Designing a NCL30085-Controlled LED Driver

AND9205/D
Designing
a NCL30085‐Controlled
LED Driver
Description
This paper proposes the key steps to rapidly design
a NCL30085-driven flyback converter to power an LED
string. The process is illustrated by a practical 10-W,
universal mains application:
• Maximum Output Power: 10 W
• Input Voltage Range: 90 to 265 V rms
• Output Voltage Range: 12 to 20 V dc
• Output Current: 500 mA
• 3-Step Dimming: 70%/25%/5%
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APPLICATION NOTE
Introduction
The NCL30085 is a driver for power-factor corrected
flyback, non-isolated buck-boost and SEPIC converters.
An internal proprietary circuitry controls the input current in
such a way that a power factor as high as 0.99 and an output
current deviation below ±2% are typically obtained without
the need for a secondary-side feedback. The current-mode,
quasi-resonant architecture optimizes the efficiency by
turning on the MOSFET when the drain-source voltage is
minimal (valley). At high line, the circuit delays the
MOSFET turn on until the second valley is detected to
reduce the switching losses (see Figure 1). The 3-step
dimming function decreases the output current from 100%
to 70%, 70% to 25%, 25% to 5% or increases it back from
5% to 100% whenever a short brown-out event is detected.
The step-dimming function is reset (maximum current is
provided) if the brown-out event lasts for more than 3 s
typically. Valley lockout and frequency fold-back
capabilities maintain high-efficiency performance in
dimmed conditions. In addition, the circuit contains a suite
of powerful protections to ensure a robust LED driver design
without the need for extra components or overdesign.
Among them, one can list:
• Over Temperature Thermal Fold-back: connecting
a NTC to the SD pin allows for gradual reduction of
the LED current down to 50% of its nominal value
when the temperature is excessive. If the current
•
•
•
•
•
•
reduction does not prevent the temperature from
reaching a second level, the controller stops operating
(SD pin OTP).
Over Voltage Protection: A Zener diode can further be
used on the SD pin to provide an adjustable OVP
protection (SD pin OVP).
Cycle-by-Cycle Peak Current Limit: when the current
sense voltage exceeds the internal threshold (VILIM),
the MOSFET immediately turns off (cycle-by-cycle
current limitation).
Winding and Output Diode Short-Circuit Protection
(WODSCP): an additional comparator stops the
controller if the CS pin voltage exceeds (150% ⋅ VILIM)
for 4 consecutive cycles. This feature can protect the
converter if a winding or the output diode is shorted or
simply if the transformer saturates.
Output Short-Circuit Protection: If the ZCD pin voltage
remains low for a 90-ms time interval, the controller
stops pulsating until 4 seconds have elapsed.
Open LED Protection: if the VCC pin voltage exceeds
the OVP threshold, the controller shuts down and waits
4 seconds before restarting switching operation.
Floating/Short Pin Detection: the circuit can detect most
of these situations which helps pass safety tests [2].
Figure 1. Quasi-Resonant Mode in Low Line (Left), Turn On at Valley 2 when in High Line (Right)
© Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2015
March, 2015 − Rev. 0
1
Publication Order Number:
AND9205/D
AND9205/D
PRELIMINARY REMARKS
Two NCL30085 Versions
There exist two NCL30085 versions. As summarized by
Table 1, they differ in their respective protection mode.
When the Winding and Output Diode Short Circuit
Protection (WOD_SCP) or the Output and Auxiliary
Winding Short Circuit Protection (AUX_SCP) triggers,
the A version latches-off while the NCL30085B enters the
auto-recovery mode. Similarly, the SD over-temperature
and over-voltage protections (SD pin OTP and SD pin OVP)
are latching-off in the NCL30085A and auto-recovery in the
NCL30085B.
Table 1. PROTECTION MODES
AUX_SCP
WOD_SCP
SD Pin OTP
SD Pin OVP
NCL30085A
Latching Off
Latching Off
Latching Off
Latching Off
NCL30085B
Auto-Recovery
Auto-Recovery
Auto-Recovery
Auto-Recovery
In the case of a latching-off fault, the circuit stops pulsing
until the LED driver is unplugged and VCC drops below
VCC(reset) (5 V typically). At that moment, the fault is
cleared and the circuit can resume operation. In the
auto-recovery case, the circuit cannot generate DRV pulses
for the auto-recovery 4-s delay. The circuit recovers
operation when this time has elapsed.
regulation will then be optimal as long as the lowest line
peak voltage is higher than the inductor demagnetization
voltage, i.e.,:
Duty-Ratio Limitation
where (Vin,rms )LL is the lowest-line rms voltage (85 or
90 V rms in general) and (Vf ) is the output diode forward
voltage.
The NCL30085A/B duty-ratio is internally limited to
50% at the top of the lowest line sinusoid. Output current
• If
ǒǸ2 @ ǒV
• If
ǒǸ2 @ ǒV
Ǔ
Ǔ
w V out ) V f with non-isolated converters,
Ǔ
np
w n ǒV out ) V fǓ in flyback applications,
in,rms LL
in,rms LL
Ǔ
s
Table 2. NCL30085 CONDITIONS OF USING
Output Voltage Range for
Non-Isolated Converters (Note 1)
NCL30088A (Note 2)
NCL30088BA
V out ) V f v Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
V out ) V f v Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
Output Voltage Range for
Flyback Converters (Note 1)
LL
n
V out ) V f v n s @ Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
LL
n
V out ) V f v n s @ Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
LL
p
p
LL
1. (Vin,rms)LL is the lowest-line rms voltage (e.g., 85 V rms), (Vf), the output diode forward voltage.
2. Please contact local sales representative for availability.
V out,max + Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
As an example, let’s assume that we must design a 90 to
265 V rms, non-isolated buck-boost converter. For optimal
control accuracy, the LED driver output voltage should not
exceed:
LL
* Vf ^
^ Ǹ2 @ 90 * 1 ^ 126 V
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(eq. 1)
AND9205/D
If the duty-ratio limitation is exceeded by your
application, the LED current will be below its nominal value
at the lowest line voltage but will meet the target when the
input voltage level is sufficient. By the way, a symptom of
the duty-ratio limitation effect can be observed as shown by
Figure 2 where the input current is clamped by the
over-current protection during normal load conditions.
V
CC
I LED
The current is
MOSFET current
clamped to
(V
ILIM
/ R
Figure 2. Current Over-Current Limitation
(VILIM is Over-Current Threshold, RSENSE the Current Sense Resistor)
Our application of interest is a flyback converter. Note that
in this case, turns ratio provides some flexibility which can
help meet the condition of using.
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sense
)
Figure 3. Basic Schematic
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RS2
CIN
RS1
RZCD2
CZCD
CCOMP
RZCD1
CSD
RTH
6
5
3
4
8
7
DZ
NCL30085
2
1
AUX
C2
RSTUP
+
C1
CCS
RLFF
CC
RC
DC
RSENSE
Q1
D1
+
COUT
AND9205/D
LED DRIVER DIMENSIONING
AND9205/D
LED DRIVER DESIGN STEPS
AND9200 [1] details the design procedure of a LED
driver controlled by the NCL30088. The same process is
valid for the NCL30085 apart from a few specificities.
This application note will not re-discuss the AND9200
procedure but only provide below summary of the key
design steps. NCL30085 specificities will be covered in the
next chapter.
Note that if provided equations must help provide a good
starting point, bench validation remains necessary!
SUMMARY OF KEY DESIGN STEPS
Table 3. DESIGN STEPS TABLE
Step
Components
Step 1: Power
Components
Selection
Transformer:
Auxiliary
Winding
Number of
Turns
Formula
n AUX v n s @
Comments
ǒVCC(OVP)Ǔ
min
If a Zener diode is connected
between the VCC rail and the
SD pin protection for OVP
protection, VCC(OVP) is to be
replaced by the (VZ + 2.5).
Vout(OVP) is the output voltage
when the VCC or SD pin OVP
trips (Vout(OVP) can be viewed
as the possible maximum
value of the output voltage)
) Vf
V out(OVP) ) V f
MOSFET Turn
Off Overshoot
np
V Q*ov + k c @ n @ ǒV out ) V fǓ
The MOSFET turn-off
overshoot due to the leakage
inductor reset is expressed as
a function of the reflected
voltage (see Figure 4)
MOSFET Turn
Off Overshoot
Coefficient
0.5 v k c v 1.0
A low kc reduces the
MOSFET voltage stress but
requires more losses to be
dissipated in the clamping
network. As a rule of thumb,
take kc between 0.5 and 1.0.
Transformer:
secondary
winding
number of
turns
aV DSS * Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
np
HL
t
ns
(1 ) k c) @ ǒV out(OVP) ) V fǓ
VDSS is the MOSFET
breakdown voltage,
a designates the derating
factor (85% typically)
Transformer:
primary
inductance
Clamping
Network
Resistor Value
s
Lp w
Rc v
ǒVin,rmsǓ
2
2f sw,TP in,avg
@
ǒ
np
ns
ǒV out ) V fǓ
np
bV in,pk ) n s ǒV out ) V fǓ
ǒ
Ǔ
2 @ kc
@ V out(OVP) ) V f @
N PS
ǒ
@
Ǔ
1)k c
@ V out(OVP) ) V f ) Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
HL
N PS
L leak @
Clamping
Network
Resistor
Losses
Ǔ
2
ǒ
np
P Rc v
ns
ǒ
V ILIM
R sense
Ǔ
2
@ f SW,HL
@ (1 ) k c) @ ǒV out(OVP) ) V fǓ
RC
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Ǔ
2
If the primary inductor is
selected equal to the
proposed expression, the
switching frequency will be
below fsw,T when the line
instantaneous voltage is
between (b ⋅ Vin,pk) and Vin,pk
where (b ≤ 1). For instance,
one can force the full-load
frequency range at the 115-V
rms nominal voltage to be
around 65 kHz for instance,
by practically opting for
(b = 50%) and
(fsw,T = 65 kHz)
VILIM is the NCL30085
internal threshold for
over-current limitation
(1 V typically).
(Vin,rms)HL and fsw,HL are the
rms input voltage and the
switching frequency at the
line highest level.
Vout(OVP) is the output voltage
when the VCC or SD pin OVP
trips (Vout(OVP) can be viewed
as the possible maximum
value of the output voltage)
AND9205/D
Table 3. DESIGN STEPS TABLE (continued)
Step
Components
Formula
Clamping
Network
Capacitor
Maximum
Primary
Inductor Peak
Current
Maximum
Primary
Inductor rms
Current
1 ms
RC
CC ^
ǒIL,pkǓ
max
+ 2 Ǹ2 @
ǒPin,avgǓ
max
@
ǒV in,rmsǓ
LL
ǒIL,rmsǓ
max
+
@
MOSFET rms
Current
ǒIQ,rmsǓ
2 @ ǒP in,avgǓ
max
Ǹ3 @ ǒV
Ǔ
in,rms
Ǹ
1)
ǒ
1)
n s @ Ǹ2 ǒV in,rmsǓ
LL
n p @ ǒV out ) V fǓ
Ǔ
NPS is the turns ratio
NPS = ns / np
@
LL
16 @ Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
3p @
V out)V
N
ǒPin,avgǓ
max
+ 2 @
@
max
Ǹ3 ǒV
Ǔ
in,rms
LL
Maximum
MOSFET
Drain-Source
Voltage
Comments
V ds,max + Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
HL
)
LL
f
)
6p @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
4@
PS
Ǹ
1)
ǒ
V out)V
N
V out)V
N
LL
2
Ǔ
f
PS
8 Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
3p @
2
LL
f
PS
(1 ) k c) @ ǒV out(OVP) ) V fǓ
ns
np
ǒ
Ǔ
Maximum
Output Diode
Voltage
n
V diode,max + n s @ Ǹ2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
) V out ) V f ) V D*ov
max
p
Output Diode
Average
Current
I diode,avg + I out
Output Diode
Rms Current
ǒID,rmsǓ
Ǹ
max
+
ǒ Ǔ
np
32 Ǹ2
@ n
s
9p
+
ǒPin,avgǓ
2
@
V in,rms @
N
ǒID,rmsǓ
Ǹ
+
max
ȣ
ȧ
Ȥ
V in,rms
2
@ 1 ) 9p @ V )V
Ǹ
f
12 2 out f
PS
ȡ
ȧǒ
Ȣ
C out,min +
ȡ
ȧ
Ȣ
2
max
V out)V
Ǹ
Minimum
Output
Capacitor
Value
Output
Capacitor
Rms Current
VD−ov is the output diode
overshoot that occurs when
the MOSFET turns on.
N
PS
Iout,nom is the nominal output
current, RLED,min, the
minimum LED series resistor,
and (DIout)pk−pk, the output
current targeted peak-to-peak
ripple.
ȣ
ȧ*1
Ȥ
2
2
DI outǓ
pk*pk
I out,nom
4p @ f line,min @ R LED,min
+
ǒ Ǔ
np 2
32 Ǹ2
@ n
@
9p
s
ǒPin,avgǓ
ȡ
ȧ
Ȣ
2
max
@
V out)V
f
Vin,rms @
N
PS
1)
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ȣ
ȧ
Ȥ
V in,rms
9p2
@
* I 2out,nom
12 Ǹ2 V out)V f
N
PS
AND9205/D
Table 3. DESIGN STEPS TABLE (continued)
Step
Components
Step 2:
Output
Current
Setting
Current Sense
Resistor
Formula
np
R sense + n @
s
COMP
Capacitor
VSENSE
Resistors
VREF is the 250-mV internal
reference
V REF
2 @ I out,nom
1 mF or More
R S1 + R S2 @
ǒ
Ǹ2 @ ǒV
Ǔ
in,rms
BOH
V BO(on)
ǒ
Feedforward
Resistor
Ǔ
(Vin,rms)BOH is the minimum
line rms voltage for entering
operation. VBO(on) is the
Brown-Out protection internal
threshold (1 V typically).
*1
Ǔ
Tprop is the total propagation
delay between the instant
when the MOSFET current
reaches the setpoint and the
effective MOSFET turn off.
You can take 250 ns or
300 ns as a starting value.
KFLL is an internal ratio
(20 mS typically)
t prop @ R sense
R S1
@
R S2
L p @ K LFF
R LFF + 1 )
Current Sense
Capacitor
Step 3: SD Pin
Management
Comments
No capacitor is normally
necessary. 10 to 22 pF can
be placed in case of noisy
signals.
Few pF
SD Pin OVP
Threshold
ǒV CCǓ
SD,OVP
SD Pin
Capacitor
VOVP is the SD pin OVP
internal threshold
(2.5 V typically)
+ V Z ) V OVP
A filtering capacitor can be
placed across the pin and
ground. This capacitor must
be less than 4.7 nF. If not,
a false OTP detection may
occur (see data sheet).
< 4.7 nF
SD Pin NTC
Step 4:
Auxiliary
Winding
and VCC
VCC Capacitor
Minimum
Value
See Figure 5
ǒC VccǓ
^
min
ǒ
Ǔ
V CC(off)
n s @ C out ǒI CC2 ) Q g @ f swǓ
max
@
@
n aux
I out
ǒVCC(HYS)Ǔ
min
(ICC2 + Qg ⋅ fsw) is an
estimation of the circuit
consumption (ICC2 is 4 mA
max, Qg is the MOSFET gate
charge and fsw is the
switching frequency).
or
ǒC VccǓ
Required
Start-up
Current
min
^ 1.175 @
I startup +
ǒV CC(on)Ǔ
max
@ C Vcc
t startup
I startup +
Start-up
Resistor Value
n s @ C out ǒI CC2 ) Q g @ f swǓ
n aux @
I out
) ǒI CC(start)Ǔ
20 @ C Vcc
) 30 mA
t startup
(VCC(off))max is the maximum
value of the VCC voltage
necessary to enter operation
(20 V), (ICC(start))max is the
maximum circuit consumption
before entering operation
(30 mA), tstartup is the targeted
start-up time.
See Figure 6
Half-Wave Connection:
ǒVin,rmsǓ
R startup1ń2 +
LL
@Ǹ2
p
I startup
Bulk Connection:
R startup +
max
(((VCC(off))max /
(VCC(HYS))min) = 1.175) is the
ratio of the maximum value of
the VCC voltage necessary to
maintain operation (9.4 V)
over the minimum UVLO
hysteresis (8 V).
Ǹ2 @ ǒV
Ǔ
in,rms
I startup
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LL
AND9205/D
Table 3. DESIGN STEPS TABLE (continued)
Step
Components
Start-up
Resistor
Losses
Formula
Half-Wave Connection:
ǒ
ǒ
Ǔ
Ǹ2@ V
in,rms HL
p
P startup1ń2 +
* V CC
Comments
Ǔ
2
R startup1ń2
ǒVin,rmsǓ
HL
v 22 @
R startup1ń2
p
2
Bulk Connection:
P startup1ń2 +
Upper ZCD
Resistor
ǒǸ2 @ ǒV
Ǔ
in,rms HL
* V CC
Ǔ
2
R startup
R ZCD1 w
v
2 @ ǒV in,rmsǓ
2
HL
R startup
V CC(OVP)max ) V f
I ZCD,dmg
IZCD,dmg is the maximum
current that can be injected in
the ZCD pin (5 mA),
And:
Ǹ2 @ ǒV
Ǔ
in,rms HL
n
R ZCD1 w naux @
p
I ZCD,on
Bottom ZCD
Resistor
ZCD Pin
Capacitor
R ZCD2 v
5V
@ R ZCD1
V CC(OVP) ) V f * 5 V
10 or 22 pF
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IZCD,on is the maximum
current which can be
extracted from the ZCD pin
(2 mA).
RZCD2 serves to maintain the
ZCD pin voltage below 5 V for
optimal operation.
AND9205/D
due
to the
Spike Spike
due the
leakage
leakage inductor
inductor reset
reset
VQ − os
vin (t) +
Vout + V f
N PS
Vout + V f
N PS
valley
Vout + V f
⎛
⎢ vin (t ) −
N PS
⎝
⎛
⎢
⎝
vin (t)
Figure 4. MOSFET Drain-Source Voltage (Yellow Trace) and Current (Green)
110%
100%
RTF(stop) ≈ 8.0 kW
90%
Iout / Iout,nom (%)
80%
70%
ROTP(off) ≈ 5.9 kW
60%
RTF(start) ≈ 11.7 kW
50%
40%
30%
ROTP(on) ≈ 8.0 kW
20%
10%
0%
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Rth Resistance (kW)
Figure 5. Thermal Foldback Characteristics and Over-Temperature Protection
Bulk
D4
D3
Istartup
Istartup
Rstartup
Rstartup1/2
VCC
D6
D5
D1
+
VCC
Laux
CVcc
Bulk Rail Connection
D2
+
CVcc
Half-Wave Connection
Figure 6. The Start-Up Resistor can be Connected to the Bulk Rail or to the Half-Wave
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Laux
AND9205/D
NCL30085 SPECIFIC ASPECTS
reset if a brown-out fault is detected for more than the
Tstep-reset time (3 s typically). The step-dimming state is also
reset if VCC drops below VCC(reset) (5 V typically).
The step-dimming function decreases the output current
from 100% to 5% of its nominal value in 3 discrete steps.
Practically, the output current is reduced down to the next
level whenever a brown-out event is detected*. Once the
lower level is reached (5% of the nominal current),
a brown-out event makes it return to its nominal level. As
sketched by Figure 7, the step-dimming state is immediately
100%
*The NCL30085 detects a brown-out event whenever the VS pin
voltage remains below VBO (off ) (0.9 V typically) for more than the
tBO(blank) blanking time (25 ms typically). In this case, the circuit
stops operation until the VS pin voltage exceeds VBO (on ) (1.0 V
typically).
100%
100%
70%
70%
Iout
70%
25%
5%
Brown-out Fault Flag
Time
Brown-out Sequence
Longer than Tstep−reset (3 s) → RESET
3s
Time
Figure 7. Step Dimming Operation
VCC Circuitry Considerations
Assuming that VCC−step4 is the VCC voltage at the lightest
load, this requirement leads to:
VCC must keep above VCC(off) until the BO Event is Detected
VCC must remain above its minimum operating voltage
(VCC(off) − 8.8 V typically) until the NCL30085 detects
a “step-diming brown-out event”. If not, the circuit will not
detect a step change but will simply enter the start-up mode
and resume operation with the same LED current level.
Proper step dimming operation hence requires that VCC
remains above VCC(off) for the BO blanking time. If this
condition must be met for all steps, the worst case generally
occurs at step 4 since the VCC voltage is at its lowest level
(see Figure 8).
C VCC,min @
ǒ
Ǔ
V CC*step4 * V CC(off)
max
I CC
ǒ
Ǔ
+ t BO(blank)
(eq. 2)
max
Or:
C VCC,min +
ǒ
Ǔ
I CC @ t BO(blank)
ǒ
max
Ǔ
V CC*step4 * V CC(off)
(eq. 3)
max
Step 1
VCC(on)
I OUT
+
Step 4
Step 4
time
tBO(blank)
VCC
VCC(off)
Vin
Step 4
VCC(on)
VCC
A brown−out fault
is detected
+
I OUT
VCC drops below V CC(off)
before a brown−out fault
can be detected
t BO(blank)
In fault mode, consumption
is reduced (I CC< 75 mA)
time
Vin
Mains Interruption
(shorter than t step−reset )
time
VCC(off)
Startup mode → consumption is
dramatically reduced (I CC < 30 mA)
time
Mains Interruption
(shorter than t step−reset )
time
time
Figure 8. Proper Transition from Step 4 to Step 1 (Left) and Failure to Change the Step (Right)
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AND9205/D
At the lowest step, the switching frequency is
dramatically reduced to about 25 kHz (frequency foldback).
Thus, the MOSFET gate-charge contribution in the circuit
consumption is generally very limited. ICC can hence be
approximated by ICC3 of the data sheet (4.5 mA maximum).
Finally, assuming that VCC−step4 is 12.5 V:
C VCC,min w
4.5 m @ 35 m
^ 51 mF
12.5 * 9.4
Split VCC Configuration
The two above required leads to a minimal VCC
capacitance to be implemented. However not to degrade the
LED driver start-up, the VCC capacitor should be limited to
the value sufficient for nominal operation that is, CVCC,min
of the design steps table (Table 3). To make this possible, it
is recommended to implement the split VCC configuration
illustrated by Figure 9, where a minimized VCC capacitor
CVCC ensures a fast start-up while a larger Ctank capacitor
provides the necessary storage capability for step dimming.
(eq. 4)
VCC must keep above VCC(reset) until the Target Resetting
Time has Elapsed
The step-dimming state is reset if VCC crosses VCC(reset)
(5 V typically). Hence, for proper step-dimming operation,
one must ensure that VCC remains above VCC(reset) for any
brown-out sequence not intended to return to the full-light
state (shorter than the 3-s Tstep-reset time).
To help meet this requirement, the consumption is
particularly reduced in fault mode (ICC(sFault) is 75 mA
maximum) so that the VCC voltage slowly decays for
step-dimming brown-out events.
Assuming that VCC is just above the minimum operating
voltage (VCC(off),max = 9.4 V) when a 2.4-s step-dimming
event occurs ((tstep-reset )min = 2.4 s), the worst-case,
necessary VCC capacitor not to reset the circuit, is:
C VCC,min +
+
I CC(sFault) @ ǒt step*resetǓ
min
V CC(off)max * V CC(reset)max
VCC
CVCC
+
Ctank
+
Figure 9. Split VCC Configuration
In our application, we implement: CVCC = 10 mF / 35 V
and Ctank = 47 mF / 35 V.
+
(eq. 5)
75 mA @ 2.4 s
^ 53 mF
9.4 * 6.0
A 53-mF would hence ensure proper step-dimming
operation with a good margin**.
** CVCC, min highly depends on the VCC minimum voltage VCC when
the step-dimming event occurs. In our calculation, this minimum
value (generally obtained at the lowest load step – 5%) is
assumed to be just above the minimum voltage for operation. This
is a worst-case. Also, in some applications, the step-dimming
state may have to be stored for only 1.5 or 2.0 s.
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11
RV1
V275LA4P
Line Voltage:
85−265 V rms
J1
F1
R32
5.6 kW
L3
2.2 mH
C5
47 nF
Type = X2
R7
2700 kW
R6
2700 kW
R5
47 kW
L2
2.2 mH
C17
100 nF
R3
8.2 kW
R11
4.7 W
D8
DBL105G
R2
24 kW
C8
4.7 nF
C7
22 pF
C1
NC
5 CS
RN1
NB12P00104JBB
SD 4
COMP
6 GND
VCC
3
8
7 DRV
C10
1 mF
NCL30085
R8
33 kW
VS 2
ZCD 1
R16
33 kW
R9
470 kW
C12
100 nF
R33
820 W
C4
10 mF
35 V
R14
22 W
C6
4.7 nF
R4
10 W
D4
1N4148
C9
47 mF
D2
BAV21
C19
NC
R10
470 kW
3
1
Vcs
R13
47 kW
D1
MUR180
4
6
Vds
9
12
C21
1 nF
Type =Y
T1
FLY_XFMR
Q1
NDD03N80
12
C13
1 nF
Figure 10. Application Schematic
R1
3W
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R12
3W
R29
33 kW
C2
47 pF
C3
470 mF
35 V
D3
MURS220
R22
22 W
J3
LED−
LED+
VOUT: 12−20 V
IOUT: 500 mA
C18
22 pF
R18
NC
R7
5.6 kW
AND9205/D
EXPERIMENTAL DATA
Application Schematic
The application of Figure 10 has been used to obtain below experimental data.
AND9205/D
Main Waveforms
small to discharge the input filtering capacitor (C17 of
Figure 10) near the line zero crossing. Hence, as attested by
the current sense voltage (green trace of Figure 11), the input
voltage and hence the line current cannot be sinusoidal.
Figure 11 provides some of the key waveforms. We can
note that the line current is properly shaped for the three
highest steps. At the lowest step, the power demand is too
Step 1 (Full Load)
Step 2 (70% of the Full Load)
Step 3 (25% of the Full Load)
Step 4 (5% of the Full Load)
Figure 11. Main Waveforms @ 115 V rms / 60 Hz
Valley Lockout and Frequency Foldback
The NCL30085 implements a current-mode,
quasi-resonant architecture which optimizes the efficiency
over a wide load range, by turning on the MOSFET when its
drain-source voltage is minimal (valley). When the second
or third dimming step is engaged, the circuit changes valleys
to reduce the switching losses. For stable operation, the
valley at which the MOSFET switches on remains locked
until the dimming step is changed. At the third dimming
step, the circuit operates at the 5th valley (6th valley) in
low-line (high-line) conditions. Step-4 switching frequency
is further decreased by having the 5th valley (low line) or the
6th valley (high line) followed by an additional dead-time.
This extra dead-time is typically 40 ms.
It is worth noting that high frequency operation would
lead to small current levels in light-load conditions. Hence,
valley lockout and frequency foldback not only optimize
efficiency and reduce the power supply pollution (valley
turn-on reduces noise and low-frequency operation helps
pass EMI standard) but also contribute in maintaining
a relatively high MOSFET peak current even at the least
dimming step. This ensures a robust and accurate output
current control in all steps.
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13
AND9205/D
VCC
VCC
Current sense voltage
(VRsense – 0.5 V/div)
MOSFET VDS
MOSFET
VDS
Current sense
voltage
(0.5 V/div)
Step 1 − Quasi-Resonant Operation
Step 2 − Valley-2 Turn On
Current sense voltage
(0.5 V/div)
MOSFET
VDS
MOSFET VDS
VCC
VCC
Current sense voltage
(0.5 V/div)
Step 3 − Valley-5 Turn On
Step 4 − Frequency Foldback
Figure 12. The NCL30085 Low-Line Operation (115 V rms / 60 Hz)
The NCL30085 detects high-line conditions when the VS
pin voltage exceeds 2.4 V typically and remains in this state
until the VS pin voltage happens to drop below 2.3 V for
25 ms (typical values). In high-line conditions, switching
losses generally are particularly critical. It is thus efficient to
skip an additional valley to lower the switching frequency.
At full load for instance, the NCL30085 turns on the
MOSFET at the first valley in low-line conditions and at the
second valley in high-line ones as shown by Figure 1. This
helps operate with a strong current sense signal for a robust
and accurate control even in the least-load cases.
MOSFET
VDS
VCC
VCC
MOSFET
VDS
Current sense
voltage
(0.5 V/div)
Current sense
voltage
(0.5 V/div)
Step 1 − Valley-2 Turn On
MOSFET
VDS
Step 2 − Valley-3 Turn On
VCC
VCC
Current sense voltage
(0.5 V/div)
MOSFET VDS
Current sense voltage
(0.5 V/div)
Step 3 − Valley-6 Turn On
Step 4 − Frequency Foldback
Figure 13. The NCL30085 High-Line Operation (230 V rms / 50 Hz)
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14
AND9205/D
Output Current Control
Figure 14 shows the output current as a percentage of its
nominal value. We can see that its characteristic is very flat
with respect to the temperature. Thermal Foldback starts at
about 80°C. As a result, the output current linearly decays to
reach 50% of its step-dimming value at 95°C. The circuit
stops operating (Over Temperature Protection) at 105°C.
Operation can recover when the temperature drops down to
85°C. To obtain this characteristic, thermistor
NB12P00104JBB manufactured by AVX, was connected to
the SD pin.
105.0%
80.0%
95.0%
70.0%
85.0%
60.0%
75.0%
115 Vms
65.0%
115 Vms
50.0%
230 Vrms
230 Vrms
40.0%
55.0%
30.0%
45.0%
−40
−20
0
20
40
60
80
−40
100
Step 1 (Full Load)
−20
0
20
40
60
80
100
80
100
Step 2 (70% of the Full Load)
30.0%
5.0%
4.0%
20.0%
3.0%
115 Vms
10.0%
2.0%
230 Vrms
115 Vms
1.0%
230 Vrms
0.0%
0.0%
−40
−20
0
20
40
60
80
−40
100
Step 3 (25% of the Full Load)
−20
0
20
40
60
Step 4 (5% of the Full Load)
Figure 14. ((Iout / Iout,nom) (%)) vs. Temperature at the Four Different Dimming Steps
ǒ
The LED current nicely matches the step-1 and step-2
target (100% and 70% of the nominal current). It is slightly
below the expected level at steps 3 and 4 where the
traditional sources of deviations discussed in [1] can have
a more significant influence.
For instance, it is good remind that the LED driver
controls the total current provided by the converter, i.e.,
the LED current plus the VCC current and that hence,
the actual output current is:
I out,nom +
N Aux
N P @ V REF
*
@ I CC
2 @ N S @ R sense
NS
lR
sense
LP
@ v in(t)
Ǔ
where lRsense is the Rsense parasitic inductance.
Note that the application was developed re-using the
NCL30088-driven, no-dimming board designed to full-light
operation described in [1]. If needed, specific actions could
be engaged to mitigate aforementioned effects and optimize
lowest steps operation.
(eq. 6)
Also, if the current sense resistor is inductive, the LED
current will be affected since the parasitic inductor causes
the following offset on the CS pin voltage:
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15
AND9205/D
Power Factor Performance
Figure 15 shows the power factor measured at full load at
two different line magnitudes (115 V rms and 230 V rms).
No thermistor was connected to the SD pin (no thermal
foldback) for this measurement. The power factor is
extremely stable over the considered temperature range
(from −40°C to 90°C).
1.050
1.000
0.950
0.900
0.850
115 Vms
0.800
230 Vrms
0.750
0.700
0.650
−40
−20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Figure 15. Power Factor (Step 1) vs. Temperature (No Thermistor on the SD Pin)
Safety Performance
The NCL30085 incorporates the same large suite of
protections as the NCL30088 and in particular, the
capability to face shorted /open situations of the LED string
or an output diode failure. Some experimental data on the
circuit under such faults can be found in [1].
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16
AND9205/D
REFERENCES
[1] Joel TURCHI, “4 Key Steps to Design
a NCL30088-Controlled LED Driver”,
Application Note AND9200/D.
[2] Joel TURCHI, “NCL30088 and NCL30085
Safety Tests Consideration”,
Application Note AND9204/D.
ON Semiconductor and the
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