ETC AHA4013B

Product Specification
AHA4013B
12.5 MBytes/sec Reed-Solomon
Error Correction Device
2365 NE Hopkins Court
Pullman, WA 99163-5601
tel: 509.334.1000
fax: 509.334.9000
e-mail: sales@aha.com
www.aha.com
advancedhardwarearchitectures
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Conventions, Notations and Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2.1 Definition of Correction Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.0 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.1 Functional Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2 Correcting Capability and Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3 Signal Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.4 Pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.5 Data Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.5.1 Shortened Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.6 Reset and Initialization Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.6.1 Initialization Registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.7 Encode, Decode or Pass-Through Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.8 Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.9 Data Rates and Latencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.9.1 Burst Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.9.2 Continuous Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.10 Reed-Solomon (ECC) Module and Error Rate Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.11 Determining Decoder Performance Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.12 Erasures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.0 Operational Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1 Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2 Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.3 Data Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.4 Data Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.0 Signal Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.1 Input Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.2 Output Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.3 Power & Ground Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.4 AC Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.5 DC Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.0 Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.0 Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.1 Available Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.2 Part Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7.0 Related Technical Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
PS4013B-0600
i
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
Figures
Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:
Figure 5:
Figure 6:
Figure 7:
Figure 8:
Figure 9:
Figure 10:
Figure 11:
ii
Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Typical Applications Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Data Input and Output Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Burst and Continuous Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Symbol (Byte) Error Rate Performance Curves for Codeword Length = 255 Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
CLK Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Initialization and Reset Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Data Input - Buffer Always Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Data Input - Buffer Not Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Data Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
CRTN Timing - Reverse Order Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
Tables
Table 1:
Table 2:
Table 3:
Table 4:
Initialization Register Settings for Encode, Decode and Pass-Through Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Burst Operation Using 50 MHz Clock and 1 Clock/Byte, Forward Order Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Continuous Operation Using 50 MHz Clock and Specified Clocks/Byte, Forward Output Order. . . . . . . . 10
Continuous Operation for IESS-308 Codes Using 50 MHz Clock and Specified Clocks/Byte,
Forward Output Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
PS4013B-0600
iii
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
1.0
INTRODUCTION
The AHA4013B is a single chip integrated
circuit that implements a high speed Reed-Solomon
Forward Error Correction algorithm. The
AHA4013B is a member of the AHA PerFEC
family of high speed forward error correction (FEC)
devices conforming to the Intelsat IESS-308
specification.
The device supports several programmable
parameters, including, block size, error threshold,
number of check bytes, order of output and mode of
operations. Shortened blocks are supported without
requirement of zero padding typically required in
Reed-Solomon decoders. The data input port is used
to initialize the programmable parameters and the
two on-chip buffers are used to input and output
data. Discontinuities in data flow may be controlled
by dedicated control pins.
High operating frequency, input and output data
rate flexibility, low processing latency and various
programmable parameters make this device ideal
for many applications including: DTV, DBS,
ADSL, Satellite Communications, ISDN, High
Performance Modems and networks.
This specification provides full electrical and
mechanical information to help a system engineer
develop a system using AHA4013B. This document
contains descriptions on correction terms, pinout,
functions and features, DC and AC characteristics,
package and mechanical specifications, ordering
information and Related Technical Publications.
Software simulation of the RS code as implemented
in the device is also available. Please contact AHA
or its authorized sales representatives worldwide or
visit our web site at http://www.aha.com for copies
of Related Technical Publications and software
simulation.
1.1
FEATURES
HIGH PERFORMANCE
• Polynomial complies to Intelsat IESS-308;
RTCA DO-217 Appendix F, Revision D and
proposed ITU-TS SG-18 (Formerly CCITT SG18) standards
• 50 MBytes/sec burst transfer rate with a 50 MHz
clock for all block lengths
• Sustained data transfer rate of 12.5 MBytes/sec
for block lengths from 54 bytes through 255
bytes using a 50 MHz clock
• Processing latency time less than 12.2 µsec in
continuous operation for block lengths of 100
bytes
PS4013B-0600
FLEXIBILITY
• Programmable to correct from 1 to 10 error bytes
or 20 erasure bytes per block
• Block lengths programmable from 3 to 255 bytes
• Encode, decode or pass-through capability inline with data flow
• Outputs corrected data or correction vectors in
forward or reverse order
• Continuous or burst data transfer
• Programmable error threshold to help determine
channel performance
SYSTEM INTERFACE
• Byte wide synchronous I/O ports with internal
buffering on both ports
• Dedicated control pins permit discontinuities in
system data flow
OTHERS
• 44 pin PLCC; 50 mil lead pitch
• Pin compatible with lower performance
AHA4011/12
• Plug compatible with AHA4011/12 except for an
initialization register setting
• Software emulation of the algorithm available
1.2
CONVENTIONS, NOTATIONS AND
DEFINITIONS
– Certain signals are logically true at a voltage
defined as “low” in the data sheet. All such signals
have an “N” appended to the end of the signal
name. For example, RSTN and DSON.
– “Signal assertion” means the output signal is
logically true.
– Hex values are defined with a prefix of “0x”, such
as “0x10”.
– A range of signal names is denoted by a set of
colons between the numbers. Most significant bit
is always shown first, followed by least significant
bit. For example, DI[7:0] represents Data Input
Bus 7 through 0.
– A product of two variables is expressed with an
“×”, for example, N × Ci represents Codeword
Length multiplied by Input clocks/byte.
– Mega Bytes per second is referred to as MBytes/
sec or MB/sec.
Page 1 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
1.2.1
DEFINITION OF CORRECTION TERMS
TERM
NAME
(other references)
K
Message Length (user
data or message bytes)
R
Check Symbols
(parity or redundancy)
N
Codeword Length
(block length)
Sum of message and check symbols. N = K + R.
t
Error Corrections
Maximum number of error corrections performed
– K- .
by the device. The value is t = Integer N
------------2
P
Error Threshold
e
Number of Errors
E
Number of Erasures
G
Burden of Correction
DEFINITION
Number of user data symbols in one message block.
Size of a symbol in AHA4013B is 8-bits. Message
length is K = N − R. The first message byte is
referred to as XK−1; the last message byte is X0.
Symbols appended to the user data to detect and
correct errors. The number of check symbols
required in a system is R ≥ E + 2e.* The first check
symbol is referred to as YR−1; the last check symbol
is Y0.
The threshold limit to determine uncorrectability of
a Codeword and the number of check bytes
allocated for correction-only purposes (not for
detection).
An error is defined as an erroneous byte whose
correct value and position within the message block
are both unknown.
An erasure is defined as an error whose position is
known within the message block.**
A measure of the burden of correction being placed
on the capabilities of the device for that message
block. The value G = 2e + E.
RANGE
(number of bytes)
1 through 253
(1, 2, 3, 4... 253)
2 through 20 in
increments of 1
(2, 3, 4... 20)
3 through 255
(3, 4, 5, 6... 255)
1 through 10
(1, 2, 3... 10)
2 through 20
(2, 3, 4... 20)
0 through N
0 through N
0 through R
* For every 2 check bytes, the AHA4013B can correct either 2 erasures or 1 error.
** An erasure is detected by a parity detector or a signal dropout detector. The presence of an erasure is indicated
by asserting the ERASE signal when the erased byte is clocked into the AHA4013B.
2.0
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
This section describes an architectural
overview of the chip and its many functions,
features and operations. The block diagram for the
chip shows the Reed-Solomon ECC module, the
Input and Output Buffers, and their associated
control. All input and output data are clocked on the
rising edge of CLK.
2.1
FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW
The AHA4013B Reed-Solomon codec (coder/
decoder) is a member of the AHA PerFEC™ family
of high speed forward error correction (FEC) devices.
This single chip, three-layer metal, CMOS device can
operate in encode, decode or pass-through modes.
The ECC core implements a full error
correcting Reed-Solomon decoder. This code is
capable of correcting up to 10 (t=10) byte-errors or
20 (t=10) erasures in a RS block.
Page 2 of 24
The ECC core has three phases of operation:
Data In, Calculation and Data Out. Data to be
processed is first input into a single ported Input
Buffer using a control signal DSIN. ECC core
arbitrates for the input data out of the Input Buffer.
ECC core has access to the Input Buffer on clock
edges where DSIN is not asserted.
Each block is processed within the ECC core
and calculations are made. The entire block is
processed through the ECC core, and transferred
into the Output Buffer. The device asserts RDYON
signal and holds active until the Output Buffer is
completely emptied.
The ECC core loads the Output Buffer in
reverse order for either operation. Data may be
strobed out of the device in forward or reverse order.
If forward order is desired, output data cannot be
strobed out of the device until the entire block has
been loaded into the Output Buffer.
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
The use of internal buffers is restricted per the
rules defined in Section 2.9 Data Rates and
Latencies.
Maximum delay required for each block of a
given length to pass through the device is fixed, and
does not vary with the location or the number of
errors received. This delay (or latency), expressed
in the number of clocks is discussed in a later
section.
2.2
CORRECTING CAPABILITY AND
POLYNOMIALS
Compared with other codes, RS codes require
relatively few “overhead” check bytes to be added
to the data stream to achieve a high degree of error
detection and correction. Since the AHA4013B
deals with bytes (or symbols) rather than with
individual bits, when a byte is in error it does not
matter how many bits within the byte are corrupted;
it is counted as one error.
The Reed-Solomon code is defined over the
finite field GF(28). The field defining primitive
polynomial is:
8
7
Correcting “erasures” takes only half as much
of the correction capability of the RS code as it takes
to correct “errors”, since the position information is
already known for “erasures”. The correction ability
of the code is bounded as:
R ≥ # erasures + 2(# errors)
Valid block length (N) is defined by the
relationship:
R + 1 ≤ N ≤ 255
where R ranges from 2 to 20.
A complete codeword can therefore range from
a minimum of 3 bytes to a maximum of 255 bytes.
For further discussion on error rate
performance, refer to Section 2.10 Reed-Solomon
(ECC) Module and Error Rate Performance.
Figure 1:
Block Diagram
RDYIN
ERASE DI[7:0]
CLK
RDYIN
DI
CLK
REGISTER
2
P(x) = x + x + x + x + 1
INPUT BUFFER
and the generator polynomial, dependent on the
variable R, is given by:
G(x) =
367x9
119 + R
∏
( x – αi )
RSTN
RSTN
DSIN
DSIN
DSON
DSON
i = 120
where R ∈ {2, 3, 4, 5,... 20} for the AHA4013B. This
polynomial is specified in international standards,
Intelsat IESS 308; RTCA DO-217 Appendix F (Rev
D) and the proposed CCITT SG-18.
For every 2 check bytes, the decoder corrects
either 2 erasures or 1 error. An erasure can be
determined with a parity detector or a signal dropout
detector external to the chip. An erasure is indicated
by the ERASE signal when the erased byte is
clocked in the device.
Figure 2:
CONTROL
GND
GND
VDD
VDD
ECC CORE
OUTPUT BUFFER
256x9
REGISTER
RDYON
CRTN
DO
RDYON
CRTN
DO[7:0] ERR
Typical Applications Diagram
ENCODER
8
DATA SOURCE
A
COMMUNICATIONS
AHA4013B
ECC COPROCESSOR
8
B
CHANNEL
1 TO x BITS WIDE
DECODER
8
AHA4013B
ECC COPROCESSOR
8
DATA SINK
C
BLOCK FORMAT AT:
SYSTEM
CONTROLLER
PS4013B-0600
A KDATA PLUS R “DUMMY” BYTES
B KDATA PLUS R CHECK BYTES
C KDATA BYTES
SYSTEM
CONTROLLER
Page 3 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
2.3
SIGNAL DESCRIPTIONS
Input Pins
Output Pins
DI[7:0] Data Input Bus. The input byte and ERASE
are latched on the rising edge of the clock
when both DSIN and RDYIN are active. If
either DSIN or RDYIN are inactive, the DI
and ERASE are ignored.
DSIN Data Input Strobe. Enables data from DI to
be loaded into the chip. When RDYIN is
active, DSIN being active on the rising
edge of the clock loads the input data in the
device. DSIN must be active for one clock
edge only per each input byte. DSIN is
ignored if RDYIN is inactive. Signal is
active low.
DSON Data Output Strobe. This input strobe
acknowledges to the chip that data
available on the Output Bus, DO, has been
received by the system. The device uses
this strobe to increment its internal address
counter to the next data location. DSON
must be active for one clock edge only per
each output byte. DSON is ignored if
RDYON is inactive. Active low.
ERASE Erasure input flag for symbol currently on
DI. Signal is active high. ERASE signal is
used for marking all check Bytes as
erasures (dummy check Bytes) during
encode operation. It is also used to mark
input symbols that contain errors during
decoding. If not used, connect this signal to
ground.
RSTN Reset. Input pin. When RSTN is active and
DSIN and DSON are inactive, the device
forces all internal control circuitry into a
known state and initializes all data path
elements. RSTN is active during
Initialization Phase. In this phase, internal
registers are programmed by using DI and
DSIN. Signal is active low.
CLK Clock. System clock input. Refer to
Section 4.4 AC Electrical Characteristics
for clock requirements.
RDYIN Ready Input. Indicates the chip’s ability to
accept data input on DI. If active, DSIN is
allowed to enable the loading of input data
on DI. When inactive, DSIN is ignored.
Signal is active low.
DO[7:0] Data Output. The output byte is available
on this bus. The value of the output byte is
undefined if RDYON is inactive. Requires
an acknowledge strobe, DSON, at a rising
edge of the clock to increment internal
address counter and output the next
location in the buffer. DO bus is always
driven and is not tristated by the device.
RDYON Ready Output. This output pin indicates the
chip’s ability to generate output data. If
active, DSON is allowed to increment the
internal address counter for the next data
byte. When inactive DSON is ignored and
DO is undefined. Signal is active low.
CRTN Correctable. The output pin when active
indicates the block did not exceed the error
threshold programmed by P. Error
threshold must be programmed with the
same value as the number of check symbols
R if erasures are not used. This signal is
valid when the first message byte, XK−1, of
the block is available out of the chip.
During all other times the signal is
undefined. Signal is valid for at least one
clock. Active low.
ERR Error. Output pin indicates the current
value on DO[7:0] is a corrected byte.
Active high.
2.4
PINOUT
6
5
4
3
2
1
44
43
42
41
40
DI0
DI1
DI2
DI3
DI4
DI5
DI6
DI7
DISN
CLK
GND
INPUT
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
AHA4013B-050 PJC
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
VDD
VDD
GND
VDD
RSTN
ERASE
DSON
RDYIN
RDYON
GND
GND
DO0
DO1
DO2
DO3
DO4
DO5
DO6
VDD
DO7
ERR
CRTN
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
VDD
GND
VDD
GND
GND
VDD
*NC
*NC
VDD
GND
GND
OUTPUT
*NC = No connect, reserved for future considerations.
Page 4 of 24
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
2.5
DATA FLOW
The device is first initialized for various
programmable parameters including: Erasure
Multiplier, Error Threshold, Number of Check
bytes, Number of Message bytes per block, Block
Length and a Control byte. Following this six-byte
initialization, the device may be used to encode,
decode or pass-through multiple blocks of data. The
device requires reinitialization when the parameters
are changed or a reset is required.
The device processes data as “blocks”
containing Message and Check Bytes. Order of
input bytes must be first message byte XK−1 through
last message byte X0, followed by first check byte
YR−1 through last check byte Y0. The device
processes the block in this manner:
- a block is clocked into the Input Buffer;
- transferred into the ECC module;
- passed to the Output Buffer in the reverse order
from what was received at the Input Port; and
Figure 3:
- clocked out through the Output Port via the
Output Buffer. Consecutive blocks may be
input into the Input Buffer while the Output
Buffer is being emptied.
Data is available through the Output Port in
forward or reverse order. Forward order clocks out
the block the same as input and reverse order clocks
the check byte Y0 through check bytes YR−1
followed by message byte X0 through message byte
XK−1.
2.5.1
SHORTENED BLOCKS
This device allows for shortened RS blocks,
thus not requiring zero padding when decoding.
During encoding, conversely, zero padding is not
performed. When the device is programmed to
decode a block of less than 255 Bytes, only the
message bytes followed by check bytes are sent.
Prepending with zero value bytes to fill out the
block to 255 Bytes is not required.
Data Input and Output Order
Y0 Y1 . . . YR-2 YR-1 X 0 X 1 . . . X K-2 X K-1
Last
Byte
In
INPUT
BUFFER
First
Byte
In
ECC
Core
OUTPUT
BUFFER
Data Available
Reverse Order
X K-1
..
.
X0
YR-1
..
.
Y0
2.6
RESET AND INITIALIZATION
SEQUENCE
Reset and initialization first requires pulling the
RSTN low signal for at least two clocks while the
DSIN and DSON signals are held inactive, i.e., high
Following this sequence, the six internal
registers, referred to as “Initialization Registers” are
strobed by DSIN. These bytes are loaded in order of
1 through 6.
The RSTN must be active low for at least two
clocks before the first initialization byte is strobed
in and remain active for at least one clock after the
final byte. RSTN must be high for at least two
clocks before the first message byte can be strobed
into the device. For a detailed timing diagram, see
Figure 7: Initialization and Reset Timing.
PS4013B-0600
Data Available
Forward Order
Last Byte Out
First Byte Out
Y0
..
.
YR-1
X0
..
.
X K-1
The chip must be reset and initialized any time
a reset is necessary.
Caveat: All six registers must be initialized
correctly for proper operation of the chip. The
device has no provisions for reading back
Initialization Register settings. This sequence must
be used if the device needs to be reset or any one
register needs updating, i.e., all registers must be
reinitialized for a change to any one register.
Page 5 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
2.6.1
INITIALIZATION REGISTERS
BYTE 1, ERASURE MULTIPLIER:
[7:0] Multiplier value that must be programmed
as shown in Appendix A. The table shows a
value to be programmed corresponding to
the block length selected.
BYTE 2, ERROR THRESHOLD:
[4:0] The threshold for determining
uncorrectability of a data block, and the
number of check bytes allocated for
correction only purposes. When not using
erasures, set to the same value as BYTE 3,
CHECK BYTES. Minimum value of 0x02
sets the Threshold to 2 and 0x14 sets to the
maximum, 20.
[6:5] Reserved. Set to 0.
[7]
Reserved. Must be set to 1.
[3]
FOR
0
[4]
[5]
BYTE 3, CHECK BYTES:
[4:0] Number of check bytes in RS code, R.
Minimum setting of 0x02 indicates two
check bytes for R = 2 and 0x14 indicates the
maximum of 20.
[6:5] Reserved. Set to 0.
[7]
Reserved. Must be set to 1.
BYTE 4, MESSAGE BYTES:
[7:0] Number of message bytes in code, K.
Minimum setting of 0x01 indicates 1 byte,
setting to 0xFD indicates the maximum 253
message bytes.
BYTE 5, BLOCK LENGTH:
[7:0] Number of bytes in block, N. Setting to
0x03 indicates 3 bytes, setting to 0xFF
indicates 255 bytes.
BYTE 6, CONTROL BYTE:
[0]
RESERVED Reserved. Set to 0.
[1]
NOPAR
Parity Symbol Control
0
Check bytes are output
following the message bytes.
1
Check bytes are not output
following the message bytes.
Correction will be done
regardless depending upon the
bit 4, RAW, setting.
[2]
CRCTS
Correction Control
0
Outputs correction vectors; to
obtain corrected data,
externally XOR the correction
vector with the corresponding
message or check byte.
1
Outputs corrected data
Page 6 of 24
[7:6]
Forward Order Control
Outputs the block in reverse
order
1
Outputs the block in forward
order
RAW
Raw Data
0
Outputs corrections or corrected
data per the CRCTS bit
1
Outputs uncorrected, raw input
data or 0’s depending upon the
CRCTS bit setting (See table
below). NOPAR bit and
CHECK BYTE register
settings are ignored.
ERC
Erasure Rejection Control. This
bit is only used by the device
when the Erasures exceed the
ERROR THRESHOLD or R
settings. This bit is ignored
when the Erasures are less than
or equal to ERROR
THRESHOLD or R.
0
If Erasures are greater than the
ERROR THRESHOLD or R
then erasures are discarded and
full correction is performed.
The block is flagged
uncorrectable and the output
CRTN will be high during the
last output byte of the block.
1
If Erasures are greater than
ERROR THRESHOLD or R
then erasures are discarded and
full correction is performed.
The output CRTN will be high
only when the block is
uncorrectable.
Reserved, Set to 0.
RAW CRCTS
Output
0
0
Correction vectors
0
1
Corrected data
1
0
Zero
1
1
Uncorrected raw input data
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
2.7
ENCODE, DECODE OR PASS-THROUGH OPERATIONS
The device performs three functions: encoding,
decoding and pass-through. As an encoder the device
outputs the message block followed by “corrected”
check bytes. As a decoder, the device outputs the
corrected message bytes or correction vectors with or
without check bytes following the message. In passthrough operation, the device passes the input data as
Table 1:
it is received. In all three operations, the input block
flows through the Input Buffer into the ECC module
and out of the Output Buffer. Latencies for all three
operations are the same.
The device is initialized for the three operations
as shown in the table below.
Initialization Register Settings for Encode, Decode and Pass-Through Operations
INITIALIZATION
REGISTER
BIT(S)
ERASURE MULTIPLIER
ERROR THRESHOLD
CHECK BYTES
[7:0]
[7:0]
[7:0]
MESSAGE BYTES
BLOCK LENGTH
CONTROL BYTE
ENCODE
Appendix A value
Set to R
Set to R
Set to the Number
[7:0]
of Message Bytes
in block, K
Set to the total of
[7:0]
Message and
Check bytes, N
0 (RESV)
0
1 (NOPAR) 0
2 (CRCTS) 1
3 (FOR)
System specific
4 (RAW)
0
5 (ERC)
0
[7:6] Reserved 0
As an encoder, the device is used with the
Erasures feature enabled in the following sequence.
(Asserting the ERASE signal high enables the
Erasure feature.)
1) After initialization, the device receives the
message data followed by “dummy” check
bytes. “Dummy” check bytes are clocked
into the device with the ERASE signal
asserted. The number of “dummy” check
bytes must equal R.
2) The ECC core processes the block by
“correcting” the check bytes and feeding
the codeword into the Output Buffer in
reverse order.
3) The block is then made available on the
output bus, DO. The state of the output
RDYON determines the availability of
data. ERR signal is asserted while the
“corrected check bytes” are output on the
output bus, DO. CRTN is asserted low
during the last byte out of the chip
indicating that the previous block did not
exceed the error threshold.
PS4013B-0600
DECODE
PASS-THROUGH
Appendix A value Appendix A value
R or less
R
R
R
K
K
N
N
0
System specific
System specific
System specific
0
System specific
0
0
0
1
System specific
1
0
0
As a decoder, the device works similar to the
encode operation in the following sequence.
1) Following initialization, the system clocks
the message data and the check bytes into
the Input Buffer. ERASE signal may be
asserted as desired by the system. State of
the output signal, RDYIN determines the
chip’s ability to accept data input on the DI
bus.
2) The ECC Core processes the block by
performing necessary corrections, and
feeds the codeword into the Output Buffer
in reverse order.
3) The data is available on the output port. The
state of the output signal, RDYON
determines the availability of valid data. An
output byte which has been corrected is
indicated by the device asserting ERR.
CRTN may be high or low depending upon
the THRESHOLD Register and ERC bit
programmed and the errors encountered.
Page 7 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
In pass-through operation, data flows through
the device similar to the encode and decode
operations. During initialization the device is
programmed as shown above. Check Bytes are
programmed in the range of 0x02 to 0x14. The
Block length here is the sum of Message Bytes and
Check Bytes like encode and decode modes of
operation even though the device passes through the
block of data unchanged.
1) Following initialization, the system clocks
the codeword into the Input Buffer.
2) The codeword is processed by the ECC
module and passed on to the Output Buffer
without correction.
3) The uncorrected codeword is available at
the output port. State of the RDYON
determines the availability of valid data.
The ERASE input is ignored during the
Input phase and ERR and CRTN outputs
are not valid.
Caveat: The device has no provisions for indicating
the start and/or end of message or check bytes. It is
the system designers responsibility to keep track of
message and check bytes transitions, if required.
processing latency period. Data is input into the
Input Buffer and processed through the ECC core.
After a processing latency period the entire block of
data is transferred to the Output Buffer. While the
Output Buffer is being emptied, the Input Buffer is
simultaneously filled with the following block at the
maximum rate. Input and output rates are controlled
by the clock speed and clocks/byte.
Continuous operation requires a minimum of 4
clocks/byte depending upon the block size.
Maximum data transfer rates for continuous rate
vary accordingly. Blocks may be processed
continuously through the device. If the chip is
operated with continuous data streams, the RDYIN
and RDYON pins will always be active (after the
initial latency). Therefore, they need not be used.
Caveat: System designer should be aware that data
is put into the Output Buffer in reverse order.
Therefore, RDYON may become inactive between
blocks in forward order if data is output faster than
Output Buffer is filled.
2.8
This section describes data rates and processing
latencies for burst and continuous operations.
Processing latencies are the same in encode, decode
or pass-through operations. The number of clocks
used to clock in and out of the device determines the
operation. The input and output rates need not be the
same. No registers are required to program the
device for either operation.
Continuous block flow is achieved by using the
appropriate number of clocks per byte and block
length. Alternatively, data flow into and out of the
device is controlled using control signals, DSIN and
DSON.
BUFFERS
The Input Port contains a single-ported 367x9
buffer. The Output Port contains a single-ported
256x9 buffer. These buffers store input and output
data during the correction process and help maintain
the desired system data rate. A Reset operation as
described in the Initialization Sequence section
clears the buffers.
The use of internal buffers is restricted per the
rules defined in Section 2.9 Data Rates and
Latencies. These rules define the limitations of
using the buffers to temporarily store more than one
block. It is highly recommended that the system
designer clearly understand these rules prior to
designing the system.
The Input Buffer receives input data on the DI bus
when the ECC module is in the calculation or in dataout phases at the desired system rate. The ability of the
Input Buffer to accept data is indicated by RDYIN.
The Output Buffer accepts corrected data from the
ECC during the data-out phase. RDYON is asserted
low when the Output Buffer is able to output data.
Data flow through the device may occur in burst
or continuous rates. The number of clocks per byte
used to input or output determines burst or
continuous operating conditions. Figure 4 shows the
two operations.
Burst operation permits data to be clocked in
and out of the device at the maximum rate, i.e., 1
clock per byte. In burst operation, consecutive data
blocks are clocked into the device following a
Page 8 of 24
2.9
2.9.1
DATA RATES AND LATENCIES
BURST OPERATION
Maximum processing latency, in forward order,
expressed in number of clocks, for burst operation is
determined by: N × Ci + R + 60 + N
Definitions:
Ci = input clock rate per byte. If Ci = 1, use a value
for Ci of 2 in the latency equation
N = block length
R = number of check bytes
Processing Latency = Delay from first input byte to
first output byte
In reverse order, processing latency is
approximately N clocks less than above.
For a 50 MHz system using 1 clock per byte,
latencies and data rates for forward order output are
shown in the table for burst operation. Input and
Output Burst Rates in all cases will be 50 MBytes/
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
sec. Note: Other frequency operations may be
derived similarly.
Output Buffer may be used to hold data from
one block while the Input Buffer is being filled with
the following block. Two rules listed in the caveats
are required to accomplish this. These are illustrated
in Figure 4.
Table 2:
Caveats:
1. Output of block i must start coincident with or
before the input of block i + 1.
2. Output of block i must be complete:
Processing Latency − N − 8 clocks
after the start of block i + l on the input.
Burst Operation Using 50 MHz Clock and 1 Clock/Byte, Forward Order Output
CHECK BYTES ‘R’ = 20
MAXIMUM MAXIMUM AVERAGE
BLOCK
LATENCY
RATE
LENGTHS ‘N’ LATENCY
25
50
100
150
200
255
(# of clocks)
155
230
380
530
680
845
(µsecs)
3.10
4.60
7.60
10.64
13.60
16.88
(MBytes/sec)
8.06
10.88
13.13
14.13
14.75
15.13
CHECK BYTES ‘R’ = 2
MAXIMUM
MAXIMUM
AVERAGE
LATENCY
LATENCY
RATE
(# of clocks)
137
212
362
512
662
827
(µsecs)
2.74
4.24
7.24
10.24
13.28
16.56
(MBytes/sec)
9.13
11.79
13.75
14.63
15.13
15.38
N
Average Rate = --------------------------------------------------------------Maximum Latency ( µsec )
2.9.2
CONTINUOUS OPERATION
Equation 2:
N × Ci N × C m
( N – 1 ) × C i ≥ R + 48 + --------------- + ----------------Ci – 1 Cm – 1
Multiple blocks of data may be processed
through the device continuously as shown in Figure
4. Consecutive blocks are input into the device at
the rate of Ci clocks/byte. The output data stream
may or may not be continuous depending on
whether parity is being output (controlled by
NOPAR) and the choice of Co. Continuous
operation is described by several equations. The
following terms are used in these equations:
Ci - Input clock rate per byte: Ci ≥ 4 for
continuous operation
Co - Output clock rate per byte: Co ≥ 2
Cm - Minimum of Ci and Co: If Ci < Co then
Cm = Ci else Cm = Co
N - Reed-Solomon block length
K - Reed-Solomon message length
R - Reed-Solomon parity length (R = N − K)
L - Output data length: If parity is being output
from the chip (NOPAR = 0), L = N; else if
the parity is not being output (NOPAR = 1)
L=K
Similar to the burst operation, Output Buffer
may be used to temporarily “hold” data from one
block while the Input Buffer is being filled.
However, these conditions must be satisfied: the
output of a data block must start after the latency
equation (Equation 3) is satisfied, but before the
maximum delay is reached. The maximum delay is:
A. Conditions for Continuous Operation
Equation 4:
The allowable input and output data rates are
related to the Reed-Solomon block length by the
following two inequalities. Ci, Co, N and K must be
chosen so that these equations are satisfied.
Equation 1:
PS4013B-0600
N × Cm
R + 60 + ----------------Cm – 1
--------------------------------------- + N ≤ 367
Ci
B. Processing Latency
Processing latency is the time from the beginning
of a block on the input to the block being ready for
output. Maximum processing latency, expressed in
number of clocks, for continuous operation is:
Equation 3:
N × Cm
Latency = ( N – 1 ) × C i + 60 + R + ----------------Cm – 1
C. Start and End of Output
N × Ci
maximum_delay = 3 × N × C i – L × Co – --------------Ci – 1
if maximum_delay
--------------------------------------------- ≥ 367, then maximum_delay = 367 × C i
Ci
if maximum_delay
--------------------------------------------- > 2 × N, then maximum_delay = 2 × N × Ci
Ci
Page 9 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
Data of one block must be fully emptied L × Co clocks after the start of empty process.
All of the conditions on the maximum delay given in Equation 4 must be satisfied. If any are not, the
output data stream will begin to inhibit ECC processing. Eventually this will cause the input buffer to over
fill and RDYIN to become inactive.
Figure 4:
Burst and Continuous Operations
(Note: Blocks are shown from right to left as they are input into and output from the chip in Forward Order.
Block i is the first input block, block i + 1 is second input block. XK − 1 is the first input message byte of a block. Yo
is the last input check symbol of a block. Notes 1 and 2 in burst operation are described in Section 2.9.1 Burst
Operation - Caveats.)
Burst Operation
Block i+1
Y 0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1
Input Data:
2
Output Data:
Block i
Y 0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1
1
Block i+1
Block i
Y 0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1
Y 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X K-1
Processing Latency
Continuous Operation
Block i+3
Input Data:
Output Data:
Block i+2
Block i+1
Block i
Y0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1 Y0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1 Y 0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1 Y0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1
Block i+3
Block i+2
Block i+1
Block i
Y 0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1 Y0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1 Y 0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1 Y0 . . . . . . . . . . X K-1
For a 50 MHz system using the required clocks per byte, maximum latencies and data rates for forward
order output are shown in the table for continuous operation. Input and Output rates are assumed the same
in this table. Note: Other frequency operations are also possible.
Table 3:
Continuous Operation Using 50 MHz Clock and Specified Clocks/Byte, Forward
Output Order
CHECK BYTES ‘R’ = 20
MINIMUM
MAXIMUM MAXIMUM
BLOCK
REQUIRED
DATA
RATE LATENCY
LENGTHS ‘N’
25
50
100
150
200
225
255
(clocks/byte) (MBytes/sec)
6
8.34
5
10.00
4
12.50
4
12.50
4
12.50
4
12.50
4
12.50
(µsecs)
5.08
7.75
12.18
17.52
22.86
25.52
28.72
CHECK BYTES ‘R’ = 2
MINIMUM
MAXIMUM
MAXIMUM
REQUIRED DATA RATE LATENCY
(clocks/byte)
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
(MBytes/sec)
10.0
10.0
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
(µsecs)
4.26
7.39
11.82
17.16
22.50
25.16
28.36
For Intelsat IESS-308, Rev F, Inner FEC Rates, use Table 4 for a system with 50 MHz clock.
Note: Other frequency operations are also possible.
Page 10 of 24
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
Table 4:
Continuous Operation for IESS-308 Codes Using 50 MHz Clock and Specified Clocks/Byte,
Forward Output Order
MINIMUM
BLOCK
MESSAGE
ERROR
REQUIRED
LENGTHS ‘N’ LENGTH ‘K’ CAPABILITY ‘t’
126
194
208
219
225
112
178
192
201
205
(clocks/byte)
4
4
4
4
4
7
8
8
9
10
MAXIMUM
DATA RATE
MAXIMUM
LATENCY
(MBytes/sec)
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
(# of clocks)
742
1107
1181
1242
1276
MAXIMUM
LATENCY
(µsecs)
14.84
22.14
23.62
24.82
25.52
Appendix B shows a spreadsheet table of block lengths vs. latencies for a 50 MHz clock system.
2.10 REED-SOLOMON (ECC) MODULE AND ERROR RATE PERFORMANCE
The number of check bytes is R and can be
programmed during initialization to be 2 through 20
in increments of 1.
The ECC Module may be programmed to
output corrections or corrected data. If
“corrections” is selected, to obtain corrected data,
externally XOR the output correction vector with
the corresponding message or check byte. For
example, if “corrections” is selected for a block of
200 bytes with errors in locations 100, 123, 153, 176
and 199; output block will be 0’s for all locations
except for those positions. The bytes output at these
positions are referred to as correction vectors and
are XOR’d externally with the message bytes to
obtain the correct value. If the output of the
AHA4013B is programmed to output corrected
data, the correction vector is applied internally and
the corrected data is output.
The Symbol Error Rate Performance of the
Reed-Solomon code used is shown in Figure 5.
The module implements a full error correcting
Reed-Solomon (RS) decoder whose function is to
perform the necessary corrections on the input
blocks. The code used by the decoder is capable of
generating corrections for up to 10 (t = 10) byteerrors in an RS block over the block length between
R + 1 to 255 bytes. The number of message bytes in
an RS block, K, is equal to the RS block length
minus R (K = N − R). The RS code implemented
uses the primitive polynomial
P(x) = x8 + x7 + x2 + x + 1
to generate GF(256). The generator polynomial for
the code is:
G(x) =
119 + R
∏
i
(x – α )
i = 120
An RS block consists of message and
redundancy bytes. The number of message bytes in
the block, K, is programmable during initialization.
Figure 5:
Symbol (Byte) Error Rate Performance Curves for Codeword Length = 255 Bytes
-0
10
-2
10
-4
10
-6
10
P
-8
10
t=1
-10
10
-12
10
t=8 t=5
-14
10
t=10
-16
10
PS4013B-0600
t=3
-0
10
-1
10
-2
10
-3
10
-4
10
P
-5
10
-6
10
-7
10
-8
10
Page 11 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
The most common measures of performance for
Reed-Solomon code are PUE, PSE, and CBER. PSE is
the probability of symbol errors and is the ratio of
the number of received symbol errors to the total
number of received symbols. In the AHA4013B
device the symbol length, m, is equal to 8 bits. PUE
is the probability of an uncorrectable error and is the
ratio of the number of uncorrectable code blocks to
the total number of received code blocks. An
uncorrectable error occurs when more than t
received symbols are in error. CBER is the Corrected
Bit Error Rate. The CBER is the reciprocal of
expected number of correct bits between errors.
P UE
If input noise is random, C BER = -------------m×N.
If PSE = 8 × 10 – 4 with t = 5 , PUE = 10 –7 and
10 – 7 - = 4.9 × 10 –11 .
C BER = ----------------8 × 255
The figure shows probability of symbol error
and uncorrectable error for block size (N) of 255. It
shows the ability of various levels of Reed-Solomon
error correction to restore the integrity of the
corrupted data. For example, using 255 byte blocks,
if 1 out of 1000 of the received bytes have one or
more bit errors, RS correction with t = 5 will restore
the data to 1 error in 2 million blocks (510 million
bytes).
For a detailed discussion on error rate
performance of Reed-Solomon code, refer to AHA
Application Note, Primer: Reed-Solomon Error
Correction Codes (ECC), (ANRS01).
2.11
DETERMINING DECODER
PERFORMANCE BOUNDARIES
AHA4013B supports a programmable feature
that allows a system designer to determine the
channel performance. This programmable feature,
referred to as error threshold, P, sets a number of
errors to be allowed by the chip prior to flagging the
block uncorrectable. Erasure Rejection Control bit
of the Control Byte register determines the
condition of CRTN output pin.
P and R are both independently selectable by
the user during the Initialization Control Sequence.
The various configurations of P and R are described
as follows:
P > R This is not a sensible choice since this
implies that more check bytes are allocated
for (correction-only) purposes than there
are total check bytes (for both correction
and detection). The device will work as if P
was set equal to R.
Page 12 of 24
P=R
This configuration maximizes the ability to
correct errors, particularly if R itself has
been chosen to be its maximum value of 20.
This is the usual choice. This situation
causes the CRTN output to flag a message
block as uncorrectable at an error level
exceeding that of which the device is
capable.
P < R This increases the level of error detection
capability. This situation causes the CRTN
output to flag a message block as
uncorrectable at an error level below that of
which the device is capable.
Caveat: Output block may be corrupted if a block
exceeds the correction ability of the ECC module.
2.12 ERASURES
The chip is capable of utilizing erasure
information. R erasures may be corrected in any
block assuming there are no unmarked errors.
The correction capability is: E + 2e ≤ R
Where E = number of erasures (marked errors)
e = number of unmarked errors
R = number of check symbols
If there are more than P or R erasures the
erasure information is discarded, and full error
correction is attempted. The chip can be
programmed to either call such a block
uncorrectable or not. If programmed not to call the
block uncorrectable (ERC bit set to 1), the ECC will
utilize the full error correction capability to decide if
the block is correctable.
3.0
OPERATIONAL DESCRIPTION
This section describes the relationship of
associated signals for various functions of the chip.
3.1
CLOCK
The clock input to the chip must meet the timing
requirements shown in Figure 6. The chip is entirely
static thus allowing the clock to stop in either the
active or inactive state for an indefinite period
without loss of stored information.
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
Figure 6:
CLK Characteristics
CLK
1
2
3
1
4
5
NUMBER
1
2
3
4
5
DESCRIPTION
MINIMUM
CLK rise time
CLK high time
CLK fall time
CLK low time
CLK period
MAXIMUM
UNITS
5
nsec
nsec
nsec
nsec
nsec
8
5
8
20
All timing diagrams in this specification use the clock at the CLK pin as the reference point.
3.2
INITIALIZATION
This section describes the Reset and Initialization Sequence timing. For a detailed discussion on these
sequences, refer to Section 2.6 Reset and Initialization Sequence.
Figure 7:
Initialization and Reset Timing
CLK
1 2
1
2
RSTN
DSIN
DSO N
3
DI
NUMBER
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
6
at le ast 2
clo c k cy cles
Inp ut 6 bytes data for initialization
RESE T
INITIALIZE
DESCRIPTION
at le ast 1
cloc k cyc le
MAXIMUM
7
0
2
3.3
at least 2
cloc k cy cles
D ata
MINIMUM
RSTN and DSIN setup time
RSTN and DSIN hold time
RSTN and DSIN assertion
Initialization bytes are strobed into the device
while RSTN and DSIN are low during rising edges
of CLK. The RSTN must be active low for at least
two clocks before the first initialization byte is
strobed in and remain active for at least one clock
after the final byte. Initialization register data may
be strobed at a minimum of 1 clock per byte. After
power-on the initializing registers’ contents are
undefined.
For a detailed description of the Initialization
Registers, refer to Section 2.6 Reset and
Initialization Sequence.
PS4013B-0600
5
UNITS
nsec
nsec
Clock cycles
DATA INPUT
The chip latches the input data on the DI pins on
the rising edge of the CLK when DSIN and RDYIN
are both active. The two figures below show the
timing diagrams for buffer Ready and buffer Not
Ready conditions.
Page 13 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
Figure 8:
Data Input - Buffer Always Ready
CLK
RSTN
DI
1 2
1 2
1 2
valid
1 2
1 2
valid
1 2
1 2
1 2
valid
valid
valid
1 2
1 2
valid
DSIN
high = erase
ERASE
RDYIN
If RSTN is low during write, message bytes are treated as being part of the initialization sequence. If
RSTN is high, the data is treated as being part of RS block. In the example above ERASE is asserted high
in four sample clocks.
NUMBER
1
2
DESCRIPTION
MINIMUM
DI, ERASE and DSIN setup time
DI, ERASE and DSIN hold time
Figure 9:
MAXIMUM
UNITS
7
0
nsec
nsec
Data Input - Buffer Not Ready
CLK
RSTN
1 2
DI
1 2
1 2
valid
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
valid
valid
valid
valid
DSIN
3
3
3
3
RDYIN
NUMBER
1
2
3
DESCRIPTION
DI, ERASE and DSIN setup time
DI, ERASE and DSIN hold time
RDYIN output delay
MINIMUM
MAXIMUM
UNITS
13
nsec
nsec
nsec
7
0
Any input data clocked while RDYIN is inactive are ignored. This is shown in Figure 9.
3.4
DATA OUTPUT
The DO pins are driven from a register clocked
on the rising edge of CLK.
Valid data on the DO pins is indicated by
RDYON being active. When RDYON is inactive,
data on the DO pins is undefined, and DSON is
ignored. The DSON signal acknowledges receiving
the data and is used by the device to internally
Page 14 of 24
increment the address counter and output the next
location in the buffer. This data output timing is
shown in Figure 10.
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
Figure 10: Data Output
CLK
3
3
3
valid
DO, ERR
3
valid
1 2
1 2
1 2
valid
1 2
1 2
valid
1 2
valid
1 2
1 2
DSON
4
4
4
RDYON
NUMBER
1
2
3
4
DESCRIPTION
MINIMUM
DSON setup time
DSON hold time
DO output delay
RDYON output delay
MAXIMUM
UNITS
13
13
nsec
nsec
nsec
nsec
8
2
3
3
CRTN is valid for an RS block when the first message byte, XK−1, is strobed out of the chip. Figure 11
shows Reverse Order output. In this operation, CRTN is valid on the last byte of the block from the Output
Buffer. In this example only message bytes are output, no check bytes.
Figure 11: CRTN Timing - Reverse Order Output
CLK
3
3
3
Block m
Byte X K-3
DO
Block m
Byte X K-2
1 2
1 2
1 2
3
Block m
Byte X K-1
1 2
1 2
1 2
Block m+1
Byte X 0
Block m+1
Byte X 1
1 2
1 2
DSON
4
error
VALID
CRTN
See Note
correctable
4
4
4
RDYON
Note:
CRTN is active (low) if RS block m is correctable. If the number of errors detected in block m exceeds the
error threshold, P, CRTN is inactive (high).
NUMBER
1
2
3
4
PS4013B-0600
DESCRIPTION
DSON setup time
DSON hold time
DO output delay
RDYON, CRTN output delay
MINIMUM
7
2
3
3
MAXIMUM
UNITS
13
13
nsec
nsec
nsec
nsec
Page 15 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
4.0
SIGNAL SPECIFICATIONS
4.1
INPUT SPECIFICATIONS
PIN
NUMBER
SIGNAL
NAME
43
44
1
2
3
4
5
6
42
33
35
41
34
DI[7]
DI[6]
DI[5]
DI[4]
DI[3]
DI[2]
DI[1]
DI[0]
DSIN
DSON
RSTN
CLK
ERASE
SELF LOAD
TSETUP
THOLD
(maximum in pF)
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
(min in nsec)
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
7
N/A
7
(min in nsec)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
N/A
0
STROBE
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
N/A
CLK
N/A = Not Applicable
(Refer to Section 4.5 DC Electrical Characteristics for pad specifications)
4.2
OUTPUT SPECIFICATIONS
PIN
NUMBER
SIGNAL
NAME
LOAD CAP
(maximum in pF)
TDEL
(min in nsec)
TDEL
(max in nsec)
STROBE
REF
26
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
31
32
28
27
DO[7]
DO[6]
DO[5]
DO[4]
DO[3]
DO[2]
DO[1]
DO[0]
RDYON
RDYIN
CRTN
ERR
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
CLK
(Refer to Section 4.5 DC Electrical Characteristics for pad specifications)
4.3
POWER & GROUND PINS
Page 16 of 24
PIN NUMBER
SIGNAL NAME
8, 10, 11, 16, 17, 29, 30, 37, 40
7, 9, 12, 15, 25, 36, 38, 39
GND
VDD
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
4.4
AC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Symbol
Fclock
Tlow
Thigh
Trise
Tfall
Characteristic
Clock frequency
Clock low time
Clock high time
Clock rise time
Clock fall time
Symbol
Tsetup
Thold
Characteristic
Input setup time
Input hold time
CLOCK RATE
Min
0
8
8
INPUTS
Min
Max
Units
Test Conditions
50
5
5
MHz
nsec
nsec
nsec
nsec
Vil to Vil
Vih to Vih
Vil to Vih
Vil to Vih
Max
Units
Test Conditions
nsec
nsec
See Notes 1 and 3
See Notes 1 and 2
7
0
Notes:
1)
Setup and hold times measured from a Vih on the clock input pin.
2)
DSON has a 2 nsec hold time.
3)
DSON has a 8 nsec setup time.
Symbol
Tout
Tout
Note:
Characteristic
DO[7:0] Output delay
RDYON, RDYIN, ERR, CRTN
Output delay
OUTPUTS
Min
Max
Units
Test Conditions
3
13
nsec
See Note
3
13
nsec
See Note
Output delay measured from Vih on the clock input pin to Vol/Voh on the signal pin. The output loads for
the AC test are given in Section 4.2 Output Specifications.
PS4013B-0600
Page 17 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
4.5
DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Symbol
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM STRESS RATINGS
Characteristic
Min
Max
Units
Tstg
Storage temperature
Vdd
Supply voltage
Vin
Input voltage
Package: 44-pin PLCC (JEDEC Standard)
Symbol
Supply voltage
Idd
Supply current
Idd
Ta
P
Supply current
Operating temperature
Power
Vih
Vil
Iil
Cin
Symbol
Voh
Vol
Ioh
Iol
Page 18 of 24
150
6.0
Vdd+0.5
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Characteristic
Min
Max
Vdd
Symbol
-55
-0.5
Vss-0.5
Characteristic
Input high voltage
Input low voltage
Input leakage
Capacitance
Characteristic
Output high voltage
Output low voltage
Output high current
Output low current
4.75
0
INPUTS
Min
2.0
Vss
-10
OUTPUTS
Min
2.4
Vss
-8
deg C
V
V
Units
5.25
V
1.0
mA
185
70
0.89
mA
deg C
W
Max
Units
Vdd
0.8
10
10
V
V
µΑ
pF
Max
Units
Vdd
0.4
V
V
mA
mA
8
Test Conditions
Test Conditions
Static; Clock
stopped externally
Dynamic
Test Conditions
50 MHz
0<Vin<Vdd
Not 100% tested
Test Conditions
Ioh=8mA
Iol=8mA
Voh=2.4V
Vol=0.4V
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
5.0
PACKAGING
PLCC Dimensions
Inches
(Millimeters)
A
.050
(1.27)
B
C
D
min/max
min/max
min/max
.685/.695
.650/.656
.165/.180
(17.40/17.65) (16.51/16.66) (4.19/4.57)
E
F
G
min
.020
(0.51)
±
.002
(0.051)
±
.0035
(0.089)
Packaging
Pin 1 Identification
AHA4013B-050 PJC
C B
YYWWD-(COUNTRY OF ORIGIN)
LLLLL
A
D
E
F = Lead Planarity
G = Lead Skew
Note: YYWWD = Data Code
LLLL = Lead Skew
Complete Package Drawing Available Upon Request.
PS4013B-0600
Page 19 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
6.0
ORDERING INFORMATION
6.1
AVAILABLE PARTS
PART NUMBER
AHA4013B-050 PJC
6.2
DESCRIPTION
12.5 MBytes/sec Reed-Solomon Error Correction Device
PART NUMBERING
AHA
4013
B-
050
P
J
C
Manufacturer
Device
Number
Revision
Level
Speed
Designation
Package
Material
Package Type
Test
Specification
Device Number:
4013B
Package Material Codes:
P
Plastic
Package Type Codes:
J
J - Leaded Chip Carrier
Test Specifications:
C Commercial 0°C to +70°C
7.0
RELATED TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS
PART NUMBER
PB4013B
PS4011C
PS4012B
ABRS03
ABRS04
ABRS06
ABRS09
ABSTD1
ANRS01
ANRS02
ANRS03
ANRS05
RSEVAL
IESS-308,
Appendix F
Page 20 of 24
DESCRIPTION
AHA Product Brief – AHA4013 12.5 MBytes/sec Reed-Solomon Error
Correction Device
AHA Product Specification – AHA4011C 10 MBytes/sec Reed-Solomon Error
Correction Device
AHA Product Specification – AHA4012B 1.5 MBytes/sec Reed-Solomon Error
Correction Device
AHA Application Brief – AHA4011 and AHA4012 Device Differences
AHA Application Brief – Reed-Solomon Evaluation Software Version 3.0
AHA Application Brief – AHA4011 and AHA4013 Device Differences
AHA Application Brief – AHA4013A and AHA4013B Device Differences
AHA Application Brief – AHA Data Compression and Forward Error Correction
Standards
AHA Application Note – Primer: Reed-Solomon Error Correction Codes (ECC)
AHA Application Note – Interleaving for Burst Error Correction
AHA Application Note – Reed-Solomon Evaluation Software Version 3.0
AHA Application Note – Serial I/O Interface to AHA4011/AHA4012
Reed-Solomon Evaluation Software Version 3.0 (Windows)
Concatenation of Reed-Solomon (RS) Outer Coding with the Existing Inner FEC
(Not available from AHA)
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
APPENDIX A
Table of Elements
BLOCK
SIZE ‘N’
1
5
9
13
17
21
25
29
33
37
41
45
49
53
57
61
65
69
73
77
81
85
89
93
97
101
105
109
113
117
121
125
129
133
137
141
145
149
153
157
161
165
169
173
177
181
185
PS4013B-0600
HEX
VALUE
1
10
87
dd
6f
ec
71
8b
1d
57
62
3c
ce
d8
3f
fe
d6
df
4f
65
4c
55
42
b5
f3
6
60
1c
47
e5
e1
a1
34
4e
75
cb
88
2d
59
82
8d
7d
4b
25
d9
2f
79
BLOCK
SIZE ‘N’
2
6
10
14
18
22
26
30
34
38
42
46
50
54
58
62
66
70
74
78
82
86
90
94
98
102
106
110
114
118
122
126
130
134
138
142
146
150
154
158
162
166
170
174
178
182
186
HEX
VALUE
2
20
89
3d
de
5f
e2
91
3a
ae
c4
78
1b
37
7e
7b
2b
39
9e
ca
98
aa
84
ed
61
c
c0
38
8e
4d
45
c5
68
9c
ea
11
97
5a
b2
83
9d
fa
96
4a
35
5e
f2
BLOCK
SIZE ‘N’
3
7
11
15
19
23
27
31
35
39
43
47
51
55
59
63
67
71
75
79
83
87
91
95
99
103
107
111
115
119
123
127
131
135
139
143
147
151
155
159
163
167
171
175
179
183
187
HEX
VALUE
4
40
95
7a
3b
be
43
a5
74
db
f
f0
36
6e
fc
f6
56
72
bb
13
b7
d3
8f
5d
c2
18
7
70
9b
9a
8a
d
d0
bf
53
22
a9
b4
e3
81
bd
73
ab
94
6a
bc
63
BLOCK
SIZE ‘N’
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
60
64
68
72
76
80
84
88
92
96
100
104
108
112
116
120
124
128
132
136
140
144
148
152
156
160
164
168
172
176
180
184
188
HEX
VALUE
8
80
ad
f4
76
fb
86
cd
e8
31
1e
67
6c
dc
7f
6b
ac
e4
f1
26
e9
21
99
ba
3
30
e
e0
b1
b3
93
1a
27
f9
a6
44
d5
ef
41
85
fd
e6
d1
af
d4
ff
c6
Page 21 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
BLOCK
SIZE ‘N’
189
193
197
201
205
209
213
217
221
225
229
233
237
241
245
249
253
HEX
VALUE
b
b0
a3
14
c7
48
15
d7
cf
c8
b8
23
b9
33
3e
ee
51
BLOCK
SIZE ‘N’
190
194
198
202
206
210
214
218
222
226
230
234
238
242
246
250
254
HEX
VALUE
BLOCK
SIZE ‘N’
16
e7
c1
28
9
90
2a
29
19
17
f7
46
f5
66
7c
5b
a2
191
195
199
203
207
211
215
219
223
227
231
235
239
243
247
251
255
HEX
VALUE
2c
49
5
50
12
a7
54
52
32
2e
69
8c
6d
cc
f8
b6
c3
BLOCK
SIZE ‘N’
192
196
200
204
208
212
216
220
224
228
232
236
240
244
248
252
HEX
VALUE
58
92
a
a0
24
c9
a8
a4
64
5c
d2
9f
da
1f
77
eb
For example, for a block size of 205, the value to be programed in Byte 1 of the Initialization Register
is 0xc7.
/*This is a C program to generate Table of Elements. Pass a value of block length, N in decimal to this,
and obtain the Element value in hex.*/
int alpha(n)
int n;
{
int i,b,c;
c=01;
for (i=1;i<n;i++) {
b=c<<1;
if (b>0377)
b=b^0607;
c=b;
}
return c;
}
main()
{
int i;
printf("Enter N--> ");
scanf("%d",&i);
if(i<1 || i>255)
printf("1<=N<=255");
else
printf("\nN = %d\tALPHA = %2x\n\n", i, alpha(i));
}
Page 22 of 24
PS4013B-0600
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
APPENDIX B
AHA4013B Data Rate Calculations in Continuous Operation
Assumptions and Equations:
1) 50 MHz Clock is used.
2) Input Rate (Ci) = Output Rate (Co)
C
Ci – 1
i
3) Latency = Ci × ( N – 1 ) + ( R + 60 ) + N × -------------
4) Data Rate = 50 MHz/Ci clocks/byte
5) GOOD or BAD based on inequality equation:
Cm
R + 60 + N × ---------------Cm – 1
------------------------------------------------- + N ≤ 367
Ci
(5)
6) GOOD or BAD based on inequality equation:
Ci
Cm
( N – 1 ) × C i ≥ R + 48 + N × -------------- + N × ---------------Ci – 1
Cm – 1
(6)
7) Check symbols are input into and output from the chip along with message symbols.
Note:
The following tables show examples of Data Rates and Latencies for various block sizes. Other block sizes
are also possible.
CLOCKS
N
/BYTE
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
25
50
53
75
100
126
194
208
219
200
225
250
255
CLOCKS
N
/BYTE
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
PS4013B-0600
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
255
T
10
10
10
10
10
7
8
8
9
10
10
10
10
T
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
MAXIMUM LATENCY DATA RATE
EQUATION 5 EQUATION 6
CLOCKS µSECONDS (MB/sec)
209
343
359
476
609
742
1107
1181
1242
1143
1276
1409
1436
4.18
6.86
7.18
9.52
12.16
14.88
22.16
23.60
24.88
22.88
25.52
28.16
28.72
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
BAD
BAD
BAD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
MAXIMUM LATENCY DATA RATE
EQUATION 5 EQUATION 6
CLOCKS µSECONDS (MB/sec)
199
333
466
599
733
866
999
1133
1266
1399
1426
3.98
6.66
9.36
12.00
14.64
17.36
20.00
22.64
25.36
28.00
28.56
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
BAD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
Page 23 of 24
Advanced Hardware Architectures, Inc.
CLOCKS
N
/BYTE
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
255
CLOCKS
N
/BYTE
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Page 24 of 24
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
255
T
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
T
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
MAXIMUM LATENCY DATA RATE
EQUATION 5 EQUATION 6
CLOCKS µSECONDS (MB/sec)
195
329
462
595
729
862
995
1129
1262
1395
1422
3.90
6.58
9.28
11.92
14.56
17.28
19.92
22.56
25.28
27.92
28.48
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
BAD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
MAXIMUM LATENCY DATA RATE
EQUATION 5 EQUATION 6
CLOCKS µSECONDS (MB/sec)
191
325
458
591
725
858
991
1125
1258
1391
1418
3.82
6.50
9.20
11.84
14.48
17.20
19.84
22.48
25.20
27.84
28.40
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
BAD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
PS4013B-0600