limits the maximum peak current through the inductor. Due to the fact
that the STARplug Buck converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode, this
resistor also limits the maximum output current in overload conditions. The value of the
resistor can easily be defined by Equation 35.
V src – max ⋅ V o
R src = -------------------------------2 ⋅ P o, max
(35)
The Vsrc-max parameter represents the OCP detection level (typical value is 0.5 V).
4.2.2 Output section
4.2.2.1
Determine the inductor
If the output is short-circuited, the source resistor limits the output current. This is only true
if the voltage across the source resistor (Rsrc) does not exceed the OCP threshold
(Vsrc−max) level before the leading edge blanking time (tLEB) has been expired.
To prevent an increasing short circuit output current, a minimum value for L1 is required.
This minimum value can be calculated with Equation 36. For the STARplug the maximum
leading edge blanking time (tLEB) is 450 ns.
( V DC, max – V 0 ) ⋅ V o ⋅ t LEB, max
L min = ------------------------------------------------------------------------2 ⋅ P o, max
(36)
At full output power, the circuit operates on the edge of continuous and discontinuous
mode. As a result, the switching frequency depends on the input voltage. The minimum
inductance value, which is calculated in Equation 36, sets the maximum possible
switching frequency.
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2
V0
( V DC, max – V o )
f switch, max ≈ ------------------------------------- ⋅ ----------------------------2 ⋅ P o ⋅ L min
V DC, max
(37)
If the maximum switching frequency is beyond the limit of the STARplug (200 kHz) or
beyond the design criteria (maximum allowed switching frequency), the inductance value
of L1 should be increased. In this case, the inductance value for L1 can be calculated with
the Equation 38.
2
( V DC, max – V o )
V0
L min ≈ ------------------------------------- ⋅ ------------------------------------------2 ⋅ P o ⋅ f switch, max
V DC, max
(38)
Example:
Buck converter with V0 = 15 V and Po = 5 W
Input voltage range: 80 V (DC) to 400 V (DC) and a maximum switching frequency of
50 kHz.
For an accurate OCP on the output, the minimum value for L1 is 270 μH (Equation 36).
This value gives a maximum switching of 80 kHz (Equation 37). The inductance value
for L1 needs to be increased to 430 μH (Equation 38) in order to achieve a maximum
switching frequency of 50 kHz.
4.2.2.2
Output capacitor requirements
The limiting value for the output capacitor is the ripple current. This maximum RMS ripple
current is equal to the maximum output current of the converter.
For a low output voltage ripple, a low ESR type electrolytic capacitor should be used.
4.2.2.3
Freewheeling diode
Every time the integrated power MOS transistor of the STARplug is switched-on, the
voltage across the freewheeling diode (D1) is equal to the maximum DC input voltage.
The minimum breakdown voltage of the diode must be higher than the maximum DC input
voltage. The maximum average current through the diode is calculated with Equation 39.
2
I D, avg
2 ⋅ Po
- ⋅ L ⋅ f switch, max
= --------------3
Vo
(39)
A fast recovery diode is required since the voltage across the diode is applied
instantaneously.
4.2.2.4
OVP zener
In normal operation, the output voltage is regulated via the supply voltage of the IC. A
small error is made due to the fact that the regulator resistors and the supply of the IC
discharge the supply capacitor of the IC. The supply voltage is not a one-to-one
presentation of the output voltage anymore. At low output power levels, this results in a
transfer of too much power, which causes an increasing output voltage. The zener diode
prevents the reaching unacceptable high voltages of the output.
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4.2.3 Oscillator
The oscillator must be set to the maximum frequency on which the converter can operate.
This frequency is calculated with Equation 37.
The oscillator frequency is set by two parallel components, a resistor (Rosc) and a
capacitor (Cosc). The capacitor is rapidly charged to the VRC-max (typical 2.5 V) level and
discharged via the resistor to the VRC-min level (typical 75 mV). The discharge takes
3.5 RC times (RC = oscillator time constant = Rosc × Cosc).
The oscillator time constant is calculated with Equation 40. The oscillator charge time is
derived from the STARplug specification (tcharge = 1 ms).
1
1
RC = ------- ⋅ ⎛ ------------------------- – t ch arg e⎞
⎠
3.5 ⎝ f switch, max
(40)
The values for both Rosc and Cosc can now easily be extracted from the RC time constant.
Using an oscillator capacitor less than 220 pF is not recommended. The drain voltage
might distort the oscillator voltage in this case. From an efficiency point of view, a large
Cosc capacitor is not preferred at high operating frequencies (at 200 kHz and Cosc = 10 nF
a power 12.5 mW is dissipated in the oscillator).
4.2.4 Demagnetization
Via the demagnetization resistor (Raux) which is connected to the AUX pin of the
STARplug, the circuit detects whether the freewheeling diode is still conducting. As long
as this diode is conducting, no new switching cycle is started. This limits the maximum
output current, in short the circuit condition.
The AUX pin is internally connected to the GND pin of the STARplug via two anti-parallel
diodes. Due to these diodes, a current can flow into or out of the IC. The Raux resistor
limits this current. As long as the integrated MOS transistor is conducting, a current will
flow out of the AUX pin. The maximum current allowed is 10 mA.
The minimum value for this resistor can be calculated with Equation 42. Equation 41 can
be used to calculate the losses in this resistor.
V DC, max
R aux = -------------------I aux, max
(41)
2
V DC, max
2 ⋅ Po ⋅ L
P loss, Raux = ----------------------- ⋅ ------------------------------------------------ ⋅ f switch, max
R aux
V o ⋅ ( V DC, max – V o )
(42)
If the minimum resistance is applied, the losses in this component can be high and
therefore the efficiency of the converter low. However, the value for the Raux resistor is not
critical and a resistance value of 220 kΩ will perform well. This will increase the efficiency
of the converter.
4.2.5 Regulation
If the Buck converter is in regulation, the supply voltage of the STARplug is equal to the
output voltage.
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The supply voltage is provided to the REG pin of the STARplug via a resistor divider. In
this case, the supply voltage of the STARplug (and output voltage) is regulated. The ratio
between the two resistors is defined by Equation 43 (Vduty − DC = 2.5 V).
Vo
R reg1 = ⎛ ---------------------- – 1⎞⎠ ⋅ R reg2
⎝V
duty – DC
(43)
To prevent distortion on the REG pin because of in coupling of high voltage signals, it is
recommended to keep the lower regulator resistor (Rreg2) below 10 kΩ.
4.2.6 Buck converter formula overview
4.2.6.1
OCP resistor
Table 34.
OCP resistor
Get output requirements:
Vo = ... V
Po = ... W
4.2.6.2
2⋅P
I pk = ------------oVo
(1) Vo
R src = 0.5
------I pk
(3) Ipk
(2) Po
(4) Rsrc
Minimum inductance
Table 35.
Minimum inductance
Get maximum DC voltage:
VDC,max = ... V
tLEB,max = 450 ns
( V DC, max – V o (1) ) ⋅ V o (1)
L = ---------------------------------------------------------------- ⋅ t LEB, max
2 ⋅ P o (2)
AN00055_1
Application note
(5) VDC,max
(6) L
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4.2.6.3
Maximum frequency
Table 36.
Maximum frequency
Set maximum frequency
fmax = ... V
2
( V DC, max (5) – V o (1) )
V 0 (1)
f switch, max ≈ ----------------------------------------------------- ⋅ -----------------------------------V DC, max (5)
2 ⋅ P o (2) ⋅ L(6)
(7) fswitch,max
fswitch,max
fswitch,max < fmax
AND
fswitch,max < 200 kHz
Y
fswitch,max
N
L
fmax
L
2
V 0 (1)
( V DC, max (5) – V o (1) )
L ≈ ----------------------------------------------------- ⋅ ------------------------------------------V DC, max (5)
2 ⋅ P o (2) ⋅ f max (8)
4.2.6.4
Output capacitor
(8) Cout,RMS
P o (2)
I ripple, RMS = -----------V o (1)
Freewheeling diode
Table 38.
Freewheeling diode
2 ⋅ P o (2)
I D, avg = ----------------------- ⋅ L(6) ⋅ f switch (7)
V o (1)
(9) ID,avg
V br, min = V DC, max (5)
(10) Vbr,min
2
4.2.6.6
(6) L
Output capacitor
Table 37.
4.2.6.5
(7) fmax
Oscillator
Table 39.
Oscillator
1
1
– 1μ⎞
RC osc = ------- ⋅ ⎛ ---------------------⎠
3.5 ⎝ f switch (7)
Select an oscillator capacitor between 220pF and 1000pF and calculate the oscillator resistor
Cosc = ... pF
(11) Rosc
RC osc
R osc = -------------C osc
4.2.6.7
(12) Cosc
Demagnetization
Table 40.
Demagnetization
Set the auxiliary resistor (Raux) to 220 kΩ
AN00055_1
Application note
(13) Raux
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4.2.6.8
Regulation
Table 41.
Regulation
Set Rreg2 between 1 kΩ and 10 kΩ
V o (1) ⎞
R reg1 = ⎛ -----------⋅
⎝ 2.5 - – 1⎠ R reg2
4.2.6.9
(14) Rreg1
(15) Rreg2
Supply
Table 42.
Supply
Set the supply capacitor to 470 nF.
(14) CVCC
The breakdown voltage for the diode is equal to (15) Vbr,DVCC
the maximum DC voltage (5)
5. Demoboard
A small demoboard has been built in order to demonstrate the basic operation of the
STARplug controller. The requirements for this application are:
Table 43.
Application requirements
Input
Output
•
Voltage range: Universal mains
(80 V (AC) to 276 V (AC)).
•
•
•
Frequency: 50/60 Hz ± 10 %
•
•
•
Voltage: 5 V ± 2 %
Current: 600 mA
Power: 3 W
Standby power: < 100 mW (full range)
Net transients: High-energy transient
(1 kV/50 ms)
The narrow output voltage tolerance requires a secondary regulated (TL431) system.
Furthermore, the maximum switching frequency of the converter is set to approximately
100 kHz.
The efficiency of the whole converter must be as high as possible. This makes the use of
a schottky diode on the secondary side necessary.
5.1 Schematic
In Figure 17 the electrical circuit diagram of the STARplug demoboard is shown, a
secondary regulated voltage source.
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Li1
AC DC+
Input
Ds3
Ci1 +
Ri1
Ci2
Li2
Zs1
AC DC−
Ci3
Ds1
+
Ci4
+
Output
Ds4
TR1
DM
AUX
VCC
Zs2
Ds2
Us2
REG
SRC
GND
Rs7
Rs1
Rs2
Cs5
Rs10
Cs3
Rs8
Ci5
Cs1
Cs4
Us2
Rs4
TEA152x
RC
Rs6
Rs5
Cs2
Rs3
Us3
Cs6
Rs9
Fig 17. Schematic of STARplug
The mains input is in the upper left corner. The mains output is top right. Below the output
section, the regulation part can be found. This circuit measures the output voltage and
compares it with the reference voltage of Us3. If there is an error, this is communicated to
the primary side of the circuit via the opto coupler. The STARplug with the control
components is placed on the left bottom corner.
An overvoltage protection is built-in by the zener diode Zs2. If the opto coupler fails, the
output voltage of the converter increases. This can be seen on the supply voltage of the
IC. If the supply voltage is too high (= high output voltage), the zener diode will take over
the regulation.
5.1.1 List of used components
Table 44.
Odd components
Ref.
Description
Value
Ordering code
Manufacturer
Internet
Ri1
Fusistor
KNP; 1 W; 5 %;
47 Ω
C152M43Y5UQYFSP
TyOhm
www.tyohm.com.tw
Ci1
Elco
6.8 μF; 400 V;
105 °C; BXA
400 BXA 6E8 M 10x16
Rubycon
www.rubycon.co.jp
Ci2
Elco
4,7 μF; 400 V;
105 °C; YXA
400YXA 4E7 M 10x16
Ci3
Elco
330 μF; 16 V;
20 %; 105 °C; ZA
16 ZA 330 M 10x12.5
Ci4
Elco
120 μF; 16 V;
16 JXA 120 M 6.3x11
20 %; 105 °C; JXA
Ci5
Y1-cap
Y1-cap; 2.2 nF;
20 %; 250 V
2251 837 51227
Philips
www.bccomponents.com
Li1
Inductor
SP0508; 1 mH;
10 %; 190 mA
SPT0508A-102KR19
TDK
www.tdk.com
Li2
Inductor
SP0508; 10 μH;
10 %; 1900 mA
SPT0508A-100K1R9
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Table 44.
Odd components …continued
Ref.
Description
Value
Ordering code
Manufacturer
Internet
Con1
Connector
MTA-100; 3 pins
640454-3
AMP
connect.amp.com
Con2
Connector
MTA-100; 2 pins
640454-2
Tr1
Transformer
CE133t or CE135t
(E13/7/4);
Lp = 1.8 mH;
Np = 134; Ns = 8;
Na = 22
Custom made
transformer
Philips Ovar
(Portugal)
5.1.2 SMD components
Table 45.
SMD components
Ref.
Description
Value
Ordering code
Manufacturer
Internet
Rs1
Resistor
RC11; 7.5 kΩ; 2 %
2322 730 31752
Philips
www.acm.components.philips.com
Rs2
Resistor
RC11; 2.0 Ω; 2 %
2322 730 31208
Rs3
Resistor
RC11; 5.1 kΩ; 5 %
2322 730 61512
Rs4
Resistor
RC11; 10 Ω; 5 %
2322 730 61109
Rs5
Resistor
RC11; 75 kΩ; 5 %
2322 730 61753
Rs6
Resistor
RC11; 1 kΩ; 5 %
2322 730 61102
Rs8
Resistor
RC11; 22 kΩ; 5 %
2322 730 61223
Rs9
Resistor
RC11; 2.4 kΩ; 2 %
2322 730 31242
Rs7
Rs10
Jp1
Jumper
RC01: Jumper 0 Ω
2322 711 91032
Cs1
Capacitor
NP0; 330 pF; 2 %;
50 V; 0805
2238 861 14331
Cs2
Capacitor
X7R; 100 nF; 20 %; 2222 780 15749
16 V; 0805
Cs3
Capacitor
Y5V; 470 nF; 20 %; 2238 581 19716
50 V; 1206
Cs4
Capacitor
X7R; 47 nF; 20 %;
16 V; 0805
2222 780 15745
Cs5
Capacitor
X7R; 10 nF; 20 %;
25 V; 0805
2222 910 15736
Ds1
Diode
Diode bridge 600 V; S1ZB60
1A
Shindengen
www.shindengen.co.uk
Ds2
Diode
BAV101; SOD80C
9336 993 40115
NXP
www.nxp.com
Ds3
Diode
STPS340U; 40 V;
3 A; DO-214AA
STPS340U
Stmicroelectronics us.st.com
Cs6
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Table 45.
SMD components …continued
Ref.
Description
Value
Ordering code
Manufacturer
Internet
Ds4[1]
Diode
BYD37J; SOD87
9338 123 00115
NXP
www.nxp.com
Zs1[1]
Zener
BZD27-C160;
SOD87
9338 677 60115
Zs2
Zener
Zenerdiode; 22 V;
2 %; 500 mW
9339 317 70115
Us1
STARplug
TEA152x
Us2
Opto coupler
SFH6106-2
option 9
SFH6106-2 X009T
Siemens
www.infineon.com
Us3
Reference
Voltage reference
TL431/SOD89
TL431CPK
Texas Instruments www.ti.com
[1]
Philips has developed a special SMD device, which is called ZENBLOCK. This device contains an anti-series connection of a high
voltage blocking diode and a high voltage zener diode. This device can replace the two components ZS1 and DS4.
5.2 PCB
In order to fit the whole application on a small PCB, both SMD and trough hole
components are used. The layout and component positions are shown in Figure 18 and
Figure 19.
Fig 18. Bottom view
Fig 19. Top view
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5.3 Measurements
75
50
70
40
Frequency (kHz)
Power (mW)
5.3.1 No load performance
65
60
20
10
55
50
30
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
0
75
275
100
125
150
175
225
250
250
Input voltage (V (AC))
Input voltage (V (AC))
Fig 20. No load input power consumption
200
Fig 21. No load switching frequency
80
80
75
75
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
5.3.2 Efficiency
70
65
60
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
70
65
60
75
275
100
125
150
175
80
80
70
70
60
275
60
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
40
0.0
Output power (W)
Fig 24. Efficiency versus output power
(Vin = 120 V (AC))
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Output power (W)
Fig 25. Efficiency versus output power
(Vin = 220 V (AC))
AN00055_1
Application note
250
50
50
40
0.0
225
Fig 23. Efficiency versus input voltage (Po = 1.5 W)
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
Fig 22. Efficiency versus input voltage (Po = 3 W)
200
Input voltage (V (AC))
Input voltage (V (AC))
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110
Output voltage (% of nominal)
Output voltage (% of nominal)
5.3.3 Regulation
Po = 120 mW
105
100
95
Po = 3 W
90
75
125
175
225
110
105
100
95
90
275
0
100
200
300
500
600
Output current (mA)
Input voltage (V (AC))
Fig 26. Line regulation
400
Fig 27. Load regulation (Vin = 220 V (AC))
5.3.4 Frequency behavior
100
Switching frequency (kHz)
Switching frequency (kHz)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
80
60
40
20
0
0.0
3.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Output power (W)
Fig 28. Switching frequency (Vin = 115 V (AC))
2.5
3.0
Output power (W)
Fig 29. Switching frequency (Vin = 235 V (AC))
5.3.5 Turn-on delay
Tek stop: Single sequence: 25.0 kS/s
Tek stop: Single seq: 25.0 kS/s
DC bus voltage = 100 V/div
DC bus voltage = 100 V/div
1
Output voltage = 2 V/div
1
Output voltage = 2 V/div
2
2
Ch. 1 = 100 V
Ch. 2 = 2.00 V
M = 2.00 ms
Ch. 1 =
34 V
Fig 30. Turn-on delay (Ro = 8 Ω / Vin = 115 V (AC))
Ch. 1 = 100 V
M = 2.00 ms
Ch. 1 =
34 V
Fig 31. Turn-on delay (Ro = 7.5 Ω / Vin = 115 V (AC))
AN00055_1
Application note
Ch. 2 = 200 V
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5.3.6 Output voltage ripple
Tek stop: Single seq. 250 kS/s
Tek stop: Single seq. 10.0 MS/s
Output current = 200 mA/div
Drain voltage = 100 V/div
1
1
Output ripple = 50 mV/div
Output ripple = 10 mV/div
2
2
Vin = 115 V (AC)
Ch. 1 = 100 V
Ch. 2 = 10.0 mV
M = 5.00 μs
Fig 32. Output switching ripple
(Po = 3 W/Vin = 115 V (AC))
Ch. 1 =
34 V
Ch. 1 = 200 mVΩ
M = 200 μs
Ch. 1 =
584 mV
Fig 33. Transient load response (75 % to 100 %)
AN00055_1
Application note
Ch. 2 = 50.0 mVΩ
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6. Legal information
6.1
Definitions
Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under
internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in
modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of
information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences of
use of such information.
6.2
Suitability for use — NXP Semiconductors products are not designed,
authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in medical, military, aircraft,
space or life support equipment, nor in applications where failure or
malfunction of a NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected to
result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental damage.
NXP Semiconductors accepts no liability for inclusion and/or use of NXP
Semiconductors products in such equipment or applications and therefore
such inclusion and/or use is at the customer’s own risk.
Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these
products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no
representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the
specified use without further testing or modification.
Disclaimers
General — Information in this document is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any representations or
warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of such
information and shall have no liability for the consequences of use of such
information.
Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make
changes to information published in this document, including without
limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without
notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior
to the publication hereof.
Export control — This document as well as the item(s) described herein
may be subject to export control regulations. Export might require a prior
authorization from national authorities.
6.3
Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and trademarks
are the property of their respective owners.
STARplug — is a trademark of NXP B.V.
AN00055_1
Application note
Trademarks
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7. Contents
1
2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Flyback and buck topology; theory and
operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1
Flyback converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2
Buck converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3
Functional description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1
Start-up and UnderVoltage LockOut (UVLO) . . 8
3.2
Power MOS transistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3
Oscillator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4
Control mechanism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4.1
PWM control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4.2
Maximum duty cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4.3
Minimum duty cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4.4
Advantage exponential oscillator . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.5
Demagnetization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.6
Valley switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.7
Current protections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.7.1
OverCurrent Protection (OCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.7.2
Short Winding Protection (SWP) . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.8
OverTemperature Protection (OTP) . . . . . . . . 15
4
General step-by-step design procedure . . . . 16
4.1
Designing the basic STARplug application . . . 16
4.1.1
Input section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1.1.1
Determine system requirements. . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1.1.2
Calculate the inrush resistor (R1) . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.1.1.3
Calculate the minimum DC voltage . . . . . . . . 18
4.1.1.4
Calculate the maximum DC voltage . . . . . . . . 18
4.1.2
Clamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.3
Oscillator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.4
OCP resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.5
Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.1.5.1
Calculate the primary inductance . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.1.5.2
Selecting the core type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.1.5.3
Determine the air gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.1.5.4
Primary winding count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.1.5.5
Secondary winding count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.1.5.6
Auxiliary winding count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.1.6
Regulation components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.1.7
Demagnetization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.8
Supply generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.9
Output section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.9.1
Output diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.9.2
Output capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1.9.3
Output filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1.10
Flyback converter formula overview . . . . . . . . 25
4.1.10.1 Select input voltage range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1.10.2 Mains frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1.10.3 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.4 Estimate efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.5 Total buffer capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.6 Minimum DC supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.7 Inrush resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.8 Maximum DC voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.9 Maximum peak clamp voltage . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.10 Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.11 Reflected output voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.12 Primary peak current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.13 Source resistor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.14 Primary inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.15 Transformer’s air gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.16 Primary winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.17 Secondary winding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.18 Auxiliary winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.19 Recalculate supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.20 Regulator resistors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.21 Auxiliary resistor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.22 Auxiliary supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.23 Output diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.24 Output capacitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10.25 Output filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2
Designing the Buck application . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1
OverCurrent Protection (OCP). . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2
Output section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2.1
Determine the inductor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2.2
Output capacitor requirements. . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2.3
Freewheeling diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2.4
OVP zener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3
Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4
Demagnetization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.5
Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6
Buck converter formula overview. . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.1
OCP resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.2
Minimum inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.3
Maximum frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.4
Output capacitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.5
Freewheeling diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.6
Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.7
Demagnetization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.8
Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6.9
Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
Demoboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1
Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1
List of used components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2
SMD components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2
PCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
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26
26
26
27
27
28
28
28
28
28
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29
29
29
29
29
29
30
30
30
30
30
31
31
31
32
32
32
33
33
33
34
34
34
35
35
35
35
35
36
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36
36
37
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continued >>
AN00055_1
Application note
© NXP B.V. 2009. All rights reserved.
Rev. 02 — 4 June 2009
44 of 45
AN00055
NXP Semiconductors
STARplug efficient low power supply
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.6
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
7
Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No load performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turn-on delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output voltage ripple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Legal information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disclaimers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trademarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
40
40
41
41
41
42
43
43
43
43
44
Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s)
described herein, have been included in section ‘Legal information’.
© NXP B.V. 2009.
All rights reserved.
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
Date of release: 4 June 2009
Document identifier: AN00055_1
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