ETC AN2748

Freescale Semiconductor
Application Note
AN2748
Rev. 0, 08/2004
Genesi Pegasos II
Kernel and NFS Facility
by
Maurie Ommerman and Jacob Pan
CPD Applications
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
This is the eighth application note in a series that describes the
Genesi Pegasos II system and its various associated applications.
This document describes how to build a network file system
(NFS), download kernels to a Sandpoint or ADS board target, and
use NFS on Genesi as a root file system for a target.
1
Introduction
Using NFS gives great flexibility to the developer for controlling,
debugging, and analyzing the target system from the host. This
application note describes how to build an NFS for a Linux target
on a Linux host system, how to download kernels from a host to a
target, and how to start the target using the host NFS system.
2
Terminology
The following terms are used in this document.
Linux OS
Debian
Yellow Dog
NFS
Linux Operating System
One of the distributions of Linux
One of the distributions of Linux
Network file system, a complete root file
system for Linux, that is self-contained on a
host file system. Used to boot diskless Linux
systems remotely.
© Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2004. All rights reserved.
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8.
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
General Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Setting up an NFS Root File System on a Host . . . . . 8
Downloading a Kernel from a Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Connecting the NFS Root File System to a Target . . 13
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Document Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
General Theory
Host
Target
Daemon
TFTP
ssh
3
Computer used for compiling and linking target programs
Computer that is the source for programs compiled and linked on a Host.
Small program that is always running in the background, usually waiting for activity. For
example, a network daemon is waiting for activity on the network.
Trivial file transfer protocol, a method of sending files across the ethernet interface.
Secure shell Linux command for connecting to other Linux systems using an encrypted transfer
mechanism.
General Theory
General theory behind NFS on a native PowerPC™ system.
3.1 Tools
It is not necessary to have a host and target system that are the same architecture. Using cross-tools, any architecture
can be used to develop PowerPC tools. The disadvantages to such an arrangement are never serious, but in general,
inconvenient.
•
•
•
•
Programs compiled natively on the host can not run on the target
Programs cross compiled on the host can not run on the host.
Cross tools are usually more difficult to obtain and use.
Cross compiled programs may need to be downloaded to the target for testing, a sometimes arduous task.
However, if an NFS mount is active, then the programs can just be placed on the hard drive.
A host that is a native PowerPC system, on the other hand, uses the same architecture as the target. Thus a native
tool set can be used. These are the disadvantages.
•
none
This leads to a whole host (pardon the pun) of advantages.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Programs compiled natively on the host can run on the target.
Programs need never be cross compiled.
Native tools are easy to obtain and are usually supplied as part of the system package, for example GCC on
any Linux system.
Programs can be tested on the host system before the need to download them for final testing.
The host and target both have the same touch and feel, i.e. both are the same architecture, and both can run
the same Linux OS.
The number of times downloading to the target is reduced.
3.2 Network File System (NFS)
There are four methods for supplying a root file system for a Linux target. (And possibly more)
•
Local hard drive
— Subject to corruption by a renegade kernel
— Difficult to build or recover
— Requires an IDE or SCSI driver
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General Theory
•
•
•
RAM disk
— Very small disk space
— Does not remember changes to the disk space at reboot time. That is, it always boots up with the same
file system, changes in previous runs are lost.
— Difficult to build, compress, and pack into a kernel.
NFS
— Requires a working ethernet connection
— Requires a host machine
— Protection from hard disk corruption
— Potentially, allows for large disk space
Flash based cramfs
— Does not need to be loaded, always ready as soon as the kernel boots
— Changes are permanent
NFS has the following advantages
•
•
•
•
•
The target can run disk less, it only needs an ethernet connection
The root file system is only a piece of the host file system, therefore, if the target file system is corrupted, it
can be rebuild, or just recopied on the host.
Targets can share an NFS root file system, or each target can have its own.
Since the NFS is on the host, the same program can be run either from the host or from the target.
The host can be a full size Linux, while the target can be a reduced version of Linux. For example, the target
needs a reduced file system for an embedded target.
3.3 Benefits for Genesi Pegasos II PowerPC Native Host
So what are the benefits of a native host supplying a native NFS to a target, all using the same hardware processor
architecture? In particular, the Genesi Pegasos II native PowerPC host development system with any PowerPC
target, such as the Sandpoint or the ADS PowerQUICC™ boards, has many benefits.
•
•
•
The host can be a fully featured Linux with multiple disk less PowerPC targets.
— MPC74xx
— PowerQUICC II, III
The host supplies a complete native environment.
— native PowerPC tool chain, for example gcc, as, ls, binutils, gdb and so forth.
— Both host and target have the same JTAG/COP support.
— No need for cross architecture compiler, libraries, or other tools.
Host support
— Coding, analyzing and verifying can be done on the host before downloading to the target.
— Host tools supplied by CPD.
— Performance monitoring, PMON facility
– AN2743, Software Analysis on Genesi Pegasos II Using PMON and AltiVec
– AN2744, PMON Module—An Example of Writing Kernel Module Code for Debian 2.6 on Genesi
Pegasos II
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General Theory
•
— sim_G4plus simulation
– AN2749, Genesi Pegasos II Using sim_G4plus
– AN2750, Genesi Pegasos II Analysis and Optimization of Code with sim_G4plus
Suitable for kernel or device driver development.
— Allows for remote access to the target
— crash proof and easy recovery compared to a local hard drive on the target
— More disk space available compared to a RAM disk.
3.4 Development Environment
Figure 1 diagrams the configuration discussed in this paper.
Host
(Pegasos)
Hard
Drive
NFS
Root
Serial Line
Target(s)
eg: pq2ads,
pq3ads,
mpc7447a
Network
Figure 1. Host to Target Configuration
The host system is a Genesi Pegasos II with the following configuration, obtained with the cat /proc/cpuinfo
and uname -a command.
•
•
•
•
•
•
CPU
: 7457, altivec supported
clock
: 999MHz
revision
: 1.1 (pvr 8002 0101)
bogomips
: 997.37
machine
: CHRP Pegasos2
Linux debian 2.6.4-pegasos #1 Mon Mar 22 12:47:08 CET 2004 ppc GNU/Linux
The hard drive is a 40 Gig drive, the host Debian Linux system is using a single partition (/dev/hda5) of
approximately 50% of the drive, or about 21 Gigs, as can be seen from this display of parted /dev/hda
[email protected]:parted /dev/hda
Using /dev/hda
(parted) p
Pralloc = 0, Reserved = 2, blocksize = 1, root block at 114660
Disk geometry for /dev/hda: 0.000-38166.679 megabytes
Disk label type: amiga
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General Theory
Minor
Start
End
Filesystem
Name
Flags
1
3.999
107.973
affs1
boot
2
107.974
611.850
asfs
MOS
3
611.851
3615.117
asfs
MOS-DATA
4
3615.117
4618.872
linux-swap
swap
hidden
5
4618.872
25621.743
ext3
debian
hidden
6
25621.743
38166.679
ext3
YDL
hidden
boot
(parted)
Currently, there is about 69% space left on this partition as can be seen from the df -k command.
[email protected]:~$ df -k
Filesystem
/dev/hda5
1K-blocks
21170868
Used Available Use% Mounted on
6509324
14661544
31% /
The NFS virtual partition used for the target is the small piece of the disk shown in the figure, it resides at /opt, it
will be further discussed in Section 4, “Setting up an NFS Root File System on a Host.”
Several targets can access each of these NFS root file systems via the ethernet. More than one target can share an
NFS root file system, or each target can have only one. For this paper, each target will have only one NFS root file
system.
The host can access each target via a serial connection, or via ethernet, once the target is started. In this figure, we
show two targets, each can be either an ADS or a Sandpoint board, each is connected to its unique NFS root file
system via a network, and the host can communicate with either target.
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General Theory
Figure 2 shows that the host can edit files on the host, such as kernel code and build new kernels or application
executable files. The host can communicate with either target via a serial line using a terminal emulator, like
minicom, or through an ethernet network via telnet or ssh.
Serial Line
Host
System Display
IDE,
vi,
xemacs
ssh,
telnet,
mnicom
Target(s)
eg: pq2ads,
pq3ads,
mpc7447a
Network
Figure 2. Typical Usage
Some typical usage is
•
•
•
Beginning a session
— Login to host system
— Boot Linux on target
Development, repeat as needed
— Host: edit source
— Host: test/verify executables on PowerPC host, which is a stable distribution.
— Target: Load binaries via NFS from host
— Target: test binaries on target, which may be unstable
— Target: debug tools on host hard drive
Logoff and go home
— Remote access from home if desired
3.5 Concept of Host and Target
The host, Genesi Pegasos II has the following characteristics:
•
•
•
•
•
Desktop fully featured system running Linux
Large hard disk
Complete tool chain
— Compilers
— JTAG software
Graphic console
Serial and network capabilities
and the following requirements
•
Debian Linux distribution pre-installed packages
— GNU tool chain
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General Theory
•
— TFTP server
— NFS Portmap server
— DHCP server
— Minicom, a serial console emulator
— Target root file system
Hardware requirements
— Large hard drive (40GB+)
— Lots of RAM (256MB+)
— Fast processor, e.g. MPC744x at 1GHz+
— Fast or GigE network interface
The target, on the other hand, has the following characteristics
•
•
•
Evaluation/engineering sample boards
Little initial software
Serial and/or network console
and the following requirements
•
•
Firmware/BootROM (such as DINK32 or U-boot)
— Download capability: TFTP client
— Serial console
— Execute a user program
— Pass platform information to the OS
Hardware
— Ethernet interface
— Serial port
— RAM
— No hard drive
Figure 3., “Putting It All Together”, shows how all the parts interact.
PPC Target
Board(s)
/opt/ppc_82xx
/opt/ppc_74xx
Host
Hard Drive
NFS
Root
File
System
NFS
Root
File
System
Exports
Network
NFS Mount
Figure 3. Putting It All Together
The target will mount the NFS root file system with an NFS mount command. The host will export the NFS root file
systems to the target boards, each board has its own NFS root file system, shown here we have two targets, and two
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Setting up an NFS Root File System on a Host
NFS root file systems, /opt/ppc_82xx and /opt/ppc_74xx. The NFS root files systems are directories on the host hard
drive, which we can visualize as a piece of the hard drive.
In summary:
•
•
•
•
•
4
The host is exporting a small part of its hard drive, the NFS root file systems.
The target is mounting this corresponding small part of the host hard drive via an NFS mount.
The host has access to both NFS root file systems.
Each target can only access its NFS root file system.
All this activity is implemented via an ethernet network.
— The targets are isolated from each other
Setting up an NFS Root File System on a Host
This section discusses setting up an NFS root file system and turning on the remote access facility. Since we are
using the NFS facility that specifies the fixed IP address for all remote access, i.e. the targets, we must have a fixed
IP address for all machines on this subnetwork.Therefore, it is not a DHCP/BOOTP server, it can exist on any
network as long as the fixed IP addresses do not conflict with any previously assigned IP addresses or IP addresses
in the range of the DHCP server on this network.
For this method of NFS, each target will query only the NFS server, by its known IP address, and each target will
tell the NFS server what its IP address is. Therefore, the NFS server will only NFS mount to targets that are defined
in its /etc./exports file.
The assumed IP addresses for this exercise are:
Host, which is the server: 10.82.117.52
Target 82xx: 10.82.0.105
Target 74xx: 10.82.118.204
Section 3, “General Theory” described how all this works in theory. This section will describe how to implement
such a system.
4.1 NFS Root File Systems
The directory, /opt, is used to contain two NFS root file systems.
[email protected]:/opt# ls /opt
ppc_74xx
ppc_82xx
ppc_82xx-rfs-fae.tgz
ppc_82xx-rfs.tgz
There are two subdirectories and two compressed tar files. The ppc_74xx and ppc_82xx root files systems are
identical, however, to ensure that each target has its own NFS root system, ppc_74xx is the NFS root file system for
our Sandpoint target using an MPC7447A or MPC7457 processor. ppc_82xx is the NFS root file system for our ADS
PQIII board using an MPC82xx processor. As can be seen from listing these directories.
[email protected]:/opt# ls ppc_74xx
bin
dhry.res
images
lib
proc
root
tmp
dev
etc
jacob
mnt
proj
sbin
usr
var
[email protected]:/opt# ls ppc_82xx
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Setting up an NFS Root File System on a Host
bin
dhry.res
images
lib
proc
root
tmp
dev
etc
jacob
mnt
proj
sbin
usr
var
[email protected]:/opt#
Uncompressing the tgz, compressed tar files, generates the ppc_82xx directory. There is only a minor difference
between the two tar files. These root file system directories are minimal root file systems developed for an embedded
target, that is, they have only a minimal set of commands, so that they are small. These embedded root file systems
were downloaded from the ELDK, web site, http://www.denx.de/ELDK/, developed by Wolfgang Denk.
4.2 Host Mechanisms
The host supports these NFS root file systems as part of its root file system. They are just directories on the host.
Linux security prevents any network access to these directories and in fact to any directories on the hard drive.
Hence, the host must specify which, if any, directories can be accessed by remote users, in this case the targets. This
is accomplished with the export file in the /etc directory.
4.2.1 The /etc/exports file
This file indicates to the network daemon which directories can be exported, that is, used remotely, and what the
permission set is, that is, what type of access is allowed. Look at an example of this file with the cat -n
/etc/exports command. The line numbers are generated by the cat -n command and are not part of the file.
[email protected]:/# cat -n /etc/exports
1
# /etc/exports: the access control list for filesystems which may be exported
2
#
3
/home/pegasos 10.82.117.93(rw,sync)
4
/opt/ppc_82xx 10.82.124.205/255.255.252.0(rw,no_root_squash)
5
/opt/ppc_74xx 10.82.116.254/255.255.252.0(rw,no_root_squash)
to NFS clients.
See exports(5).
[email protected]:/#
Lines 1 and 2 are just a comment.
Lines 3, 4, and 5 are the lines defining remote access. The syntax for each line is
root directory, target IP address/target netmask permissions
Line 3 is incorrect and access to this mount point, /home/pegasos, will always be denied because there is no target
netmask specified. The network daemon can not resolve the access on this line.
Line 4 and 5, however, are correct and will allow network access to these two directories, /opt/ppc_82xx, and
/opt/ppc_74xx.
Dissecting line 4.
/opt/ppc_82xx is the directory pointer
The 10.82.124.205/255.255.252.0 line indicates that the target with an IP of 10.82.124.205 can access this directory
/opt/ppc_82xx
rw,no_root_squash)
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Setting up an NFS Root File System on a Host
The rw indicates read/write permission, no_root_squash indicates do not squash the root user, that is, allow the
target root user, root access to this partition.
Dissecting line 5.
/opt/ppc_74xx is the directory pointer
The 10.82.116.254/255.255.252.0 line indicates that a target with an IP of 10.82.116.254 can access this directory
/opt/ppc_74xx
rw,no_root_squash)
The rw indicates read/write permission, no_root_squash do not squash the root user, that is, allow the target root
user root access to this partition.
Thus, when the targets announce themselves as IP address 10.82.124.205, NFS will mount /opt/ppc_82xx, or as
10.82.116.254, NFS will mount /opt/ppc_74xx.
However, for the splash screens supplied, edit this file and change lines 4 and 5 to correspond to the actual IP
addresses that were used. Change these IP addresses to correspond to the addresses that are actually used.
Thus lines 4 and 5 are changed to the following:
4
/opt/ppc_82xx 10.82.0.105/255.255.252.0(rw,no_root_squash)
5
/opt/ppc_74xx 10.82.118.204/255.255.252.0(rw,no_root_squash)
4.2.2 Export the New Directories
Whenever the /etc/exports file is updated the NFS portmapper daemon must be restarted.
There are three ways to accomplish this. The exportfs command is the recommended method, I will only mention
the other two. Do not do all three of these or even two of them, just do the exportfs -r if it is available.
4.2.2.1 The exportfs -r Command
The command exportfs -r will export the directories declared in the /etc/exports file. The -r parameter indicates
that a re-export is requested, that is, export the files again even if already exported.
[email protected]:/etc# exportfs -r
exportfs: /etc/exports [4]: No ’sync’ or ’async’ option specified for export
"10.82.0.105/255.255.252.0:/opt/ppc_82xx".
Assuming default behaviour (’sync’).
NOTE: this default has changed from previous versions
exportfs: /etc/exports [5]: No ’sync’ or ’async’ option specified for export
"10.82.118.204/255.255.252.0:/opt/ppc_74xx".
Assuming default behaviour (’sync’).
NOTE: this default has changed from previous versions
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Setting up an NFS Root File System on a Host
4.2.2.2 nfs-kernel-server
Run the script /etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server
[email protected]:/etc/init.d# ./nfs-kernel-server restart
Stopping NFS kernel daemon: mountd nfsd.
Unexporting directories for NFS kernel daemon...done.
Exporting directories for NFS kernel daemon...exportfs: /etc/exports [4]: No ’sync’
or ’async’ option specified for export "10.82.0.105/255.255.252.0:/opt/ppc_82xx".
Assuming default behaviour (’sync’).
NOTE: this default has changed from previous versions
exportfs: /etc/exports [5]: No ’sync’ or ’async’ option specified for export
"10.82.118.204/255.255.252.0:/opt/ppc_74xx".
Assuming default behaviour (’sync’).
NOTE: this default has changed from previous versions
done.
Starting NFS kernel daemon: nfsd mountd.
4.2.2.3 A Manual Method of Restarting the Deamons
Run the two scripts in the /etc/rc2.d directory that stop/start the nfs kernel daemon and the portmap daemon. This is
not recommended and should only be used if the exportsfs or nfs-kernel-server script is not available.
[email protected]:/etc/rc2.d# ./K20nfs-kernel-server stop
Stopping NFS kernel daemon: mountd nfsd.
Unexporting directories for NFS kernel daemon...done.
[email protected]:/etc/rc2.d# ./K18portmap stop
Stopping portmap daemon: portmap.
[email protected]:/etc/rc2.d# ./K18portmap start
Starting portmap daemon: portmap.
[email protected]:/etc/rc2.d# ./K20nfs-kernel-server start
Exporting directories for NFS kernel daemon...exportfs: /etc/exports [4]: No ’sync’
or ’async’ option specified for export "10.82.10.105/255.255.252.0:/opt/ppc_82xx".
Assuming default behaviour (’sync’).
NOTE: this default has changed from previous versions
exportfs: /etc/exports [5]: No ’sync’ or ’async’ option specified for export
"10.82.118.204/255.255.252.0:/opt/ppc_74xx".
Assuming default behaviour (’sync’).
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Downloading a Kernel from a Host
NOTE: this default has changed from previous versions
done.
Starting NFS kernel daemon: nfsd mountd.
5
Downloading a Kernel from a Host
Building a Linux kernel on a native system is the same as building it on a cross architecture system, with the
exception that native GCC tools are used. See AN2578, Creating a Linux ‘Out of the Box’ Experience on a
Sandpoint Platform for instructions on building a kernel from the sources available on the web.
Assuming that a Linux kernel has been built with the name, uImage.ads60 for ADS and zImage.sandpoint for the
Sandpoint, copy them to the /tftpboot directory.
These images are in the /tftpboot directory. However, the uImage must be for the specific board and CPU. It works
on our ADS8260 board. The zImage.sandpoint works on our sandpoint with an MPC74xx with 128MB of memory
or an MPC8245 with 128 MB of memory.
TFTP is a simple mechanism for transmitting files over the ethernet. It allows the sending of files from only one
directory on the host, the default of which is, /tftpboot. Therefore, copy the Linux kernels to this directory.
Configure and start the TFTP server in /etc/inetd.conf
The file /etc/inetd.conf is read during boot and each service selected in this file is started. The TFTP section is shown
here.
cat /etc/inetd.conf
.... lines from the top to this point are not shown here
#:BOOT: Tftp service is provided primarily for booting.
Most sites
# run this only on machines acting as "boot servers."
tftp
/tftpboot
dgram
udp
wait
nobody
/usr/sbin/tcpd
/usr/sbin/in.tftpd
.... the rest of the file is not shown here.
Figure 4 shows the Linux kernel downloading to the target via the TFTP facility.
Target
Sandpoint
/opt/ppc_74xx
Host
/tftpboot
10.82.118.204
IP Addresses
TFTP
vmlinux
10.82.0.105
Target
ADS PQIII
/opt/ppc_84xx
Figure 4. TFTPing a File to the Target
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Connecting the NFS Root File System to a Target
6
Connecting the NFS Root File System to a Target
It is arbitrary which NFS root file system we assign to either target, but for this example, we want the Sandpoint to
NFS mount the /opt/ppc_74xx root file system and the ADS to NFS mount the /opt/ppc_82xx file system. This
choice is made by choosing the IP address of the target, The Sandpoint will use IP address 10.82.118.204 which will
NFS mount /opt/ppc_74xx. The ADS will use IP address 10.82.0.105, which will NFS mount /opt/ppc_82xx. Both
choices based on the /etc/exports file designation of IP address to NFS mount.
6.1 Using a Serial Connection Terminal Emulator
Debian Linux supports the minicom terminal emulator. In order to use minicom as a user, first change to root, and
set the permissions on /dev/ttyS1 to everyone read/write, that is, 666.
[email protected]:~# chmod 666 /dev/ttyS1
[email protected]:~# ls -l /dev/ttyS1
crw-rw-rw-
1 root
dialout
4,
65 Feb 24 04:50 /dev/ttyS1
[email protected]:~#
Now, any user can use this terminal device, /dev/ttyS1, which is the serial port on the Genesi Pegasos II computer.
There is only one physical serial port on the Genesi Pegasos II computer.
The first time, minicom must be set up for serial remote operations by choosing these options, an example follows
•
•
•
•
•
Choose Serial port setup
Choose /dev/ttyS1, which is the default.
Choose appropriate baud rate, which is
— E - Bps/Par/Bits
: 115200 8N1 for the ADS and
— E - Bps/Par/Bits
: 9600 8N1 for the Sandpoint
Save setup as dfl
Exit from Minicom.
Invoke minicom with the -s parameter.
minicom -s
+-----[configuration]------+
¦ Filenames and paths
¦
¦ File transfer protocols
¦
¦ Serial port setup
¦
¦ Modem and dialing
¦
¦ Screen and keyboard
¦
¦ Save setup as dfl
¦
¦ Save setup as..
¦
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Connecting the NFS Root File System to a Target
¦ Exit
¦
¦ Exit from Minicom
¦
+--------------------------+
Use the down arrow to choose Serial port setup
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
¦ A -
Serial Device
: /dev/ttyS1
¦
¦ B - Lockfile Location
: /var/lock
¦
¦ C -
Callin Program
:
¦
¦ D -
Callout Program
:
¦
: 115200 8N1
¦
¦ E -
Bps/Par/Bits
¦ F - Hardware Flow Control : No
¦
¦ G - Software Flow Control : No
¦
¦
¦
¦
Change which setting?
¦
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
Choose a, Serial Device by keying in the letter a. Always choose /dev/ttyS1. choose e Bps/PAR/Bits
+-----------[Comm Parameters]------------+
+---------------¦
¦--------------+
¦ Current: 115200 8N1
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
Speed
Parity
Data
¦
¦ A: 300
L: None
S: 5
¦
¦
¦ B: 1200
M: Even
T: 6
¦
¦
¦ C: 2400
N: Odd
U: 7
¦
¦
¦ D: 4800
O: Mark
V: 8
¦
¦
¦ E: 9600
P: Space
¦
¦
¦ F: 19200
Stopbits ¦--------------+
¦ G: 38400
W: 1
¦
¦ H: 57600
X: 2
¦
¦ I: 115200
Q: 8-N-1
¦
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¦ J: 230400
R: 7-E-1
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦ Choice, or <Enter> to exit?
¦
+----------------------------------------+
choose the correct baud rate for the board. For ADS choose 115200, choice I, for the Sandpoint choose 9600, choice
E.
+-----[configuration]------+
¦ Filenames and paths
¦
¦ File transfer protocols
¦
¦ Serial port setup
¦
¦ Modem and dialing
¦
¦ Screen and keyboard
¦
¦ Save setup as dfl
¦
¦ Save setup as..
¦
¦ Exit
¦
¦ Exit from Minicom
¦
+--------------------------+
Choose Exit from Minicom.
Now, regardless of which target is being used, start minicom with the appropriate baud rate.
6.2 Sandpoint with an MPC74xx Processor
DINK32 does not use environment variables that can communicate with a download program. Therefore, the root
command passed to Linux will have to be supplied during the Linux startup as shown in Section 6.2.3,
“Downloading Linux” The root command is shown below:
Linux/PPC load: console=ttyS0,38400 root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=10.82.117.52:/opt/ppc_74xx
ip=10.82.118.204:10.82.117.52:10.82.119.254:255.255.252.0:sandpoint:eth0:off
The example uses the IP address of 10.82.118.204, so that the host, Genesi Pegasos
II at IP address 10.82.117.52 will NFS mount the /opt/ppc_74xx directory.
It is possible to change the DINK32 baud rate with an environment variable or the setbaud command. However,
there is no advantage to running faster on the terminal, since we are downloading via the ethernet. See DINK32
PowerPC Debugger User’s Manual, for more information on this topic.
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6.2.1 Start minicom
Use baud rate of 9600, start minicom with no parameters. This example, however, uses 38400 baud rate, so set
minicom to 38400. Set the minicom baud rate to correspond to whatever baud rate the Sandpoint uses and what the
Linux kernel is built to use during startup. The root command, talked about later, sets the baud rate when the kernel
is running, that is, after Linux startup.
The Sandpoint board uses the DINK32 firmware package.
[email protected]:~$ minicom -s
Welcome to minicom 2.1
OPTIONS: History Buffer, F-key Macros, Search History Buffer, I18n
Compiled on Nov 12 2003, 20:34:49.
Press CTRL-A Z for help on special keys
The splash screen should now display as shown below in Section 6.2.2, “DINK32” and allow communication with
the Sandpoint board.
To quit minicom, type the following command:
control-A
x
Set minicom to wrap lines rather than start a new line for lines that go past the end of the line. This is necessary for
the root parameter. Turn minicom wrap on with the following commands.
control-a
z
w
Now minicom will indicate that it is using wrap mode.
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6.2.2 DINK32
DINK32 will startup on the Sandpoint giving this splash screen.
DINK32[MPC7457] {2} >>ab
Caches Enabled: [ L1I(32K), L1D(32K), L2(512K) ]
## ##
##
## ##
##
##
##
####### ## ####### ## ##
## ## ## ## ## ## ##
## ## ## ## ## ######
## ## ## ## ## ## ##
###### ## ## ## ## ##
(
(
( ( (AltiVec) ) )
)
)
Version : 13.1.1, Metaware Build
Released : INTERIM( build 780 on Apr 2 2004 13:42:29 )
Written by : Motorola CPD/NCSG PowerPC Applications, Austin, TX
System : Sandpoint X3 with Valis (MPMC7457)
Processor : MPC7457 V1.2 @ 1000 MHz, 100 MHz memory
Memory : Map B (CHRP) 256MB at CL=2
Copyright 1993-2004, by Motorola Inc.
6.2.3 Downloading Linux
DINK32 does not use environment variables to download and start Linux. Rather, set up the network interface and
download Linux from /tftpboot on the host, with commands.
Using the ni command, assign the IP information to allow DINK32 to do an ethernet download.
DINK32[MPC7457] {5} >>ni -p
SERVER(TFTP) : [ 10. 82.118.204] : 10.82.117.52
GATEWAY
: [ 10. 82.119.252] :
NETMASK
: [255.255.252.
DHCP
: [ 10. 82.250. 25] :
0] :
CLIENT(DINK) : [ 10. 82.116.154] :
DINK32[MPC7457] {5} >>
DINK32[MPC7457] {5} >>
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DINK32[MPC7457] {5} >>
DINK32[MPC7457] {5} >>
Now use the DINK32 download command, dl.
The dl command also allows the -o parameter to specify the memory address to
download the kernel image. The sandpoint kernel image will download to 100000
by default, but may be downloaded to any address greater than 100000. The kernel
will relocate itself to 800000 when started with the go command.
DINK32[MPC7457] {5} >>dl -nw -b -fzImage.sandpoint
Filename = zImage.sandpoint
File format =
Plain binary
Default Offset = 0x00100000
Received 2804 TFTP data blocks.
Successfully read 1435171 bytes via TFTP at
2299692 bytes/sec
6.2.4 Starting Linux on the Sandpoint
To start Linux, use the DINK32 go command. Then when the ‘Linux/PPC load:’ prompt appears, hit backspace
and type the very long line of information specific to your network configuration into the root request. It is suggested
that this line be typed into a file through an editor and then pasted into the minicom terminal interface when
requested. Below is an example of this line:
Linux/PPC load: console=ttyS0,38400 root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=10.82.117.52:/opt/ppc_74xx
ip=10.82.118.204:10.82.117.52:10.82.119.254:255.255.252.0:sandpoint:eth0:off
The syntax for this line is as follows:
Linux/PPC load: console=<terminal designator>,<baud rate>
space
root=/dev/nfs “indicates use nfs mount”
space
rw “indicates read write permission on the root file system”
space
nfsroot=<server IP address>:
<server directory address of NFS mount>
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one or more spaces
ip=<this machines IP address>:
<server’s IP address>:
<gateway IP address>:
<network IP netmask>:
<any name you choose>: “in this case we chose sandpoint, but the name is arbitrary”
eth0:off
Carefully type this line, it is one line, no carriage returns, the colons and spaces are required.
DINK32[MPC7457] {6} >>go 110000
loaded at:
00110000 002601DC
relocated to:
00800000 009501DC
zimage at:
0080586B 0094CF3E
avail ram:
00400000 00800000
Uncompressing Linux...done.
Now booting the kernel
Total memory = 256MB; using 512kB for hash table (at c0300000)
Linux version 2.6.3 ([email protected]) (gcc version 3.3) #47 Fri Mar 19 00:41:59 EST 2004
Motorola SPS Sandpoint Test Platform
Port by MontaVista Software, Inc. ([email protected])
On node 0 totalpages: 65536
DMA zone: 65536 pages, LIFO batch:16
Normal zone: 0 pages, LIFO batch:1
HighMem zone: 0 pages, LIFO batch:1
Built 1 zonelists
Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,38400 root=/dev/hda3
At this point, stop the kernel load by hitting the backspace key and rub out the /dev/hda3, in its place type this root
line or paste it in from the file created earlier.
Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,38400 root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=10.82.117.52:/opt/ppc_74xx
ip=10.82.118.20:10.82.117.52:10.82.119.254:255.255.252.0:sandpoint:eth0:off
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Now the kernel will continue and boot.
OpenPIC Version 1.2 (1 CPUs and 16 IRQ sources) at fdfd0000
OpenPIC timer frequency is 100.000000 MHz
PID hash table entries: 2048 (order 11: 16384 bytes)
time_init: decrementer frequency = 24.358929 MHz
Console: colour dummy device 80x25
Memory: 255616k available (1964k kernel code, 936k data, 100k init, 0k highmem)
Calibrating delay loop... 972.80 BogoMIPS
Dentry cache hash table entries: 32768 (order: 5, 131072 bytes)
Inode-cache hash table entries: 16384 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
Mount-cache hash table entries: 512 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
POSIX conformance testing by UNIFIX
NET: Registered protocol family 16
PCI: Probing PCI hardware
SCSI subsystem initialized
Registering Sandpoint 7447A CPU frequency driver
Low: 650 Mhz, High: 1300 Mhz, Boot: 1300 Mhz, switch method: CPU
INFO: enter cpufreq_cpu_init
.INFO: enter cpufreq_cpu_init
JPAN:table_verify() min=650000, max=1300000
JPAN:table_verify() min=650000, max=1300000
Installing knfsd (copyright (C) 1996 [email protected]).
Macintosh non-volatile memory driver v1.1
Serial: 8250/16550 driver $Revision: 1.90 $ 6 ports, IRQ sharing disabled
ttyS0 at MMIO 0x0 (irq = 4) is a NS16550A
ttyS1 at MMIO 0x0 (irq = 3) is a NS16550A
RAMDISK driver initialized: 16 RAM disks of 16384K size 1024 blocksize
loop: loaded (max 8 devices)
pcnet32.c:v1.27b 01.10.2002 [email protected]
8139too Fast Ethernet driver 0.9.27
eth0: RealTek RTL8139 at 0xd1000f00, 00:40:f4:7b:c0:09, IRQ 21
Uniform Multi-Platform E-IDE driver Revision: 7.00alpha2
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ide: Assuming 33MHz system bus speed for PIO modes; override with idebus=xx
W82C105: IDE controller at PCI slot 0000:00:0b.1
W82C105: chipset revision 5
W82C105: 100% native mode on irq 16
ide0: BM-DMA at 0xbfffd0-0xbfffd7, BIOS settings: hda:DMA, hdb:DMA
ide1: BM-DMA at 0xbfffd8-0xbfffdf, BIOS settings: hdc:DMA, hdd:DMA
Probing IDE interface ide0...
hda: WDC WD400BB-00DEA0, ATA DISK drive
hda: selected PIO 4 (120ns) (0240)
hda: DMA enabled
Using anticipatory io scheduler
ide0 at 0xbffff8-0xbfffff,0xbffff6 on irq 14
Probing IDE interface ide1...
ide1: Wait for ready failed before probe !
Probing IDE interface ide1...
ide1: Wait for ready failed before probe !
hda: max request size: 128KiB
hda: 78165360 sectors (40020 MB) w/2048KiB Cache, CHS=65535/16/63, (U)DMA
hda: hda1 hda2 hda3 hda4
ide-floppy driver 0.99.newide
st: Version 20040122, fixed bufsize 32768, s/g segs 256
mice: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
serio: i8042 AUX port at 0x60,0x64 irq 12
atkbd.c: keyboard reset failed on isa0060/serio1
serio: i8042 KBD port at 0x60,0x64 irq 1
atkbd.c: keyboard reset failed on isa0060/serio0
NET: Registered protocol family 2
IP: routing cache hash table of 2048 buckets, 16Kbytes
TCP: Hash tables configured (established 16384 bind 32768)
eth0: link up, 100Mbps, full-duplex, lpa 0x41E1
IP-Config: Complete:
device=eth0, addr=10.82.118.20, mask=255.255.252.0, gw=10.82.119.254,
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host=sandpoint, domain=, nis-domain=(none),
bootserver=10.82.117.52, rootserver=10.82.117.52, rootpath=
NET: Registered protocol family 1
NET: Registered protocol family 17
NET: Registered protocol family 8
NET: Registered protocol family 20
Looking up port of RPC 100003/2 on 10.82.117.52
Looking up port of RPC 100005/1 on 10.82.117.52
VFS: Mounted root (nfs filesystem).
Freeing unused kernel memory: 100k init 4k pmac
INIT: version 2.78 booting
Welcome to DENX Embedded Linux Environment
Press ’I’ to enter interactive startup.
Mounting proc filesystem:
[
OK
Configuring kernel parameters:
]
[
OK
]
Cannot access the Hardware Clock via any known method.
Use the --debug option to see the details of our search for an access method.
Setting clock : Thu Jun 24 22:58:44 EDT 2004 [
Activating swap partitions:
[
OK
]
Setting hostname sandpoint:
[
OK
]
OK
]
modprobe: Can’t open dependencies file /lib/modules/2.6.3/modules.dep (No such file
or directory)
Checking filesystems
[
OK
]
Mounting local filesystems:
[
Enabling swap space:
]
[
OK
OK
]
OK
]
INIT: Entering runlevel: 3
Entering non-interactive startup
Setting network parameters:
[
Bringing up interface lo:
[
OK
Starting system logger: [
OK
]
Starting kernel logger: [
OK
]
]
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Starting ntpd: [
OK
Starting xinetd: [
]
OK
]
At this point Linux will ask for a login. Since the ELDK is being used, a minimal root file system via NFS, the only
login user is root with no password. So log in as root. The ifconfig command will show that we are using IP
address 10.82.118.204.
sandpoint login: root
Last login: Wed May 12 02:28:37 on console
bash-2.05# ls
Makefile
Makefile~
benchmarks
whichcpu
whichcpu.c
bash-2.05#
bash-2.05# ifconfig eth0
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet
HWaddr 00:40:F4:7B:C0:09
inet addr:10.82.118.204
Bcast:10.82.119.255
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST
MTU:1500
Mask:255.255.252.0
Metric:1
RX packets:6867 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:3751 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:6553788 (6.2 Mb)
TX bytes:607222 (592.9 Kb)
Interrupt:21 Base address:0xf00
bash-2.05#
6.2.5 Logging into the Sandpoint Linux from Genesi Pegasos II
Now that Linux is running on the Sandpoint and its IP address is known, start an ethernet terminal session with the
telnet command from any other computer.
Telnet from Genesi
[email protected]:~$ telnet 10.82.118.204
Trying 10.82.118.204...
Connected to 10.82.118.204.
Escape character is ’^]’.
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Linux 2.6.3 (sandpoint) (23:34 on Thursday, 24 June 2004)
login: root
Last login: Thu Jun 24 23:33:40 on console
bash-2.05# ls
Makefile
Makefile~
benchmarks
whichcpu
whichcpu.c
bash-2.05#
6.3 ADS with a PowerQUICC III Processor
The ADS board uses environment variables to boot and pass boot parameters to Linux. U-boot the firmware on the
ADS board runs at a baud rate of 115200.
Use IP address 10.82.0.105, which select /opt/ppc_82xx, use serial terminal at baud rate of 115200.
Using the IP address of 10.82.0.105, so that the host, Genesi Pegasos II at IP
address 10.82.117.52 will NFS mount the /opt/ppc_82xx directory.
The Linux boot parameters are as follows:
=> setenv ipaddr 10.82.0.105
=> setenv serverip 10.82.117.52
=> setenv gatewayip 10.82.1.254
=> setenv hostname komodo
=> setenv bootcmd $nfsboot
=> setenv bootfile uImage.ads60
=> setenv rootpath /opt/ppc_82xx
=> setenv netmask 255.255.252.0
=> setenv netdev eth2
The variable, $nfsboot is set to this value
setenv bootargs root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=$serverip:$rootpath
ip=$ipaddr:$serverip:$gatewayip:$netmask:$hostname:$netdev:off
console=$consoledev,$baudrate $othbootargs;tftp $loadaddr $bootfile;bootm $loadaddr
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6.3.1 Start minicom
Use baud rate of 115200, start minicom with no parameters.
[email protected]:~$ minicom -s
Welcome to minicom 2.1
OPTIONS: History Buffer, F-key Macros, Search History Buffer, I18n
Compiled on Nov 12 2003, 20:34:49.
Press CTRL-A Z for help on special keys
The splash screen should now display as shown in Section 6.3.2, “U-boot—Setting up Environment Variables” and
allow communication with the ADS board.
To quit minicom,
control-A
x
Set minicom to wrap lines, rather than start a new line for lines that go past the end of the line. This is necessary for
the root parameter. Turn minicom wrap on with the following commands.
control-a
z
w
Now minicom will indicate that it is using wrap mode.
6.3.2 U-boot—Setting up Environment Variables
The ADS board uses the U-Boot firmware package. When the ADS board is powered on, u-boot will present this
splash screen.
U-Boot 1.1.2(pq3-20040707-0) (Jul
6 2004 - 17:37:04)
Freescale PowerPC
Core: E500, Version: 2.0, (0x80200020)
System: 8560, Version: 2.0, (0x80700020)
Clocks: CPU: 660 MHz, CCB: 264 MHz, DDR: 132 MHz, LBC:
66 MHz
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CPM: 264 Mhz
L1 D-cache 32KB, L1 I-cache 32KB enabled.
Board: ADS
PCI1: 32 bit, 66 MHz (compiled)
I2C:
ready
DRAM:
Initializing
SDRAM: 64 MB
DDR: 128 MB
FLASH: 16 MB
L2 cache enabled: 256KB
In:
serial
Out:
serial
Err:
serial
Net:
MOTO ENET0: PHY is Marvell 88E1011S (1410c62)
MOTO ENET1: PHY is Marvell 88E1011S (1410c62)
MOTO ENET0, MOTO ENET1
Hit any key to stop autoboot:
Now, change the environment variables to indicate the IP desired, the bootfile and command, and other parameters
as shown below.
=> setenv ipaddr 10.82.0.105
=> setenv serverip 10.82.117.52
=> setenv gatewayip 10.82.1.254
=> setenv hostname komodo
=> setenv bootcmd $nfsboot
=> setenv bootfile uImage.ads60
=> setenv rootpath /opt/ppc_82xx
=> setenv netmask 255.255.252.0
=> setenv netdev eth2
Now use the command printenv to see the values of the environment variables.
=> printenv
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nfsboot=setenv bootargs root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=$serverip:$rootpath
ip=$ipaddr:$serverip:$gatewayip:$netmask:$hostname:$netdev:off
console=$consoledev,$baudrate $othbootargs;tftp $loadaddr $bootfile;bootm $loadaddr
bootdelay=10
baudrate=115200
loads_echo=1
ethaddr=00:E0:0C:00:00:FD
eth1addr=00:E0:0C:00:01:FD
eth2addr=00:E0:0C:00:02:FD
loadaddr=200000
ethact=MOTO ENET0
ramdiskfile=afleming/ramdisk-main.u-boot
ramdiskaddr=1000000
consoledev=ttyS0
stdin=serial
stdout=serial
stderr=serial
ipaddr=10.82.0.105
serverip=10.82.117.52
gatewayip=10.82.1.254
hostname=komodo
bootcmd=setenv bootargs root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=$serverip:$rootpath
ip=$ipaddr:$serverip:$gatewayip:$netmask:$hostname:$netdev:off
console=$consoledev,$baudrate $othbootargs;tftp $loadaddr $bootfile;bootm $loadaddr
bootfile=uImage.ads60
rootpath=/opt/ppc_82xx
netmask=255.255.252.0
netdev=eth2
Environment size: 1034/8188 bytes
Optionally, save the environment for future boots with the saveenv command.
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6.3.3 Invocation
Issue the u-boot command boot, which will invoke the argument bootcmd to download the Linux kernel to the target
and start it executing.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Send a TFTP read request (RRQ) to the host
— which will start downloading uImage.ads60 from the host directory, /tftpboot.
Start executing at uImage.ads60 entry point
The Linux kernel boot wrapper starts on the target
The Linux kernel parses the boot options
— using the u-boot argument bootargs
The Linux kernel will mount the NFS root to the host exported directory /opt/ppc_82xx
— because the IP address specified indicates this NFS mount via the host /etc/exports file.
The Linux kernel will execute the /sbin/init program on the exported NFS root file system
— which is from the host hard disk target,
– i.e. the NFS mounted root directory, specifically, /opt/ppc_82xx/sbin/init on the host.
The u-boot console will now display
=> boot
Speed: 100, full duplex
Using MOTO ENET0 device
TFTP from server 10.82.117.52; our IP address is 10.82.0.105; sending through gateway
10.82.1.254
Filename ’uImage.ads60’.
Load address: 0x200000
Loading: *#################################################################
#################################################################
#######################################################
done
Bytes transferred = 943035 (e63bb hex)
## Booting image at 00200000 ...
Image Name:
Linux-2.4.26-pre5-moto-pq3-2004_
Image Type:
PowerPC Linux Kernel Image (gzip compressed)
Data Size:
942971 Bytes = 920.9 kB
Load Address: 00000000
Entry Point:
00000000
Verifying Checksum ... OK
Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK
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Memory CAM mapping: CAM0=64Mb, CAM1=64Mb, CAM2=0Mb residual: 0Mb
Linux version 2.4.26-pre5-moto-pq3-2004_04_23-0 ([email protected])
(gcc version 3.2.2 20030217 (Yellow Dog Linux 3.0 3.2.2-2a)) #4 Fri Apr 23 19:50:02
CDT 2004
On node 0 totalpages: 32768
zone(0): 32768 pages.
zone(1): 0 pages.
zone(2): 0 pages.
Kernel command line: root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=10.82.117.52:/opt/ppc_82xx
ip=10.82.0.105:10.82.117.52:10.82.1.254:255.255.252.0:komodo:eth2:off
console=ttyS0,115200
OpenPIC Version 1.2 (1 CPUs and 44 IRQ sources) at e0040000
time_init: decrementer frequency = 33.000000 MHz
Calibrating delay loop... 658.63 BogoMIPS
Memory: 127168k available (1504k kernel code, 448k data, 248k init, 0k highmem)
Dentry cache hash table entries: 16384 (order: 5, 131072 bytes)
Inode cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
Mount cache hash table entries: 512 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
Buffer cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
Page-cache hash table entries: 32768 (order: 5, 131072 bytes)
POSIX conformance testing by UNIFIX
PCI: Probing PCI hardware
PCI: moved device 00:00.1 resource 0 (200) to 80000000
PCI: Failed to allocate resource 1(0-7fffffff) for 00:00.1
Linux NET4.0 for Linux 2.4
Based upon Swansea University Computer Society NET3.039
Initializing RT netlink socket
Starting kswapd
Installing knfsd (copyright (C) 1996 [email protected]).
i2c-core.o: i2c core module version 2.6.1 (20010830)
i2c-dev.o: i2c /dev entries driver module version 2.6.1 (20010830)
i2c-proc.o version 2.6.1 (20010830)
CPM UART driver version 0.01
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ttyS0 on SCC1 at 0x8000, BRG1
ttyS1 on SCC2 at 0x8100, BRG2
pty: 256 Unix98 ptys configured
eth0: FCC ENET Version 0.3, 00:e0:0c:40:00:fd
eth0: Phy @ 0x2, type Davicom DM9161E (0x0181b881)
eth1: FCC ENET Version 0.3, 00:e0:0c:20:00:fd
eth1: Phy @ 0x3, type Davicom DM9161E (0x0181b881)
RAMDISK driver initialized: 16 RAM disks of 32768K size 1024 blocksize
loop: loaded (max 8 devices)
Intel(R) PRO/1000 Network Driver - version 5.2.30.1-k1
Copyright (c) 1999-2004 Intel Corporation.
eth2: Gianfar Ethernet Controller Version 1.0, 00:e0:0c:00:00:fd
eth2: Running with NAPI disabled
eth2: 64/64 RX/TX BD ring size
eth3: Gianfar Ethernet Controller Version 1.0, 00:e0:0c:00:01:fd
eth3: Running with NAPI disabled
eth3: 64/64 RX/TX BD ring size
PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
PPP Deflate Compression module registered
Uniform Multi-Platform E-IDE driver Revision: 7.00beta4-2.4
ide: Assuming 33MHz system bus speed for PIO modes; override with idebus=xx
mpc-i2c0: scanning bus...
0x31 found
0x50 found
mpc-i2c0: bus was busy
mpc-i2c0: bus was busy
mpc-i2c0: bus was busy
mpc-i2c0: 2 device(s) detected
NET4: Linux TCP/IP 1.0 for NET4.0
IP Protocols: ICMP, UDP, TCP, IGMP
IP: routing cache hash table of 1024 buckets, 8Kbytes
TCP: Hash tables configured (established 8192 bind 16384)
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eth2: PHY is Marvell 88E1011S (1410c62)
eth2: Auto-negotiation done
eth2: Full Duplex
eth2: Speed 100BT
eth2: Link is up
IP-Config: Complete:
device=eth2, addr=10.82.0.105, mask=255.255.252.0, gw=10.82.1.254,
host=komodo, domain=, nis-domain=(none),
bootserver=10.82.117.52, rootserver=10.82.117.52, rootpath=
NET4: Unix domain sockets 1.0/SMP for Linux NET4.0.
Looking up port of RPC 100003/2 on 10.82.117.52
Looking up port of RPC 100005/1 on 10.82.117.52
VFS: Mounted root (nfs filesystem).
Freeing unused kernel memory: 248k init
INIT: version 2.78 booting
Welcome to DENX Embedded Linux Environment
Press ’I’ to enter interactive startup.
Mounting proc filesystem:
[
OK
Configuring kernel parameters:
]
[
OK
]
Cannot access the Hardware Clock via any known method.
Use the --debug option to see the details of our search for an access method.
Setting clock : Wed Dec 31 19:00:05 EST 1969 [
Activating swap partitions:
[
Setting hostname komodo:
OK
[
OK
OK
]
]
]
modprobe: Can’t open dependencies file
/lib/modules/2.4.26-pre5-moto-pq3-2004_04_23-0/modules.dep (No such file or
directory)
Finding module dependencies: depmod: Can’t open
/lib/modules/2.4.26-pre5-moto-pq3-2004_04_23-0/modules.dep for writing
[FAILED]
Checking filesystems
[
OK
]
Mounting local filesystems:
[
OK
]
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Enabling swap space:
[
OK
]
INIT: Entering runlevel: 3
Entering non-interactive startup
Setting network parameters:
[
OK
Bringing up interface lo:
[
Starting system logger: [
OK
]
Starting kernel logger: [
OK
]
Starting ntpd: [
Starting xinetd: [
OK
OK
]
]
]
OK
]
Now Linux is running on the ADS board and will accept all Linux commands available in the minimal NFS root file
system that is mounted, /opt/ppc_82xx from the host.
An example of the root login is shown below. It is the only login, since this is a minimal root file system. No other
users can be created since the adduser command is not available. Also, root user has no password. After the login,
the current/root directory is shown, followed by an example of the program whichcpu, then /proc/cpuinfo, which
shows the same information. Finally, an example using /proc/devices shows all the available devices.
komodo login: root
Last login: Wed Dec 31 19:00:16 on console
lbash-2.05# ls
Makefile benchmarks temp whichcpu whichcpu.c
[mbash-2.05#
bash-2.05# ./whichcpu
------------------------------------------------------------------
2004 FAE Training test program, printing local CPU info
processor: 0
cpu
: e500
revision: 2.0 (pvr 8020 0020)
bogomips: 658.63
Vendor
: Motorola SPS
Machine
: mpc8560ads
bus freq: 660.000000 MHz
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PVR
: 0x80200020
SVR
: 0x80700020
PLL setting: 0x5
Memory
: 128 MB
-----------------------------------------------------------------bash-2.05#
bash-2.05# cat /proc/cpuinfo
processor: 0
cpu
: e500
revision: 2.0 (pvr 8020 0020)
bogomips: 658.63
Vendor
: Motorola SPS
Machine
: mpc8560ads
bus freq: 660.000000 MHz
PVR
: 0x80200020
SVR
: 0x80700020
PLL setting: 0x5
Memory
: 128 MB
bash-2.05#
cat /proc/devices
Character devices:
1 mem
2 pty
3 ttyp
4 ttyS
5 cua
7 vcs
10 misc
89 i2c
108 ppp
128 ptm
136 pts
162 raw
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Block devices:
1 ramdisk
7 loop
bash-2.05#
6.4 Ethernet Connection
The host can now connect via ethernet and the telnet or ssh program to either target. For simplicity, once the targets
are running, the results will be the same, with the exception of which NFS mount is being used. Therefore, these
examples will only use the ADS board. Results for the Sandpoint are the same.
6.4.1 Start a Telnet Session with the ADS Target on the Host
telnet 10.82.0.105
[bash-2.05# login
[bash-2.05# root]$
6.4.2 Start a Login Session with the Local Sandpoint Host
[appslab12.sps.mot.com:/2004] telnet 10.82.118.204
Trying 10.82.118.204...
Connected to 10.82.118.204.
Escape character is ’^]’.
Linux 2.6.3 (sandpoint) (07:47 on Friday, 25 June 2004)
login: root
Last login: Thu Jun 24 23:34:33 from 10.82.117.52
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6.4.3 Compare the Target with the Host
By using the Linux command cat of the special file /proc/cpuinfo, compare the two CPUs, one on the target and one
on the host.
target console
Host console
Figure 5. Target and Host CPU Information
By using the ls command look at the same root file system for the target, /,which is the root, and the directory for
the host, /opt/ppc_82xx. These are the same directory and are shared between the target and the host.
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Connecting the NFS Root File System to a Target
target console
=
Host console
Figure 6. Looking at the Same Directory on Host and Target
It should be clear from the two screens in Figure 6 that the target has mounted an NFS root file system, which it sees
as the root, /, which is in fact the same as the directory /opt/ppc_82xx on the host. Both the host and the target have
access to this directory structure. Since the /etc/exports file has denoted this directory as mountable with
no_root_squash, the target can write on this directory.
Genesi Pegasos II Kernel and NFS Facility, Rev. 0
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References
7
References
The following documents describe the various applications of the Genesi Pegasos II system.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Freescale application note AN2666, Genesi Pegasos II Setup
Freescale application note AN2736, Genesi Pegasos II Boot Options
Freescale application note AN2738, Genesi Pegasos II Firmware
Freescale application note AN2739, Genesi Pegasos II Debian Linux
Freescale application note AN2743, Software Analysis on Genesi Pegasos II Using PMON and AltiVec
Freescale application note AN2744, PMON Module—An Example of Writing Kernel Module Code for
Debian 2.6 on Genesi Pegasos II
7. Freescale application note AN2578, Creating a Linux ‘Out of the Box’ Experience on a Sandpoint
Platform, available on the Freescale Semiconductor, DINK32 web site.
8. DINK32 PowerPC Debugger User’s Manual, available on the Freescale Semiconductor DINK32 web site.
For assistance or answers to any question on the information that is presented in this document, send an e-mail to
[email protected]
8
Document Revision History
Table 1 provides a revision history for this application note.
Table 1. Document Revision History
Rev. No.
Date
0
08/11/04
Substantive Change(s)
Initial release.
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Document Revision History
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39
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AN2748
Rev. 0
08/2004