ADC14071 14-Bit, 7 MSPS, 380 mW A/D Converter General Description Features The ADC14071 is a 14-bit, monotholic analog to digital converter capable of conversion rates up to 8 Megasamples per second. This CMOS converter uses a differential, piperlined architecture with digital error correction and an on-chip track-and-hold circuit to maintain superb dynamic performance with input frequencies up to 20MHz. Tested and guaranteed dynamic performance specifications provide the designer with known performance. The ADC14071 operates on a +5V single supply consuming just 380mW (typical). The Power Down feature reduces power consumption to 20mW, typical. The differential inputs provide a full scale input swing of ± VREF with the possibility of a single input. Full use of the differential input is recommended for optimum perfomance. For ease of use, the reference input is single ended. This singleended reference input is converted on-chip to a differential reference configuration for use by the processing circuitry. Output data format is 14-bit straight binary. The ADC14071 may be used to replace many hybrid converters with a resultant saving of space, power and cost. The ADC14071 comes in a 48-pin TQFP and is specified to operate over the industrial temperature range of −40˚C to +85˚C. n Single +5V Operation n Power Down Mode n TTL/CMOS Input/Output Compatible Key Specifications n n n n n n n Resolution Max Conversion Rate DNL SNR (fIN = 500 kHz) ENOB (fW = 500 kHz) Supply Voltage Power Consumption 14 Bits 7 Msps (min) ± 0.6 LSB (typ) 80 dB (typ) 12.6 Bits (typ) +5V ± 5% 380 mW (typ) Applications n n n n n n n n n n Document Scanners Imaging Instrumentation PC-Based Data Acquisition Spectrum Analyzers Sonar/Radar xDSL Wireless Local Loop Data Acquisition Systems DSP Front End Connection Diagram DS101101-1 TRI-STATE ® is a registered trademark of National Semiconductor Corporation. © 1999 National Semiconductor Corporation DS101101 www.national.com ADC14071 14-Bit, 7 MSPS, 380 mW A/D converter November 1999 ADC14071 Ordering Information Industrial Temperature Range (−40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C) NS Package ADC14071CIVBH VBH48A 48-Pin Thin Quad Flatpak ADC14071EVAL Evaluation System Block Diagram DS101101-2 Pin Descriptions and Equivalent Circuits Pin No. Symbol Equivalent Circuit Description ANALOG I/O VIN+ Non-Inverting analog signal input. With a 2.0V reference voltage the input signal voltage range is from 0V to 2.0V. 3 VIN− Inverting analog signal input. With a 2.0V reference voltage the input signal voltage range is from 0V to 2.0V. This pin may be connected to a voltage of 1⁄2 the reference voltage for single-ended operation, but a balanced input signal is required for best performance. 43 VREF IN 2 www.national.com Positive reference input. This pin should be bypassed to AGND with a 0.1 µF monolithic capacitor. VREF is 2.0V nominal and should be in the range of 1.0V to 2.7V. 2 Pin No. Symbol Equivalent Circuit ADC14071 Pin Descriptions and Equivalent Circuits (Continued) Description ANALOG I/O 47 VREF+ BY 1 VREF (MID) BY 45 VREF− BY These pins are high impedance reference bypass pins only. Connect a 0.1µF capacitor from each of these pins the AGND. DO NOT connect anything else to these pins. DIGITAL I/O Digital clock input. The range of frequencies for this input is 25 kHz to 8 MHz (typical) with guaranteed performance at 7 MHz. The input is sampled on the rising edge of this input. 11 CLOCK 12 OE OE is the output enable pin that, when low, enables the TRI-STATE ® data output pins. When this pin is high, the outputs are in a high impedance state. 10 PD PD is the Power Down input pin. When high, this input puts the converter into the power down mode. When this pin is low, the converter is in the active mode. 36 OR Out of Range pin. A high at this output pin indicates that the input voltage is either above the reference voltage or is below ground. When this pin is high, the digital output pins will indicate a full scale for input voltages above the reference voltage, or will indicate a zero scale for input voltages below zero scale. 19-23, 25-29, 32-35 D0–D13 Digital data output pins that make up the 14-bit conversion results. D0 is the LSB, while D13 is the MSB of the straight binary output word. ANALOG POWER 5, 6, 7, 13, 41 4, 8, 9, 14, 15, 42 VA Positive analog supply pins. These pins should be connected to a clean, quiet +5V voltage source and bypassed to AGND with 0.1 µF monolithic capacitors located within 1 cm of these power pins, and by a 10 µF capacitor. AGND The ground return for the analog supply. AGND and DGND should be connected together directly beneath the ADC14071 package. See Section 5 (Layout and Grounding) for more details. 3 www.national.com ADC14071 Pin Descriptions and Equivalent Circuits Pin No. Symbol Equivalent Circuit (Continued) Description DIGITAL POWER 17 16 31 24, 30, 37 VD Positive digital supply pin. This pin should be connected to the same clean, quiet +5V source as is VA and bypassed to DGND with a 0.1 µF monolithic capacitor in parallel with a 10 µF capacitor, both located within 1 cm of the power pin. DGND The ground return for the digital supply. AGND and DGND should be connected together directly beneath the ADC14071 package. See Section 5 (Layout and Grounding) for more details. DR VD Positive digital supply pin for the ADC14071’s output drivers. This pin should be connected to a voltage source of +3 to +5V and bypassed to DR GND with a 0.1 µF monolithic capacitor. If the supply for this pin is different from the supply used for VA and VD, it should also be bypassed with a 10 µF tantalum capacitor and never exceed the voltage on VD. All bypass capacitors should be located within 1 cm of the supply pin. DR GND The ground return for the digital supply for the ADC14071’s output drivers. These pins should be connected to the system digital ground, but not be connected in close proximity to the ADC14071’s DGND or AGND pins. See Section 5 (Layout and Grounding) for more details. NC All pins marked NC (no connect) should not be connected to any potential (or to ground). Allow these pins to float. NC 18, 38, 39, 40, 44, 46, 48 www.national.com 4 Soldering Temperature, Infrared, 10 seconds (Note 6) Storage Temperature Supply Voltage (V+ = VA = VD = DR VD) VA − DR VD, VD − DR VD Voltage on Any I/O Pin Input Current at Pins 1, 45 and 47(Note 3) Input Current at Any Other Pin (Note 3) Operating Ratings (Notes 1, 2) 6.0V ≥0V −0.5V to V+ +0.5V Operating Temperature Range VA, VD DR VD VREF Digital Inputs Analog Inputs |VA − VD| |AGND − DGND| ± 10 mA ± 25 mA ± 50 mA See (Note 4) Package Input Current (Note 3) Power Dissipation at TA = 25˚C ESD Susceptibility (Note 5) Human Body Model Machine Model 300˚C −65˚C to +150˚C −40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C +4.75V to +5.25V 2.7V to VD 1.0V to 2.7V −0.3V to VD + 0.3V −0.3V to VA + 0.3V ≤100 mV 0V to 100 mV 1500V 200V Converter Electrical Characteristics The following specifications apply for AGND = DGND = DR GND = 0V, VA = VD = +5.0VDC, DR VD = 3.0V or 5.0V, PD = 0V, VREF IN = +2.0V, VIN (common mode) = 1.0V, fCLK = 7 MHz @ 50% duty cycle, tr, tr = 4ns, CL = 20 pF/pin. Boldface limits apply for TA = TJ = TMIN to TMAX: all other limits TA = TJ = 25˚C (Notes 7, 8, 9) Symbol Parameter Typical (Note 10) Conditions Limits (Note 11) Units 14 Bits (min) STATIC CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS Resolution with No Missing Codes INL DNL Differential Non-Linearity FSE Positive and Negative Full-Scale Error TC FSE ZSE TC ZSE ± 2.2 Integral Non-Linearity (note 12) LSB ± 0.6 +1.0 −0.85 LSB (max) 25˚C 0.9 2.3 %FS 25˚C 0.1 %FS −0.6 ppm/˚C Full-Scale Error Tempco −5 Zero Offset Error Zero Offset Error Tempco ppm/˚C REFERENCE AND ANALOG INPUT CHARACTERISTICS VREF Reference Voltage Range 2.00 RR Reference Input Resistance 10M CR Reference Input Capacitance (VIN+ VIN Input Voltage Range − CIN VIN+, VIN− Input Capacitance VIN−) 1.0 2.7 Ohms 5 VIN (common Mode) = VREF/2 ± 2.0 V(min) V(max) pF ± 1.0 ± 2.7 V(min) V(max) (CLK LOW) 14 pF (CLK HIGH) 5 pF −1 dB 20 MHz −3 dB fIN = 500 kHz fIN = 3.5 MHz 25 VIN = 1.0V+0.7 Vrms DYNAMIC CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS BW ENOB SINAD SNR THD Full Power Bandwidth Effective Number of Bits Signal-to-Noise and Distortion Signal -to-Noise Ratio (Note 13) Total Harmonic Distortion 12.6 MHz 12.0 Bits (min) 74 dB (min) 78 dB (min) −76 dB (min) 12.0 fIN = 500 kHz fIN = 3.5 MHz 77 fIN = 500 kHz fIN = 3.5 MHz fIN = 500 kHz 80 −83 fIN = 3.5 MHz −79 Bits 74 dB 77 5 dB dB www.national.com ADC14071 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Notes 1, 2) If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. ADC14071 Converter Electrical Characteristics (Continued) The following specifications apply for AGND = DGND = DR GND = 0V, VA = VD = +5.0VDC, DR VD = 3.0V or 5.0V, PD = 0V, VREF IN = +2.0V, VIN (common mode) = 1.0V, fCLK = 7 MHz @ 50% duty cycle, tr, tr = 4ns, CL = 20 pF/pin. Boldface limits apply for TA = TJ = TMIN to TMAX: all other limits TA = TJ = 25˚C (Notes 7, 8, 9) Symbol Parameter Typical (Note 10) Conditions Limits (Note 11) Units DYNAMIC CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS SFDR IMD fIN = 500 kHz fIN = 3.5 MHz fIN1 = 95 kHz fIN2 = 105 kHz Spurious Free Dynamic Range Intermodulation Distortion 90 dB 81 dB −97 dB DC and Logic Electrical Characteristics The following specifications apply for AGND = DGND = DR GND = 0V, VA = VD = +5.0VDC, DR VD = 3.0V or 5.0V, PD = 0V, VREF IN = +2.0V, VIN (common mode) = 1.0V, fCLK = 7 MHz @ 50% duty cycle, tr, tr = 4ns, CL = 20 pF/pin. Boldface limits apply for TA = TJ = TMIN to TMAX: all other limits TA = TJ = 25˚C (Notes 7, 8, 9) Symbol Parameter Typical (Note 10) Conditions Limits (Note 11) CLOCK OE, PD DIGITAL INPUT CHARACTERISTICS VIH Logical “1” Input Voltage V+ = 5.25V Units 2.0 V(min) 0.8 V(max) Logical “1” Input Current V+ = 5.25V VIN = 5.0V 1 µA Logical “0” Input Current VIN = 0V −1 µA 5 pF VIL Logical “0” Input Voltage IIH IIL CIN VIN Input Capacitance D00 – D13 DIGITAL OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS DR VD = 4.75V, IOUT = −360 µA VOH Logical “1” Output Voltage DR VD = 2.7V, IOUT = −360 µA DR VD = 4.75V, IOUT = 1.6 mA Logical “0” Output Voltage VOL DR VD = 2.7V, IOUT = 1.6 mA VOUT = 3V or 5V TRI-STATE Output Current IOZ VOUT = 0V 4.5 V(min) 2.5 V(min) 0.4 V(max) 0.4 V(max) 100 nA −100 nA +ISC Output Short Circuit Source Current DR VD = 3V, VOUT = 0V −10 mA −ISC Output Short Circuit Sink Current VOUT = DR VD = 3V 12 mA POWER SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS IA Analog Supply Current ID + IDR Digital Supply Current Total Power Consumption PSRR Power Supply Rejection Ratio PD = DGND PD = DGND, no output load, dc input PD = DGND, no output load, dc input PD = DR VD, no output load, dc input 75.7 81 mA(max) 0.3 2 mA(max) 380 425 mW(max) 20 mW Change in FS Error with 0.5V change in VA 70 dB 250 mVPP 100 kHz riding on VA 46 dB AC Electrical Characteristics The following specifications apply for AGND = DGND = DR GND = 0V, VA = VD = +5.0VDC, DR VD = 3.0V or 5.0V, PD = 0V, VREF IN = +2.0V, VIN (common mode) = 1.0V, fCLK = 7 MHz @ 50% duty cycle, tr, tf = 4 ns, CL = 20 pF/pin. Boldface limits apply for TA = TJ = TMIN to TMAX: all other limits TA = TJ = 25˚C (Notes 7, 8, 9) Symbol fCLK www.national.com Typical (Note 10) Limits (Note 11) Conversion Clock Frequency 25 8 7 Conversion Clock Duty Cycle 45 55 Parameter Conditions 6 Units kHz(min) MHz(max) %(min) %(max) (Continued) Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical (Note 10) Limits (Note 11) Units tCL Conversion Clock Low Time 63 ns(min) tCH Conversion Clock High Time 63 ns(min) Conversion Latency 12 Clock Cycles tAD Aperture Delay 3 ns tAJ Aperture Jitter 5 ps(rms) tOD Rising Edge of CLOCK to Data Valid tEN OE Low to Data Valid on D00 – D13 35 ns tDIS OE High to D0 – D13 into TRI-STATE ® 12 ns tCONV DRVD = 3.0V 45 58 ns(max) DRVD = 5.0V 34 53 ns(max) Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits. For guaranteed specifications and test conditions, see the Electrical Characteristics. The guaranteed specifications apply only for the test conditions listed. Some performance characteristics may degrade when the device is not operated under the listed test conditions. Note 2: All voltages are measured with respect to GND = AGND = DGND = DR GND = 0V, unless otherwise specified. Note 3: When the input voltage at any pin exceeds the power supplies (that is, VIN < AGND or VIN > VA or VD), the current at that pin should be limited to 25 mA (10 mA for pins 1, 45 and 47). The 50 mA maximum package input current rating limits the number of pins that can safely exceed the power supplies with an input current of 25 mA to two. Note 4: The absolute maximum junction temperature (TJmax) for this device is 150˚C. The maximum allowable power dissipation is dictated by TJmax, the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance (θJA), and the ambient temperature (TA), and can be calculated using the formula PDMAX = (TJmax - TA)/θJA. In the 48-pin TQFP, θja is 76˚C/W, so PDMAX = 1,345 mW at 25˚C and 855 mW at the maximum operating ambient temperature of 85˚C. Note that the power dissipation of this device under normal operation will typically be about 400 mW (380 mW quiescent power +20 mW due to 1 TTL load on each digital output. The values for maximum power dissipation listed above will be reached only when the ADC14071 is operated in a severe fault condition (e.g. when input or output pins are driven beyond the power supply voltages, or the power supply polarity is reversed). Obviously, such conditions should always be avoided. Note 5: Human body model is 100 pF capacitor discharged through a 1.5 kΩ resistor. Machine model is 220 pF discharged through ZERO ohms. Note 6: See AN450, “Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect on Product Reliability”, or the section entitled “Surface Mount” found in any post 1986 National Semiconductor Linear Data Book, for other methods of soldering surface mount devices. Note 7: The inputs are protected as shown below. Input voltage magnitudes up to 0.3V above VA or to 0.3V below GND will not damage this device, provided current is limited per (Note 3). However, errors in the A/D conversion can occur if the input goes above (VA −2.0V) or below GND by more than 300 mV. As an example, if VA is 4.75VDC, the full-scale input voltage must be ≤ 2.75VDC or ≥ −300 mV to ensure accurate conversions. DS101101-8 ESD Protection Scheme for Input and Output Pins Note 8: To guarantee accuracy, it is required that VA and VD be connected together and to the same power supply with separate bypass capacitors at each V+ pin. Note 9: With the test condition for VREF = (VREF+ − VREF−) given as +2.0V, the 14-bit LSB is 244 µV. Note 10: Typical figures are at TA = TJ = 25˚C, and represent most likely parametric norms. Note 11: Tested limits are guaranteed to National’s AOQL (Average Outgoing Quality Level). Note 12: Integral Non-Linearity is defined as the deviation of the analog value, expressed in LSBs, from the straight line that passes through positive full-scale and negative full-scale. Note 13: Optimum SNR performance will be obtained by keeping the reference input in the 1.8V to 2.7V range. The LM4041CIM3-ADJ (SOT-23 package) or the LM4041CIZ-ADJ (TO-92 package bandgap voltage reference is recommended for this application. 7 www.national.com ADC14071 AC Electrical Characteristics The following specifications apply for AGND = DGND = DR GND = 0V, VA = VD = +5.0VDC, DR VD = 3.0V or 5.0V, PD = 0V, VREF IN = +2.0V, VIN (common mode) = 1.0V, fCLK = 7 MHz @ 50% duty cycle, tr, tf = 4 ns, CL = 20 pF/pin. Boldface limits apply for TA = TJ = TMIN to TMAX: all other limits TA = TJ = 25˚C (Notes 7, 8, 9) ADC14071 AC Electrical Characteristics (Continued) DS101101-9 FIGURE 1. Transfer Characteristic DS101101-10 FIGURE 2. Description of Errors www.national.com 8 VA = VD = DR VD = 5V. fCLK = 7MHz, fIN = 500KHz unless INL DNL DS101101-11 SNR vs Temperature DS101101-12 INL vs Temperature DS101101-13 DNL vs Temperature DS101101-14 THD vs Temperature DS101101-15 DS101101-16 9 www.national.com ADC14071 Typical Performance Characteristics otherwise stated. ADC14071 Typical Performance Characteristics VA = VD = DR VD = 5V. fCLK = 7MHz, fIN = 500KHz unless otherwise stated. (Continued) SINAD & ENOB vs Temp SINAD & ENOB vs Clock Duty Cycle DS101101-17 SFDR vs Temperature DS101101-18 Power Consumption vs fCLK DS101101-19 IMD Response DS101101-20 Spectral Response DS101101-21 DS101101-22 mode. The Sample/Hold circuit effectively stops capturing the input signal and goes into the ″hold″ mode this amount of time after the clock transition. Specification Definitions APERTURE JITTER is the variation in aperture delay from sample to sample. Aperture jitter shows up as input noise. APERTURE DELAY is the time from the sampling edge of the clock to when the input signal is acquired or held for conversion. In other words, it is the time required for the Sample/ Hold circuit to go from the ″sample″ mode to the ″hold″ www.national.com DIFFERENTIAL NON-LINEARITY (DNL) is the measure of the maximum deviation from the ideal step size of 1 LSB. EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF BITS (ENOB, or EFFECTIVE BITS) is another method of specifying Signal-to-Noise and 10 PIPELINE DELAY (LATENCY) is the number of clock cycles between initiation of conversion and the availability of that same conversion result at the output. New data is available at every clock cycle, but the data lags the conversion by the pipeline delay. POSITIVE FULL SCALE ERROR is a measure of how far the last code transition is from the ideal of 11⁄2LSB below nominal positive full scale. It is the difference beween the input voltage (VIN+ − VIN−) just causing a transition to positive full scale and VREF − 11⁄2LSB. Full Scalse Error is sometimes called Full Scale Offset Error. (Continued) Distortion or SINAD. ENOB is defined as (SINAD 1.76)/6.02 and says that the converter is equivalent to a perfect ADC of this (ENOB) number of bits. FULL POWER BANDWIDTH is a measure of the frequency at which the reconstructed output fundamental drops 3 dB below its low frequency value for a full scale input. The test is performed with fIN equal to 100 kHz plus integer multiples of fCLK. The input frequency at which the output is −3 dB relative to the low frequency input signal is the full power bandwidth. SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO (SNR) is the ratio, expressed in dB, of the rms value of the input signal to the rms value of the sum of all other spectral components below one-half the sampling frequency, not including harmonics or dc. SIGNAL TO NOISE PLUS DISTORTION (S/N+D or SINAD) is the ratio, expressed in dB, of the rms value of the input signal to the rms value of all of the other spectral components below half the clock frequency, including harmonics but excluding dc. SPURIOUS FREE DYNAMIC RANGE (SFDR) is the difference, expressed in dB, between the rms values of the input signal and the peak spurious signal, where a spurious signal is any signal present in the output spectrum that is not present at the input. TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION (THD) is the ratio, expressed in dB or dBc, of the rms total of the first nine harmonic components to the rms value of the input signal. INTERMODULATION DISTORTION (IMD) is the creation of additional spectral components as a result of two sinusoidal frequencies being applied to the ADC input at the same time. It is defined as the ratio of the power in the intermodulation products to the total power in the original frequencies. IMD is usually expressed in dB. INTEGRAL NON-LINEARITY (INL) is a measure of the deviation of each individual code from a line drawn from negative full scale (1⁄2 LSB below the first code transition) through positive full scale (the last code transition). The deviation of any given code from this straight line is measured from the center of that code value. NEGATIVE FULL SCALE ERROR is the measure of how far the last code transition is from the ideal of 1⁄2LSB above nominal negative full scale. It is the difference between the input voltage (VIN+ − VIN−) just causing a transition to the first code and the ideal voltage to cause that transition. The ideal LSB transition (when it should occur) is (VIN+) − (VIN−) = 1⁄2LSB OFFSET ERROR is the difference between the ideal and actual voltages that cause a transition to mid-scale (a code of 8192) when approached from a lower code. The ideal LSB transition (when it should occur) is (VIN+) − (VIN−) = 0 Timing Diagram DS101101-23 Output Timing 11 www.national.com ADC14071 Specification Definitions ADC14071 1.2 REFERENCE INPUT The ADC14071 is designed to operate with a 2.0V reference, but performs well with reference voltages in the range of 1.0V to 2.7V. Reducing the reference voltage below 1.0V will decrease the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the ADC14071. Increasing the reference voltage (and the input signal swing) beyond 2.7V will degrade THD. It is very important that all grounds associated with the reference voltage and the input signal make connection to the analog ground plane at a single point to minimize the effects of noise currents in the ground path. The reference bypass pins (VREF+ BY, VREF− BY and VREF and VREF (MID) BY) are for bypass purposes only. Bypass each of these pins to AGND with 0.1µF capacitors. DO NOT LOAD these pins. Functional Description Operating on a single +5V supply, the ADC14071 uses a pipelined architecture and has error correction circuitry to help ensure maximum performance. Balanced analog signals are digitized to 14 bits. Each of these input signals should have a peak-to-peak voltage equal to the input reference voltage, VREF, and can be centered around VREF/2. Table 1 and Table 2 indicate the input to output relationship of the ADC14071. As indicated in Table 2, biasing one input to VREF/2 and driving the other input with its full range signal results in a 6 dB reduction of the output range, limiting it to the range of 1⁄4 to 3⁄4 of the minimum output range obtainable if both inputs were driven with complimentary signals. Section 1.3 SIGNAL INPUTS explains how to avoid this signal reduction. 1.3 SIGNAL INPUTS The signal inputs are VIN+ and VIN−. The input signal, VIN, is defined as VIN = (VIN+) – (VIN−). TABLE 1. Input to Output Relationship — Differential Input VIN+ VIN− Output 0 VREF 00 0000 0000 0000 0.25*VREF 0.75*VREF 01 0000 0000 0000 0.50*VREF 0.50*VREF 10 0000 0000 0000 0.75*VREF 025*VREF 11 0000 0000 0000 VREF 0 11 1111 1111 1111 Figure 3 shows the expected input signal range. Note that the nominal input common mode voltage is 1.0V. This assumes that the input signals run between the limits of AGND and 2V with VREF = 2.0V. As the input signal VIN increases above 4 VP-P, the input common mode range should become VREF/2. The Peaks of the input signals should never exceed the voltage described as Peak Input Voltage = VA − 2.0V to maintain signal performance. TABLE 2. Input to Output Relationship — Single-Ended Input VIN+ VIN− Output 0 VREF/2 01 0000 0000 0000 0.25*VREF VREF/2 01 1000 0000 0000 0.50*VREF VREF/2 10 0000 0000 0000 0.75*VREF VREF/2 10 1000 0000 0000 VREF VREF/2 11 0000 0000 0000 The output word rate is the same as the clock frequency, which can be between 25kSPS and 8 MSPS (typical). The analog input voltage is acquired at the rising edge of the clock and the digital data for that sample is delayed by the pipeline for 12 clock cycles. A logic high on the power down (PD) pin reduces the converter power consumption to 20 mW. and THD and SINAD DS101101-24 FIGURE 3. Expected Input Signal Range Applications Information The ADC14071 performs best with a differential input centered around half the reference voltage, VREF. The peak-to-peak voltage swing at both VIN+ and VIN− should not exceed the value of the reference voltage or the output data will be clipped. The two input signals should be exactly 180˚ out of phase from each other and of the same amplitute to avoid a reduction in the output amplitude. For angular deviations of up to 10˚ from these two signals being 180 out of phase, the full scale error in LSB can be described as EFS = dev1.79. 1.0 OPERATING CONDITIONS We recommend that the following conditions be observed for operation of the ADC14071: 4.75V ≤ VA ≤ 5.25V VD = VA 2.7≤ DR VD ≤ VD 25 kHz ≤ fCLK ≤ 8 MHz 1.0V ≤ VREF ≤ 2.7V Where dev is the angular difference between the two signals having a 180˚ relative phase relationship to each other, as shown in Figure 4. Drive the analog inputs with a source impedance less than 100Ω. 1.1 ANALOG INPUTS The ADC14071 has two analog signal inputs, VIN+ and VIN−. These two pins form a differential input. There is one reference input pin, VREF. www.national.com integrity 12 Whenever the trace between the clock source and the ADC clock pin is greater than 2 cm, use a 50Ω series resistor in the clock line, located within 2 cm of the driving source. (Continued) 2.2 OE The OE pin, when low, puts the output pins into a high impedance state. Be very careful when driving a high capacitance bus. The more capacitance the output drivers must charge for each conversion, the more instantaneous digital current flows through DR VD and DR GND. These large charging current spikes can couple into the analog circuitry, degrading dynamic performance. Adequate bypassing and maintaining separate analog and digital ground planes will reduce this problem. Additionally, bus capacitance beyond the specified 20 pF/pin will cause tOD to increase, making it difficult to properly latch the ADC output data. The result could, again, be an apparent reduction in dynamic performance. DS101101-31 FIGURE 4. Angular Errors between the Two Input Signals Will Reduce the Output Level For single ended operation, one of the analog inputs should be connected to a voltage equal to the reference voltage, with the common mode voltage of the driven input equal to that same voltage. The peak-to-peak input signal should be twice the reference voltage to minimize SNR and SINAD loss. For example, set the VREF to 1.0V, bias VIN− to 1.0V and drive VIN+ with signal range of 0V to 2.0V. The VIN+ and the VIN− inputs of the ADC14071 consist of an analog switch followed by a switched-capacitor amplifier. The capacitance seen at the analog input pins changes with the clock level, appearing as 14 pF when the clock is low, and 5 pF when the clock is high. Since a dynamic capacitance is more difficult to drive than is a fixed capacitance, choose the driving amplifier carefully. The LM6172 is a good amplifier for driving the ADC14071. The internal switching action at the analog inputs causes energy to be output from the input pins. As the driving source tries to compensate for this, it adds noise to the signal. To prevent this, use 33Ω series resistors at each of the signal inputs with a 0.0022 µF capacitor across the inputs, as can be seen in Figures 6, 7. These components should be placed close to the ADC as the input pins of the ADC is the most sensitive part of the system and this is the last opportunity to filter the input. The digital data outputs should be buffered (with 74ACQ541, for example). Dynamic performance can also be improved by adding series resistors at each digital output, close to the ADC14071, which reduces the energy coupled back into the converter output pins by limiting the output current. A reasonable value for these resistors is 47Ω. 2.3 PD The PD pin, when high, holds the ADC14071 in a power-down mode to conserve power when the converter is not being used. In this state the power consumption is 20 mW. The output data pins may change randomly when the PD pin is high. Power consumption during power-down is not affected by the clock frequency, or by whether there is a clock signal present. The data in the pipeline is corrupted while in the power down mode. 3.0 OUTPUTS The ADC14071 has 15 digital outputs: 14 Data Output pins and OR (Out of Range). The output pins are TTL/CMOS compatible and the output data format is straight binary. Valid data is present at these outputs while the OE pin is low. While the tOD time provides information about output timing, a simple way to capture a valid output is to latch the data on the falling edge of the conversion clock (pin 11). To minimize noise due to output switching, minimize the load currents at the digital outputs. This can be done by connecting buffers between the ADC outputs and any other circuitry. Only one input should be connected to each output pin. Additionally, inserting series resistors of 47Ω to 56Ω at the digital outputs, close to the ADC pins, will isolate the outputs from trace and other circuitry capacitances and limit the output currents which could otherwise result in performance degradation, as discussed in Section 2.2. See Figure 5. The OR pin indicates when the input signal is under- or over-range. This pin and the MSB, used together, will indicate whether the input is out of range low or high. 2.0 DIGITAL INPUTS Digital inputs consist of CLOCK, OE and PD. 2.1 CLOCK The CLOCK signal controls the timing of the sampling process. Drive the clock input with a stable, low phase jitter clock signal in the range of 25 kHz to 8 MHz and rise and fall times of less than 4 ns. The trace carrying the clock signal should be as short as possible. This trace should not cross any other signal line, analog or digital, not even at 90˚. The CLOCK signal also drives the internal state machine. If the clock is interrupted, the charge on internal capacitors can dissipate to the point where the output data will lose accuracy. The CLOCK pin should be terminated with a series 100Ω resistor and 200 pF capacitor to ground located within two centimeters of the ADC14071 clock pin, as shown in Figure 5. 13 www.national.com ADC14071 Applications Information ADC14071 Applications Information (Continued) DS101101-25 FIGURE 5. Simple Application Circuit with Single-Ended to Differential Buffer DS101101-26 FIGURE 6. Differential Drive Circuit of Figure 5. All 100Ω Resistors are 0.1%. Tolerance of the other Resistors is not Critical. www.national.com 14 ADC14071 Applications Information (Continued) DS101101-27 FIGURE 7. Driving the Signal Inputs with a Transformer process. To prevent this from happening, the DR GND pins should not be connected to system ground in close proximity to any of the ADC14071’s other ground pins. Capacitive coupling between the typically noisy digital ground plane and the sensitive analog circuitry can lead to poor performance. The solution is to keep the analog circuitry separated from the digital circuitry and from the digital ground plane, as well as to keep the clock line as short as possible. Digital circuits create substantial supply and ground current transients. The logic noise thus generated could have significant impact upon system noise performance. The best logic family to use in systems with A/D converters is one which employs non-saturating transistor designs, or has low noise characteristics, such as the 74LS, 74HC(T) and 74AC(T)Q families. The worst noise generators are logic families that draw the largest supply current transients during clock or signal edges, like the 74F and the 74AC(T) families. Since digital switching transients are composed largely of high frequency components, total ground plane copper weight will have little effect upon the logic-generated noise. This is because of the skin effect. Total surface area is more important than is total ground plane volume. An effective way to control ground noise is by connecting the analog and digital ground planes together beneath the ADC with a copper trace that is very narrow compared with the rest of the ground plane. A typical width is about 1/16 inch (1.5 mm to 2 mm) but will depend upon the total analog ground current that will flow through it. This narrowing provides a fairly high impedance to the high edge rates of the digital switching currents, directing them away from the analog pins. The lower slew rate analog ground currents see a 4.0 POWER SUPPLY CONSIDERATIONS The power supply pin should be bypassed with a 10 µF capacitor and with a 0.1 µF ceramic chip capacitor a centimeter of each power pin. Leadless chip capacitors are preferred because they provide low lead inductance. As is the case with all high-speed converters, the ADC14071 is sensitive to power supply noise. Accordingly the noise on the analog supply pin should be kept below 10 mVP-P. No pin should ever have a voltage on it that is in excess of the supply voltages, not even on a transient basis. Be especially careful of this during power up. The DR VD pin provides power for the output drivers and may be operated from a supply in the range of 2.7V to the VD supply (nominal 5V). This can simplify interfacing to 3.0V devices and systems. Powering the DR VD from 3V will also reduce power consumption and noise generation due to output switching. DO NOT operate the DR VD pin at a voltage higher than VD. 5.0 LAYOUT AND GROUNDING Proper grounding and proper routing of all signals are essential to ensure accurate conversion. Separate analog and digital ground planes that are connected close to the ADC14071 are required to achieve specified performance. The analog and digital grounds may be in the same layer, but should be separated from each other and should never overlap each other. Separation should be at least 1⁄8 inch (3 mm), where possible. The ground return for the data outputs (DR GND) carries the ground current for the output drivers. The output current can exhibit high transients that could add noise to the conversion 15 www.national.com ADC14071 Applications Information which they are used. Inductors should not be placed side by side, even with just a small part of their bodies beside each other. (Continued) relatively low impedance across this narrow ground connection. This implies that the power supply ground should be connected to the digital ground plane. Generally, analog and digital lines should cross each other at 90˚ to avoid crosstalk. To maximize accuracy in high speed, high resolution systems, however, avoid crossing analog and digital lines altogether. It is important to keep any clock line as short as possible and isolated from ALL other lines, including other digital lines. Even the generally accepted 90˚ crossing should be avoided as even a little coupling can cause problems at high frequencies. This is because other lines can introduce phase noise (jitter) into the clock line, which can lead to degradation of SNR. Also, the high speed clock can introduce noise into the analog chain. Best performance at high frequencies and at high resolution is obtained with a straight signal path. That is, the signal path through all components should form a straight line wherever possible. The analog input should be isolated from noisy signal traces to avoid coupling of spurious signals into the input. Any external component (e.g., a filter capacitor) connected between the converter’s input pins and ground or to the reference pin and ground should be connected to a very clean point in the analog ground plane. Figure 8 gives an example of a suitable layout. All analog circuitry (input amplifiers, filters, reference components, etc.) should be placed over the analog ground plane. All digital circuitry and I/O lines should be placed over the digital ground plane. Furthermore, all components in the reference circuitry and the input signal chain that are connected to ground should be connected together with traces and enter the analog ground plane at a single point. All ground connections should have a low inductance path to ground. Be especially careful with the layout of inductors. Mutual inductance can change the characteristics of the circuit in DS101101-28 FIGURE 8. Example of A Suitable Layout 6.0 DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE To achieve the best dynamic performance with the ADC14071, the clock source driving the CLK input must be free of jitter. For best ac performance, isolate the ADC clock from any digital circuitry with buffers, as with the clock tree shown in Figure 9. As mentioned in Section 5.0, it is good practice to keep the ADC clock line as short as possible and to keep it well away from any other signals. Other signals can introduce phase noise (jitter) into the clock signal, which can lead to reduced SNR performance, and the clock can introduce noise into other lines. Even lines with 90˚ crossings have capacitive coupling, so try to avoid even these 90˚ crossings of the clock line. www.national.com 16 Additionally, bus capacitance beyond the specified 20 pF/pin will cause tOD to increase, making it difficult to properly latch the ADC output data. The result could, again, be an apparent reduction in dynamic performance. (Continued) The digital data outputs should be buffered (with 74ACQ541, for example). Dynamic performance can also be improved by adding series resistors at each digital output, close to the ADC14071, which reduces the energy coupled back into the converter output pins by limiting the output current. A reasonable value for these resistors is 47Ω. Using an inadequate amplifier to drive the analog input. As explained in Section 1.3, the capacitance seen at the input alternates between 14 pF and 5 pF, depending upon the phase of the clock. This dynamic load is more difficult to drive than is a fixed capacitance. If the amplifier exhibits overshoot, ringing, or any evidence of instability, even at a very low level, it will degrade performance. A small series resistor at each amplifier output and a capacitor across the analog inputs (as shown in Figures 6, 7) will improve performance. The LM6172 has been successfully used to drive the analog inputs of the ADC14071. Also, it is important that te signals at the two inputs have exactly the same amplitude and be exactly 180˚ out of phase with each other. Board layout, especially equality of the length of the two traces to the input pins, will affect the effective phase between these two signals. Remember that an operational amplifier operated in the non-inverting configuration will exhibit more time delay than will the same device operating in the inverting configuration. Operating with the reference pins outside of the specified range. As mentioned in Section 1.2, VREF should be in the range of 1.0V ≤ VREF ≤ 2.7V. DS101101-29 FIGURE 9. Isolating the ADC Clock from other Circuitry with A Clock Tree 7.0 COMMON APPLICATION PITFALLS Driving the inputs (analog or digital) beyond the power supply rails. For proper operation, all inputs should not go more than 300 mV beyond the supply rails (more than 300 mV below the ground pins or 300 mV above the supply pins). Exceeding these limits on even a transient basis may cause faulty or erratic operation. It is not uncommon for high speed digital circuits (e.g., 74F and 74AC devices) to exhibit overshoot or undershoot that goes above the power supply or more than a volt below ground. A resistor of about 50Ω to 100Ω in series with the offending digital input will eliminate the problem. Do not allow input voltages to exceed the supply voltage, even on a transient basis. Not even during power up. Be careful not to overdrive the inputs of the ADC14071 with a device that is powered from supplies outside the range of the ADC14071 supply. Such practice may lead to conversion inaccuracies and even to device damage. Attempting to drive a high capacitance digital data bus. The more capacitance the output drivers must charge for each conversion, the more instantaneous digital current flows through DR VD and DR GND. These large charging current spikes can couple into the analog circuitry, degrading dynamic performance. Adequate bypassing and maintaining separate analog and digital ground planes will reduce this problem. Operating outside of these limits could lead to performance degradation. Using a clock source with excessive jitter, using excessively long clock signal trace, or having other signals coupled to the clock signal trace. This will cause the sampling interval to vary, causing excessive output noise and a reduction in SNR performance. 17 www.national.com ADC14071 Applications Information ADC14071 14-Bit, 7 MSPS, 380 mW A/D converter Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 48-Lead TQFP Package Order Number ADC14071CIVBH NS Package Number VBH48A LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. 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