19-4505; Rev 4; 7/05 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters ____________________________Features The MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 step-down switching regulators provide high efficiency over a wide range of load currents, delivering up to 225mA. A current-limiting pulse-frequency-modulated (PFM) control scheme gives the devices the benefits of pulse-width-modulated (PWM) converters (high efficiency at heavy loads), while using only 10µA of supply current (vs. 2mA to 10mA for PWM converters). The result is high efficiency over a wide range of loads. ♦ High Efficiency for a Wide Range of Load Currents The MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 input range is 4V to 11.5V, and the devices provide lower preset output voltages of 5V, 3.3V, and 3V, respectively. Or, the output can be user-adjusted to any voltage from 1.3V to the input voltage. ♦ Low-Battery Detection Comparator The MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 have an internal 1A power MOSFET switch, making them ideal for minimum-component, low- and medium-power applications. For increased output drive capability, use the MAX649/MAX651/MAX652 step-down controllers, which drive an external P-channel FET to deliver up to 5W. ________________________Applications 9V Battery to 5V, 3.3V, or 3V Conversion High-Efficiency Linear Regulator Replacement Portable Instruments and Handy-Terminals ♦ 10µA Quiescent Current ♦ Output Currents Up to 225mA ♦ Preset or Adjustable Output Voltage: 5.0V (MAX639) 3.3V (MAX640) 3.0V (MAX653) ♦ Current-Limiting PFM Control Scheme ______________Ordering Information PART TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE MAX639CPA 0°C to +70°C 8 Plastic DIP MAX639CSA MAX639C/D MAX639EPA MAX639ESA MAX639MJA 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -55°C to +125°C 8 SO Dice* 8 Plastic DIP 8 SO 8 CERDIP Ordering Information continued on last page. *Contact factory for dice specifications. 5V-to-3.3V Converters __________Typical Operating Circuit __________________Pin Configuration TOP VIEW INPUT 5.5V TO 11.5V V+ OUTPUT 5V 225mA LX VOUT MAX639 ON/OFF LOW-BATTERY DETECTOR INPUT SHDN VOUT LBI LBO LOW-BATTERY DETECTOR OUTPUT 8 SHDN 1 LBO 2 LBI 3 GND 4 MAX639 MAX640 MAX653 7 VFB 6 V+ 5 LX DIP/SO VFB GND ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim/Dallas Direct! at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com. 1 MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 _______________General Description MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS V+...........................................................................................12V LX .........................................................(V+ - 12V) to (V+ + 0.3V) LBI, LBO, VFB, SHDN, VOUT........................-0.3V to (V+ + 0.3V) LX Output Current (Note 1) ......................................................1A LBO Output Current ............................................................10mA Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) Plastic DIP (derate 9.09mW/°C above +70°C) .............727mW SO (derate 5.88mW/°C above +70°C) ..........................471mW CERDIP (derate 8.00mW/°C above +70°C) ..................640mW Operating Temperature Ranges: MAX639C_ _ .......................................................0°C to +70°C MAX639E_ _ ....................................................-40°C to +85°C MAX639MJA ..................................................-55°C to +125°C Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +160°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C Note 1: Peak inductor current must be limited to 600mA by using an inductor of 100µH or greater. Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (V+ = 9V for the MAX639, V+ = 5V for the MAX640/MAX653, ILOAD = 0mA, TA = TMIN to TMAX, typical values are at TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER CONDITIONS Supply Voltage Supply Current Output Voltage (Note 2) Dropout Voltage SHDN = V+, no load 20 µA 5.00 5.20 3.17 3.30 3.43 MAX653, V+ = 4.0V to 11.5V, 0mA < IOUT < 100mA 2.88 3.00 3.12 MAX640 MAX640 MAX653 MAX639 MAX640 MAX653 2 V 10 4.80 IOUT = 100mA, L = 100µH 0.5 IOUT = 100mA, L = 100µH 91 IOUT = 25mA, L = 470µH 94 IOUT = 100mA, L = 100µH 87 IOUT = 25mA, L = 470µH 91 IOUT = 100mA, L = 100µH 85 IOUT = 25mA, L = 470µH UNITS 11.5 MAX640, V+ = 4.0V to 11.5V, 0mA < IOUT < 100mA MAX639 Switch Off-Time MAX MAX639, V+ = 6.0V to 11.5V, 0mA < IOUT < 100mA MAX653 Switch On-Time TYP 4.0 MAX639 Efficiency MIN V V % 89 V+ = 9V, VOUT = 5V 10.6 12.5 14.4 V+ = 6V, VOUT = 3V 14.2 16.7 19.2 V+ = 9V, VOUT = 3.3V 7.5 8.8 10.1 V+ = 4V, VOUT = 3.3V 60.7 71.4 82.1 V+ = 9V, VOUT = 3V 7.1 8.3 9.5 V+ = 4V, VOUT = 3V 42.5 50.0 57.5 V+ = 9V, VOUT = 5V 9.0 11.7 13.5 V+ = 6V, VOUT = 3V 16.6 19.5 22.4 V+ = 9V, VOUT = 3.3V 13.3 15.6 17.9 V+ = 4V, VOUT = 3.3V 13.3 15.6 17.9 V+ = 9V, VOUT = 3V 14.6 17.2 19.8 V+ = 4V, VOUT = 3V 14.6 17.2 19.8 _______________________________________________________________________________________ µs µs 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) (V+ = 9V for the MAX639, V+ = 5V for the MAX640/MAX653, ILOAD = 0mA, TA = TMIN to TMAX, typical values are at TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) CONDITIONS V+ = 9V, TA = +25°C, MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 PARAMETER LX Switch On-Resistance MAX 1.5 UNITS V+ = 6V, TA = TMIN to TMAX, MAX639 2.5 Ω V+ = 4V, TA = TMIN to TMAX, MAX640/MAX653 2.8 LX Switch Leakage V+ = 11.5V, VLX = 0V VFB Bias Current VFB = 2V MIN TYP 0.8 TA = +25°C 0.003 1.0 TA = TMIN to TMAX 30.0 4.0 VFB Dual-Mode Trip Point 15.0 50 VFB Threshold LBI Bias Current LBI Threshold 1.26 1.28 1.30 MAX6_ _E/M 1.24 1.28 1.32 2 10 MAX6_ _C 1.26 1.28 1.30 MAX6_ _E/M 1.24 1.28 1.32 MAX639 0.8 2.5 MAX640/MAX653 0.4 1.2 LBO Sink Current VLBO = 0.4V LBO Leakage Current VLBO = 11.5V LBO Delay 50mV overdrive SHDN Pull-Up Current nA 0.1 V µA 25 SHDN = 0V V mA 0.001 SHDN Threshold nA mV MAX6_ _C VLBI = 2V µA µs 0.80 1.15 2.00 V 0.10 0.20 0.40 µA Note 2: Output guaranteed by correlation to measurements of device parameters (i.e., switch on-resistance, on-times, off-times, and output voltage trip points). __________________________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (Circuit of Figure 3, internal feedback, L = 100µH, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) 100 MAX639 MAX640 MAX653 70 EFFICIENCY (%) EFFICIENCY (%) 80 MAX639, V+ = 6V MAX640, V+ = 4.3V MAX653, V+ = 4V 80 70 10µ 100µ 1m 10m OUTPUT CURRENT (A) 100m 1 MAX639 MAX640 MAX653 70 50 50 50 80 60 60 60 L = 470µH V+ = 9V 90 90 90 EFFICIENCY (%) L = 470µH MAX639-3 L = 100µH V+ = 9V MAX639-2 100 MAX639-1 100 EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT CURRENT EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT CURRENT EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT CURRENT 10µ 100µ 1m 10m OUTPUT CURRENT (A) 100m 10µ 100µ 1m 10m 100m OUTPUT CURRENT (A) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 _____________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (Circuit of Figure 3, internal feedback, L = 100µH, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) EFFICIENCY vs. INPUT VOLTAGE IOUT = 100mA 80 MAX639, V+ = 6V MAX640, V+ = 4.3V MAX653, V+ = 4V 70 L = 470µH IOUT = 25mA MAX639 95 EFFICIENCY (%) EFFICIENCY (%) 90 100 MAX639 95 EFFICIENCY (%) L = 100µH MAX639-05 100 MAX639-4 100 EFFICIENCY vs. INPUT VOLTAGE 90 MAX640 MAX639-06 EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT CURRENT 90 MAX640 85 85 MAX653 60 MAX653 80 10µ 1m 100µ 10m 100m 4 5 6 7 8 10 9 11 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 9 11 OUTPUT CURRENT (A) V+ (V) V+ (V) MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE MAX639 OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE vs. INPUT VOLTAGE MAX640 MAX653 150 MAX639 150 IOUT = 25mA OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE (mV) L = 470µH MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) L = 100µH MAX639-08 75 MAX639-07 250 200 80 3 1 65 MAX639 55 MAX640 45 MAX653 35 125 12 MAX639-09 50 MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) L = 100µH 100 75 50 L = 220µH 25 L = 470µH 25 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 9 11 0 3 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 5 6 7 125 L = 100µH 100 75 L = 220µH 50 150 ILOAD = 25mA OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE (mV) IOUT = 25mA 9 MAX653 OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE vs. INPUT VOLTAGE MAX639-10 150 8 L = 470µH 125 100 L = 100µH 75 L = 220µH 50 25 25 0 0 L = 470µH 3 4 5 6 7 8 V+ (V) 9 10 11 12 10 INPUT VOLTAGE (V) MAX640 OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE vs. INPUT VOLTAGE 4 12 V+ (V) V+ (V) MAX639-11 100 OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE (mV) MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 V+ (V) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 12 11 12 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters START-UP TIME (ms) 8 V+ = 9.0V 6 4 6 MEASURED FROM THE RISING EDGE OF V+ OR SHDN TO (VOUT = 5.0V) L = 470µH. 30 START-UP TIME (ms) MEASURED FROM THE RISING EDGE OF V+ OR SHDN TO (VOUT = 3.3V)(MAX640) OR (VOUT = 3.0V)(MAX653). THE START-UP TIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MAX640 AND THE MAX653 IS NEGLIGIBLE. 8 V+ = 5.5V 40 MAX639-13 MEASURED FROM THE RISING EDGE OF V+ OR SHDN TO (VOUT = 5V). V+ = 5.0V 4 V+ = 5.5V 20 V+ = 9.0V 2 V+ = 11.5V L = 100µH 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 0 5 15 20 25 30 NO-LOAD SUPPLY CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE 20 V+ = 5.0V V+ = 9.0V MAX639-16 70 NO-LOAD SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) MEASURED FROM THE RISING EDGE OF V+ OR SHDN TO (VOUT = 3.3V)(MAX640) OR (VOUT = 3.0V)(MAX653). THE START-UP TIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MAX640 AND THE MAX653 IS NEGLIGIBLE. L = 470µH 10 10 OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) MAX640/MAX653 START-UP TIME vs. OUTPUT CURRENT 30 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) 40 10 V+ = 11.5V 0 0 V+ = 9.0V V+ = 11.5V MAX639-15 2 START-UP TIME (ms) START-UP TIME (ms) 10 MAX639-12 12 10 MAX639 START-UP TIME vs. OUTPUT CURRENT MAX640/MAX653 START-UP TIME vs. OUTPUT CURRENT MAX639-14 MAX639 START-UP TIME vs. OUTPUT CURRENT 60 MAX639, VOUT = 5V 50 40 MAX653, VOUT = 3V 30 20 10 V+ = 11.5V 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) 25 30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 INPUT VOLTAGE (V) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 _____________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (Circuit of Figure 3, internal feedback, L = 100µH, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters _____________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (Circuit of Figure 3, internal feedback, L = 100µH, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) MAX639 LOAD-TRANSIENT RESPONSE MAX653 LOAD-TRANSIENT RESPONSE A A B B 1ms/div 1ms/div A: ILOAD, 0mA TO 200mA, 100mA/div B: VOUT, 100mV/div, AC COUPLED VIN = 9V, VOUT = 5V A: ILOAD, 0mA TO 100mA, 50mA/div B: VOUT, 100mV/div, AC COUPLED VIN = 5V, VOUT = 3V MAX639 LINE-TRANSIENT RESPONSE MAX653 LINE-TRANSIENT RESPONSE A A B 10ms/div A: VIN, 4V TO 8V, 2V/div B: VOUT, 100mV/div VOUT = 3V, ILOAD = 100mA 6 B 10ms/div A: VIN, 6V TO 11.5V, 2V/div B: VOUT, 100mV/div VOUT = 5V, ILOAD = 100mA _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters PIN NAME FUNCTION 1 VOUT 2 LBO 3 LBI 4 GND 5 LX Drain of a PMOS power switch that has its source connected to V+. LX drives the external inductor, which provides current to the load. 6 V+ Positive Supply-Voltage Input. Should not exceed 11.5V 7 VFB 8 SHDN Sense Input for regulated-output operation. Internally connected to an on-chip voltage divider and to the variable duty-cycle, on-demand oscillator. It must be connected to the external regulated output. Low-Battery Output. An open-drain N-channel MOSFET sinks current when the voltage at LBI drops below 1.28V. Low-Battery Input. When the voltage at LBI drops below 1.28V, LBO sinks current. Ground Dual-Mode Feedback Pin. When VFB is grounded, the internal voltage divider sets the output to 5V (MAX639), 3.3V (MAX640) or 3V (MAX653). For adjustable operation, connect VFB to an external voltage divider. Shutdown Input — active low. When pulled below 0.8V, the LX power switch stays off, shutting down the regulator. When the shutdown input is above 2V, the regulator stays on. Tie SHDN to V+ if shutdown mode is not used. ____________________Getting Started Designing power supplies with the MAX639/MAX640/ MAX653 is easy. The few required external components are readily available. The most general applications use the following components: (3) Inductor: For the highest output current, choose a 100µH inductor with an incremental saturation current rating of at least 600mA. To obtain the highest efficiencies and smallest size, refer to the Inductor Selection section. VL VOUT COUT V+ Figure 1. Simplified Step-Down Converter MAX639 FG02 (1) Capacitors: For the input and output filter capacitors, try using electrolytics in the 100µF range, or use low-ESR capacitors to minimize output ripple. Capacitor values are not critical. (2) Diode: Use the popular 1N5817 or equivalent Schottky diode. IL L IL AT 200mA/div _______________Detailed Description Figure 1 shows a simplified, step-down DC-DC converter. When the switch is closed, a voltage equal to (V+ - V OUT) is applied to the inductor. The current through the inductor ramps up, storing energy in the inductor’s magnetic field. This same current also flows into the output filter capacitor and load. When the switch opens, the current continues to flow through the inductor in the same direction, but must also flow through the diode. The inductor alone supplies current to the load when the switch is open. This current decays to zero as the energy stored in the inductor’s magnetic field is transferred to the output filter capacitor and the load. 0A 0V VL AT 5V/div SWITCH ON SWITCH OFF SWITCH ON SWITCH OFF Figure 2. Simplified Step-Down Converter Operation _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 ______________________________________________________________Pin Description MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters Figure 2 shows what happens to the ideal circuit of Figure 1 if the switch turns on with a 66% duty cycle and V+ = 3/2 VOUT. The inductor current rises more slowly than it falls because the magnitude of the voltage applied during tON is less than that applied during tOFF. Varying the duty cycle and switching frequency keeps the peak current constant as input voltage varies. The MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 control the switch (tON and tOFF) according to the following equations: Equation (1) tON = 50µsV / (V+ - VOUT) Equation (2) tOFF ≥ 50µsV / VOUT When the output dips: (1) The error comparator switches high. Equation (3) IPEAK = 50µsV / L These three equations ensure constant peak currents for a given inductor value, across all input voltages (ignoring the voltage drop across the diode (D1) and the resistive losses in the switch and inductor). The variable duty cycle also ensures that the current through the inductor discharges to zero at the end of each pulse. (3) The oscillator shuts down to save power. Figure 3 shows the MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 block diagram and a typical connection in which 9V is converted to 5V (MAX639), 3.3V (MAX640), or 3.0V (MAX653). The sequence of events in this application is as follows: (2) The internal oscillator starts (15µs start-up time) and connects to the gate of the LX output driver. (3) LX turns on and off according to tON and tOFF, charging and discharging the inductor, and supplying current to the output (as described above). When the output voltage recovers: (1) The comparator switches low. (2) LX turns off. Fixed or Adjustable Output For operation at the preset output voltage, connect VFB to GND; no external resistors are required. For other output voltages, use an external voltage divider. Set the output voltage using R3 and R4 as determined by the following formula: R3 = R4 [(VOUT / VFB Threshold) - 1] where R4 is any resistance in the 10kΩ to 1MΩ range (typically 100kΩ), and the VFB threshold is typically 1.28V. INPUT, +5.5V TO +11.5V (MAX639), +3.8V TO +11.5V (MAX640), +3.5V TO +11.5V (MAX653) 8 SHDN CIN 33µF 6 V+ LX 5V, 3.3V OR 3.0V AT 100mA 5 L = 100µH +1.28V BANDGAP REFERENCE ERROR COMPARATOR 1N5817 VARIABLE FREQUENCY AND DUTY-CYCLE OSCILLATOR VOUT 1 R1 COUT 100µF LOW-BATTERY COMPARATOR MODE-SELECT COMPARATOR 3 LBI 2 LBO 50mV MAX639 MAX640 MAX653 R2 VFB 7 GND 4 Figure 3. Block Diagram 8 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters Shutdown Mode Bringing SHDN below 0.8V places the MAX639/ MAX640/MAX643 in shutdown mode. LX becomes high impedance, and the voltage at VOUT falls to zero. The time required for the output to rise to its nominal regulated voltage when brought out of shutdown (start-up time) depends on the inductor value, input voltage, and load current (see the Start-Up Time vs. Output Current graph in the Typical Operating Characteristics). The low-battery comparator remains active in shutdown mode. __________Applications Information Inductor Selection When selecting an inductor, consider these four factors: peak-current rating, inductance value, series resistance, and size. It is important not to exceed the inductor’s peak-current rating. A saturated inductor will pull excessive currents through the MAX639/MAX640/MAX653’s switch, and may cause damage. Avoid using RF chokes or air-core inductors since they have very low peak-current ratings. Electromagnetic interference must not upset nearby circuitry or the regulator IC. Ferrite-bobbin types work well for most digital circuits; toroids or pot cores work well for EMI-sensitive analog circuits. Recall that the inductance value determines IPEAK for all input voltages (Equation 3). If there are no resistive losses and the diode is ideal, the maximum average current that can be drawn from the MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 will be one-half IPEAK. With the real losses in the switch, inductor, and diode taken into account, the real maximum output current typically varies from 90% to 50% of the ideal. The following steps describe a conservative way to pick an appropriate inductor. Step 1: Decide on the maximum required output current, in amperes: IOUTMAX. Step 2: IPEAK = 4 x IOUTMAX. Table 1. Component Suppliers INDUCTORS — THROUGH HOLE PART NUMBER SIZE (inches) VALUE (µH) IMAX (A) SERIES R (Ω) MAXL001* 0.65 x 0.33 dia. 100 1.75 0.2 7300-13** 0.63 x 0.26 dia. 100 0.89 0.27 7300-15** 0.63 x 0.26 dia. 150 0.72 0.36 7300-17** 0.63 x 0.26 dia. 220 0.58 0.45 7300-19** 0.63 x 0.26 dia. 330 0.47 0.58 7300-21** 0.63 x 0.26 dia. 470 0.39 0.86 7300-25** 0.63 x 0.26 dia. 1000 0.27 2.00 * Maxim Integrated Products **Caddell-Burns 258 East Second Street Mineola, NY 11501-3508 (516) 746-2310 INDUCTORS — SURFACE MOUNT PART NUMBER SIZE (mm) VALUE (µH) IMAX (A) SERIES R (Ω) CD54 5.2 x 5.8 x 4.5 100 0.52 0.63 CD54 5.2 x 5.8 x 4.5 220 0.35 1.50 CDR74 7.1 x 7.7 x 4.5 100 0.52 0.51 CDR74 7.1 x 7.7 x 4.5 220 0.35 0.98 CDR105 9.2 x 10.0 x 5.0 100 0.80 0.35 CDR105 9.2 x 10.0 x 5.0 220 0.54 0.69 Sumida Electric (USA) 637 East Golf Road Arlington Heights, IL 60005 (708) 956-0666 CAPACITORS — LOW ESR PART NUMBER SIZE (inches) VALUE (µF) ESR (Ω) VMAX (V) MAXC001* 0.49 x 0.394 dia. 150 0.2 35 267 Series** D SM packages 47 0.2 10 267 Series** E SM packages 100 0.2 6.3 * Maxim Integrated Products **Matsuo Electronics 2134 Main Street Huntington Beach, CA 92648 (714) 969-2491 SCHOTTKY DIODES — SURFACE MOUNT PART NUMBER SIZE VF (V) IMAX (A) SE014 SOT89 0.55 1 SE024 SOT89 0.55 0.95 Collmer Semiconductor 14368 Proton Road Dallas, TX 75244 (214) 233-1589 NOTE: This list does not constitute an endorsement by Maxim Integrated Products and is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all manufacturers of these components. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 Low-Battery Detector The low-battery detector compares the voltage on the LBI input with the internal 1.28V reference. LBO goes low whenever the input voltage at LBI is less than 1.28V. Set the low-battery detection voltage with resistors R1 and R2 (Figure 3) as determined by the following formula: R1 = R2 [(VLB / LBI Threshold) - 1] where R2 is any resistance in the 10kΩ to 1MΩ range (typically 100kΩ), the LBI threshold is typically 1.28V, and VLB is the desired low-battery detection voltage. The low-battery comparator remains active in shutdown mode. MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters INPUT +4.0V TO +11.5V 6 8 CIN 100µF LX V+ L = 100µH 5 OUTPUT COUT 100µF 1N5817 SHDN MAX639 VOUT MAX640 MAX653 1 R3 MAX639 MAX640 MAX653 VFB 7 GND 4 LBI 3 R4 Figure 4. Adjustable-Output Operation Figure 5. Through-Hole PC Layout and Component Placement Diagram for Standard Step-Down Application (Top-Side View) Step 3: L = 50 / IPEAK. L will be in µH. Do not use an inductor of less than 100µH. Step 4: Make sure that IPEAK does not exceed 0.6A or the inductor’s maximum current rating, whichever is lower. Inductor series resistance affects both efficiency and dropout voltage. A high series resistance severely limits the maximum current available at lower input voltages. Output currents up to 225mA are possible if the inductor has low series resistance. Inductor and series switch resistance form an LR circuit during tON. If the L/R time constant is less than the oscillator tON, the inductor’s peak current will fall short of the desired IPEAK. To maximize efficiency, choose the highest-value inductor that will provide the required output current over the whole range of your input voltage (see Typical Operating Characteristics). Inductors with peak currents in the 600mA range do not need to be very large. They are about the size of a 1W resistor, with surfacemount versions less than 5mm in diameter. Table 1 lists suppliers of inductors suitable for use with the MAX639/MAX640/MAX653. It decreases with larger inductance, but increases as the input voltage lessens. As a general rule, a smaller amount of charge delivered in each pulse results in less output ripple. Output Filter Capacitor The MAX639/MAX640/MAX653’s output ripple has two components. One component results from the variation in stored charge on the filter capacitor with each LX pulse. The other is the product of the current into the capacitor and the capacitor’s equivalent series resistance (ESR). The amount of charge delivered in each oscillator pulse is determined by the inductor value and input voltage. 10 With low-cost aluminum electrolytic capacitors, the ESR-induced ripple can be larger than that caused by the charge variation. Consequently, high-quality aluminum-electrolytic or tantalum filter capacitors will minimize output ripple. Best results at reasonable cost are typically achieved with an aluminum-electrolytic capacitor in the 100µF range, in parallel with a 0.1µF ceramic capacitor (Table 1). External Diode In most MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 circuits, the current in the external diode (D1, Figure 3) changes abruptly from zero to its peak value each time LX switches off. To avoid excessive losses, the diode must have a fast turn-on time. For low-power circuits with peak currents less than 100mA, signal diodes such as the 1N4148 perform well. The 1N5817 diode works well for highpower circuits, or for maximum efficiency at low power. 1N5817 equivalent diodes are also available in surfacemount packages (Table 1). Although the 1N4001 and other general-purpose rectifiers are rated for high currents, they are unacceptable because their slow turnoff times result in excessive losses. Minimum Load Under no-load conditions, because of leakage from the PMOS power switch (see the LX Leakage Current vs. Temperature graph in the Typical Operating Characteristics) and from the internal resistor from V+ to VOUT, leakage current may be supplied to the output ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters SHDN LX 5 MAX639 MAX640 1 MAX653 VOUT L = 100µH 1N5817 COUT 100µF GND 4 VFB 7 MAX639 FG02 CIN 100µF MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) VIN 8 TA = +25°C L = 100µH MAX639 140 120 MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 160 6 V+ 100 80 60 40 20 -5V -3.3V OR -3V 0 0 1 3 2 4 5 V+ (V) Figure 7. Maximum Current Capability of Figure 6 Circuit 87.0 MAX639 FG02 capacitor, even when the switch is off. This will usually not be a problem for a 5V output at room temperature, since the diode’s reverse leakage current and the feedback resistors’ current typically drain the excess. However, if the diode leakage is very low (which can occur at low temperatures and/or small output voltages), charge may build up on the output capacitor, making VOUT rise above its set point. If this happens, add a small load resistor (typically 1MΩ) to the output to pull a few extra microamps of current from the output capacitor. 86.5 EFFICIENCY (%) Figure 6. Inverting Configuration 86.0 85.5 TA = +25°C VOUT = -5V L = 470µH IOUT = 10mA 85.0 Layout Several of the external components in a MAX639/ MAX640/MAX653 circuit experience peak currents up to 600mA. Wherever one of these components connects to ground, there is a potential for ground bounce. Ground bounce occurs when high currents flow through the parasitic resistances of PC board traces. What one component interprets as ground can differ from the IC’s ground by several millivolts. This may increase the MAX639/MAX640/MAX653’s output ripple, since the error comparator (which is referenced to ground) will generate extra switching pulses when they are not needed. It is essential that the input filter capacitor’s ground lead, the MAX639/MAX640/MAX653’s GND pin, the diode’s anode, and the output filter capacitor’s ground lead are as close together as possible, preferably at the same point. Figure 5 shows a suggested through-hole printed circuit layout that minimizes ground bounce. Inverter Configuration Figure 6 shows the MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 in a floating ground configuration. By tying what would normally be the output to the supply-voltage ground, the IC’s GND pin is forced to a regulated -5V (MAX639), 84.5 84.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 V+ (V) Figure 8. Efficiency of Figure 6 Circuit -3.3V (MAX640), or -3V (MAX653). Avoid exceeding the maximum differential voltage of 11.5V from V+ to VOUT. Other negative voltages can be generated by placing a voltage divider across COUT and connecting the tap point to VFB in the same manner as the normal stepdown configuration. Two AA Batteries to 5V, 3.3V, or 3V For battery-powered applications, where the signal ground does not have to correspond to the power-supply ground, the circuit in Figure 6 generates 5V (MAX639), 3.3V (MAX640), or 3V (MAX653) from a pair of AA batteries. Connect the VIN ground point to your system’s input, and connect the output to your system’s ground input. This configuration has the added advantage of reduced on resistance, since the IC’s internal power FET has VIN + VOUT of gate drive (Figures 7 and 8). ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters _Ordering Information (continued) PART TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE MAX640CPA 0°C to +70°C 8 Plastic DIP MAX640CSA MAX640C/D MAX640EPA MAX640ESA MAX640MJA MAX653CPA 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -55°C to +125°C 0°C to +70°C 8 SO Dice* 8 Plastic DIP 8 SO 8 CERDIP 8 Plastic DIP MAX653CSA MAX653C/D MAX653EPA MAX653ESA MAX653MJA 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -55°C to +125°C 8 SO Dice* 8 Plastic DIP 8 SO 8 CERDIP *Contact factory for dice specifications. ___________________Chip Topography VOUT SHDN LBO VFB LBI 0.083" (2.108mm) V+ GND LX 0.072" (1.828mm) TRANSISTOR COUNT: 221 SUBSTRATE CONNECTED TO V+ 12 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Package Information (The package drawing(s) in this data sheet may not reflect the most current specifications. For the latest package outline information go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages.) DIM A A1 B C e E H L N E H INCHES MILLIMETERS MAX MIN 0.069 0.053 0.010 0.004 0.014 0.019 0.007 0.010 0.050 BSC 0.150 0.157 0.228 0.244 0.016 0.050 MAX MIN 1.35 1.75 0.10 0.25 0.35 0.49 0.19 0.25 1.27 BSC 3.80 4.00 5.80 6.20 0.40 SOICN .EPS MAX639/MAX640/MAX653 5V/3.3V/3V/Adjustable, High-Efficiency, Low IQ, Step-Down DC-DC Converters 1.27 VARIATIONS: 1 INCHES TOP VIEW DIM D D D MIN 0.189 0.337 0.386 MAX 0.197 0.344 0.394 MILLIMETERS MIN 4.80 8.55 9.80 MAX 5.00 8.75 10.00 N MS012 8 AA 14 AB 16 AC D A B e C 0∞-8∞ A1 L FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW PROPRIETARY INFORMATION TITLE: PACKAGE OUTLINE, .150" SOIC APPROVAL DOCUMENT CONTROL NO. 21-0041 REV. B 1 1 Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 13 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2005 Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.