HSP45116A ® Data Sheet May 7, 2007 Numerically Controlled Oscillator/ Modulator FN4156.4 Features • NCO and CMAC on One Chip The Intersil HSP45116A combines a high performance quadrature numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) and a high speed 16-bit Complex Multiplier/Accumulator (CMAC) on a single IC. This combination of functions allows a complex vector to be multiplied by the internally generated (cos, sin) vector for quadrature modulation and demodulation. As shown in the Block Diagram, the HSP45116A is divided into three main sections. The Phase/ Frequency Control Section (PFCS) and the Sine/Cosine Section together form a complex NCO. The CMAC multiplies the output of the Sine/ Cosine Section with an external complex vector. The inputs to the Phase/Frequency Control Section consist of a microprocessor interface and individual control lines. The phase resolution of the PFCS is 32 bits, which results in frequency resolution better than 0.013Hz at 52MHz. The output of the PFCS is the argument of the sine and cosine. The spurious free dynamic range of the complex sinusoid is greater than 90dBc. The output vector from the Sine/Cosine Section is one of the inputs to the Complex Multiplier/Accumulator. The CMAC multiplies this (cos, sin) vector by an external complex vector and can accumulate the result. The resulting complex vectors are available through two 20-bit output ports which maintain the 90dB spectral purity. This result can be accumulated internally to implement an accumulate and dump filter. • 52MHz Version • 32-Bit Frequency Control • 16-Bit Phase Modulation • 16-Bit CMAC • 0.013Hz Tuning Resolution at 52MHz • Programmable Rounding Option • Spurious Frequency Components < -90dBc • Fully Static CMOS • Pb-Free Plus Anneal Available (RoHS Compliant) Applications • Frequency Synthesis • Modulation - AM, FM, PSK, FSK, QAM • Demodulation, PLL • Phase Shifter • Polar to Cartesian Conversions A quadrature down converter can be implemented by loading a center frequency into the Phase/Frequency Control Section. The signal to be down converted is the Vector Input of the CMAC, which multiplies the data by the rotating vector from the Sine/Cosine Section. The resulting complex output is the down converted signal. The bit position and widths for the outputs of CMAC and Complex Accumulator (ACC) are programmable. Ordering Information PART NUMBER HSP45116AVC-52 PART MARKING HSP45116AVC-52 HSP45116AVC-52Z (Note) HSP45116AVC-52Z TEMP. RANGE (°C) PACKAGE PKG. DWG. # 0 to +70 160 Ld MQFP (28mmx28mm) Q160.28x28 0 to +70 160 Ld MQFP (28mmx28mm) (Pb-free) Q160.28x28 NOTE: Intersil Pb-free plus anneal products employ special Pb-free material sets; molding compounds/die attach materials and 100% matte tin plate termination finish, which are RoHS compliant and compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering operations. Intersil Pb-free products are MSL classified at Pb-free peak reflow temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free requirements of IPC/JEDEC J STD-020. 1 CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures. 1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc. Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2007. All Rights Reserved All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. HSP45116A Block Diagram VECTOR INPUT R I MICROPROCESSOR INTERFACE INDIVIDUAL CONTROL SIGNALS PHASE/ FREQUENCY CONTROL SECTION SINE/ COSINE ARGUMENT SIN SINE/ COSINE SECTION COS CMAC R I VECTOR OUTPUT 2 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A Pinout 160 159 158 157 156 155 154 153 152 151 150 149 148 147 146 145 144 143 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 135 134 133 132 131 130 129 128 127 126 125 124 123 122 121 NC VCC IMIN1 GND IMIN2 IMIN3 IMIN4 IMIN5 IMIN6 IMIN7 IMIN8 IMIN9 IMIN10 IMIN11 IMIN12 VCC IMIN13 GND IMIN14 IMIN15 IMIN16 IMIN17 IMIN18 IO19 IO18 IO17 IO16 IO15 VCC GND IO14 IO13 IO12 IO11 IO10 GND VCC IO9 IO8 IO7 HSP45116A (160 LD MQFP) TOP VIEW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 NC GND IO6 IO5 IO4 IO3 GND IO2 IO1 VCC IO0 RO19 GND RO18 RO17 RO16 RO15 RO14 VCC RO13 RO12 RO11 GND RO10 RO9 VCC RO8 RO7 GND RO6 RO5 RO4 RO3 VCC RO2 RO1 RO0 GND DET1 DET0 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 CLROFR ENCFREG ENPHAC ENTIREG ENI MODPI/2PI CS GND CLK VCC AD1 AD0 WR C15 C14 C13 C12 C11 C10 C9 C8 GND C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 C0 OUTMUX1 OUTMUX0 GND OER RND OEREXT OEIEXT OEI PACO NC IMIN0 RIN18 RIN17 RIN16 RIN15 RIN14 GND RIN13 RIN12 RIN11 RIN10 RIN9 RIN8 RIN7 RIN6 RIN5 RIN4 RIN3 RIN2 GND RIN1 VCC RIN0 SH1 SH0 ACC ENPHREG ENOFREG PEAK RBYTILD BINFMT GND TICO VCC MOD1 MOD0 PACI LOAD PMSEL NC 3 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A Pin Descriptions NAME NUMBER TYPE DESCRIPTION VCC 22, 34, 50, 87, 95, 102, 111, 124, 132, 145, 159 - +5V Power supply input. GND 7, 20, 32, 48, 62, 73, 83, 92, 98, 108, 114, 119, 125, 131, 143, 157 - Power supply ground input. C0-15 54-61, 63-70 I Control input bus for loading phase and frequency data into the PFCS. C15 is the MSB. AD0-1 51, 52 I Address pins for selecting destination of C0-15 data. AD1 is the MSB. CS 47 I Chip select (active low). WR 53 I Write Enable. Data is clocked into the input register selected by AD0-1 on the rising edge of WR when the CS line is low. CLK 49 I Clock. All registers, except the Control Registers clocked with WR, are clocked (when enabled) by the rising edge of CLK. ENPHREG 27 I Phase Register Enable (active low). Registered on chip by CLK. When active low, after being clocked onto chip, ENPHREG enables the clocking of data into the Phase Register. ENOFREG 28 I Frequency Offset Register Enable (active low). Registered on chip by CLK. When active, after being clocked onto chip, ENOFREG enables clocking of frequency offset data into the frequency offset register. ENCFREG 42 I Center Frequency Register Enable (active low). Registered on chip by CLK. When active, after being clocked onto chip, ENCFREG enables clocking of data into the Center Frequency Register. ENPHAC 43 I Phase Accumulator Register Enable (active low). Registered on chip by CLK. When active, after being clocked onto chip, ENPHAC enables clocking of the Phase Accumulator Register. ENTIREG 44 I Time Interval Control Register Enable (active low). Registered on chip by CLK. When active, after being clocked onto chip, ENTIREG enables clocking of data into the Time Accumulator Register. ENI 45 I Real and Imaginary Data Input Register (RIR, IIR) Enable (active low). Registered on chip by CLK. When active, after being clocked onto chip, ENI enables clocking of data into the real and imaginary input data register. MODPI/2PI 46 I Modulo π/2π Select. When low, the Sine and Cosine ROMs are addressed modulo 2π (360 degrees). When high, the most significant address bit is held low so that the ROMs are addressed modulo π (180 degrees). This input is registered on chip by clock. This control pin was included for FFT processing. CLROFR 41 I Frequency Offset Register Output Zero (active low). Registered on chip by CLK. When active, after being clocked onto chip, CLROFR zeros the data path from the Frequency Offset Register to the frequency adder. New data can still be clocked into the Frequency Offset Register; CLROFR does not affect the contents of the register. LOAD 38 I Phase Accumulator Load Control (active low). Registered on chip by CLK. Zeroes feedback path in the phase accumulator without clearing the Phase Accumulator Register. MOD0-1 35, 36 I External Modulation Control Bits. When selected with the PMSEL line, these bits add a 0, 90, 180, or 270 degree offset to the current phase in the phase accumulator. The lower 14 bits of the phase control path are set to zero. These bits are loaded into the Phase Register when ENPHREG is low. 4 MOD1 MOD0 0 0 PHASE SHIFT (DEGREES) 0 0 1 90 1 0 270 1 1 180 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A Pin Descriptions (Continued) NAME NUMBER TYPE DESCRIPTION PMSEL 39 I Phase Modulation Select Line. This line determines the source of the data clocked into the Phase Register. When high, the Phase Control Register is selected. When low, the external modulation pins (MOD0-1) are selected for the most significant two bits and the least significant two bits and the least significant 14 bits are set to zero. This control is registered by CLK. RBYTILD 30 I ROM Bypass, Timer Load (active low). Registered by CLK. This input bypasses the sine/ cosine ROM so that the 16 bit phase adder output and lower 16 bits of the phase accumulator go directly to the CMAC’s sine and cosine inputs, respectively. It also enables loading of the Timer Accumulator Register by zeroing the feedback in the accumulator. PACI 37 I Phase Accumulator Carry Input (active low). A low on this pin causes the phase accumulator to increment by one in addition to the values in the Phase Accumulator Register and frequency adder. PACO 79 O Phase Accumulator Carry Output. Active low and registered by CLK. A low on this output indicates that the phase accumulator has overflowed, i.e., the end of one sine/cosine cycle has been reached. TICO 33 O Time Interval Accumulator Carry Output. Active low, registered by CLK. This output goes low when a carry is generated by the time interval accumulator. This function is provided to time out control events such as synchronizing register clocking to data timing. RIN0-18 2-6, 8-19, 21, 23 I Real Input Data Bus. RIN18 is the MSB. This is the external real component into the complex multiplier. The bus is clocked into the real Input Data Register by CLK when ENI is asserted. Two’s complement. IMIN0-18 1, 138-142, 144, 146-156, 158 I Imaginary Input Data Bus. IMIN18 is the MSB. This is the external imaginary component into the complex multiplier. The bus is clocked into the real Input Data Register by CLK when ENI is asserted. Two’s complement. SH0-1 24, 25 I Shift Control Inputs. These lines control the input shifters of the RIN and IIN inputs of the complex multiplier. The shift controls are common to the shifters on both of the busses. ACC 26 I SH1 SH0 SELECTED BITS 0 0 RIN0-15, IMIN0-15 0 1 RIN1-16, IMIN1-16 1 0 RIN2-17, IMIN2-17 1 1 RIN3-18, IMIN3-18 Accumulate/Dump Control. This input controls the complex accumulators and their holding registers. When high, the accumulators accumulate and the holding registers are disabled. When low, the feedback in the accumulators is zeroed to cause the accumulators to load. The holding registers are enabled to clock in the results of the accumulation. This input is registered by CLK. BINFMT 31 I This input is used to convert the two’s complement output to offset binary (unsigned) for applications using D/A converters. When low, bits RO19 and IO19 are inverted from the internal two’s complement representation. This input is registered by CLK. PEAK 29 I This input enables the peak detect feature of the block floating point detector. When high, the maximum bit growth in the Output Holding Registers is encoded and output on the DET0-1 pins. When the PEAK input is asserted, the block floating point detector output will track the maximum growth in the holding registers, including the data in the Holding Registers at the time that PEAK is activated. 5 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A Pin Descriptions (Continued) NAME NUMBER TYPE OUTMUX0-1 71, 72 I DESCRIPTION These inputs select the data to be output on RO0-19 and IO0-19. OUT OUT MUX MUX 1 0 RO16-19 RO0-15 IO16-19 IO0-15 0 0 Real CMAC Real CMAC Imag CMAC Imag CMAC 31-34 15-30 31-34 15-30 0 1 Real CMAC 0, Real Imag CMAC 0, Imag 31-34 CMAC 0-14 31-34 CMAC 0-14 1 0 Real ACC 16-19 Real ACC 0-15 Imag ACC 16-19 Imag ACC 0-15 1 1 Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved RO0-19 84-86, 88-91, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99-101, 103-107, 109 O Real Output Data Bus. R19 is the MSB. These three-state outputs are controlled by OER and OEREXT. OUTMUX0-1 select the data output on the bus. IO0-19 110, 112, 113, 115-118, 121-123, 126-130, 133-137 O Imaginary Output Data Bus. I19 is the MSB. These three-state outputs are controlled by OEI and OEIEXT. OUTMUX0-1 select the data output on the bus. DET0-1 81, 82 O These output pins indicate the number of bits of growth in the accumulators. While PEAK is low, these pins indicate the peak growth. The detector examines bits 15-18, real and imaginary accumulator holding registers and bits 30-33 of the real and imaginary CMAC Holding Registers. The bits indicate the largest growth of the four registers. DET 1 DET 0 NUMBER OF BITS OF GROWTH ABOVE 2o 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 3 OER 74 I Three-state control for bits RO0-15. Outputs are enabled when the line is low. OEREXT 76 I Three-state control for bits RO16-19. Outputs are enabled when the line is low. OEI 78 I Three-state control for bits IO0-15. Outputs are enabled when the line is low. OEIEXT 77 I Three-state control for bits IO16-19. Outputs are enabled when the line is low. RND 75 I Round Enable. This input enables rounding of the output data precision from 9 to 20 bits. This input is active “low”. This input must be tied either high or low. 6 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A Functional Description The Numerically Controlled Oscillator/Modulator (NCOM) produces a digital complex sinusoid waveform whose amplitude, phase and frequency are controlled by a set of input command words. When used as a Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO), it generates 16-bit sine and cosine vectors at a maximum sample rate of 40MHz. The NCOM can be preprogrammed to produce a constant (CW) sine and cosine output for Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) applications. Alternatively, the phase and frequency inputs can be updated in real time to produce a FM, PSK, FSK, or MSK modulated waveform. The Complex Multiplier/ Accumulator (CMAC) can be used to multiply this waveform by an input signal for AM and QAM signals. By stepping the phase input, the output of the ROM becomes an FFT twiddle factor; when data is input to the Vector Inputs (see Block Diagram), the NCOM calculates an FFT butterfly. As shown in the Block Diagram, the NCOM consists of three parts: Phase and Frequency Control Section (PFCS), Sine/Cosine Generator, and CMAC. The PFCS stores the phase and frequency inputs and uses them to calculate the phase angle of a rotating complex vector. The Sine/Cosine Generator performs a lookup on this phase and outputs the appropriate values for the sine and cosine. The sine and cosine form one set of inputs to the CMAC, which multiplies them by the input vector to form the modulated output. The outputs of the CMAC and ACC can be rounded to different bit widths. Phase and Frequency Control Section The phase and frequency of the internally generated sine and cosine are controlled by the PFCS (Figure 1). The PFCS generates a 32-bit word that represents the current phase of the sine and cosine waves being generated: The Sine/ Cosine Argument. Stepping this phase angle from 0 through full scale (232 - 1) corresponds to the phase angle of a sinusoid starting at 0o and advancing around the unit circle counterclockwise. The PFCS automatically increments the phase by a preprogrammed amount on every rising edge of the external clock. The value of the phase step (which is the sum of the Center and Offset Frequency Registers) is: 32 Signal Frequency Phase Step = ---------------------------------------------- × 2 Clock Frequency where Signal Frequency is a 2’s complement number. The sign bit will set the output vector notation for Upper Sideband (USB) or lower Sideband (LSB) applications. The PFCS is divided into two sections: The Phase Accumulator uses the data on C0-15 to compute the phase angle, that is the input to the Sine/Cosine Section (Sine/ Cosine Argument); the Time Accumulator supplies a pulse to mark the passage of a preprogrammed period of time. 7 The Phase Accumulator and Time Accumulator work on the same principle: a 32-bit word is added to the contents of a 32-bit accumulator register every clock cycle; when the sum causes the adder to overflow, the accumulation continues with the 32 bits of the adder going into the Accumulator Register. The overflow bit is used as an output to indicate the timing of the accumulation overflows. In the Time Accumulator, the overflow bit generates TICO, the Time Accumulator carry out (which is the only output of the Time Accumulator). In the Phase Accumulator, the overflow is inverted to generate the Phase Accumulator Carry Out, PACO. The output of the Phase Accumulator goes to the Phase Adder, which adds an offset to the top 16 bits of the phase. This 32-bit number forms the argument of the sine and cosine, which is passed to the Sine/Cosine Generator. Both accumulators are loaded 16 bits at a time over the C0-15 bus. Data on C0-15 is loaded into one of the three input registers when CS and WR are low. The data in the Most Significant Input Register and Least Significant Input Register forms a 32-bit word that is the input to the Center Frequency Register, Offset Frequency Register and Time Accumulator. These registers are loaded by enabling the proper register enable signal; for example, to load the Center Frequency Register, the data is loaded into the LS and MS Input Registers, and ENCFREG is set to zero; the next rising edge of CLK will pass the registered version of ENCFREG, R.ENCFREG, to the clock enable of the Center Frequency Register; this register then gets loaded on the following rising edge of CLK. The contents of the Input Registers will be continuously loaded into the Center Frequency Register as long as R.ENCFREG is low. The Phase Register is loaded in a similar manner. Assuming PMSEL is high, the contents of the Phase Input Register is loaded into the Phase Register on every rising clock edge that R.ENPHREG is low. If PMSEL is low, MOD0-1 supply the two most significant bits into the Phase Register (MOD1 is the MSB) and the least significant 14 bits are loaded with 0. MOD0-1 and are used to generate a Quad Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) signal (Table 2). TABLE 1. AD0-1 DECODING AD1 AD0 CS WR FUNCTION 0 0 0 ↑ Load least significant bits of frequency input. 0 1 0 ↑ Load most significant bits of frequency input. 1 0 0 ↑ Load phase register. 1 1 X X Reserved. X X 1 X No Operation. FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A RIN(18:0) 2 MSEN > R E G AD(1:0) > DECODER 2 CS WR FREQUENCY ADDER CENTER FREQUENCY REGISTER 16 32 LS INPUT REGISTER R E G 16 R.PMSEL MS INPUT REGISTER 16 > R E G 32 CLK > SIN/COS ARGUMENT R E G A D D E R OFFSET FREQUENCY REGISTER 16 R.ENCFREG 20 32 LSEN CLK > R E G 1 > R.ENPHREG CLK 32 MUX PHEN 16 R E G 16 32 PHASE 32 SIN 16 16 SINE/COSINE GENERATOR 16 CLK > R E G 16 COS 0 C(15:0) PHASE REGISTER 14 0 0 MUX ENCODE PHASE INPUT REGISTER 1 MOD(1:0) 0 32 R.ENOFREG 32 R.CLROFR R.PMSEL PMSEL ENPHREG ENCFREG ENOFREG CLROFR PHASE ACCUMULATOR R.ENPHREG CLK > PHASE ADDER PHASE ACCUMULATOR ADDER > 32 0 0 PHASE ACCUMULATOR REGISTER A D D E R CLK 32 MSB 16 CLK > R E G 32 CLK 1 MUX A D D E R 0 32 1 RBYTILD ENTIREG CLK PACO R E G MUX LOAD ENPHAC MODPI/2PI R.ENCFREG R.ENOFREG R.CLROFR R.LOAD R.ENPHAC R.MODPI/2PI R.RBYTILD R.ENTIREG 0 R E G > R E G 15 16 MSBs R.ENPHAC 16 LSBs R.LOAD PACI 32 PACI R.MODPI/2PI SH(1:0) ENI ACC PEAK BINFMT R E G > CLK > R E G 32 CLK 32 > CLK > R E G TICO 32 1 TIME INCREMENT R E G MUX 32 CARRY OUT TIME ACCUMULATOR REGISTER 0 OEI OEIEXT OER OEREXT RND OUTMUX(1:0) ADDER CLK R.RBYTILD R.SH(1:0) R.ENI R.ACC R.PEAK R.BINFMT R.SH(1:0) R.ENI R.ACC R.PEAK R.BINFMT 0 R.ENTIREG 32 TIME ACCUMULATOR TICO PACO FIGURE 1. HSP45116A BLOCK DIAGRAM 8 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A > CLK R E R E G >G CLK 19 19 R.ENI RIN0-18 R.SH(1:0) IMIN0-18 SHIFTER SHIFTER 16 16 CLK > CLK 1 MUX COS 0 ROUND > CLK > < > CLK ADDER CLK MUX 0 > REG > REG 1 0 REG < CLK 0 0 ROUND REG CMAC ACCUMULATOR > REG REG < CLK CLK REG < CLK 20 35 35 < REG MUX 1 CLK CLK REG REG ADDER CLK 1 0 COMPLEX ACCUMULATOR 33 CLK REG ADDER 1 REG R1.ACC < > CLK R1.ACC MUX 0 MUX 0 REG REG ADDER COMPLEX MULTIPLIER R E G 33 RND R2.ACC > CLK R.RBYTILD > CLK REG R E >G CLK COS 16 0 SIN > 16 SIN CLK 0 R.PEAK 20 R.PEAK R.ACC 1 0 MUX OUTMUX(1:0) SEE TABLE 4 MUX R.BINFMT R.SH(1:0) R.ENI OEI OEIEXT OER 3 FMT 16 OUTMUX(1:0) SEE TABLE 4 R.BINFMT MUX 3 FMT 16 R.ENI OEREXT OUTMUX(1:0) GROWTH DETECT R.SH(1:0) PHASE REG CLK 4 > REG 16 4 16 RND RO(19-16) RO(15:0) DET(1:0) IO(19-16) IO(15:0) FIGURE 1. HSP45116A BLOCK DIAGRAM (Continued) 9 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A The sum of the values in Center and Offset Frequency Registers corresponds to the desired phase increment (modulo 232) from one clock to the next. For example, loading both registers with zero will cause the Phase Accumulator to add zero to its current output; the output of the PFCS will remain at its current value; i.e., the output of the NCOM will be a DC signal. If a hexadecimal 00000001 is loaded into the Center Frequency Control Register, the output of the PFCS will increment by one after every clock. This will step through every location in the Sine/Cosine Generator, so that the output will be the lowest frequency above DC that can be generated by the NCOM, i.e., the clock frequency divided by 232. If the input to the Center Frequency Control Register is hex 80000000, the PFCS will step through the Generator with half of the maximum step size, so that frequency of the output waveform will be half of the sample rate. The operation of the Offset Frequency Control Register is identical to that of the Center Frequency Control Register; having two separate registers allows the user to generate an FM signal by loading the carrier frequency in the Center Frequency Control Register and updating the Offset Frequency Control Register with the value of the frequency offset - the difference between the carrier frequency and the frequency of the output signal. A logic low on CLROFR disables the output of the Offset Frequency Register without clearing the contents of the register. TABLE 2. MOD0-1 DECODE MOD1 MOD0 PHASE SHIFT (DEGREES) 0 0 0 0 1 90 1 0 270 1 1 180 Initializing the Phase Accumulator Register is done by putting a low on the LOAD line. This zeroes the feedback path to the accumulator, so that the register is loaded with the current value of the phase increment summer on the next clock. The final phase value going to the Generator can be adjusted using MODPI/2PI to force the range of the phase to be 0o to 180o (modulo π) or 0o to 360o (modulo 2π). Modulo 2π is the mode used for modulation, demodulation, direct digital synthesis, etc. Modulo π is used to calculate FFTs. This is explained in greater detail in the Applications Section. 10 The Phase Register adds an offset to the output of the Phase Accumulator. Since the Phase Register is only 16 bits, it is added to the top 16 bits of the Phase Accumulator. The Time Accumulator consists of a register which is incremented on every clock. The amount by which it increments is loaded into the Input Registers and is latched into the Time Accumulator Register on rising edges of CLK while ENTIREG is low. The output of the Time Accumulator is the accumulator carry out, TICO. TICO can be used as a timer to enable the periodic sampling of the output of the NCOM. The number programmed into this register equals 232 x CLK period/desired time interval. TICO is disabled and its phase is initialized by zeroing the feedback path of the accumulator with RBYTILD. Sine/Cosine Section The Sine/Cosine Section (Figure 2) converts the output of the PFCS into the appropriate values for the sine and cosine. It takes the most significant 20 bits of the PFCS output and passes them through a look up table to form the 16-bit sine and cosine inputs to the CMAC. 32 16 SIN/COS ARGUMENT The Phase Accumulator consists of registers and adders that compute the value of the current phase at every clock. It has three inputs: Center Frequency, which corresponds to the carrier frequency of a signal; Offset Frequency, which is the deviation from the Center Frequency; and Phase, which is a 16-bit number that is added to the current phase for PSK modulation schemes. These three values are used by the Phase Accumulator and Phase Adder to form the phase of the internally generated sine and cosine. MUX 32 20 16 SINE/COSINE GENERATOR 16 REG 16 16 SIN COS 16 CLK CLK R.RBYTILD FIGURE 2. SINE/COSINE SECTION The 20-bit word maps into 2π radians so that the angular resolution is 2π/220. An address of zero corresponds to 0 radians and an address of hex FFFFF corresponds to 2π- (2π/220) radians. The outputs of the Generator Section are 2’s complement sine and cosine values. The sine and cosine outputs range from hexadecimal 8001, which represents negative full scale to 7FFF, which represents positive full scale. Note that the normal range for two’s complement numbers is 8000 to 7FFF; the output range of the SIN/COS generator is scaled by one so that it is symmetric about 0. The sine and cosine values are computed to reduce the amount of ROM needed. The magnitude of the error in the computed value of the complex vector is less than -90.2dB. The error in the sine or cosine alone is approximately 2dB better. If RBYTILD is low, the output of the PFCS goes directly to the inputs of the CMAC. If the real and imaginary inputs of the CMAC are programmed to hex 7FFF and 0 respectively, then the output of the PFCS will appear on output bits 0 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A through 15 of the NCOM, with the output multiplexers set to bring out the most significant bits of the CMAC output (OUTMUX = 00). The most significant 16 bits out of the PFCS appears on IOUT0-15 and the least significant bits come out on ROUT0-15. Complex Multiplier/Accumulator The CMAC (Figure 1) performs two types of functions: complex multiplication/accumulation for modulation and demodulation of digital signals, and the operations necessary to implement an FFT butterfly. Modulation and demodulation are implemented using the complex multiplier and its associated accumulator; the rest of the circuitry in this section, i.e., the complex accumulator, input shifters and growth detect logic are used along with the complex multiplier/accumulator for FFTs. The complex multiplier performs the complex vector multiplication on the output of the Sine/Cosine Section and the vector represented by the real and imaginary inputs RIN and IIN. The two vectors are combined in the following manner: ROUT = COS x RIN - SIN x IIN IOUT = COS x IIN + SIN x RIN RIN and IIN are latched into the Input Registers and passed through the shift stages. Clocking of the Input Registers is enabled with a low on ENI. The amount of shift on the latched data is programmed with SH0-1 (Table 3). The output of the shifters is sent to the CMAC and the auxiliary accumulators. TABLE 3. INPUT SHIFT SELECTION SH1 SH0 SELECTED BITS 0 0 RIN0-15, IMIN0-15 0 1 RIN1-16, IMIN1-16 1 0 RIN2-17, IMIN2-17 1 1 RIN3-18, IMIN3-18 The 33-bit real and imaginary outputs of the Complex Multiplier are latched in the Multiplier Registers and then go through the Accumulator Section of the CMAC. If the ACC line is high, the feedback to the accumulators is enabled; a low on ACC zeroes the feedback path, so that the next set of real and imaginary data out of the complex multiplier is stored in the CMAC Output Registers. TABLE 4. OUTPUT MULTIPLEXER SELECTION OUT OUT MUX MUX 1 0 RO16-19 RO0-15 IO16-19 IO0-15 0 0 Real CMAC Real CMAC Imag CMAC Imag CMAC 31-34 15-30 31-34 15-30 0 1 Real CMAC 0, Real Imag CMAC 0, Imag 31-34 CMAC 0-14 31-34 CMAC 0-14 1 0 Real ACC 16-19 Real ACC 0-15 Imag ACC 16-19 Imag ACC 0-15 1 1 Reserved Reserved Reserved Reserved The Complex Accumulator duplicates the accumulator in the CMAC. The input comes from the data shifters, and its 20-bit complex output goes to the Multiplexer. ACC controls whether the accumulator is enabled or not. OUTMUX0-1 determines whether the accumulator output appears on ROUT and IOUT. The Growth Detect circuitry outputs a two bit value that signifies the amount of growth on the data in the CMAC and Complex Accumulator. Its output, DET0-1, is encoded as shown in Table 5. If PEAK is low, the highest value of DET0-1 is latched in the Growth Detect Output Register. The relative weighting of the bits at the inputs and outputs of the CMAC is shown in Figure 3. Note that the binary point of the sine, cosine, RIN and IIN is to the right of the most significant bit, while the binary point of RO and IO is to the right of the fifth most significant bit. These CMAC external input and output busses are aligned with each other to facilitate cascading NCOMs for FFT applications. TABLE 5. GROWTH ENCODING DET 1 DET 0 NUMBER OF BITS OF GROWTH ABOVE 2o 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 3 The data in the CMAC Output Registers goes to the Multiplexer, the output of which is determined by the OUTMUX0- 1 lines (Table 4). BINFMT controls whether the output of the Multiplexer is presented in two’s complement or unsigned format; BINFMT = 0 inverts ROUT19 and IOUT19 for unsigned output, while BINFMT = 1 selects two’s complement. 11 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A SIN/COS INPUT S 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -20 . 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 ↑ Radix Point COMPLEX MULTIPLIER/ACCUMULATOR INPUT (RIN, IIN) SH = 00 S MSB LSB 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -20 . 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 ↑ Radix Point COMPLEX MULTIPLIER/ACCUMULATOR OUTPUT (RO, IO) OUTMUX = 00 MSB S 19 18 17 16 -24 23 22 21 LSB 15 14 20 . 2-1 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 ↑ Radix Point COMPLEX MULTIPLIER/ACCUMULATOR OUTPUT (RO, IO) OUTMUX = 01 MSB LSB 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -24 23 22 21 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-24 2-25 2-26 2-27 2-28 2-29 2-30 0 COMPLEX ACCUMULATOR OUTPUT (RO, IO) OUTMUX = 10 MSB S 19 18 17 16 -24 23 22 21 LSB 15 14 20 . 2-1 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 ↑ Radix Point FIGURE 3. BIT WEIGHTING 12 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A Rounding The operation of the HSP45116A is identical to the HSP45116 with the exception of a programmable rounding option added for the data outputs. The added functionality was achieved by using one of the HSP45116’s reserved Configuration Registers to specify rounding precision and replacing a VCC pin with a round enable (RND) input. When RND is “high”, rounding is disabled, and the HSP45116A functions as a pin-for-pin equivalent of the HSP45116. When RND is active “low” rounding is enabled. The RND input replaces VCC on PIN 75 of the 160 Lead MQFP package as seen in the Pinout Diagram. The Round Control Register is loaded by placing the round control value on C15-0, setting AD1-0 = 11, setting CS = 0, and forcing a low to high transition on the WR input. The rounding operation is determined by the least significant 8 bits loaded into the Control Register as shown in Table 6. The least significant four bits (C3-0) loaded into the register govern rounding of the real and imaginary outputs of the Complex Accumulator (ACC). The next more significant four bits (C7-4) govern the rounding of the complex outputs of the complex multiply accumulator (CMAC). The real and imaginary outputs from the CMAC or ACC are rounded to the same precision. The rounding is perform by adding a “one” to the bit position below the least significant bit desired in the output. For example, for a configuration that rounds to the most significant 20 bits of the CMAC output, a “one” would be added to bit position 2-14 (See Figure 3 for output bit weightings). TABLE 6. ROUNDING CONTROL ROUND CONTROL REGISTER C15-8 C7-4 C3-0 UNUSED CMAC ROUNDING ACC ROUNDING XXXXXXXX 0000 0000 No Rounding XXXXXXXX 0001 0001 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 20 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-15 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 20 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-15 XXXXXXXX 0010 0010 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 19 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-14 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 19 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-14 XXXXXXXX 0011 0011 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 18 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-13 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 18 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-13 XXXXXXXX 0100 0100 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 17 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-12 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 17 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-12 XXXXXXXX 0101 0101 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 16 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-11 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 16 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-11 XXXXXXXX 0110 0110 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 15 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-10 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 15 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-10 XXXXXXXX 0111 0111 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 14 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-9 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 14 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-9 XXXXXXXX 1000 1000 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 13 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-8 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 13 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-8 XXXXXXXX 1001 1001 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 12 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-7 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 12 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-7 XXXXXXXX 1010 1010 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 11 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-6 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 11 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-6 XXXXXXXX 1011 1011 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 10 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-5 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 10 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-5 XXXXXXXX 1100 1100 CMAC outputs rounded to most significant 9 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-4 ACC outputs rounded to most significant 9 bits, bit positions -24 to 2-4 XXXXXXXX 1101-1111 1101-1111 13 ROUNDING OPERATION Undefined FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A RIN IMIN 16 16 NCOM 32 SINE/COSINE GENERATOR The NCOM can be used for Amplitude, Phase and Frequency modulation, as well as in variations and combinations of these techniques, such as QAM. It is most effective in applications requiring multiplication of a rotating complex sinusoid by an external vector. These include AM and QAM modulators and digital receivers. The NCOM implements AM and QAM modulation on a single chip, and is a element in demodulation, where it performs complex down conversion. It can be combined with the Intersil HSP43220 Decimating Digital Filter to form the front end of a digital receiver. Phase/Frequency Control Section, the frequency tuning resolution equals the clock frequency divided by 232. For example, a 25MHz clock gives a tuning resolution of 0.006Hz. CENTER FREQUENCY Applications PFCS CLK 16 CMAC 16 Modulation/Demodulation PFCS SINE/COSINE GENERATOR CENTER FREQUENCY CLK 32 RO D/A LO FIGURE 5. QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (QAM) The NCOM also works with the HSP43220 Decimating Digital Filter to implement down conversion and low pass filtering in a digital receiver (Figure 6). The NCOM performs complex down conversion on the wideband input signal by multiplying the input vector and the internally generated complex sinusoid. The resulting signal has components at twice the center frequency and at DC. Two HSP43220s, one each on the real and imaginary outputs of the HSP45116A, perform low pass filtering and decimation on the down converted data, resulting in a complex baseband signal. SIGNAL INPUT 16 16 XMTR Figure 4 shows a block diagram of an AM modulator. In this example, the phase increment for the carrier frequency is loaded into the Center Frequency Register, and the modulating input is clocked into the real input of the CMAC, with the imaginary input set to 0. The modulated output is obtained at the real output of the CMAC. With a sixteen bit, two’s complement signal input, the output will be a 16-bit real number, on ROUT0-15 (with OUTMUX = 00). RIN SIN CMAC 16 RO HSP45116A NCOM XMTR 16 MODULATED OUTPUT D/A NCOM HSP43220 DDF COS (wt) LO FIGURE 4. AMPLITUDE MODULATION By replacing the real input with a complex vector, a similar setup can generate QAM signals (Figure 5). In this case, the carrier frequency is loaded into the Center Frequency Register as before, but the modulating vector now carries both amplitude and phase information. Since the input vector and the internally generated sine and cosine waves are both 16 bits, the number of states is only limited by the characteristics of the transmission medium and by the analog electronics in the transmitter and receiver. The phase and amplitude resolution for the Sine/Cosine Section (16-bit output), delivers a spectral purity of greater than 90dBc. This means that the unwanted spectral components due to phase uncertainty (phase noise) will be greater than 90dB below the desired output (dBc, decibels below the carrier). With a 32-bit phase accumulator in the 14 SAMPLED INPUT DATA SIN (wt) INPUT 0 10MHz NCOM OUTPUT 0 20MHz DDF OUTPUT 0 FIGURE 6. CHANNELIZED RECEIVER CHIP SET FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A Absolute Maximum Ratings Thermal Information Supply Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +7.0V Input, Output or I/O Voltage Applied . . . . . GND -0.5V to VCC +0.5V ESD Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class 1 Thermal Resistance (Typical, Note 1) Operating Conditions Voltage Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +4.75V to +5.25V Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0°C to +70°C θJA (°C/W) MQFP Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38.0 Maximum Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +150°C Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . .-65°C to +150°C Pb-free reflow profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see link below http://www.intersil.com/pbfree/Pb-FreeReflow.asp Die Characteristics Gate Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26,000 Gates CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied. NOTE: 1. θJA is measured with the component mounted on an evaluation PC board in free air. DC Electrical Specifications VCC = 5.0V ±5%, TA = 0°C to +70°C PARAMETER SYMBOL TEST CONDITIONS MIN MAX UNITS Power Supply Current ICCOP VCC = Max, CLK Frequency 52.6MHz Notes 2, 3 - 184 mA Standby Power Supply Current ICCSB VCC = Max, Outputs Not Loaded - 500 μA Input Leakage Current II VCC = Max, Input = 0V or VCC -10 10 μA Output Leakage Current IO VCC = Max, Input = 0V or VCC -10 10 μA Logical One Input Voltage VIH VCC = Max 2.0 - V Logical Zero Input Voltage VIL VCC = Min - 0.8 V Logical One Input Voltage: CLK VIHC VCC = Max 3.0 - V Logical One Output Voltage VOH IOH = -5mA, VCC = Min 2.6 - V Logical Zero Output Voltage VOL IOL = 5mA, VCC = Min - 0.4 V Input Capacitance CIN CLK Frequency 1MHz All measurements referenced to GND. TA = +25°C, Note 4 - 10 pF - 10 pF Output Capacitance COUT NOTES: 2. Power supply current is proportional to frequency. Typical rating is 3.5mA/MHz. 3. Output load per test circuit and CL = 40pF. 4. Not tested, but characterized at initial design and at major process/design changes. AC Electrical Specifications VCC = 5.0V ±5%, TA = 0°C to +70°C (Note 5) 52.6MHz (-52) PARAMETER SYMBOL NOTES MIN MAX UNITS CLK Period tCP 19 - ns CLK High tCH 7 - ns CLK Low tCL 7 - ns WR Low tWL 7 - ns WR High tWH 7 - ns Setup Time AD0-1, CS to WR tAWS 10 - ns Hold Time AD0-1, CS from WR tAWH 0 - ns Setup Time C0-15 to WR tCWS 10 - ns Hold Time C0-15 from WR tCWH 0 - ns 15 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A AC Electrical Specifications VCC = 5.0V ±5%, TA = 0°C to +70°C (Note 5) (Continued) 52.6MHz (-52) PARAMETER SYMBOL NOTES MIN MAX UNITS Setup Time WR to CLK tWC 7 10 - ns Setup Time MOD0-1 to CLK tMCS 10 - ns Hold Time MOD0-1 from CLK tMCH 0 - ns Setup Time PACI to CLK tPCS 10 - ns Hold Time PACI from CLK tPCH 0 - ns Setup Time ENPHREG, ENCFREG, ENOFREG, ENPHAC, ENTIREG, CLROFR, PMSEL, LOAD, ENI, ACC, BINFMT, PEAK, MODPI/2PI, SH0-1, RBYTILD to CLK tECS 10 - ns Hold Time ENPHREG, ENCFREG, ENOFREG, ENPHAC, ENTIREG, CLROFR, PMSEL, LOAD, ENI, ACC, BINFMT, PEAK, MODPI/2PI, SH0-1, RBYTILD from CLK tECH 0 - ns Setup Time RIN0-18, IMIN0-18 to CLK tDS 10 - ns Hold Time RIN0-18, IMIN0-18 from CLK tDH 0 - ns CLK to Output Delay RO0-19, IO0-19 tDO - 12 ns tDEO - 12 ns CLK to Output Delay PACO tPO - 12 ns CLK to Output Delay TICO tTO - 12 ns Output Enable Time OER, OEI, OEREXT, OEIEXT tOE - 8 ns Output Enable Time OUTMUX0-1 tMD - 14 ns Output Disable Time tOD 6 - 8 ns Output Rise, Fall Time tRF 6 - 4 ns CLK to Output Delay DET0-1 NOTES: 5. AC tests performed with CL = 40pF, IOL = 2.0mA, and IOH = -0.4mA. Input reference level for CLK = 2.0V, all other inputs 1.5V. Test VIH = 3.0V, VIHC = 4.0V, VIL = 0V; VOH ≥1.5V, VOL ≤ 1.5V. 6. Controlled via design or process parameters and not directly tested. Characterized upon initial design and after major process and/or changes. 7. Applicable only when outputs are being monitored and ENCFREG, ENPHREG or ENTIREG is active. WR is always asynchronous when RND is active. AC Test Load Circuit DUT S1 CL (NOTE) ± SWITCH S1 OPEN FOR ICCSB AND ICCOP IOH 1.5V IOL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT NOTE: Test head capacitance. 16 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A Waveforms tCP tCH tCL CLK tMCH tMCS MOD0-1 tPCH tPCS PACI tECH tECS CONTROL INPUTS tDH tDS RIN0-19 IIN0-19 tDO ROUT0-19 IOUT0-19 tDEO DET0-1 tPO PACO tTO TICO FIGURE 7. INPUT AND OUTPUT TIMING tWC CLK tWL WR tWH tAWS tAWH tAWS tAWH CS AD0-1 tCWS tCWH C0-15 FIGURE 8. CONTROL BUS TIMING 17 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A Waveforms OER OEI OEREXT OEIEXT (Continued) OUTMUX0-1 1.5V 1.5V tOE RO0-19 IO0-19 HIGH IMPEDANCE tOD tMD 1.7V 1.3V RO0-19 HIGH IMPEDANCE IO0-19 FIGURE 9. OUTPUT ENABLE, DISABLE TIMING FIGURE 10. MULTIPLEXER TIMING 2.0V 0.8V tRF tRF FIGURE 11. OUTPUT RISE AND FALL TIMES 18 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007 HSP45116A Metric Plastic Quad Flatpack Packages (MQFP) Q160.28x28 (JEDEC MS-022DD-1 ISSUE B) D 160 LEAD METRIC PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK PACKAGE D1 -D- INCHES -A- -B- E E1 e PIN 1 SEATING A PLANE -H- 0.076 0.003 0.40 0.016 MIN -C- 12o-16o 0.20 M 0.008 C A-B S 0o MIN A2 A1 0o-7o L MIN MAX MIN MAX NOTES A - 0.161 - 4.10 - A1 0.010 - 0.25 - - A2 0.126 0.142 3.20 3.60 - B 0.009 0.015 0.22 0.38 6 B1 0.009 0.013 0.22 0.33 - D 1.223 1.233 31.08 31.32 3 D1 1.097 1.107 27.88 28.12 4, 5 E 1.224 1.232 31.10 31.30 3 E1 1.098 1.106 27.90 28.10 4, 5 L 0.029 0.040 0.73 1.03 N 160 160 e 0.026 BSC 0.65 BSC 7 Rev. 1 4/99 NOTES: 1. Controlling dimension: MILLIMETER. Converted inch dimensions are not necessarily exact. 2. All dimensions and tolerances per ANSI Y14.5M-1982. 3. Dimensions D and E to be determined at seating plane -C- . b 4. Dimensions D1 and E1 to be determined at datum plane -H- . b1 5. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion. Allowable protrusion is 0.25mm (0.010 inch) per side. 6. Dimension b does not include dambar protrusion. Allowable dambar protrusion shall be 0.08mm (0.003 inch) total. 7. “N” is the number of terminal positions. BASE METAL WITH PLATING SYMBOL D S 0.13/0.17 0.005/0.007 12o-16o MILLIMETERS 0.13/0.23 0.005/0.009 All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems. Intersil Corporation’s quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries. For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com 19 FN4156.4 May 7, 2007

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