LM4855 Integrated Audio Amplifier System General Description Key Specifications The LM4855 is an audio power amplifier system capable of delivering 1.1W (typ) of continuous average power into a mono 8Ω bridged-tied load (BTL) with 1% THD+N and 115mW (typ) per channel of continuous average power into stereo 32Ω BTL loads with 0.5% THD+N, using a 5V power supply. n THD+N at 1kHz, 1.1W into 8Ω BTL n THD+N at 1kHz, 115mW into 32Ω BTL n Single Supply Operation The LM4855 features a 32 step digital volume control eight distinct output modes. The digital volume control output modes are programmed through a three-wire serial control interface, that allows flexibility in routing mixing audio channels. and and SPI and The LM4855 is designed for cellular phone, PDA, and other portable handheld applications. It delivers high quality output power from a surface-mount package and requires only six external components. The industry leading micro SMD package only utilizes 2mm x 2.3mm of PCB space, making the LM4855 the most space efficient audio sub system available today. 1.0% (typ) 0.5% (typ) 2.6 to 5.0V Features n n n n n n n n 1.1W (typ) output power with 8Ω mono BTL load 115mW (typ) output power with stereo 32Ω BTL loads SPI programmable 32 step digital volume control Eight distinct output modes micro-SMD and LLP surface mount packaging "Click and Pop" suppression circuitry Thermal shutdown protection Low shutdown current (0.1uA, typ) Applications n Moblie Phones n PDAs Typical Application 200395D1 FIGURE 1. Typical Audio Amplifier Application Circuit Boomer ® is a registered trademark of National Semiconductor Corporation. © 2002 National Semiconductor Corporation DS200395 www.national.com LM4855 Integrated Audio Amplifier System November 2002 LM4855 Connection Diagrams 18-Bump micro SMD Marking (IBL) 18-Bump micro SMD Marking (ITL) 200395B0 200395E4 Top View XY- Date Code TT - Die Traceability G - Boomer Family 55 - LM4855IBL Top View XY- Date Code TT - Die Traceability G - Boomer Family A9 - LM4855ITL LLP Package 200395A9 Top View (Bump-side down) Order Number LM4855ITL, LM4855IBL See NS Package Number TLA18AAA, BLA18AAB 200395D3 Top View Order Number LM4855LQ See NS Package Number LQA24A for Exposed-DAP LLP www.national.com 2 θJA (typ) - LQA24A (Note 2) θJC (typ) - LQA24A If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Supply Voltage Storage Temperature ESD Susceptibility (Note 4) ESD Machine model (Note 7) Junction Temperature (TJ) 42˚C/W 3.0˚C/W θJA (typ) - BLA18AAB 48˚C/W (Note 9) θJC (typ) - BLA18AAB 23˚C/W (Note 9) 6.0V θJA (typ) - TLA18AAA 48˚C/W (Note 9) −65˚C to +150˚C θJC (typ) - TLA18AAA 23˚C/W (Note 9) 2.0kV 200V Operating Ratings (Note 3) 150˚C Solder Information (Note 1) Vapor Phase (60 sec.) 215˚C Infrared (15 sec.) 220˚C Temperature Range −40˚C to 85˚C Supply Voltage VDD 2.6V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.0V Note 1: See AN-450 "Surface Mounting and their effects on Product Reliability" for other methods of soldering surface mount devices. Thermal Resistance Electrical Characteristics (Notes 3, 8) The following specifications apply for VDD = 5.0V, TA = 25˚C unless otherwise specified. Symbol IDD Parameter Supply Current Conditions LM4855 Units (Limits) Typical (Note 5) Limits (Note 6) Output mode 1 VIN = 0V; No loads 5.7 8 mA (max) Output mode 1 VIN = 0V; Loaded (Fig.1) 6.7 9 mA (max) Output modes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 VIN = 0V; No loads 7.5 11 mA (max) Output modes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 VIN = 0V; Loaded (Fig. 1) 8.5 12 mA (max) ISD Shutdown Current Output mode 0 0.1 2.0 µA (max) VOS Output Offset Voltage VIN = 0V 5.0 40 mV (max) SPKROUT; RL = 4Ω THD+N = 1%; f = 1kHz, LM4855LQ 1.5 SPKROUT; RL = 8Ω THD+N = 1%; f = 1kHz 1.1 0.8 W (min) ROUT and LOUT; RL = 32Ω THD+N = 0.5%; f = 1kHz 115 70 mW (min) PO Output Power THD+N Total Harmonic Distortion Plus Noise NOUT Output Noise W SPKROUT f = 20Hz to 20kHZ POUT = 400mW; RL = 8Ω 0.5 % ROUT and LOUT f = 20Hz to 20kHZ POUT = 50mW; RL = 32Ω 0.5 % A-weighted (Note 10) 29 µV 3 www.national.com LM4855 Absolute Maximum Ratings LM4855 Electrical Characteristics (Notes 3, 8) (Continued) The following specifications apply for VDD = 5.0V, TA = 25˚C unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter PSRR Power Supply Rejection Ratio SPKROUT Power Supply Rejection Ratio ROUTand LOUT Conditions LM4855 Units (Limits) Typical (Note 5) Limits (Note 6) 57 54 dB (min) Output Mode 2, 3 62 59 dB (min) Output Mode 4, 5 57 54 dB (min) Output Mode 6, 7 54 VRIPPLE = 200mVPP; f = 217Hz, CB = 1.0µF All audio inputs terminated into 50Ω; Output referred Gain (BTL) = 12dB Output Mode 1, 3, 5, 7 VRIPPLE = 200mVPP; f = 217Hz, CB = 1.0µF All audio inputs terminated into 50Ω; Output referred Maximum gain setting 51 dB (min) VIH Logic High Input Voltage 1.4 VDD V (min) V (max) VIL Logic Low Input Voltage 0.4 GND V (max) V (min) Digital Volume Range (RIN and LIN) Input referred minimum gain -34.5 -35.1 -33.9 dB (min) dB (max) Input referred maximum gain 12.0 11.4 12.6 dB (min) dB (max) ± 0.1 ± 0.6 dB ( max) dB (min) dB (max) Digital Volume Stepsize 1.5 Digital Volume Stepsize Error dB Phone_In_IHF Volume BTL gain from Phone_In _IHF to SPKROUT 12 11.4 12.6 Phone _In_IHF Mute Attenuation Output Mode 2, 4, 6 80 72 dB (min) 20 15 25 kΩ (min) kΩ (max) Maximum gain setting 50 37.5 62.5 kΩ (min) kΩ (max) Mininum gain setting 100 75 125 kΩ (min) kΩ (max) Maximum gain setting 33.5 25 42 kΩ (min) kΩ (max) Mininum gain setting 100 75 125 kΩ (min) kΩ (max) 170 Phone_In_IHF Input Impedance Phone_In_HS Input Impedance RIN and LIN Input Impedance tSD Thermal Shutdown Temperature 150 ˚C (min) tES Enable Setup Time (ENB) 20 ns (min) tEH Enable Hold Time (ENB) 20 ns (min) tEL Enable Low Time (ENB) 30 ns (min) tDS Data Setup Time (DATA) 20 ns (min) tDH Data Hold Time (DATA) 20 ns (min) tCS Clock Setup Time (CLK) 20 ns (min) tCH Clock Logic High Time (CLK) 50 ns (min) tCL Clock Logic Low Time (CLK) 50 ns (min) fCLK Clock Frequency DC 10 (min) MHz (max) www.national.com 4 LM4855 Electrical Characteristics (Notes 2, 8) The following specifications apply for VDD = 3.0V, TA = 25˚C unless otherwise specified. Symbol IDD Parameter Supply Current Conditions LM4855 Units (Limits) Typical (Note 5) Limits (Note 6) Output mode 1 VIN = 0V; No loads 4.5 7 mA (max) Output mode 1 VIN = 0V; Loaded (Fig.1) 5.0 8 mA (max) Output modes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 VIN = 0V; No loads 6.5 10 mA (max) Output modes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 VIN = 0V; Loaded (Fig. 1) 7 11 mA (max) ISD Shutdown Current Output mode 0 0.1 2.0 µA (max) VOS Output Offset Voltage VIN = 0V 5.0 40 mV (max) SPKROUT; RL = 4Ω THD+N = 1%; f = 1kHz, LM4855LQ 430 SPKROUT; RL = 8Ω THD+N = 1%; f = 1kHz 340 300 mW (min) ROUT and LOUT; RL = 32Ω THD+N = 0.5%; f = 1kHz 25 20 mW (min) SPKROUT f = 20Hz to 20kHZ POUT = 250mW; RL = 8Ω 0.5 % ROUT and LOUT f = 20Hz to 20kHZ POUT = 20mW; RL = 32Ω 0.5 % PO Output Power mW THD+N Total Harmonic Distortion Plus Noise NOUT Output Noise A-weighted (Note 10) 29 58 55 dB (min) Power Supply Rejection Ratio SPKROUT VRIPPLE = 200mVPP; f = 217Hz, CB = 1.0µF All audio inputs terminated into 50Ω; Output referred Gain (BTL) = 12dB Output Mode 1, 3, 5, 7 Power Supply Rejection Ratio ROUTand LOUT VRIPPLE = 200mVPP; f = 217Hz, CB = 1.0µF All audio inputs terminated into 50Ω; Output referred Maximum gain setting Output Mode 2, 3 63 60 dB (min) Output Mode 4, 5 58 55 dB (min) Output Mode 6, 7 55 52 dB (min) PSRR µV VIH Logic High Input Voltage 1.4 VDD V (min) V (max) VIL Logic Low Input Voltage 0.4 GND V (max) V (min) 5 www.national.com LM4855 Electrical Characteristics (Notes 2, 8) (Continued) The following specifications apply for VDD = 3.0V, TA = 25˚C unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter Digital Volume Range (RIN and LIN) Conditions LM4855 Units (Limits) Typical (Note 5) Limits (Note 6) Input referred minimum gain -34.5 -35.1 -33.9 dB (min) dB (max) Input referred maximum gain 12.0 11.4 12.6 dB (min) dB (max) ± 0.1 ± 0.6 dB ( max) dB (min) dB (max) Digital Volume Stepsize 1.5 Digital Volume Stepsize Error dB Phone_In_IHF Volume BTL gain from Phone_In _IHF to SPKROUT 12 11.4 12.6 Phone _In_IHF Mute Attenuation Output Mode 2, 4, 6 80 72 dB (min) 20 15 25 kΩ (min) kΩ (max) Maximum gain setting 50 37.5 62.5 kΩ (min) kΩ (max) Mininum gain setting 100 75 125 kΩ (min) kΩ (max) Maximum gain setting 33.5 25 42 kΩ (min) kΩ (max) Mininum gain setting 100 75 125 kΩ (min) kΩ (max) 170 Phone_In_IHF Input Impedance Phone_In_HS Input Impedance RIN and LIN Input Impedance tSD Thermal Shutdown Temperature 150 ˚C (min) tES Enable Setup Time (ENB) 20 ns (min) tEH Enable Hold Time (ENB) 20 ns (min) tEL Enable Low Time (ENB) 30 ns (min) tDS Data Setup Time (DATA) 20 ns (min) tDH Data Hold Time (DATA) 20 ns (min) tCS Clock Setup Time (CLK) 20 ns (min) tCH Clock Logic High Time (CLK) 50 ns (min) tCL Clock Logic Low Time (CLK) 50 ns (min) fCLK Clock Frequency DC 10 (min) MHz (max) Note 2: Absolute Maximum Rating indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Note 3: Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits. For guaranteed specifications and test conditions, see the Electrical Characteristics. The guaranteed specifications apply only for the test conditions listed. Some performance characteristics may degrade when the device is not operated under the listed test conditions. Note 4: Human body model, 100pF discharged through a 1.5kΩ resistor. Note 5: Typical specifications are specified at +25˚C and represent the most likely parametric norm. Note 6: Tested limits are guaranteed to National’s AOQL (Average Outgoing Quality Level). Note 7: Machine Model ESD test is covered by specification EIAJ IC-121-1981. A 200pF cap is charged to the specified voltage, then discharged directly into the IC with no external series resistor (resistance of discharge path must be under 50Ω). Note 8: All voltages are measured with respect to the ground pin, unless otherwise specified. Note 9: The given θJA and θJC are for an LM4855 mounted on a demonstration board with a 4in2 area of 1oz printed circuit board copper ground plane. Note 10: Please refer to the Output Noise vs Output Mode table in the Typical Performance Characteristics section for more details. www.national.com 6 LM4855 External Components Description Components Functional Description 1. CIN This is the input coupling capacitor. It blocks the DC voltage and couples the input signal to the amplifier’s input terminals. CIN also creates a highpass filter with the internal resistor Ri (Input Impedance) at fc = 1/(2πRiCIN). 2. CS This is the supply bypass capacitor. It filters the supply voltage applied to the VDD pin and helps maintain the LM4855’s PSRR. 3. CB This is the BYPASS pin capacitor. It filters the VDD / 2 voltage and helps maintain the LM4855’s PSRR. Typical Performance Characteristics THD+N vs Frequency LM4855LQ THD+N vs Frequency LM4855LQ 200395F0 200395F1 THD+N vs Frequency THD+N vs Frequency 200395B1 200395B2 7 www.national.com LM4855 Typical Performance Characteristics (Continued) THD+N vs Frequency THD+N vs Frequency 200395B3 200395B4 THD+N vs Frequency THD+N vs Frequency 200395B5 200395B6 THD+N vs Frequency THD+N vs Frequency 200395B7 www.national.com 200395B8 8 LM4855 Typical Performance Characteristics (Continued) THD+N vs Output Power LM4855LQ THD+N vs Output Power LM4855LQ 200395F2 200395F3 THD+N vs Output Power THD+N vs Output Power 200395B9 200395C0 THD+N vs Output Power THD+N vs Output Power 200395C1 200395C2 9 www.national.com LM4855 Typical Performance Characteristics (Continued) Power Supply Rejection Ratio Power Supply Rejection Ratio 200395C3 200395C4 Power Supply Rejection Ratio Power Supply Rejection Ratio 200395C5 200395C6 Power Supply Rejection Ratio Power Supply Rejection Ratio 200395C7 www.national.com 200395C8 10 LM4855 Typical Performance Characteristics (Continued) Output Power vs Supply Voltage Output Power vs Supply Voltage 200395D8 200395D7 Output Power vs Load Resistance Output Power vs Load Resistance 200395D9 200395E0 Power Dissipation vs Output Power Power Dissipation vs Output Power 200395E1 200395E2 11 www.national.com LM4855 Typical Performance Characteristics (Continued) Supply Current vs Supply Voltage Channel Separation 200395C9 200395D0 Frequency Response Frequency Response 200395D4 200395D5 Frequency Response 200395D6 www.national.com 12 LM4855 Typical Performance Characteristics (Continued) Output Noise vs Output Mode (VDD = 3V, 5V) Output Mode SPKROUT Output Noise (µV) LOUT/ROUT Output Noise (µV) 1 29 X 2 X 28 (G1 = 0dB) 31 (G1 = 6dB) 3 29 28 (G1 = 0dB) 31 (G1 = 6dB) 4 X 28 (G2 = 0dB) 38 (G2 = 12dB) 5 29 28(G2 = 0dB) 38 (G2 = 12dB) 6 X 38 (G2 = 0dB) 41 (G1 = 0dB) 48 (G1 = 6dB) 7 29 38 (G2 = 0dB) 41 (G1 = 0dB) 48 (G1 = 6dB) G1 = gain from PHS to LOUT/ROUT G2 = gain from LIN/RIN to LOUT/ROUT A - weighted filter used 13 www.national.com LM4855 APPLICATION INFORMATION SPI PIN DESCRIPTION the data bits are written to the DATA pin with the least significant bit (LSB) first. All serial data are sampled at the rising edge of the CLK signal. Once all the data bits have been sampled, ENB transitions from logic-high to logic-low to complete the SPI sequence. All 8 bits must be received before any data latch can occur. Any excess CLK and DATA transitions will be ignored after the eighth rising clock edge has occurred. For any data sequence longer than 8 bits, only the first 8 bits will get loaded into the shift register and the rest of the bits will be disregarded. DATA: This is the serial data input pin. CLK: This is the clock input pin. ENB: This is the SPI enable pin and is active-high. SPI OPERATION DESCRIPTION The serial data bits are organized into a field which contains 8 bits of data defined by TABLE 1. The Data 0 to Data 2 bits determine the output mode of the LM4855 as shown in TABLE 2. The Data 3 to Data 7 bits determine the volume level setting as illustrated by TABLE 3. For each SPI transfer, TABLE 1. Bit Allocation Data 0 Mode Select Data 1 Mode Select Data 2 Mode Select Data 3 Volume Control Data 4 Volume Control Data 5 Volume Control Data 6 Volume Control Data 7 Volume Control TABLE 2. Output Mode Selection Output Mode # Data 2 Data 1 Data 0 SPKROUT ROUT LOUT 0 0 0 0 SD SD SD 1 0 0 1 12dB x PIHF SD SD 2 0 1 0 MUTE G1 x PHS G1 x PHS 3 0 1 1 12dB x PIHF G1 x PHS G1 x PHS 4 1 0 0 MUTE G2 x R G2 x L 5 1 0 1 12dB x PIHF G2 x R G2 x L 6 1 1 0 MUTE (G1 x PHS) + (G2 x R) (G1 x PHS) + (G2 x L) 7 1 1 1 12dB x PIHF (G1 x PHS) + (G2 x R) (G1 x PHS) + (G2 x L) R = Rin L = Lin PIHF = Phone_In_IHF PHS = Phone_In_HS SD = Shutdown Mode MUTE = Mute Mode G1 = gain from PHS to LOUT/ROUT G2 = gain from LIN/ RIN to LOUT/ROUT Default Mode upon device power-up is Output Mode 0 www.national.com 14 LM4855 APPLICATION INFORMATION (Continued) TABLE 3. Volume Control Settings Gain (dB) G2 G1 RIN, LIN to ROUT, LOUT Phone_In_HS to ROUT, LOUT Data 7 Data 6 Data 5 Data 4 Data 3 -34.5 -40.5 0 0 0 0 0 -33.0 -39.0 0 0 0 0 1 -31.5 -37.5 0 0 0 1 0 -30.0 -360 0 0 0 1 1 -28.5 -34.5 0 0 1 0 0 -27.0 -33.0 0 0 1 0 1 -25.5 -31.5 0 0 1 1 0 -24.0 -30.0 0 0 1 1 1 -22.5 -28.5 0 1 0 0 0 -21.0 -27.0 0 1 0 0 1 -19.5 -25.5 0 1 0 1 0 -18.0 -24.0 0 1 0 1 1 -16.5 -22.5 0 1 1 0 0 -15.0 -21.0 0 1 1 0 1 -13.5 -19.5 0 1 1 1 0 -12.0 -18.0 0 1 1 1 1 -10.5 -16.5 1 0 0 0 0 -9.0 -15.0 1 0 0 0 1 -7.5 -13.5 1 0 0 1 0 -6.0 -12.0 1 0 0 1 1 -4.5 -10.5 1 0 1 0 0 -3.0 -9.0 1 0 1 0 1 -1.5 -7.5 1 0 1 1 0 0.0 -6.0 1 0 1 1 1 1.5 -4.5 1 1 0 0 0 3.0 -3.0 1 1 0 0 1 4.5 -1.5 1 1 0 1 0 6.0 0 1 1 0 1 1 7.5 1.5 1 1 1 0 0 9.0 3.0 1 1 1 0 1 10.5 4.5 1 1 1 1 0 12.0 6.0 1 1 1 1 1 15 www.national.com LM4855 APPLICATION INFORMATION 6. ENB must be logic-high at least 20ns (tES ) before the first rising edge of CLK, and ENB has to remain logic-high at least 20ns (tEH) after the eighth rising edge of CLK. 7. If ENB remains logic-low for more than 10ns before all 8 bits are transmitted then the data latch will be aborted. 8. If ENB is logic-high for more than 8 CLK pulses then only the first 8 data bits will be latched and activated when ENB transitions to logic-low. 9. ENB must remain logic-low for at least 30ns (tEL ) to latch in the data. (Continued) SPI OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS 1. The data bits are transmitted with the LSB first. 2. The maximum clock rate is 10MHz for the CLK pin. 3. CLK must remain logic-high for at least 50ns (tCH ) after the rising edge of CLK, and CLK must remain logic-low for at least 50ns (tCL) after the falling edge of CLK. 4. The serial data bits are sampled at the rising edge of CLK. Any transition on DATA must occur at least 20ns (tDS) before the rising edge of CLK. Also, any transition on DATA must occur at least 20ns (tDH) after the rising edge of CLK and stabilize before the next rising edge of CLK. 10. Coincidental rising or falling edges of CLK and ENB are not allowed. If CLK is to be held logic-high after the data transmission, the falling edge of CLK must occur at least 20ns (tCS) before ENB transitions to logic-high for the next set of data. 5. ENB should be logic-high only during serial data transmission. 200395D2 FIGURE 2. SPI Timing Diagram share the same PCB layer, a nominal 2.5in2 (min) area is necessary for 5V operation with a 4Ω load. Heatsink areas not placed on the same PCB layer as the LM4855 should be 5in2 (min) for the same supply voltage and load resistance. The last two area recommendations apply for 25˚C ambient temperature. Increase the area to compensate for ambient temperatures above 25˚C. In all circumstances and under all conditions, the junction temperature must be held below 150˚C to prevent activating the LM4855’s thermal shutdown protection. Further detailed and specific information concerning PCB layout and fabrication and mounting an LD (LLP) is found in National Semiconductor’s AN1187. EXPOSED-DAP MOUNTING CONSIDERATIONS The LM4855’s exposed-DAP (die attach paddle) package (LD) provides a low thermal resistance between the die and the PCB to which the part is mounted and soldered. This allows rapid heat transfer from the die to the surrounding PCB copper area heatsink, copper traces, ground plane, and finally, surrounding air. The result is a low voltage audio power amplifier that produces 1.1W dissipation in a 8Ω load at ≤ 1% THD+N. This high power is achieved through careful consideration of necessary thermal design. Failing to optimize thermal design may compromise the LM4855’s high power performance and activate unwanted, though necessary, thermal shutdown protection. The LD package must have its DAP soldered to a copper pad on the PCB. The DAP’s PCB copper pad is then, ideally, connected to a large plane of continuous unbroken copper. This plane forms a thermal mass, heat sink, and radiation area. Place the heat sink area on either outside plane in the case of a two-sided or multi-layer PCB. (The heat sink area can also be placed on an inner layer of a multi-layer board. The thermal resistance, however, will be higher.) Connect the DAP copper pad to the inner layer or backside copper heat sink area with 6 (3 X 2) (LD) vias. The via diameter should be 0.012in - 0.013in with a 1.27mm pitch. Ensure efficient thermal conductivity by plugging and tenting the vias with plating and solder mask, respectively. Best thermal performance is achieved with the largest practical copper heat sink area. If the heatsink and amplifier www.national.com PCB LAYOUT AND SUPPLY REGULATION CONSIDERATIONS FOR DRIVING 3Ω AND 4Ω LOADS Power dissipated by a load is a function of the voltage swing across the load and the load’s impedance. As load impedance decreases, load dissipation becomes increasingly dependent on the interconnect (PCB trace and wire) resistance between the amplifier output pins and the load’s connections. Residual trace resistance causes a voltage drop, which results in power dissipated in the trace and not in the load as desired. For example, 0.1Ω trace resistance reduces the output power dissipated by a 4Ω load from 1.7W to 1.6W. The problem of decreased load dissipation is exacerbated as load impedance decreases. Therefore, to maintain the 16 PDMAX-SPKROUT = 4(VDD)2/(2π2 RL): Bridge Mode (Continued) highest load dissipation and widest output voltage swing, PCB traces that connect the output pins to a load must be as wide as possible. Poor power supply regulation adversely affects maximum output power. A poorly regulated supply’s output voltage decreases with increasing load current. Reduced supply voltage causes decreased headroom, output signal clipping, and reduced output power. Even with tightly regulated supplies, trace resistance creates the same effects as poor supply regulation. Therefore, making the power supply traces as wide as possible helps maintain full output voltage swing. (2) The LM4855 also has 2 pairs of bridged-tied amplifiers driving stereo headphones, ROUT and LOUT. The maximum internal power dissipation for ROUT and LOUT is given by equation (3) and (4). From Equations (3) and (4), assuming a 5V power supply and a 32Ω load, the maximum power dissipation for LOUT and ROUT is 158mW, or 316mW total. PDMAX-LOUT = 4(VDD)2/(2π2 RL): Bridge Mode (3) PDMAX-ROUT = 4(VDD)2/(2π2 RL): Bridge Mode (4) BRIDGE CONFIGURATION EXPLANATION The maximum internal power dissipation of the LM4855 occurs when all 3 amplifiers pairs are simultaneously on; and is given by Equation (5). As shown in Figure 1, the LM4855 consists of three pairs of output amplifier blocks (A4-A6). A4, A5, and A6 consist of bridged-tied amplifier pairs that drive LOUT, ROUT, and SPKROUT respectively. The LM4855 drives a load, such as a speaker, connected between outputs, SPKROUT+ and SPKROUT-. In the amplifier block A6, the output of the amplifier that drives SPKROUT- serves as the input to the unity gain inverting amplifier that drives SPKROUT+. PDMAX-TOTAL = PDMAX-SPKROUT + PDMAX-LOUT + PDMAX-ROUT The maximum power dissipation point given by Equation (5) must not exceed the power dissipation given by Equation (6): This results in both amplifiers producing signals identical in magnitude, but 180˚ out of phase. Taking advantage of this phase difference, a load is placed between SPKROUT- and SPKROUT+ and driven differentially (commonly referred to as ’bridge mode’). This results in a differential or BTL gain of: AVD = 2(Rf/Ri) = 2 (5) PDMAX’ = (TJMAX - TA)/ θJA (6) The LM4855’s TJMAX = 150˚C. In the IBL package, the LM4855’s θJA is 48˚C/W. In the LD package soldered to a DAP pad that expands to a copper area of 2.5in2 on a PCB, the LM4855’s θJA is 42˚C/W. At any given ambient temperature TA, use Equation (6) to find the maximum internal power dissipation supported by the IC packaging. Rearranging Equation (6) and substituting PDMAX-TOTAL for PDMAX’ results in Equation (7). This equation gives the maximum ambient temperature that still allows maximum stereo power dissipation without violating the LM4855’s maximum junction temperature. (1) Bridge mode amplifiers are different from single-ended amplifiers that drive loads connected between a single amplifier’s output and ground. For a given supply voltage, bridge mode has a distinct advantage over the single-ended configuration: its differential output doubles the voltage swing across the load. Theoretically, this produces four times the output power when compared to a single-ended amplifier under the same conditions. This increase in attainable output power assumes that the amplifier is not current limited and that the output signal is not clipped. Another advantage of the differential bridge output is no net DC voltage across the load. This is accomplished by biasing SPKROUT- and SPKROUT+ outputs at half-supply. This eliminates the coupling capacitor that single supply, singleended amplifiers require. Eliminating an output coupling capacitor in a typical single-ended configuration forces a single-supply amplifier’s half-supply bias voltage across the load. This increases internal IC power dissipation and may permanently damage loads such as speakers. TA = TJMAX - PDMAX-TOTALθJA (7) For a typical application with a 5V power supply and an 8Ω load, the maximum ambient temperature that allows maximum stereo power dissipation without exceeding the maximum junction temperature is approximately 104˚C for the IBL package. TJMAX = PDMAX-TOTAL θJA + TA POWER DISSIPATION Power dissipation is a major concern when designing a successful single-ended or bridged amplifier. A direct consequence of the increased power delivered to the load by a bridge amplifier is higher internal power dissipation. The LM4855 has a pair of bridged-tied amplifiers driving a handsfree speaker, SPKROUT. The maximum internal power dissipation operating in the bridge mode is twice that of a single-ended amplifier. From Equation (2), assuming a 5V power supply and an 8Ω load, the maximum SPKROUT power dissipation is 634mW. (8) Equation (8) gives the maximum junction temperature TJMAX. If the result violates the LM4855’s 150˚C, reduce the maximum junction temperature by reducing the power supply voltage or increasing the load resistance. Further allowance should be made for increased ambient temperatures. The above examples assume that a device is a surface mount part operating around the maximum power dissipation point. Since internal power dissipation is a function of output power, higher ambient temperatures are allowed as output power or duty cycle decreases. If the result of Equation (5) is greater than that of Equation (6), then decrease the supply 17 www.national.com LM4855 APPLICATION INFORMATION LM4855 APPLICATION INFORMATION SELECTING EXTERNAL COMPONENTS Input Capacitor Value Selection Amplifying the lowest audio frequencies requires high value input coupling capacitor (Ci in Figure 2). A high value capacitor can be expensive and may compromise space efficiency in portable designs. In many cases, however, the speakers used in portable systems, whether internal or external, have little ability to reproduce signals below 150Hz. Applications using speakers with this limited frequency response reap little improvement by using large input capacitor. The internal input resistor (Ri) and the input capacitor (Ci) produce a high pass filter cutoff frequency that is found using Equation (9). (Continued) voltage, increase the load impedance, or reduce the ambient temperature. If these measures are insufficient, a heat sink can be added to reduce θJA. The heat sink can be created using additional copper area around the package, with connections to the ground pin(s), supply pin and amplifier output pins. External, solder attached SMT heatsinks such as the Thermalloy 7106D can also improve power dissipation. When adding a heat sink, the θJA is the sum of θJC, θCS, and θSA. (θJC is the junction-to-case thermal impedance, θCS is the case-to-sink thermal impedance, and θSA is the sink-toambient thermal impedance.) Refer to the Typical Performance Characteristics curves for power dissipation information at lower output power levels. fc = 1 / (2πRiCi) POWER SUPPLY BYPASSING As with any power amplifier, proper supply bypassing is critical for low noise performance and high power supply rejection. Applications that employ a 5V regulator typically use a 10µF in parallel with a 0.1µF filter capacitors to stabilize the regulator’s output, reduce noise on the supply line, and improve the supply’s transient response. However, their presence does not eliminate the need for a local 1.0µF tantalum bypass capacitance connected between the LM4855’s supply pins and ground. Keep the length of leads and traces that connect capacitors between the LM4855’s power supply pin and ground as short as possible. Connecting a 1µF capacitor, CB, between the BYPASS pin and ground improves the internal bias voltage’s stability and improves the amplifier’s PSRR. The PSRR improvements increase as the bypass pin capacitor value increases. Too large, however, increases turn-on time and can compromise the amplifier’s click and pop performance. The selection of bypass capacitor values, especially CB, depends on desired PSRR requirements, click and pop performance (as explained in the section, Proper Selection of External Components), system cost, and size constraints. www.national.com (9) As an example when using a speaker with a low frequency limit of 150Hz, Ci, using Equation (9) is 0.063µF. The 0.22µF Ci shown in Figure 1 allows the LM4855 to drive high efficiency, full range speaker whose response extends below 40Hz. Bypass Capacitor Value Selection Besides minimizing the input capacitor size, careful consideration should be paid to value of CB, the capacitor connected to the BYPASS pin. Since CB determines how fast the LM4855 settles to quiescent operation, its value is critical when minimizing turn-on pops. The slower the LM4855’s outputs ramp to their quiescent DC voltage (nominally VDD/ 2), the smaller the turn-on pop. Choosing CB equal to 1.0µF along with a small value of Ci (in the range of 0.1µF to 0.39µF), produces a click-less and pop-less shutdown function. As discussed above, choosing Ci no larger than necessary for the desired bandwidth helps minimize clicks and pops. CB’s value should be in the range of 5 times to 7 times the value of Ci. This ensures that output transients are eliminated when power is first applied or the LM4855 resumes operation after shutdown. 18 LM4855 Demonstration Board Layout 200395A7 200395A6 FIGURE 3. Recommended IBL, ITL PC Board Layout: Top Silkscreen FIGURE 4. Recommended IBL, ITL PC Board Layout: Top Layer 200395A5 200395A4 FIGURE 5. Recommended IBL, ITL PC Board Layout: Middle Layer FIGURE 6. Recommended IBL, ITL PC Board Layout: Bottom Layer 19 www.national.com LM4855 Demonstration Board Layout (Continued) 200395E6 200395E5 FIGURE 8. Recommended LD PC Board Layout: Top Layer FIGURE 7. Recommended LD PC Board Layout: Top Silkcreen Layer 200395E7 200395E8 FIGURE 9. Recommended LD PC Board Layout: Inner Layer 1 www.national.com FIGURE 10. Recommended LD PC Board Layout: Inner Layer 2 20 LM4855 Demonstration Board Layout (Continued) 200395E9 FIGURE 11. Recommended LD PC Board Layout: Bottom Layer 21 www.national.com LM4855 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 18-Bump mciro SMD Order Number LM4855IBL NS Package Number BLA18AAB Dimensions are in millimeteres X1 = 1.996 ± 0.03 X2 = 2.225 ± 0.03 X3 = 0.945 ± 0.01 www.national.com 22 LM4855 Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) 24-Lead MOLDED PKG, Leadless Leadframe Package LLP Order Number LM4855LQ NS Package Number LQA24A 23 www.national.com LM4855 Integrated Audio Amplifier System Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued) 18-Bump micro SMD Order Number LM4855ITL NS Package Number TLA18AAA X1 = 1.996 X2 = 2.225 X3 = 0.600 LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation Americas Email: [email protected] www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208 English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171 Français Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. National Semiconductor Asia Pacific Customer Response Group Tel: 65-2544466 Fax: 65-2504466 Email: [email protected] National Semiconductor Japan Ltd. Tel: 81-3-5639-7560 Fax: 81-3-5639-7507 National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.