LMH6504 Wideband, Low Power, Variable Gain Amplifier General Description Features The LMH™6504 is a wideband DC coupled voltage controlled gain stage followed by a high-speed current feedback Op Amp which can directly drive a low impedance load. Gain adjustment range is 80 dB for up to 10 MHz by varying the gain control input voltage, VG. VS = ± 5V, TA = 25˚C, RF = 1 KΩ, RG = 100Ω, RL = 100Ω, AV = AVMAX = 9.7V/V, Typical values unless specified. n −3 dB BW 150 MHz n Gain control BW 150 MHz n Adjustment range ( < 10 MHz) 80 dB ± 55 mV n Output offset voltage ± 0.42 dB n Gain matching (limit) n Supply voltage range 7V to 12V n Slew rate (inverting) 1500 V/µs n Supply Current (no load) 11 mA ± 60 mA n Linear Output Current ± 2.2V n Output Voltage Swing n Input Noise Voltage 4.4 nV/ n Input Noise Current 2.6 pA/ n THD (20 MHz, RL = 100Ω, VO = 2 VPP) −45dBc n Replacement for CLC5523 Maximum gain is set by external components, and the gain can be reduced all the way to cut-off. Power consumption is 110 mW with a speed of 150 MHz and a gain control bandwidth (BW) of 150 MHz. Output referred DC offset voltage is less than 55 mV over the entire gain control voltage range. Device-to-device gain matching is within ± 0.42 dB at maximum gain. Furthermore, gain is tested and guaranteed over a wide range. The output current feedback Op Amp allows high frequency large signals (Slew Rate > 1500 V/µs) and can also drive a heavy load current (60 mA). Near ideal input characteristics (i.e. low input bias current, low offset, low pin 3 resistance) enable the device to be easily configured as an inverting amplifier as well (see Application Information section for details). To provide ease of use when working with a single supply, VG range is set to be from 0V to +2V relative to the ground pin potential (pin 4). VG input impedance is high in order to ease drive requirement. In single supply operation, the ground pin is tied to a "virtual" half supply. LMH6504 gain control is linear in dB for a large portion of the total gain control range. This makes the device suitable for AGC applications. For linear gain control applications, see LMH6503 data sheet. The combination of minimal external components and small outline packages (SO8 and MSOP8) allows the LMH6504 to be used in space-constrained applications. Applications n n n n Variable attenuator AGC Voltage controlled filter Video imaging processing Typical Application 20084302 AVMAX = 9.7 V/V 20084311 Gain vs. VG LMH™ is a trademark of National Semiconductor Corporation. © 2004 National Semiconductor Corporation DS200843 www.national.com LMH6504 Wideband, Low Power, Variable Gain Amplifier June 2004 LMH6504 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1) Junction Temperature If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Soldering Information: 150˚C Infrared or Convection (20 sec) 235˚C Wave Soldering (10 sec) 260˚C ESD Tolerance (Note 4): Human Body 1000V Machine Model Operating Ratings (Note 1) 100V Supply Voltages (V+ - V−) ± 10 mA Input Current Output Current 120 mA (Note 3) Supply Voltages (V+ - V−) Voltage at Input/ Output pins Storage Temperature Range 7V to 12V Operating Temperature Range Thermal Resistance: 12.6V −40˚C to +85˚C (θJC) (θJA) V+ +0.8V, V− −0.8V 8 -Pin SOIC 60 165 −65˚C to 150˚C 8-Pin MSOP 65 235 Electrical Characteristics(Note 2) Unless otherwise specified, all limits guaranteed for TJ = 25˚C, VS = ± 5V, AVMAX = 9.7 V/V, RF = 1kΩ, RG = 100Ω, VIN = ± 0.1V, RL = 100Ω, VG = +2V. Boldface limits apply at the temperature extremes. Symbol Parameter Conditions Min (Note 6) Typ (Note 6) Max (Note 6) Units Frequency Domain Response VOUT < 1 VPP 150 VOUT < 4 VPP, AVMAX = 100 58 VOUT < 1 VPP 0.9V ≤ VG ≤ 2V, ± 0.2 dB 40 Att Range Flat Band (Relative to Max Gain) Attenuation Range (Note 13) ± 0.2 dB Flatness, f < 30 MHz ± 0.1 dB Flatness, f < 30 MHz 26 9.5 BW Control Gain control Bandwidth VG = 1V (Note 12) 150 MHz CT (dB) Feed-through VG = 0V, 30 MHz (Output/Input) −53 dB GR Gain Adjustment Range f < 10 MHz 80 f < 30 MHz 73 0.5V Step 2.1 ns 20 % 4V Step, Non Inverting 800 4V Step, Inverting 1500 BW GF -3dB Bandwidth Gain Flatness MHz MHz dB dB Time Domain Response t r , tf Rise and Fall Time OS % Overshoot SR Slew Rate (Note 5) V/µs Distortion & Noise Performance HD2 2nd Harmonic Distortion HD3 3rd Harmonic Distortion –55 THD Total Harmonic Distortion −45 En tot Total Equivalent Input Noise f > 1 MHz, RSOURCE = 50Ω 4.4 nV/ IN Input Noise Current f > 1 MHz 2.6 pA/ DG Differential Gain f = 4.43 MHz, RL = 100Ω 0.45 % DP Differential Phase 0.13 deg www.national.com 2VPP, 20 MHz −47 2 dBc LMH6504 Electrical Characteristics(Note 2) (Continued) Unless otherwise specified, all limits guaranteed for TJ = 25˚C, VS = ± 5V, AVMAX = 9.7 V/V, RF = 1kΩ, RG = 100Ω, VIN = ± 0.1V, RL = 100Ω, VG = +2V. Boldface limits apply at the temperature extremes. Symbol Parameter Conditions Min (Note 6) Typ (Note 6) Max (Note 6) 0 Units DC & Miscellaneous Performance GACCU G Match Gain Accuracy (See Application Note) Gain Matching (See Application Note K Gain Multiplier (See Application Notes) VIN NL Input Voltage Range VIN L I VG = 2.0V — ± 0.45 ± 3.9 ± 0.42 0.8V < VG < 2V — +2.8/−4.2 0.965 1.01 1.02 VG = 2.0V 0.8V < VG < 2V ± 0.33 0.920 0.916 RG Open ± 0.48 ± 0.40 ± 4.8 ± 4.0 RG = 100Ω dB dB V/V ± 3.2 ± 0.68 V ± 6.8 mA RG Current Pin 3 IBIAS Bias Current Pin 2 (Note 7) −1.4 TC IBIAS Bias Current Drift Pin 2 (Note 8) –190 pA/˚C MΩ RG_MAX −3.5 −3.7 µA RIN Input Resistance Pin 2 7 CIN Input Capacitance Pin 2 2.8 pF IVG VG Bias Current Pin 1, VG = 2V (Note 7) 0.9 µA TC IVG VG Bias Drift Pin 1 (Note 8) 10 pA/˚C R VG VG Input Resistance Pin 1 25 MΩ VG VG Input Capacitance Pin 1 2.8 pF VOUT L Output Voltage Range RL = 100Ω C VOUT NL ± 2.0 ± 1.7 ± 2.2 V ± 3.1 RL = Open 0.12 Ω ± 80 mA ROUT Output Impedance DC IOUT Output Current VOUT = ± 4V from Rails VO Output Offset Voltage 0V < VG < 2V +PSRR +Power Supply Rejection Ratio (Note 9) Input Referred, 1V change, VG = 2.2V –65 –76 −PSRR −Power Supply Rejection Ratio (Note 9) Input Referred, 1V change, VG = 2.2V –65 –88 IS Supply Current No Load 8.5 6.5 11 ± 60 ± 40 ± 10 OFFSET 3 ± 55 ± 70 mV dB dB 15 16 mA www.national.com LMH6504 Electrical Characteristics(Note 2) (Continued) Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is intended to be functional, but specific performance is not guaranteed. For guaranteed specifications, see the Electrical Characteristics. Note 2: Electrical Table values apply only for factory testing conditions at the temperature indicated. Factory testing conditions result in very limited self-heating of the device such that TJ = TA. No guarantee of parametric performance is indicated in the electrical tables under conditions of internal self-heating where TJ > TA. Note 3: The maximum output current (IOUT) is determined by device power dissipation limitations or value specified, whichever is lower. Note 4: Human body model, 1.5 kΩ in series with 100 pF. Machine Model, 0Ω in series with 200 pF Note 5: Slew rate is the average of the rising and falling slew rates. Note 6: Typical values represent the most likely parametric norm. Bold numbers refer to over temperature limits. Note 7: Positive current corresponds to current flowing into the device. Note 8: Drift determined by dividing the change in parameter distribution at temperature extremes by the total temperature change. Note 9: +PSRR definition: [|∆VOUT/∆V+| / AV], −PSRR definition: [|∆VOUT/∆V−| / AV] with 0.1V input voltage. ∆VOUT is the change in output voltage with offset shift subtracted out. Note 10: Gain/Phase normalized to low frequency value at 25˚C. Note 11: Gain/Phase normalized to low frequency value at each setting. Note 12: Gain control frequency response schematic: 20084316 Note 13: Flat Band Attenuation (Relative To Max Gain) Range Definition: Specified as the attenuation range from maximum which allows gain flatness specified (either ± 0.2dB or ± 0.1dB), relative to AVMAX gain. For example, for f < 30 MHz, here are the Flat Band Attenuation ranges: ± 0.2 dB: 19.7 dB down to -6.3 dB = 26 dB range ± 0.1 dB: 19.7 dB down to 10.2 dB = 9.5 dB range Connection Diagram 8-Pin SOIC 20084301 Top View Ordering Information Package 8-Pin SOIC Part Number Package Marking LMH6504MA LMH6504MA LMH6504MAX 8-Pin MSOP www.national.com LMH6504MM LMH6504MMX Transport Media NSC Drawing 95 Units/Rail M08A 2.5k Units Tape and Reel 1k Units Tape and Reel A93A 3.5k Units Tape and Reel 4 MUA08A LMH6504 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VS = ±5V, TA = 25˚C, VG = VGMAX, RF = 1 kΩ, RG = 100Ω, VIN = 0.1V, input terminated in 50Ω. RL = 100Ω, Typical values. Frequency Response Over Temperature Frequency Response for Various VG 20084303 20084304 Frequency Response (AVMAX = 2) Inverting Frequency Response 20084344 20084346 Frequency Response for Various VG (AVMAX = 100) (Large Signal) Frequency Response for Various Amplitudes 20084364 20084345 5 www.national.com LMH6504 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VS = ±5V, TA = 25˚C, VG = VGMAX, RF = 1 kΩ, RG = 100Ω, VIN = 0.1V, input terminated in 50Ω. RL = 100Ω, Typical values. (Continued) Gain Control Frequency Response IS vs. VS 20084333 20084321 IS vs. VS Input Bias Current vs. VS 20084322 20084320 PSRR AVMAX vs. Supply Voltage 20084334 www.national.com 20084323 6 LMH6504 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VS = ±5V, TA = 25˚C, VG = VGMAX, RF = 1 kΩ, RG = 100Ω, VIN = 0.1V, input terminated in 50Ω. RL = 100Ω, Typical values. (Continued) Feed through Isolation for Various AVMAX Gain Variation Over entire Temp Range vs. VG 20084341 20084312 IRG vs. VIN Gain vs. VG 20084318 20084311 Output Offset Voltage vs. VG (Typical Unit #1) Gain vs. VG Including Limits 20084363 20084325 7 www.national.com LMH6504 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VS = ±5V, TA = 25˚C, VG = VGMAX, RF = 1 kΩ, RG = 100Ω, VIN = 0.1V, input terminated in 50Ω. RL = 100Ω, Typical values. (Continued) Output Offset Voltage vs. VG (Typical Unit #2) Output Offset Voltage vs. VG (Typical Unit #3) 20084330 20084328 Distribution of Output Offset Voltage Output Noise Density vs. Frequency 20084308 20084361 Output Noise Density vs. Frequency Output Noise Density vs. Frequency 20084337 20084338 www.national.com 8 LMH6504 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VS = ±5V, TA = 25˚C, VG = VGMAX, RF = 1 kΩ, RG = 100Ω, VIN = 0.1V, input terminated in 50Ω. RL = 100Ω, Typical values. (Continued) Input Referred Noise Density vs. Frequency Output Voltage vs. Output Current (Sinking) 20084365 20084336 Output Voltage vs. Output Current (Sourcing) Distortion vs. Frequency 20084331 20084342 HD vs. POUT THD vs. POUT 20084309 20084343 9 www.national.com LMH6504 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VS = ±5V, TA = 25˚C, VG = VGMAX, RF = 1 kΩ, RG = 100Ω, VIN = 0.1V, input terminated in 50Ω. RL = 100Ω, Typical values. (Continued) THD vs. POUT THD vs. Gain 20084310 20084339 THD vs. Gain Differential Gain & Phase 20084340 20084335 VG Bias Current vs. VG Output Impedance 20084362 20084314 www.national.com 10 LMH6504 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VS = ±5V, TA = 25˚C, VG = VGMAX, RF = 1 kΩ, RG = 100Ω, VIN = 0.1V, input terminated in 50Ω. RL = 100Ω, Typical values. (Continued) Step Response Plot Step Response Plot 20084315 20084317 Gain vs. VG Step 20084332 11 www.national.com LMH6504 The amount of current which the input buffer can source/sink into RG is limited and is specified in the IRG_MAX spec. This sets the maximum input voltage: Application Information GENERAL DESCRIPTION The key features of the LMH6504 are: • Low power • Broad voltage controlled gain and attenuation range (From AVMAX down to complete cutoff) • Bandwidth independent, resistor programmable gain range (RG) • Broad signal and gain control bandwidths • Frequency response may be adjusted with RF • High impedance signal and gain control inputs Eq. 2 As the IRG_MAX limit is approached (with increasing input voltage or with lowering of RG), the device harmonic distortion will increase. Changes in RF will have a dramatic effect on the small signal bandwidth. The output amplifier of the LMH6504 is a current feedback amplifier (CFA) and its bandwidth is determined by RF. As with any CFA, doubling the feedback resistor will roughly cut the bandwidth of the device in half. For more about CFA’s, see the basic tutorial, OA-20, “Current Feedback Myths Debunked”, or a more rigorous analysis, OA-13, “Current Feedback Amplifier Loop Gain Analysis and Performance Enhancements”. Refer to Figure 1 below. The LMH6504 combines a closed loop input buffer (“X1” Block), a voltage controlled variable gain cell (“MULT” Block) and an output amplifier (“CFA” Block). The input buffer is a transconductance stage whose gain is set by the gain setting resistor, RG. The output amplifier is a current feedback op amp and is configured as a transimpedance stage whose gain is set by, and is equal to, the feedback resistor, RF. The maximum gain, AVMAX, of the LMH6504 is defined by the ratio: K · RF / RG where “K” is the gain multiplier with a nominal value of 0.965. As the gain control input (VG) changes over its 0 to 2V range, the gain is adjusted over a range of about 80 dB relative to the maximum set gain. OTHER CONFIGURATIONS 1) Single Supply Operation The LMH6504 can be configured for use in a single supply environment. Doing so requires the following: a) Bias pin 4 and RG to a “virtual half supply” somewhere close to the middle of V+ and V- range. The other end of RG is tied to pin 3. The “virtual half supply” needs to be capable of sinking and sourcing the expected current flow through RG. b) Ensure that VG can be adjusted from 0V to 2V above the “virtual half supply”. c) Bias the input (pin 2) to make sure that it stays within the range of 1.8V above V- to 1.8V below V+ (see “Input voltage Range” specification in the Electrical Characteristics table). This can be accomplished by either DC biasing the input and AC coupling the input signal, or alternatively, by direct coupling if the output of the driving stage is also biased to half supply. Arranged this way, the LMH6504 will respond to the current flowing through RG. The gain control relationship will be similar to the split supply arrangement with VG measured referenced to pin 4. Keep in mind that the circuit described above will also center the output voltage to the “virtual half supply voltage”. 20084347 2) Arbitrarily Referenced Input Signal Having a wide input voltage range on the input (pin 2) (+/-3.2V typical), the LMH6504 can be configured to control the gain on signals which are not referenced to ground (e.g. Half Supply biased circuits, etc.). We will call this node the “reference node”. In such cases, the other end of RG (the side not tied to pin 3) can be tied to this reference node so that RG will “look at” the difference between the signal and this reference only. Keep in mind that the reference node needs to source and sink the current flowing through RG. FIGURE 1. LMH6504 Typical Application and Block Diagram SETTING THE LMH6504 MAXIMUM GAIN Eq. 1 GAIN ACCURACY Gain accuracy is defined as the actual gain compared against the theoretical gain at a certain VG (results expressed in dB) (See Figure 2). Theoretical gain is given by: Although the LMH6504 is specified at AVMAX = 9.7V/V, the recommended AVMAX varies between 2 and 100. Higher gains are possible but usually impractical due to output offsets, noise and distortion. When varying AVMAX several tradeoffs are made: RG: determines the input voltage range RF: determines overall bandwidth www.national.com 12 GAIN PARTITIONING If high levels of gain are needed, gain partitioning should be considered: (Continued) Eq. 3 Where K = 0.965 (nominal) N = 0.96V & VC = 80mV @ room temperature For a VG range, the value specified in the tables represents the worst case accuracy over the entire range. The "Typical" value would be the worst case difference between the "Typical gain" and the "Theoretical gain". The "Max" value would be the worst case difference between the actual gain and the "Theoretical gain" for the entire population. 20084352 GAIN MATCHING Gain matching as the limit on gain variation at a certain VG (expressed in dB) (see Figure 2) and is specified as "Max" only (no "Typical"). For a VG range, the value specified represents the worst case matching over the entire range. The "Max" value would be the worst case difference between the actual gain and the typical gain for the entire population. FIGURE 3. Gain Partitioning The maximum gain range for this circuit is given by the following equation: Eq. 4 The LMH6624 is a low noise wideband voltage feedback amplifier. Setting R2 at 909Ω and R1 at 100Ω produces a gain of 20 dB. Setting RF at 1000Ω as recommended and RG at 50Ω, produces a gain of about 26 dB in the LMH6504. The total gain of this circuit is therefore approximately 46 dB. It is important to understand that when partitioning to obtain high levels of gain, very small signal levels will drive the amplifiers to full scale output. For example, with 46 dB of gain, a 20 mV signal at the input will drive the output of the LMH6624 to 200 mV, the output of the LMH6504 to 4V. Accordingly, the designer must carefully consider the contributions of each stage to the overall characteristics. Through gain partitioning the designer is provided with an opportunity to optimize the frequency response, noise, distortion, settling time, and loading effects of each amplifier to achieve improved overall performance. LMH6504 GAIN CONTROL RANGE AND MINIMUM GAIN Before discussing Gain Control Range, it is important to understand the issues which limit it. The minimum gain of the LMH6504, theoretically, is zero, but in practical circuits is limited by the amount of feedthrough, here defined as the gain when VG = 0V. Capacitive coupling through the board and package as well as coupling through the supplies will determine the amount of feedthrough. Even at DC, the input signal will not be completely rejected. At high frequencies feedthrough will get worse because of its capacitive nature. At frequencies below 10 MHz, the feed through will be less than −60 dB and therefore, it can be said that with AVMAX = 20 dB, the gain control range is 80 dB. 20084351 FIGURE 2. LMH6504 Gain Accuracy & Gain Matching Defined 13 www.national.com LMH6504 Application Information LMH6504 Application Information improvement comes about because in the non-inverting configuration, the slew rate of the overall amplifier is limited by the input buffer. In the inverting circuit, the input buffer remains at a fixed voltage and does not affect slew rate. (Continued) LMH6504 GAIN CONTROL FUNCTION In the plot, Gain vs. VG, we can see the gain as a function of the control voltage. The “Gain (V/V)” plot, sometimes referred to as the S-curve, is the linear (V/V ) gain. This is a hyperbolic tangent relationship and is given by Equation 3. The “Gain (dB)” plots the gain in dB and is linear over a wide range of gains. Because of this, the LMH6504 gain control is referred to as “linear-in-dB.” TRANSMISSION LINE MATCHING One method for matching the characteristic impedance of a transmission line is to place the appropriate resistor at the input or output of the amplifier. Figure 5 shows a typical circuit configuration for matching transmission lines. For applications where the LMH6504 will be used at the heart of a closed loop AGC circuit, the S-curve control characteristic provides a broad linear (in dB) control range with soft limiting at the highest gains where large changes in control voltage result in small changes in gain. For applications requiring a fully linear (in dB) control characteristic, use the LMH6504 at half gain and below (VG ≤ 1V). AVOIDING OVERDRIVE OF THE LMH6504 GAIN CONTROL INPUT There is an additional requirement for the LMH6504 Gain Control Input (VG): VG must not exceed +2.3V (with ± 5V supplies). The gain control circuitry may saturate and the gain may actually be reduced. In applications where VG is being driven from a DAC, this can easily be addressed in the software. If there is a linear loop driving VG, such as an AGC loop, other methods of limiting the input voltage should be implemented. One simple solution is to place a 2.2:1 resistive divider on the VG input. If the device driving this divider is operating off of ± 5V supplies as well, its output will not exceed 5V and through the divider VG can not exceed 2.3V. 20084356 FIGURE 5. TRANSMISSION LINE MATCHING The resistors RS, RI, RO, and RT are equal to the characteristic impedance, ZO, of the transmission line or cable. Use CO to match the output transmission line over a greater frequency range. It compensates for the increase of the op amp’s output impedance with frequency. MINIMIZING PARASITIC EFFECTS ON SMALL SIGNAL BANDWIDTH The best way to minimize parasitic effects is to use surface mount components and to minimize lead lengths and component distance from the LMH6504. For designs utilizing through-hole components, specifically axial resistors, resistor self-capacitance should be considered. Example: the average magnitude of parasitic capacitance of RN55D 1% metal film resistors is about 0.15 pF with variations of as much as 0.1 pF between lots. Given the LMH6504’s extended bandwidth, these small parasitic reactance variations can cause measurable frequency response variations in the highest octave. We therefore recommend the use of surface mount resistors to minimize these parasitic reactance effects. IMPROVING THE LMH6504 LARGE SIGNAL PERFORMANCE Figure 4 illustrates an inverting gain scheme for the LMH6504. RECOMMENDATIONS Here are some recommendations to avoid problems and to get the best performance: • Do not place a capacitor across RF. However, an appropriately chosen series RC combination could be used to shape the frequency response. • Keep traces connecting RF separated and as short as possible • Place a small resistor (20-50Ω) between the output and CL • Cut away the ground plane, if any, under RG • Keep decoupling capacitors as close as possible to the LMH6504. • Connect pin 2 through a minimum resistance of 25Ω. 20084354 FIGURE 4. Inverting Amplifier The input signal is applied through the RG resistor. The VIN pin should be grounded through a 25Ω resistor. The maximum gain range of this configuration is given in the following equation: ADJUSTING OFFSETS AND DC LEVEL SHIFTING Offsets can be broken into two parts: an input-referred term and an output-referred term. These errors can be trimmed using the circuit in Figure 6. First set VG to 0V and adjust the Eq. 5 The inverting slew rate of the LMH6504 is much higher than that of the non-inverting slew rate. This 2X performance www.national.com 14 (Continued) USING THE LMH6504 IN AGC APPLICATIONS trim pot R4 to null the offset voltage at the output. This will eliminate the output stage offsets. Next set VG to 2V and adjust the trim pot R1 to null the offset voltage at the output. This will eliminate the input stage offsets. In AGC applications, the control loop forces the LMH6504 to have a fixed output amplitude. The input amplitude will vary over a wide range and this can be the issue that limits dynamic range. At high input amplitudes, the distortion due to the input buffer driving RG may exceed that which is produced by the output amplifier driving the load. In the plot, Distortion vs. Gain, total harmonic distortion (THD) is plotted over a gain range of nearly 35 dB for a fixed output amplitude of 0.25 VPP in the specified configuration, RF = 1k, RG = 100Ω. When the gain is adjusted to -15 dB (i.e. 35 dB down from AVMAX), the input amplitude would be 1.41 VPP and we can see the distortion is at its worst at this gain. If the output amplitude of the AGC were to be raised above 0.25 VPP, the input amplitudes for gains 40 dB down from AVMAX would be even higher and the distortion would degrade further. It is for this reason that we recommend lower output amplitudes if wide gain ranges are desired. Using a post-amp like the LMH6714/ 6720/ 6722 family or LMH6702 would be the best way to preserve dynamic range and yield output amplitudes much higher than 100 mVPP. Another way of addressing distortion performance and its limitations on dynamic range, would be to raise the value of RG. Just like any other highspeed amplifier, by increasing the load resistance, and therefore decreasing the demanded load current, the distortion performance will be improved in most cases. With an increased RG, RF will also have to be increased to keep the same AVMAX and this will decrease the overall bandwidth. It may be possible to insert a series RC combination across RF in order to counteract the negative effect on BW when a large RF is used. 20084357 FIGURE 6. OFFSET ADJUST CIRCUIT DIGITAL GAIN CONTROL Digitally variable gain control can be easily realized by driving the LMH6504’s gain control input with a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Figure 7 illustrates such an application. This circuit employs National Semiconductor’s eight-bit DAC0830, the LMC8101 MOS input op-amp (Rail-to-Rail Input/Output), and the LMH6504 VGA. With VREF set to 2V, the circuit provides up to 80 dB of gain control in 256 steps with up to 0.05% full scale resolution. The maximum gain of this circuit is 20 dB. AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL (AGC) #1 Fast Response AGC Loop The AGC circuit shown in Figure 8 will correct a 6 dB input amplitude step in 100 ns. The circuit includes a two op-amp precision rectifier amplitude detector (U1 and U2), and an integrator (U3) to provide high loop gain at low frequencies. The output amplitude is set by R9. Some notes on building fast AGC loops: Precision rectifiers work best with large output signals. Accuracy is improved by blocking DC offsets, as shown in Figure 8. 20084358 FIGURE 7. Digital Gain Control 15 www.national.com LMH6504 Application Information LMH6504 Application Information (Continued) 20084359 FIGURE 8. Automatic Gain Control Circuit #1 U2 is configured to provide negative feedback. U2 generates a rectified gain control signal that works against an adjustable bias level which may be set by the potentiometer and RB. CI integrates the bias and negative feedback. The resultant gain control signal is applied to the U1 gain control input VG. The bias adjustment allows the U1 output to be set at an arbitrary level less than the maximum output specification of the amplifier. Rectification is accomplished in U2 by driving both the amplifier input and the gain control input with the U1 output signal. The voltage divider that is formed by R1 and R2, sets the rectifier gain. Signal frequencies must not reach the gain control port of the LMH6504, or the output signal will be distorted (modulated by itself). A fast settling AGC needs additional filtering beyond the integrator stage to block signal frequencies. This is provided in Figure 8 by a simple R-C filter (R10 and C3); better distortion performance can be achieved with a more complex filter. These filters should be scaled with the input signal frequency. Loops with slower response time (longer integration time constants) may not need the R10 – C3 filter. Checking the loop stability can be done by monitoring the VG voltage while applying a step change in input signal amplitude. Changing the input signal amplitude can be easily done with an arbitrary waveform generator. AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL (AGC) #2 Figure 9 illustrates an automatic gain control circuit that employs two LMH6504’s. In this circuit, U1 receives the input signal and produces an output signal of constant amplitude. www.national.com 16 LMH6504 Application Information (Continued) 20084360 FIGURE 9. Automatic Gain Control Circuit #2 the output (e.g. 100Ω and 39 pF in series tied between the LMH6504 output and ground). CL can also be isolated from the output by placing a small resistor in series with the output (pin 6). Component parasitics also influence high frequency results. Therefore it is recommended to use metal film resistors such as RN55D or leadless components such as surface mount devices. High profile sockets are not recommended. CIRCUIT LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS & EVALUATION BOARD A good high frequency PCB layout including ground plane construction and power supply bypassing close to the package are critical to achieving full performance. The amplifier is sensitive to stray capacitance to ground at the I- input (pin 7); keep node trace area small. Shunt capacitance across the feedback resistor should not be used to compensate for this effect. Capacitance to ground should be minimized by removing the ground plane from under the body of RG. Parasitic or load capacitance directly on the output (pin 6) degrades phase margin leading to frequency response peaking. National Semiconductor suggests the following evaluation board as a guide for high frequency layout and as an aid in device testing and characterization: The LMH6504 is fully stable when driving a 100Ω load. With reduced load (e.g. 1k.) there is a possibility of instability at very high frequencies beyond 400 MHz especially with a capacitive load. When the LMH6504 is connected to a light load as such, it is recommended to add a snubber network to Device Package Evaluation Board Part Number LMH6504 SOIC CLC730066 The evaluation board is shipped when a device sample request is placed with National Semiconductor. 17 www.national.com LMH6504 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 8-Pin SOIC NS Package Number M08A 8-Pin MSOP NS Package Number MUA08A www.national.com 18 LMH6504 Wideband, Low Power, Variable Gain Amplifier Notes LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. BANNED SUBSTANCE COMPLIANCE National Semiconductor certifies that the products and packing materials meet the provisions of the Customer Products Stewardship Specification (CSP-9-111C2) and the Banned Substances and Materials of Interest Specification (CSP-9-111S2) and contain no ‘‘Banned Substances’’ as defined in CSP-9-111S2. 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