ANP006

ANP006
Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
Contents
1.
Features
2.
Introduction
3.
Pin Functions
4.
Internal Block Diagram
5.
Regulator Design Procedure
6.
Design Example
This application note contains new product information. Diodes, Inc. reserves the right to modify the product specification without notice. No liability is
assumed as a result of the use of this product. No rights under any patent accompany the sale of the product.
1/12
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ANP006
Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
1.0
Features
◆
Small Board Size
- Entire circuit can fit on less than 2.5 square inches of PCB space
◆
Low Implementation Cost
- Requires Only 10 External Components
◆
ON /OFF Control
- Be controlled by external TTL logic level signal, low power standby mode
◆
Thermal Shutdown and Current Limit Protection
- Built-in function
◆
Simple Feedback Compensation
- Lead compensation using external capacitor
◆
Immediate Implementation
- Schematic, board-of-materials and board layout available from Anachip
2.0
Introduction
This application note discusses simple ways to
select all necessary components to implement a
step-down (BUCK) regulator and gives a design example.
In this example, the AP1501A monolithic IC is used to
design a cost-effective and high-efficiency miniature
switching buck regulator.
This implementation is suitable for LCD TV and PDP
TV applications. It can also be used in an off-line
post-regulator to convert the AC line voltage down to a
DC voltage below 37V for a distributed power system.
This demonstration board allows the designer to
evaluate the performance of the AP1501A series buck
regulator in a typical application circuit. The user needs
only to supply an input voltage and a load. The
demonstration board can be configured to evaluate fixed
output voltage of 3.3V, 5V, 12V, and an adjustable output
version of the AP1501A series. Operation at other
voltages and currents may be accomplished by proper
component selection and replacement.
2/12
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ANP006
Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
3.0
Pin Functions
Number
Name
Function
1
2
3
4
5
+VIN
Output
GND
FB
SD
Operating Voltage Input
Switching Output
Ground
Output Feedback Control
ON/OFF Shutdown Control
+VIN (Pin 1):
This pin is the main power input to the IC. The range of operating voltage is from +4.5V to
+40V. A suitable input bypass capacitor must be present at this pin to minimize voltage
transients and to supply the switching current needs by the regulator.
Output (Pin 2):
Internal switch. The voltage at this pin switches between ( + V IN − VSAT ) and approximately
-0.55 V, with a duty cycle of approximately VOUT V IN . To minimize coupling to sensitive
circuitry, the PC board copper area connected to this pin should be kept at a minimum.
GND (Pin 3):
Circuit ground for the IC.
FB (Pin 4):
Senses the regulated output voltage to complete the feedback loop.
SD (Pin 5):
Allows the switching regulator circuit to be shutdown using logic level signals thus dropping
the total input supply current to approximately 150uA. Pulling this pin below a threshold voltage
of approximately 1.3V turns the regulator on, and pulling this pin above 1.3V (up to a maximum
of 25V) shuts the regulator down. If this shutdown feature is not needed, the SD pin can be
wired to the ground pin or it can be left open. In either case the regulator will be in the ON
condition.
3/12
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Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
4.0
Internal Block Diagram
5.0
Regulator Design Procedure
5.0.1 Given Power Specification
V
V
V
V
I
I
IN (max)
IN (min)
= Maximum Input Voltage
= Minimum Input Voltage
= Regulated Output Voltage
OUT
RIPPLE
= Ripple Voltage (peak-to-peak), typical value is 1% of the output voltage
LOAD(max)
LOAD(min)
FOSC
= Maximum Load Current
= Minimum Load Current before the circuit becomes discontinuous, typical value is 10% of the
Maximum Load Current
= Switching Frequency (fixed at a nominal 150KHz)
4/12
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ANP006
Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
5.0.2 Programming Output Voltage
The output voltage is programmed by the selection of the divider R2 and R3. The designer should use
resistors R2 and R3 with ±1% tolerance in order to obtain best accuracy of the output voltage. The output
voltage can be calculated from the following formula:
V
Where
V
REF
OUT
⎛ R2 ⎞
= V REF × ⎜1 +
⎟ ------------------------ (1)
R3 ⎠
⎝
= 1.235V
⎛
⎞
R 2 = R3 × ⎜ V OUT − 1⎟ -------------------------- (2)
⎜
⎟
⎝ V REF
⎠
Select a value for R3 between 240Ω and 1.5KΩ. The lower resistor values minimize noise pickup in the
sensitive feedback pin. If the designer selects a fixed output version of the AP1501A, the formula (1) won't
be applied, and then the resistor R2 shall be short and R3 shall be open.
5.0.3 Inductor Selection
A. The minimum inductor
L
(min)
can be calculated from the following design formula table:
Calculation
T
T
T
ON
Step-down (buck) regulator
(V OUT + V F )
V
OFF
L
IN (min)
− V SAT − V OUT
TON
TOFF
ON
(min)
[V
FOSC ⋅
IN (min)
(
TON
TOFF
)
+1
]
− V SAT − V OUT × T ON (max)
2 × I LOAD (min)
V
SAT
V
F
= Internal switch saturation voltage of the AP1501A. The saturation voltage increases with the
conducting current. Typical value is 1.5 V.
= Output rectifier forward voltage drop. Typical value for SB540 rectifier is 0.55V.
B. The inductor must be designed so that it does not saturate or significantly saturate at DC current bias of
. ( PK = Peak inductor or switch current =
+ LOAD (min) )
LOAD (max)
PK
I
I
I
I
5/12
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Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
5.0.4 Output Capacitor Selection
A. The output capacitor is required to filter the output and provide regulator loop stability. When selecting
an output capacitor, the important capacitor parameters are; the 100KHz Equivalent Series Resistance
(ESR), the RMS ripples current rating, voltage rating, and capacitance value. For the output capacitor, the
ESR value is the most important parameter. The ESR can be calculated from the following formula:
⎞
⎛
ESR = ⎜ V RIPPLE ⎟ ------------------------ (3)
⎟
⎜ 2× I
LOAD (min) ⎠
⎝
An aluminum electrolytic capacitor's ESR value is related to the capacitance value and its voltage rating.
In most cases, higher voltage electrolytic capacitors have lower ESR values. Often, capacitors with much
higher voltage ratings may be needed to provide the low ESR values required for low output ripple voltage. If
the selected capacitor's ESR is extremely low, it results in an oscillation at the output. It is recommended to
replace this low ESR capacitor by using two general standard capacitors in parallel.
B. The capacitor voltage rating should be at least 1.5 times greater than the output voltage, and often
much higher voltage ratings are needed to satisfy the low ESR requirements needed for low output ripple
voltage.
5.0.5 Compensation Capacitor Selection
For output voltage greater than approximately 10V, an additional capacitor C1 is required. The
compensation capacitor C1 provides additional stability for high output voltages, low input-output voltages,
and/or very low ESR output capacitors.
5.0.6 Output Rectifier Selection
A. The output rectifier D1 current rating must be greater than the peak switch current IPK. The reverse
voltage rating of the output rectifier D1 should be at least 1.25 times the maximum input voltage.
B. The output rectifier D1 must be fast (short reverse recovery time) and must be located close to the
AP1501A using short leads and short printed circuit traces.
Because of their fast switching speed and low forward voltage drop, Schottky diodes provide the best
performance and efficiency, and should be the first choice, especially in low output voltage applications.
6/12
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Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
5.0.7 Input Capacitor Selection
A. The RMS current rating of the input capacitor can be calculated from the following formula table. The
capacitor manufacturers data sheet must be checked to assure that this current rating is not exceeded.
Calculation
Step-down (buck) regulator
T ON ⋅ FOSC
δ
I
I
ΔI
I
I
I
PK
m
LOAD (max)
+ I LOAD (min)
LOAD (max)
− I LOAD (min)
2 × I LOAD(min)
L
δ × ⎢(I PK × I m ) +
⎡
⎣
IN ( rms )
1
(Δ I L )2 ⎤⎥
3
⎦
B. This capacitor should be located close to the IC using short leads and the voltage rating should be
approximately 1.5 times the maximum input voltage.
5.0.8 Thermal Considerations
Internal Thermal Shutdown circuitry is provided to protect the integrated circuit in the event that the
maximum junction temperature is exceeded. When activated, typically at 150°C, the output switch is disabled.
This feature is provided to prevent catastrophic failures from accidental device overheating. The maximum IC
junction temperature shall not exceed 125ºC to guarantee proper operation and avoid any damages to the IC.
The total power dissipated by the IC can be quantified as follows:
PLOSS = PQ + PSAT + PS --------------------(4)
Where:
PQ : The power dissipation is due to quiescent current of the IC (10mA maximum).
PSAT : The conduction loss occurs when the power switch turns on, the saturation voltage and
conduction current contribute to the power loss of a non–ideal switch.
PS : The switching loss occurs when the switch experiences both high current and voltage
during each switch transition.
The thermal characteristics of AP1501A depend on the following four factors: junction temperature,
ambient temperature, IC power dissipation, and the thermal resistance from the die junction to ambient air.
The relation between temperature and heat radiation quantity is shown as follows:
RθJA =
(T
J (max)
− T A(max) )
PLOSS
--------------------(5)
7/12
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ANP006
Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
The TO-220 package needs a heat sink that effectively increases the surface area of the package to
improve the flow of heat away from the AP1501A and into the surrounding air. The total thermal resistance is
comprised of three components. These resistive terms are measured from junction to case ( RθJC ), case to
heat sink ( RθCS ), and heat sink to ambient air ( RθSA ). The equation is shown as follows:
RθSA = RθJA − RθJC − RθCS -------------------(6)
Where:
RθJC : The thermal resistance between the IC chip (junction point) and package backside connecting to the
heat sink. The thermal resistance of 5-lead TO-220 package is approximately 2.5ºC/W.
RθSA : The thermal resistance of heat sink. This value depends on the heat sink type.
RθCS : The thermal resistance between the package backside and the heat sink including the condition of
silicon grease and bolt tighten torque. Typical value is 0.5 ºC /W for a 5-lead TO-220 package with a
standard silicon/zinc oxide thermal compound has thermal conductivities between 0.7 and 0.9 W/mK.
The recommended bolt tighten torque is smaller than 6kg·cm (or 5.3 lb·in) for an M3 screw.
Once these calculations are complete, the maximum permissible value of RθSA can be calculated
and then select the heat sink whose RθSA is smaller than the result of equation (6). For more detail, please
refer the thermal resistance value mentioned in the specification of the heat sink supplier.
5.0.9 PCB Layout Considerations
Special care should be taken to separate ground paths from signal currents and ground paths from
load currents. All high current loops should be kept as short as possible using heavy copper runs to minimize
ringing and radiated EMI. For best operation, a tight component layout is recommended. Input and output
capacitors (C2, C3, C5, C6) and all feedback components should be placed as close to the IC as physically
possible. It is also imperative that the Schottky diode connected to the Switch Output be located as close to
the IC as possible.
6.0 Design Example
6.0.1 Summary of Target Specifications
Input Power
Regulated Output Power
Output Ripple Voltage
Operation Temperature
Efficiency
Switching Frequency
V
V
V
IN (max)
OUT
= +19V;
= + 5V;
RIPPLE
I
V
IN (min)
LOAD(max)
= +19V
= 5A;
I
LOAD(min)
= 0.5A
≤ 50 mV peak-to-peak
TJ (max) =100℃; T A(max) = 50℃
75% minimum at full load
f = 150KHz ± 15 %
8/12
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ANP006
Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
6.0.2
Calculating and Components Selection
L(min) ≥
I
PK
=
I
Calculation Formula
V IN (min) − V SAT − V OUT × T ON (max)
[
]
2 × I LOAD (min)
LOAD (max)
+ I LOAD (min)
⎞
⎛
ESR = ⎜ V RIPPLE ⎟
⎟
⎜ 2× I
LOAD (min) ⎠
⎝
V WVDC ≥ 1.5 ×V OUT
V
I
RRM
PK
=
LOAD (max)
I
rms
+ I LOAD (min)
1
2⎤
⎡
I IN ( rms ) = δ × ⎢⎣(I PK × I m ) + 3 (Δ I L ) ⎥⎦
V WVDC ≥ 1.5 ×V IN (max)
≥
I
PK
= 5.5A
ESR ≤ 50mΩ
V
≥ 1.25 ×V IN (max)
I
Select Condition
L(min) ≥ 25UH
V
I
I
V
WVDC
RRM
PK
Select C5, C6 from
"CAPXON"
C5: 1000UF/10V GF
series,
C6: Open
Or
C5: 1000UF/10V KM
series,
C6: 1000UF/10V KM
series.
Select D1:
40V/5A SB540
≥ 7.5V
≥ 23.75V
= 5.5A
ripple
≥
WVDC
I
IN ( rms )
Component spec.
Select L1 from
"FRONTIER"
25UH (@5ADC)
=2.78A
≥ 28.5V
Select C2, C3 from
"CAPXON"
330UF/35V GF series.
If the +19V power source
that has a large output
capacitor enough to supply
,
this current
IN ( rms )
I
PLOSS = PQ + PSAT + PS
RθJA =
(T
J (max)
− T A(max) )
PLOSS
RθSA = RθJA − RθJC − RθCS
PLOSS = 5.90W
RθJA = 8.47 /W, RθJC = 2.5ºC /W
RθCS = 0.5ºC /W
RθSA ≤ 5.47ºC /W
designer can select another
one.
330UF/50V KM series.
Using current probe and
digital oscilloscope to
measure PLOSS .
Select HS1 from "MEICON"
MI-317 type.
9/12
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ANP006
Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
6.0.3
Item
Parts List (Board of Materials)
Part Number
MFG/Dist.
Description
C1
Value
Quantity
Open
0
330uF, 35V
2
0.1uF, 50V
1
Aluminum
Electrolytic*
Ceramic Capacitor
Aluminum
Electrolytic*
Ceramic Capacitor
1000uF, 10V
2
2200pF, 50V
1
Schottky Diode*
40V, 5A
1
J1
Terminal Block
Pitch=5.08mm, 2pin
1
J2
Terminal Block
Pitch=5.08mm, 3pin
1
Inductor*
PWM Buck
Converter*
Film Chip Resistor
25 UH, 5A
1
150KHz, 5A
1
10Ω±5%, 1/8W
1
Short
0
C2, C3
GF331M035G160
LUXON
C4
C5, C6
KM102M010G160
CAPXON
SB540
HAWYANG
C7
D1
L1
3011I56
FRONTIER
U1
AP1501A-50T5
Anachip
R1
Std
R2
R3
HS1
Open
MI-317
MEICON
Heat Sink
W=50.7mm,H=25.2mm
EG-30
E.G-BOND Silicone Compound
0.9 W/m K
X1~X4
MF-005-N2W
Pin Good
Spacer Support
Hole in P.C.B Φ3.5
* You should apply a very thin (paper thin) layer on the heat sink before installing AP1501A. Don't
much - the thinner the layer, the better.
0
1
*
4
use too
* Manufacturers and Distributor Contact Information:
Anachip Corp.
易亨電子股份有限公司
Phone
Fax
Website
FRONTIER Electronics Co., LTD
弘電電子工業股份有限公司
Phone
Fax
Website
HAWYANG Electronics Co., LTD
浩陽有限公司
Phone
+886-2-2655-1818
+886-2-2655-1616
http://www.anachip.com.tw
http://www.anachip.com
+886-2-2914-7685~9
+886-2-2918-6304
http://www.frontierelec.com.tw
http://www.frontierusa.com
+886-2-2219-0903
Fax
Website
Phone
Fax
Website
Phone
Fax
Website
+886-2-2219-3189
http://www.hawyang.com.tw
+886-2-2621-8949
+886-2-2621-2440
http://www.meicon.com.tw
+886-2-86926611
+886-2-86926481
http://www.capxon.com.tw
MEICON Electronics IND. Co., LTD
永聯電子工業股份有限公司
CAPXON Electronic Industrial Co., LTD
豐賓電子工業股份有限公司
10/12
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Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
6.0.4 Demo Board Schematic
11/12
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ANP006
Application Note
AP1501A Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
6.0.5 Typical PC Board Layout, Adjustable Output: (1x Size)
(1). Component Placement Guide
(2). Component Side PC Board Layout
(3). Solder Side PC Board Layout
12/12
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