a FEATURES Four-Quadrant Multiplication Low Cost 8-Lead Package Complete—No External Components Required Laser-Trimmed Accuracy and Stability Total Error Within 2% of FS Differential High Impedance X and Y Inputs High Impedance Unity-Gain Summing Input Laser-Trimmed 10 V Scaling Reference APPLICATIONS Multiplication, Division, Squaring Modulation/Demodulation, Phase Detection Voltage-Controlled Amplifiers/Attenuators/Filters Low Cost Analog Multiplier AD633 CONNECTION DIAGRAMS 8-Lead Plastic DIP (N) Package X1 1 X2 2 Y1 3 Y2 4 1 A 1 10V 1 8 +VS 7 W 6 Z 5 –VS AD633JN/AD633AN 8-Lead Plastic SOIC (SO-8) Package PRODUCT DESCRIPTION The AD633 is a functionally complete, four-quadrant, analog multiplier. It includes high impedance, differential X and Y inputs and a high impedance summing input (Z). The low impedance output voltage is a nominal 10 V full scale provided by a buried Zener. The AD633 is the first product to offer these features in modestly priced 8-lead plastic DIP and SOIC packages. The AD633 is laser calibrated to a guaranteed total accuracy of 2% of full scale. Nonlinearity for the Y-input is typically less than 0.1% and noise referred to the output is typically less than 100 µV rms in a 10 Hz to 10 kHz bandwidth. A 1 MHz bandwidth, 20 V/µs slew rate, and the ability to drive capacitive loads make the AD633 useful in a wide variety of applications where simplicity and cost are key concerns. Y1 1 Y2 2 –VS 3 Z 4 1 1 1 10V A 8 X2 7 X1 6 +VS 5 W AD633JR/AD633AR W= (X1 – X2) (Y1 – Y2) 10V +Z PRODUCT HIGHLIGHTS 1. The AD633 is a complete four-quadrant multiplier offered in low cost 8-lead plastic packages. The result is a product that is cost effective and easy to apply. The AD633’s versatility is not compromised by its simplicity. The Z-input provides access to the output buffer amplifier, enabling the user to sum the outputs of two or more multipliers, increase the multiplier gain, convert the output voltage to a current, and configure a variety of applications. 2. No external components or expensive user calibration are required to apply the AD633. The AD633 is available in an 8-lead plastic DIP package (N) and 8-lead SOIC (R). It is specified to operate over the 0°C to +70°C commercial temperature range (J Grade) or the –40°C to +85°C industrial temperature range (A Grade). 4. High (10 MΩ) input resistances make signal source loading negligible. 3. Monolithic construction and laser calibration make the device stable and reliable. 5. Power supply voltages can range from ± 8 V to ± 18 V. The internal scaling voltage is generated by a stable Zener diode; multiplier accuracy is essentially supply insensitive. REV. B Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. Tel: 781/329-4700 World Wide Web Site: http://www.analog.com Fax: 781/326-8703 © Analog Devices, Inc., 1999 AD633–SPECIFICATIONS (TA = +25ⴗC, V S = ⴞ15 V, RL ≥ 2 k⍀) Model AD633J, AD633A W = TRANSFER FUNCTION (X 1 )( − X 2 Y1 − Y2 )+Z 10 V Parameter MULTIPLIER PERFORMANCE Total Error TMIN to TMAX Scale Voltage Error Supply Rejection Nonlinearity, X Nonlinearity, Y X Feedthrough Y Feedthrough Output Offset Voltage DYNAMICS Small Signal BW Slew Rate Settling Time to 1% OUTPUT NOISE Spectral Density Wideband Noise OUTPUT Output Voltage Swing Short Circuit Current INPUT AMPLIFIERS Signal Voltage Range Offset Voltage X, Y CMRR X, Y Bias Current X, Y, Z Differential Resistance POWER SUPPLY Supply Voltage Rated Performance Operating Range Supply Current Conditions Min –10 V ≤ X, Y ≤ +10 V SF = 10.00 V Nominal VS = ± 14 V to ± 16 V X = ± 10 V, Y = +10 V Y = ± 10 V, X = +10 V Y Nulled, X = ± 10 V X Nulled, Y = ± 10 V Typ Max Unit ±1 ±3 ± 0.25% ± 0.01 ± 0.4 ± 0.1 ± 0.3 ± 0.1 ±5 ⴞ2 % Full Scale % Full Scale % Full Scale % Full Scale % Full Scale % Full Scale % Full Scale % Full Scale mV ⴞ1 ⴞ0.4 ⴞ1 ⴞ0.4 ⴞ50 VO = 0.1 V rms VO = 20 V p-p ∆ VO = 20 V 1 20 2 MHz V/µs µs f = 10 Hz to 5 MHz f = 10 Hz to 10 kHz 0.8 1 90 µV/√Hz mV rms µV rms ⴞ11 RL = 0 Ω 30 Differential Common Mode ⴞ10 ⴞ10 VCM = ± 10 V, f = 50 Hz 60 ⴞ8 Quiescent ±5 80 0.8 10 ± 15 4 40 ⴞ30 2.0 ⴞ18 6 V mA V V mV dB µA MΩ V V mA NOTES Specifications shown in boldface are tested on all production units at electrical test. Results from those tests are used to calculate outgoing quality levels. All min and max specifications are guaranteed, although only those shown in boldface are tested on all production units. Specifications subject to change without notice. ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS 1 Supply Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ± 18 V Internal Power Dissipation2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 mW Input Voltages3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ± 18 V Output Short Circuit Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indefinite Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . –65°C to +150°C Operating Temperature Range AD633J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0°C to +70°C AD633A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –40°C to +85°C Lead Temperature Range (Soldering 60 sec) . . . . . . . . +300°C ESD Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000 V NOTES 1 Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational section of this specification is not implied. 2 8-Lead Plastic DIP Package: θ JA = 90°C/W; 8-Lead Small Outline Package: θ JA = 155°C/W. 3 For supply voltages less than ± 18 V, the absolute maximum input voltage is equal to the supply voltage. –2– ORDERING GUIDE Model Temperature Range Package Description Package Option AD633AN AD633AR AD633AR-REEL AD633AR-REEL7 AD633JN AD633JR AD633JR-REEL AD633JR-REEL7 –40°C to +85°C –40°C to +85°C –40°C to +85°C –40°C to +85°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C Plastic DIP Plastic SOIC 13" Tape and Reel 7" Tape and Reel Plastic DIP Plastic SOIC 13" Tape and Reel 7" Tape and Reel N-8 SO-8 SO-8 SO-8 N-8 SO-8 SO-8 SO-8 REV. B AD633 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION voltage controlled amplifiers, and frequency doublers. Note that these applications show the pin connections for the AD633JN pinout (8-lead DIP), which differs from the AD633JR pinout (8-lead SOIC). The AD633 is a low cost multiplier comprising a translinear core, a buried Zener reference, and a unity gain connected output amplifier with an accessible summing node. Figure 1 shows the functional block diagram. The differential X and Y inputs are converted to differential currents by voltage-to-current converters. The product of these currents is generated by the multiplying core. A buried Zener reference provides an overall scale factor of 10 V. The sum of (X × Y)/10 + Z is then applied to the output amplifier. The amplifier summing node Z allows the user to add two or more multiplier outputs, convert the output voltage to a current, and configure various analog computational functions. Multiplier Connections Figure 3 shows the basic connections for multiplication. The X and Y inputs will normally have their negative nodes grounded, but they are fully differential, and in many applications the grounded inputs may be reversed (to facilitate interfacing with signals of a particular polarity, while achieving some desired output polarity) or both may be driven. +15V 0.1mF X1 1 8 1 X INPUT +VS 1 X1 +VS 8 2 X2 W 7 W= X2 A 2 Y1 3 Y2 4 7 1 10V W 6 Z 5 –VS Y INPUT 3 Y1 Z 6 4 Y2 –VS 5 (X1 – X2) (Y1 – Y2) 10V OPTIONAL SUMMING INPUT, Z AD633JN +Z 0.1mF –15V 1 AD633 Figure 3. Basic Multiplier Connections Squaring and Frequency Doubling Figure 1. Functional Block Diagram (AD633JN Pinout Shown) As Figure 4 shows, squaring of an input signal, E, is achieved simply by connecting the X and Y inputs in parallel to produce an output of E2/10 V. The input may have either polarity, but the output will be positive. However, the output polarity may be reversed by interchanging the X or Y inputs. The Z input may be used to add a further signal to the output. Inspection of the block diagram shows the overall transfer function to be: W = (X 1 )( − X 2 Y1 − Y2 )+Z 10 V (Equation 1) +15V 0.1mF ERROR SOURCES E Multiplier errors consist primarily of input and output offsets, scale factor error, and nonlinearity in the multiplying core. The input and output offsets can be eliminated by using the optional trim of Figure 2. This scheme reduces the net error to scale factor errors (gain error) and an irreducible nonlinearity component in the multiplying core. The X and Y nonlinearities are typically 0.4% and 0.1% of full scale, respectively. Scale factor error is typically 0.25% of full scale. The high impedance Z input should always be referenced to the ground point of the driven system, particularly if this is remote. Likewise, the differential X and Y inputs should be referenced to their respective grounds to realize the full accuracy of the AD633. 1kV +VS 8 2 X2 W 7 3 4 W= Y1 Z 6 Y2 –VS 5 E2 10V 0.1mF –15V Figure 4. Connections for Squaring When the input is a sine wave E sin ωt, this squarer behaves as a frequency doubler, since (E sin ωt ) 2 300kV X1 AD633JN +VS 50kV 1 10 V 650mV TO APPROPRIATE INPUT TERMINAL (E.G. X2, X2, Z) = ( E2 1 − cos 2 ωt 20 V ) (Equation 2) Equation 2 shows a dc term at the output which will vary strongly with the amplitude of the input, E. This can be avoided using the connections shown in Figure 5, where an RC network is used to generate two signals whose product has no dc term. It uses the identity: –VS Figure 2. Optional Offset Trim Configuration APPLICATIONS The AD633 is well suited for such applications as modulation and demodulation, automatic gain control, power measurement, REV. B –3– cos θ sin θ = ( ) 1 sin 2 θ 2 (Equation 3) AD633 R 10kV +15V 0.1mF E 1 R X1 2 X2 3 Y1 W 7 4 Y2 Z 6 +15 E2 W= R1 1kV AD633JN C +15V +VS 8 10V R 10kV AD711 0.1mF = (10 V ) E (sin ω t + 45°) 2 E o (40 V ) X2 W 7 1N4148 3 Y1 Z 6 4 Y2 –VS 5 0.1mF –15V E EX Likewise, Figure 7 shows how to implement a divider using a multiplier in a feedback loop. The transfer function for the divider is (sin ω t − 45°) ( W = − 10 V (sin 2 ω t ) 2 2 Figure 7. Connections for Division o 2 +VS 8 W = –10V At ωo = 1/CR, the X input leads the input signal by 45° (and is attenuated by √2), and the Y input lags the X input by 45° (and is also attenuated by √2). Since the X and Y inputs are 90° out of phase, the response of the circuit will be (satisfying Equation 3): E X1 –15 Figure 5. ”Bounceless” Frequency Doubler 1 1 AD633JN 0.1mF –15V W = EX E R2 3kV –VS 5 0.1mF 0.1mF ) EE (Equation 6) X (Equation 4) o +15V 0.1mF which has no dc component. Resistors R1 and R2 are included to restore the output amplitude to 10 V for an input amplitude of 10 V. X INPUT 1 X1 +VS 8 2 X2 W 7 Y INPUT 3 Y1 Z 6 4 Y2 –VS 5 ( ) The AD633’s voltage output can be converted to a current output by the addition of a resistor R between the AD633’s W and Z pins as shown in Figure 9 below. This arrangement forms 0.1mF R 10kV E X1 2 X2 W 7 AD633JN AD711 S Current Output +15V +VS 8 1N4148 3 Y1 Z 6 4 Y2 –VS 5 +15V 0.1mF 0.1mF –15 +S In some instances, it may be desirable to use a scaling voltage other than 10 V. The connections shown in Figure 8 increase the gain of the system by the ratio (R1 + R2)/R1. This ratio is limited to 100 in practical applications. The summing input, S, may be used to add an additional signal to the output or it may be grounded. (Equation 5) 1 R1 100kV Variable Scale Factor R 10kV 0.1mF (R1 + R2) 10V 1kV R1, R2 Figure 8. Connections for Variable Scale Factor for the condition E<0. +15 (X1 – X2) (Y1 – Y2) 0.1mF –15V Inverse functions of multiplication, such as division and square rooting, can be implemented by placing a multiplier in the feedback loop of an op amp. Figure 6 shows how to implement a square rooter with the transfer function − 10 V E R1 R2 Generating Inverse Functions W = W= AD633JN The amplitude of the output is only a weak function of frequency: the output amplitude will be 0.5% too low at ω = 0.9 ω o, and ω o = 1.1 ω o. 0.1mF X INPUT –15V W= 1 X1 +VS 8 2 X2 W 7 R AD633JN –(10V)E Y INPUT Figure 6. Connections for Square Rooting 3 Y1 Z 6 4 Y2 –VS 5 IO = 1 R (X1 – X2) (Y1 – Y2) 1kV 10V R 100kV 0.1mF –15V Figure 9. Current Output Connections –4– REV. B AD633 dB the basis of voltage controlled integrators and oscillators as will be shown later in this Applications section. The transfer function of this circuit has the form IO = 1 (X 1 R )( − X 2 Y1 − Y2 f2 f1 0.1mF ) CONTROL INPUT EC (Equation 7) 10 V SIGNAL INPUT ES Linear Amplitude Modulator The AD633 can be used as a linear amplitude modulator with no external components. Figure 10 shows the circuit. The carrier and modulation inputs to the AD633 are multiplied to produce a double-sideband signal. The carrier signal is fed forward to the AD633’s Z input where it is summed with the double-sideband signal to produce a double-sideband with carrier output. 1 X1 +VS 8 2 X2 W 7 OUTPUTA Y1 Z 6 4 Y2 –VS 5 C f1 f2 +15V 0.1mF CONTROL INPUT EC SIGNAL INPUT ES 1 X1 +VS 8 2 X2 W 7 0 f OUTPUTB +6dB/OCTAVE OUTPUTA OUTPUT B AD633JN C OUTPUT A 6 3 Y1 Z 4 Y2 –VS 5 R 0.1mF (Equation 8) –15V Figure 12. Voltage Controlled High-Pass Filter Voltage Controlled Quadrature Oscillator Figure 13 shows two multipliers being used to form integrators with controllable time constants in a 2nd order differential equation feedback loop. R2 and R5 provide controlled current output operation. The currents are integrated in capacitors C1 and C2, and the resulting voltages at high impedance are applied to the X inputs of the “next” AD633. The frequency control input, EC, connected to the Y inputs, varies the integrator gains with a calibration of 100 Hz/V. The accuracy is limited by the Y-input offsets. The practical tuning range of this circuit is 100:1. C2 (proportional to C1 and C3), R3, and R4 provide regenerative feedback to start and maintain oscillation. The diode bridge, D1 through D4 (1N914s), and Zener diode D5 provide economical temperature stabilization and amplitude stabilization at ± 8.5 V by degenerative damping. The output from the second integrator (10 V sin ωt) has the lowest distortion. 1 (Equation 9) 2 π RC then levels off to a constant attenuation of f1/f2 = E C/10. +15V 0.1mF 1 X1 +VS 8 2 X2 W 7 W = 1+ AD633JN EM 10V ECsin vt 6 3 Y1 Z 4 Y2 –VS 5 0.1mF –15V AGC AMPLIFIERS Figure 14 shows an AGC circuit that uses an rms-dc converter to measure the amplitude of the output waveform. The AD633 and A1, 1/2 of an AD712 dual op amp, form a voltage controlled amplifier. The rms dc converter, an AD736, measures the rms value of the output signal. Its output drives A2, an integrator/comparator, whose output controls the gain of the voltage controlled amplifier. The 1N4148 diode prevents the output of A2 from going negative. R8, a 50 kΩ variable resistor, sets the circuit’s output level. Feedback around the loop forces the voltages at the inverting and noninverting inputs of A2 to be equal, thus the AGC. Figure 10. Linear Amplitude Modulator For example, if R = 8 kΩ and C = 0.002 µF, then output A has a pole at frequencies from 100 Hz to 10 kHz for EC ranging from 100 mV to 10 V. Output B has an additional zero at 10 kHz (and can be loaded because it is the multiplier’s low impedance output). The circuit can be changed to a high-pass filter Z interchanging the resistor and capacitor as shown in Figure 12 below. REV. B 10 1 = W2 ECRC dB The voltage at output B, the direct output of the AD633, has same response up to frequency f1, the natural breakpoint of RC filter, CARRIER INPUT ECsin vt T2 = Figure 11. Voltage Controlled Low-Pass Filter EC MODULATION INPUT 6EM T1 = 1 = RC W1 –15V and the rolloff is 6 dB per octave. This output, which is at a high impedance point, may need to be buffered. f1 = 1 + T1P 1 + T2P 1 OUTPUT A = 1 + T2P 0.1mF Figure 11 shows a single multiplier used to build a voltage controlled low-pass filter. The voltage at output A is a result of filtering, ES. The break frequency is modulated by EC, the control input. The break frequency, f2, equals (20 V )π RC OUTPUTB OUTPUT B = R Voltage Controlled Low-Pass and High-Pass Filters f2 = –6dB/OCTAVE AD633JN 3 f 0 +15V –5– AD633 D5 1N95236 D1 1N914 D3 1N914 D2 1N914 D4 1N914 (10V) cos vt +15V +15V 0.1mF R1 1kV 1 X1 +VS 8 2 X2 W 7 3 Y1 Z 6 Y2 –VS 5 0.1mF R2 16kV AD633JN EC 4 1 X1 +VS 8 2 X2 W 7 3 Y1 Z 4 Y2 –VS 5 R4 16kV R3 330kV (10V) sin vt R5 16kV EC f= kHz 10V C3 0.1mF AD633JN 0.1mF C2 0.01mF 6 0.1mF 0.1mF –15V –15V Figure 13. Voltage Controlled Quadrature Oscillator R2 1kV R3 10kV R4 10kV AGC THRESHOLD ADJUSTMENT +15V +15V 0.1mF C1 1mF 0.1mF 1 X1 +VS 8 2 X2 W 7 3 Y1 Z 6 4 Y2 –VS 5 1/2 AD712 AD633JN E 1 CC COMMON 8 0.1mF C2 0.02mF R9 10kV 0.1mF AD736 0.1mF 3 CF OUTPUT 6 4 –VS R10 10kV CAV 5 –15V C4 33mF A2 1N4148 R6 1kV +15V +VS 7 2 VIN –15V C3 0.2mF EOUT R5 10kV A1 1/2 AD712 +15V OUTPUT R8 50kV LEVEL ADJUST 0.1mF –15V Figure 14. Connections for Use in Automatic Gain Control Circuit –6– REV. B Typical Characteristics–AD633 100 0dB = 0.1V rms, RL = 2kV 90 0 80 CL = 0dB CMRR – dB OUTPUT RESPONSE – dB CL = 1000pF –10 –20 TYPICAL FOR X,Y INPUTS 70 60 50 40 NORMAL CONNECTION 30 –30 10k 1M 100k FREQUENCY – Hz 20 100 10M NOISE SPECTRAL DENSITY – mV/ Hz 500 400 300 200 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1 0.5 0 10 140 100 TEMPERATURE – 8C Figure 16. Input Bias Current vs. Temperature (X, Y, or Z Inputs) 1k FREQUENCY – Hz 100k 10k Figure 19. Noise Spectral Density vs. Frequency 14 1000 PK-PK FEEDTHROUGH – Millivolts PEAK POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE SIGNAL – Volts 1M 1.5 600 12 OUTPUT, RL 2kV 10 ALL INPUTS 8 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 PEAK POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE SUPPLY – Volts Y-FEEDTHROUGH 100 X- FEEDTHROUGH 10 1 0 20 Figure 17. Input and Output Signal Ranges vs. Supply Voltages REV. B 100k Figure 18. CMRR vs. Frequency 700 4 10k FREQUENCY – Hz Figure 15. Frequency Response BIAS CURRENT – nA 1k 10 100 1k 10k 100k FREQUENCY – Hz 1M Figure 20. AC Feedthrough vs. Frequency –7– 10M AD633 OUTLINE DIMENSIONS Dimensions shown in inches and (mm). C1480a–0–9/99 8-Lead Plastic DIP (N-8) 0.39 (9.91) MAX 8 5 0.25 0.31 (6.35) (7.87) 1 4 PIN 1 0.30 (7.62) REF 0.10 (2.54) TYP 0.035 60.01 (0.89 60.25) 0.165 60.01 (4.19 60.25) 0.18 60.03 (4.57 60.76) 0.125 (3.18) MIN 0.018 60.003 (0.46 60.03) 0.033 (0.84) SEATING PLANE NOM 0-158 0.11 60.003 (0.28 60.08) 8-Lead Plastic SOIC (SO-8) 0.1968 (5.00) 0.1890 (4.80) 0.1574 (4.00) 0.1497 (3.80) 8 5 1 4 0.2440 (6.20) 0.2284 (5.80) PIN 1 0.0196 (0.50) 3 458 0.0099 (0.25) 0.0500 (1.27) BSC SEATING PLANE 88 0.0098 (0.25) 08 0.0500 (1.27) 0.0160 (0.41) 0.0075 (0.19) 0.0192 (0.49) 0.0138 (0.35) PRINTED IN U.S.A. 0.0098 (0.25) 0.0040 (0.10) 0.0688 (1.75) 0.0532 (1.35) –8– REV. B

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