ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 4.8V to 30V Input, 1.5A LED Driver with Dimming Control FEATURES GENERAL DESCRIPTION • • • • • • • • The ACT111A is a high efficient LED driver employing current-mode buck converter topology that supplies up to 1.5A from wide input voltage range from 4.8V up to 30V. The ACT111A is designed to operate as a constant source with 1.4MHz fixed frequency. ACT111A consists of a PWM control circuit, a high precision band-gap voltage reference, an oscillator, an error amplifier with internal compensation network and the N channel power MOSFET. An external sense resistor in series with the LED monitors output current allowing accurate current regulation, ideal for driving high current LEDs. The built-in fault condition protection circuits including current limiting, UVLO and thermal shutdown prevent itself from potentially faulty operation and burn-out. Up to 92% Efficiency Wide 4.8V to 30V Input Voltage Range 100mV Low Feedback Voltage 1.5A High Output Capacity PWM Dimming 10kHz Maximum Dimming Frequency Thermal Shutdown SOT23-6 Package APPLICATIONS • • • • • • • High Brightness LED Driver Architecture Detail Lighting The ACT111A is ideal for single 1W to 5W LED drivers. With its ultra low feedback voltage, a low current ripple, high efficiency of up to 92% stepdown power LED driver can be easily composed of with additional several external components such as an inductor, a Schottky diode, a few resistors and capacitors. Constant Current Source Hand-held Lighting Automotive RCL, DRL, and Fog Lights Indicators and Emergency Lighting MR16 and other LED Bulb TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUIT Innovative PowerTM -1- Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 ORDERING INFORMATION PART NUMBER TEMPERATURE RANGE PACKAGE PINS PACKING TOP MARK ACT111AUS-T -40°C to 85°C SOT23-6 6 TAPE & REEL FRWE PIN CONFIGURATION 1 G 2 BST 3 FRWE FB 6 DIM 5 IN 4 SW SOT23-6 ACT111AUS-T PIN DESCRIPTIONS PIN NUMBER PIN NAME 1 FB Feedback Input for regulating LED current. The voltage at this pin is regulated to 0.1V. An external resistor is connected from this pin to ground to sense the LED current. 2 G Ground. 3 BST Bootstrap pin. This provides power to the internal high-side N channel MOSFET gate driver. Connect a 2.2nF capacitor from the pin to SW pin. 4 SW Internal N channel power MOSFET source output pin. Connect it to one end of power inductor. 5 IN Power supply input. Bypass this pin with a 10µF ceramic capacitor to GND, placed as close to the IC as possible. 6 DIM PWM signal input for dimming control. Apply PWM signal with amplitude greater than 2V to this pin. The device is enabled as DIM pin open and disabled when it is connected to G. Innovative PowerTM PIN DESCRIPTION -2- Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGSc PARAMETER VALUE UNIT -0.3 to 34 V SW to G -1 to VIN + 1 V BST to G VSW - 0.3 to VSW + 7 V FB to G -0.3 to +6 V DIM to G -0.3 to +3 V Internally Limited A Junction to Ambient Thermal Resistance (θJA) 220 °C/W Maximum Power Dissipation 0.5 W Operating Junction Temperature -40 to 150 °C Storage Temperature -55 to 150 °C 300 °C IN to G Continuous SW Current Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec) c: Do not exceed these limits to prevent damage to the device. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for long periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VIN = 12V, TA = 25°C, unless otherwise specified.) PARAMETER Input Voltage VIN Turn-On Voltage SYMBOL TEST CONDITIONS VIN MIN 4.8 Input Voltage Rising 4.0 VIN UVLO Hysteresis Supply Operation Current VFB = 0.2V 30 V 4.7 V VFB = 0.08V mV 2 mA 1.15 1.4 1.65 MHz 90 92 95 % 75 5V ≤ VIN ≤ 20V 97 102 FB Leakage Current CC Current Limit UNIT 1 Minimum On-Time Effective FB Voltage 4.4 MAX 250 Switching Frequency Maximum Duty Cycle TYP Duty Cycle = 5% 1.8 2.4 PWM DIM Frequency ns 107 mV 100 nA 3.0 A 10 kHz DIM Threshold Voltage DIM rising 1.66 V DIM Hysteresis DIM rising 100 mV DIM Input Leakage 1 µA High-Side Switch On-Resistance 0.3 Ω Low-Side Switch On-Resistance 15 Ω Thermal Shutdown Temperature 160 °C Thermal Hysteresis 10 °C Innovative PowerTM -3- Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS (TA = 25°C, unless otherwise specified.) Efficiency vs. Load Current Efficiency (%) 85 VIN = 18V 75 VIN = 24V 65 55 0.1 1 75 VIN = 18V VIN = 24V 65 55 VOUT = 5V 50 VIN = 12V 85 Efficiency (%) VIN = 12V ACT111A-002 95 ACT111A-001 95 Efficiency vs. Load Current VOUT = 3.3V 50 10 0.1 1 Load Current (A) Load Current (A) FB Voltage vs. Temperature Oscillator Frequency vs. Temperature Oscillator Frequency (MHz) FB Voltage (mV) 101 100 99 ACT111A-004 1.60 ACT111A-003 102 98 -40 10 1.50 1.40 1.30 1.20 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -40 120 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C) Peak Current Limit vs. Duty Cycle Peak Current Limit (A) ACT111A-005 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0 20 60 40 80 100 Duty Cycle Innovative PowerTM -4- Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM IN LOGIC DIM CSA REGULATOR & UVLO BST OSCILLATOR CONTROL PWM Comparator ILIM Comparator Q1 DRIVER SW REFERENCE & THERMAL SHUTDOWN COMPENSATION EA FB G connecting a PWM signal (frequency rage from 0.1kHz to 10kHz) the DIM pin. If the DIM pin is unconnected or pulled high, the ACT111A operates normally. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The ACT111A is a current-mode step-down 1.5A LED driver with no extra external compensation components. It has wide 4.8V to 30V input voltage range for a variety of power sources. The 100mV low feedback voltage and an external current sense resistor makes it deliver LED current programmable from 20mA to 700mA with efficiency up to 96%. The device contains an internal, low-resistance, highvoltage power MOSFET, and operates at a high 1.4MHz operating frequency to ensure a compact, high-efficiency design with excellent AC and DC performance. It is in a space saving SOT23-6 package. Inductor Selection The optimum inductor for a given application has to be chosen with operation condition. The inductor current waveform is a triangle with an average value equal to the load current in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The peak switch current is equal to the output current plus half the peak-topeak inductor ripple current and is limited to around 1.8A to protect itself and power stage from overload condition. Therefore, the maximum output current to a load depends on the switch current limit, the inductor value, and the input and output voltages. The ACT111A is a current mode regulator. It controls the inductor peak current by the feedback loop during each switching cycle. Therefore, it improves loop dynamics. In steady state operation, a pulse from the oscillator starts a cycle to turn on the internal top MOSFET switch. Current in the switch and the external inductor ramps up. As the current level reaches the voltage level defined by the internal error amplifier output, the internal switch is turned off. The current in the inductor flows through the external Schottky diode. The inductor current is continuously adjusted by the internal error amplifier. In the ACT111A, the voltage to the FB pin compares to the internal accurate 100mV reference voltage to generate error signal. Therefore, as a current sense resistor in series with LED is connected to the FB pin, the LED current is well regulated. The peak-to-peak inductor ripple current is usually controlled to 20%-30% of the output current and the inductor value is selected accordingly by: L = (1) where f is 1.4MHz switching frequency of the ACT111A, VO is the output voltage, VF is the Schottky diode forward voltage drop (~0.4V), and D is switching duty cycle given by: D = VO + V F V IN + V F (2) The inductor’s RMS current rating must be greater than the maximum load current and its saturation current should be at least 30% higher. For high LED dimming can be performed by directly Innovative PowerTM ( 1 − D )( V O + V F ) ΔIL × f -5- Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 efficiency and good thermal condition, the inductor DC resistance (DCR) should be less than 0.25Ω. The peak inductor and switch current is: I L( PK ) = I SW ( PK ) = IO + ΔI L Rectifier Diode Selection Use a Schottky diode as the rectifier to conduct current when the ACT111A internal top MOSFET switch is off. In steady state operation, average forward current in the diode is: (3) 2 VIN − VO VIN The peak current must be less than the current limit to maintain output regulation. ID _ AVG = IO Input Capacitor Selection The Schottky diode must have current rating higher than the maximum output current and the reverse voltage rating higher than the maximum input voltage. A step-down regulator draws pulsing current from input source. The input capacitor is required to reduce the voltage ripple at the ACT111A input and force the pulsing current into a local loop to minimize EMI. The input capacitor must have low impedance at the switching frequency to effectively reduce the voltage ripple and EMI, and it must have an adequate RMS ripple current rating. The RMS current for the input capacitor is: ICIN _ RMS = IO × VO (VIN − VO ) VIN < IO 2 (6) PWM and Analog Dimming There are two dimming schemes to control LED average current during steady state operation. As those applications requiring a PWM logic signal to control dimming, the PWM signal could be directly applied to the DIM pin of the ACT111A as shown in Figure 1. The LEDs turn on with full load to completely turn off. The average LED current increase proportionally to the duty cycle of the PWM signal. The turn-on threshold voltage is 1.66V with 100mV hysteresis. The frequency of the PWM signal is from 100 Hz up to 10 kHz. (4) For best performance choose a ceramic type capacitor with X5R or X7R dielectrics due to their low ESR and small temperature coefficients. However, low ESR tantalum or electrolytic types may also be used, provided that the RMS ripple current rating is higher than 50% of the output current. For most applications, a 10μF capacitor is sufficient. The input capacitor should be placed close to the IN and G pins of the ACT111A, with shortest possible traces. In the case of tantalum or electrolytic types, connect a small parallel 0.1μF ceramic capacitor right next to the ACT111A. If analog dimming scheme is preferred in an application, a DC voltage to control the FB voltage, as shown in Figure 2 is used. As the DC voltage increases from 0 to certain level determined by the application like 5V, current starts to flow down RDIM, R1 and RS. As the control loop maintains the feedback voltage VFB to be 100mV, the current through the LEDs will linearly decrease to zero. Output Capacitor Selection Figure 1: A ceramic capacitor with X5R or X7R dielectric provides the best results over a wide range of applications. The output capacitor also needs to have low ESR to keep low output voltage ripple. The output ripple voltage is: PWM Dimming VO _ RIPPLE = IO × K RIPPLE × ESR + IO × K RIPPLE 8 × f × CO ACT111A PWM RS (5) where IO is the output current, KRIPPLE is the ripple factor (typically 20% to 30%), ESR is the equivalent series resistor of the output capacitor, f is 1.4MHz switching frequency, L is the inductor value, and CO is the output capacitance. In the case of ceramic output capacitors, ESR is very small and does not contribute to the ripple. In the case of tantalum or electrolytic type, the ripple is dominated by ESR multiplied by the ripple current. In this case, the output capacitor is chosen to have low ESR capacitor with ESR typically less than 50mΩ. Innovative PowerTM R1 FB DIM Figure 2: Analog Dimming VDIM ACT111A DIM RDIM FB R1 -6- Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute RS www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 The following equation determines resistor values: R DIM = R1 VDIM (MAX ) − VFB (7) VFB According to the equation, Table 1 shows the respective resister values with different DC dimming voltage. VTB is 100mV, R1 is chosen to be 30kΩ. Table 1: Open LED Protection VDIM(MAX) (V) R1 (kΩ) RDIM (kΩ) 5 30 1470 3.3 30 976 2 30 576 In case of LED failure, the ACT111A will operate at maximum duty cycle due to the feedback voltage drops to zero. This will results in the output voltage moving up. To prevent over voltage on the output, a Zener and a series resistor are used as shown in Figure 3 and Figure 6 (ZD1 and R4). Thermal Shutdown The ACT111A automatically turns off when the IC junction temperature exceeds 160°C, and reenables when the IC junction temperature drops by 10°C (typ). PC Board Layout To achieve good performance, it is extremely important to have optimized component placement and layout on PCB for a high switching frequency and high efficiency regulator. Here are recommendations for the layout: Place input capacitor to IN pin, inductor and diode to SW pin as close as possible to reduce the voltage ringing at these pins. Place the current sense resistor close to FB pin. Minimize ground noise by connecting high current ground returns, the input capacitor ground lead, and the output filter ground lead to a single point (star ground configuration). There are two power loops in normal operation, one is formed when the SW is high and the high current flows through input capacitor, internal MOSFET, inductor, LEDs, RSENSE to ground. The other loop is through inductor, LEDs, RSENSE, ground to diode. Make these loop areas as small as possible to minimize noise interaction. SW pad is a noisy node switching from VIN to GND. It should be isolated away from the rest of circuit for good EMI and low noise operation. Innovative PowerTM -7- Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS Figure 3: 12VAC Input 3x0.35A LED Driver with PWM Dimming Efficiency vs. Load Current Output Current (mA) Efficiency (%) 90 VIN =12VAC 80 70 60 300 ACT111A-007 VIN =12VDC Output Current vs. Input Voltage 400 ACT111A-006 100 380 360 340 320 300 400 500 600 12 700 15 18 21 24 Input Voltage (V) Load Current (mA) Figure 4: Figure 5: PCB Top Layer PCB Bottom Layer 18mm 11.8mm Innovative PowerTM -8- Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 Table 2: Bill of Material ITEM REFERENCE DESCRIPTION MANUFACTURER 1 U1 IC, ACT111A 2 C1 Capacitor Tantalum, 47µF/25V, E Case AVX 3 C2 Capacitor, Ceramic, 0.01µF/50V, 0603 POE 4 C3 Capacitor, Ceramic, 100pF/25V, 0603 POE 5 C4 Capacitor Tantalum, 47µF/16V, D Case AVX 6 D1 - D4 7 D5 8 ZD1 9 Active-Semi Diode Schottky, 40V/1A, SS14, SMA PANJIT Schottky Barrier Rectifier, SR24, 40V/2.0A, SMB PANJIT Diode Zener, GLZ13A, 13V, 0.5W, MINI-MELF PANJIT R1 Meter Film Resistor, 30kΩ, 0603, 5% TY-OHM 10 R2 Meter Film Resistor, 0.28Ω, 1206, 1% TY-OHM 11 R4 Meter Film Resistor, 510Ω, 1206, 5% TY-OHM 12 L1 SMD Power Inductor, SR0604100ML, 10µH, ±20% QianRu Innovative PowerTM -9- Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 Figure 6: 24VDC Input 5×0.7A LED Driver with PWM Dimming Efficiency vs. Load Current Output Current (mA) 90 80 70 750 700 650 600 60 300 ACT111A-009 Efficiency (%) Output Current vs. Input Voltage 800 ACT111A-008 100 400 500 600 12 700 15 18 21 24 Input Voltage (V) Load Current (mA) Figure 7: Figure 8: PCB Top Layer PCB Bottom Layer 30mm 18mm Innovative PowerTM - 10 - www.active-semi.com Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 Table 3: Bill of Material ITEM REFERENCE 1 U1 IC, ACT111A 2 C1 Capacitor Tantalum, 47µF/35V, E Case AVX 3 C3 Capacitor, Ceramic, 0.01µF/50V, 0603 POE 4 C4 Capacitor, Ceramic, 100pF/25V, 0603 POE 5 C5 Capacitor Tantalum, 10µF/25V, D Case AVX 6 D1 Schottky Barrier Rectifier, SR24, 40V/2.0A, SMB PANJIT 7 ZD1 Diode Zener, GLZ21A, 21V, 0.5W, MINI-MELF PANJIT 8 R1 Meter Film Resistor, 30kΩ, 0603, 5% TY-OHM 9 R2 Meter Film Resistor, 0.14Ω, 1206, 1% TY-OHM 10 R4 Meter Film Resistor, 1kΩ, 1206, 5% TY-OHM 11 L1 SMD Power Inductor, SR0604100ML, 10µH, ±20% QianRu Innovative PowerTM DESCRIPTION MANUFACTURER Active-Semi - 11 - www.active-semi.com Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT111A Rev 0, 14-Feb-11 PACKAGE OUTLINE SOT23-6 PACKAGE OUTLINE AND DIMENSIONS D θ SYMBOL 0.2 E E1 c e A A1 A2 e1 DIMENSION IN INCHES MIN MAX MIN MAX A - 1.450 - 0.057 A1 0.000 0.150 0.000 0.006 A2 0.900 1.300 0.035 0.051 b 0.300 0.500 0.012 0.020 c 0.080 0.220 0.003 0.009 L b DIMENSION IN MILLIMETERS D 2.900 BSC 0.114 BSC E 1.600 BSC 0.063 BSC E1 2.800 BSC 0.110 BSC e 0.950 BSC 0.037 BSC e1 1.900 BSC 0.075 BSC L 0.300 0.600 0.012 0.024 θ 0° 8° 0° 8° Active-Semi, Inc. reserves the right to modify the circuitry or specifications without notice. Users should evaluate each product to make sure that it is suitable for their applications. Active-Semi products are not intended or authorized for use as critical components in life-support devices or systems. Active-Semi, Inc. does not assume any liability arising out of the use of any product or circuit described in this datasheet, nor does it convey any patent license. Active-Semi and its logo are trademarks of Active-Semi, Inc. For more information on this and other products, contact [email protected] or visit http://www.active-semi.com. ® is a registered trademark of Active-Semi. Innovative PowerTM - 12 - www.active-semi.com Active-Semi Confidential―Do Not Copy or Distribute Copyright © 2011 Active-Semi, Inc.